Spring - The Organizer by dandanhuanghuang


                                                                                             . . . I just want to make a sugges-
                                                                                          tion. You ought to print a subscription

C           O           R            R           E          S           P            O           N               D           E
                                                                                          blank in every issue of ISR. You have
                                                                                          one for a combination deal on page 16           N
                                                                                          of the Winter 1960 issue, but whether
                                                                                          you have a combination offer or not,
                                                                                          you should always carry a sub blank,
Editor:                                      and never swerved from the policy of         not just to encourage some reader to
   Since I took out my trial subscrip-       the government. Also I can’t under-          subscribe but to induce a subscriber to
tion a few months ago, from one of the       stand your loyalty to Soviet Russia;
                                                                                          send in a sub for a friend or acquaint-
Socialist Trailblazers, I have found your    binding yourself to a dictatorship (of
                                             the proletariat) seems to me the worst       ance. By the way, do you have any
magazine to be very thought-provoking
                                             possible blunder, as the situation now       sub forms printed up? You should send
and worthy of careful study.
                                             is you have given the word socialism         a few to the persons already on your
   Fairly recently, however,       I came
across another publication. It was a         a bad connotation, (it might be well if      list, including myself. I could use a few,
book defending both the present U. S.        you changed the name completely).            and I know I would use a sub blank
government and the Eisenhower Ad-               A good topic for another editorial        every time I saw one in the ISR. No
ministration, called What We Are For         might be along the lines of the worker       harm in trying, anyhow. Think it over.
 (Harpers, 1959).                            and automation, or the agricultural sit-
                                             uation, etc. At any rate the policy of                              Midwestern reader
   I must admit that this latter publica-
                                             your magazine seems the most impos-                                 South Dakota
tion has placed many of my former be-
liefs in serious doubt, though I have        sible thing I could imagine. Do YOU
been unable to resolve many questions.       know that if you told anybody (com-
                                             mon American)     you were a socialist       Editor:
   I am a student at Harvard, and I
always try to get to the bottom of a         or labeled any plan one based on so-            Your last editorial states that “In
question, no matter where this leads         cialism, you might as well have told         Western Europe revolutionary working-
me — although, admittedly, this is not       them you, or it, were anti-American, a       class movements were prevented by the
always the easiest course. I feel I have     spy, a killer, a red and the big bad         Stalinized Communist parties and the
to do this, for if I try to push aside       wolf for that matter? Stop slinging          reformist Social-Democracy from finish-
an idea without first satisfying myself      mud and try and do something prac-
                                                                                          ing off capitalism at the end of World
of its error, it continues to reappear and   tical.
                                                                    S. K.                 War II.”
haunt me.                                                                                    It seems to me that in order to justify
   I would be exceedingly grateful to                              Whitestone, N. Y.
                                                                                          this point of view you must answer the
you if you could analyze that book in
the light of true socialism. If you could                                                 objection of the Communists that such
do this, perhaps I could set my con-         Editor:                                      an overturn at the end of the war
science once again at ease.                     Find enclosed twenty-five cents for a     would have meant the beginning of
   Thank you very much, and please           copy of your pamphlet Which Way for          World War III. Moreover, the U.S. had
forgive me for burdening you with            Labor — Democratic Party or Labor            a monopoly on the Atom bomb at that
this problem. I send my best wishes to       Part~? by Murry Weiss.                       time.
you.                                            First, I should like to explain how          We cannot irresponsibly        call for
                   D. C. M.,Jr.              I obtained a copy of International So-       “revolution everywhere”      without con-
                   Newton Center, Mass.      cialist Review, Winter 1960 . . . The
                                                                                          sidering that we are living in a world
                                             other day a member of our Union came
                                             by the store to visit me and he said         situation where revolution might mean
Editor:                                      he had read my letter [to the editor         the total destruction of all parties.
   . . . If the ISR editors have finished    of a local paper] . . . and during the                                   T. J.
chuckling (I think it was “happy”            visit he told me about this magazine                                     Brooklyn, N. Y.
chuckling no less) maybe they will ex-       and he gave it to me.
plain why in their editorial they so            Well when I noticed this advertise-
militantly have seized on the nomen-         ment about this pamphlet on a Labor          Editor:
clature “power elite” which is not ours      Party it interested me very much be-
and is intended by its proponents to op-                                                     I liked Cannon’s article on American
                                             cause that is the very thing that I want
pose the Marxist conception about rul-                                                    radicalism. It was a truthful account of
                                             to happen . . .
ing class?                                                             T. M. M.           what happened in the thirties. He is
                           G. B.                                       Denver, Colo.      dead right in his central point, “The
                           Detroit, Mich.                                                 radical movement of the thirties . . . has
                                                                                          spent itself.” I also go along wth the
                                             Editor:                                      proposition that “the main forces of the
                                                Just a word of praise for the Winter      new movement of American Socialist
   Upon reading your editorial, I was
                                             1960 issue of ISR. As a lover of history,    radicalism have to come from a new
really shocked by the attitude you had
                                             I enjoyed immensely the article on John      generation.”
taken. You have committed the tact-
                                             Brown.                                          What I’m dubious about is that the
less error of trying to tear down and
                                                You may like to know that when I          organized left today will be capable of
insult or disgrace everything (or some
                                             finish reading ISR I mail it to a friend     attracting this new generation.
of the things) that the American public
                                             in Holland who likes it better than any         Cannon seems to think that the So-
holds near and dear and feels just and
                                             other socialist publication.                 cialist Workers Party can do this job.
rightly about. Rather than attempting
                                                Please send me the book —Eugene V.        But I don’t see any evidence that the
to show him the great advantages which
lie in socialism.                            Debs — the Socialist Movement of His         SWP is attracting “the upcoming young
                                             Time— Its Meaning for Today. 25 cents.       rebels.” I would like to believe that it
   Perhaps you should study more closely
                                             Stamps enclosed for same.                    was but, as I say, I’m dubious.
the now well established Labor party
in England. It was established by set-                                P. C. H.                                   R. G.
tling the problems caused by capitalism                               Louisville,   KY.                          Columbus, Ohio

34                                                                                               INTERNATIONAL       SOCIALIST   REVIEW
 Spring     1960                                                Volume 21           .           No. 2

                                T                        1                               E
                                                                       by Farrell       Dobbs

w       E ENTER the sixties amid changing political condi-
         tions that forecast the opening of a new and higher
 stage in the American class struggle. Events are pushing
                                                                                     search for the right answer impels them, erratic though
                                                                                     the course may be, in the direction of socialism.
                                                                                        China has advanced along this road to the abolition of
 the unions away from support to capitalist political parties                        capitalist property relations and establishment of a work-
 and toward the formation of an independent labor party.                             ers state based on nationalization of the means of produc-
                       This necessary turn in union policy,                          tion and the introduction of planned economy. Earlier so-
                       which the union bureaucrats can’t block                       cial overturns of a similar nature took place in Yugoslavia
                       indefinitely, points in the direction of                      and across Eastern Europe. Together with the Soviet Union
                        a fundamental showdown between labor                         these workers states now encompass one-third the earth’s
                       and capital. Although labor is by far                         surface and close to half of all humanity. Viewed in com-
                       the stronger in potential class force, its                    bination with the colonial rebels elsewhere in the world
                       victory in a showdown is not automat-                         they constitute a formidable anti-imperialist force.
                       ically assured. In the long run class po-                        The power of the anti-imperialist       forces is further
                       Iit.ical consciousness will be decisive in                    strengthened by the great forward leap in Soviet scientific,
                       determining the outcome of the battle.                        technological and military potential. American imperial-
                          Today the capitalists have a big class                     ism no longer has the atomic monopoly and general mili-
                       advantage, stemming from policies con-                        tary superiority with which it launched the cold war some
                       sciously designed to serve their own in-                      fourteen years ago. A country that can send a rocket to
                       terests at the expense of society as a                        the moon, as the Soviet Union has done, can also deliver
 whole. Labor stands in an opposite position; it remains                             rockets armed with hydrogen warheads against an impe-
crippled by illusions that social progress can be made                              rialist aggressor anywhere on earth, including the United
through collaboration with the enemy class. Despite grow-                            States,
ing necessity, the unions have failed to develop an inde-                               These revolutionary advances on the world arena have
pendent class policy in industry and politics; and they have                        brought a power stalemate which compels American impe-
still to arrive at the anti-capitalist, pro-socialist outlook                       rialism to slow down its cold-war offensive and adjust its
fundamental to a solution of society’s basic problems. These                        diplomatic policy to a temporary, uneasy truce in interna-
class needs can be met only when the workers unseat the                             tional relations. Although the imperialists try to use this
capitalist-minded union bureaucrats — in short, labor faces                         act of tactical expediency to parade as peace lovers, they
an increasingly acute crisis of leadership.                                         have actually made no basic change in their foreign policy;
   There exists within the general labor movement a rev-                            on the contrary, they are using the lull in the cold war
olutionary-socialist tendency capable of projecting the in-                         to intensify them preparations for hot war.
dependent class policy the unions require. But this polit-                             The situation becomes doubly dangerous for world labor
ically class-conscious section of labor has been thrust into                        because imperialist political deceit is accompanied by Stal-
isolation from the workers through a combined attack by                             inist misrepresentation of the true state of affairs. Dressing
the union bureaucrats and the capitalist witch hunters. Only                        Up old-line Stalinist policy in new verbiage, the Kremlin
now are favorable conditions developing for fusion of the                           bureaucrats call for universal disarmament, peaceful co-
revolutionary-socialist     program with the mass power of                          existence and friendly competition between rival social
the unions.                                                                         orders. They dangle this line before the insurgent world
   An opening step toward such a fusion can be taken                                masses as a sure road to socialism by “gradual” means.
through the presidential campaign of the Socialist Workers                             Reasonable though this approach may seem — and no
party which is now getting under way. To understand why                             matter how great a popular response it may evoke — the
the SWP campaign holds promise of gains which will help                             imperialists would never agree to such a course. The Stal-
to strengthen class political consciousness among the work-                         inist bureaucrats understand this fact and they have shaped
ers, let us examine the broad lines of social conflict devel-                       their real policy accordingly. What they actually aim for
oping on a world scale and the political repercussions that                         is a deal with imperialism to divide the world into spheres
result within this country.                                                         of influence with an agreement to maintain the status quo
   Across the globe peoples long subjected to imperialist ex-                       within each sphere. They are ready to help preserve cap-
ploitation are rising up against their oppressors. They want                        italism outside the Soviet orbit in the hope this will enable
to develop their own industries in order to raise their                             them to save their own privileged position in the area
standard of living. They are determined to free themselves                          where they now rule.
from foreign interference and decide for themselves what                               Stalinist policy runs directly counter to the needs of the
economic and social order will best serve their needs. Their                        masses in the capitalist sector of the world and it clashes
                                                                                    with the democratic aspirations of people within the Soviet
    Farrell Dobbs is the Socialist Workers   party’s   candidate for President      bloc countries. Workers’ uprisings in 1956 against the Stal-
of the United     States in the 1960 elections.  He    was the SWP presiden-        inist regimes in Poland and Hungary Iaid bare the basic
tial candidate   in 1948, 1952 and 1956.                                            antagonism between the ruling bureaucracy and the masses

SPRING    1960                                                                                                                                 35
within the workers states. In crushing the Hungarian re-                                     rivals are stiffening their competition with American cap-
volt the bureaucracy strengthened itself temporarily, but                                    italism. In the one-time colonial preserves strong opposi-
didn’t win a permanent lease on life. The status quo can’t                                   tion to imperialist domination has developed; and in the
be frozen indefinitely in the Soviet bloc countries; new po-                                 case of Cuba a colonial revolt has flared up right on the
litical explosions will occur and they will cause repercus-                                  United States’ doorstep.
sions throughout the world labor movement.                                                      Instead of forging ahead toward unrestricted exploitation
   It is equally impossible to freeze the status auo for verv                                of the world, American imperialism finds its expansionist
long in the countries under capitalist rule. The very forces                                 drive slowed down, if not turned back. Still determined to
that have acted to compel a slowdown in the imperialist                                      achieve its objectives, the capitalist ruling class is using
war drive are also operating to prevent any lasting social                                   the cold-war lull for an attack on American labor to safe-
stability under capitalism. Although the world labor and                                     guard capitalist privileges nationally and to get into a
colonial movements face a general crisis of leadership, this                                 better position to drag the country into war.
obstacle does not halt the struggles for social improve-                                        Imperialist military adventures are not ruled out because
ment. Mass action simply takes longer to gain enough                                         of the horrible dangers in an atomic war. Truman risked
momentum to break through the barriers and then it de-                                       atomic war when he plunged the country into the Korean
velops in distorted forms; but the masses keep asserting                                     conflict. Eisenhower had no compunction about the war
themselves.                                                                                  risks involved in a military occupation of Lebanon. The
   These trends upset the schemes of American imperial-                                      bipartisan government at Washington continues the fantas-
ism, making it more determined than ever to impose its                                       tic military buildup, quarreling only as to whether enough
will by all possible means, including war. The imperialist                                   is being done. Generals and capitalist politicians openly
belligerence stems from social contradictions within the                                     advocate a policy of “limited” wars, disregarding the risk
United States itself. Growth of the productive forces with-                                  of triggering World War III.
in the country threatens a deep crisis of over-production.
                                                                                                Only the revolutionary advances abroad have prevented
There is increasing danger of a severe economic slump
                                                                                             a general war so far. These limited advances have allowed
that would bring on catastrophic unemployment and lead
                                                                                             precious time for the extension of class-struggle opposi-
to a social explosion at home, unless the capitalist class
                                                                                             tion to imperialism; but peace can be assured only when
can expand its exploitation of peoples abroad.
   But one-third of the world market has been closed to                                      the workers within the imperialist countries take independ-
capitalist exploitation by extension of the Soviet bloc to                                    ent class action against the imperialist warmakers.
China and Eastern Europe. Elsewhere lesser imperialist                                          An anti-war struggle of this kind can’t be waged under
                                                                                             the leadership of Stalinists, social democrats or union bu-
                                                                                             reaucrats. In every case these misleaders of labor are shift-
                                                                                             ing further to the right in their political line, abandoning
                                                                                             any pretext of real socialist policies, if they ever had any.
                          Published quarterly by the International                           A new leadership must take the helm before labor can
                          SocialistReview PublishingAssociation, 16
                          UniversityPi., New York 3, N. Y. Second                            get started on the class-struggle road to peace.
                          classpostagepaid at New York, N. Y.                                   In the United States the present capitalist attack on the
                                                                                             unions begins to open the way for the rise of a leadership
                                                                                             capable of projecting the policy labor needs. Changing
                                Contents                                                     economic and social conditions should help the process
CORRESPONDENCE               ........................................................   34   along.
                                                                                                Within the framework of a series of boom-recession cy-
THE 1960 ELECTIONS                                      Farrell Dobbs
                                 ......................by                               35
                                                                                             cles the country is drifting into economic decline. Even
FIRST        YEAR    OF THE CUBAN                REVOLUTION                                  though a full-scale depression has not yet struck, the cy-
                                                   by Henry Gitano                      38   clical ups and downs in the economy are generating feelings
                                                                                             of insecurity in the population. Many are being thrust di-
DE GAULLE — A LESSER EVIL?                                                                   rectly into personal economic crisis by the persistent rise
                                                         by Shane Mage                  43
                                                                                             in chronic unemployment which is spreading across wider
AFRICA’S        BID FOR FREEDOM                      by Frances James                   46   areas of production; government figures for January show
                                                                                             that over four million are now jobless during boom times.
                                              by Murry Weiss                            49   The AFL-CIO predicts the present boom will slack off by
                                                                                             July; and capitalist economists speak of a general economic
THE FATE            OF DEWEY’S          THEORIES                                             slump by 1961. For workers this will mean a sharp rise
                                          by William F. Warde                           54   in unemployment, in many cases so prolonged that jobless
                                                                                             benefits will become exhausted.
BOOKS:                                                                                          Economically the workers are put in double jeopardy
     A Short Glimpse of                                                                      because of bureaucratic misleadership in the unions: they
                                                         Bert Deck
     the Long View ......................................by                             58   are hurt by the crisis trends under capitalism; and they
     Movers and Shakers of History                                                           have no independent class program to defend their interests.
                                                           by Jean Blake                59   The politically-bankrupt union bureaucrats support the im-
                                                                                             perialist war policy and count on the arms program to
     (lass   Struggle — American               Style                                         provide jobs. They look to the capitalist government for
                                                           by Tom Kerry                 60   social benefits through legislation and for help in collective
     Cabin’d, Cribb’d, Confined!                                                             bargaining with the bosses. To impose their false policy on
                            by Constance F. Weissman                                    60   the workers, they strangle union clemocracy and connive
                                                                                             with the bosses to suppress so-called “wild-cat” strikes.
PERIODICALS           IN REVIEW           .......... Tim Wohlforth
                                                   bv                                   62      Changing times are now beginning to break up these
                                                                                             well-established forms of bureaucratic control over the
               Vol. 21 — No. 2 — Whole No. 151                                               unions. The bosses don’t intend to allow the class peace so
                                                                                             necessary to the bureaucratic policy. They are resisting,
           Murry Weiss..............................Editor                                   not granting, concessions to labor; and the government is
                                 Managing Editor
           Bert Deck ..............                                                          backing them up in what is rapidly becoming a general
           Karolyn Kerry ...... usiness ilfanage~                                            war against the unions.
SUBSCRIPTIONRATES: U.S.A.andLatinAmerica,           $1.25 year (four
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                2             for                                                            more out of the workers on the job and to whittle down

36                                                                                                                      INTERNATIONAL    SOCIALIST   REVIEW
  employment so far as they can. They resist wage demands              Rising social tensions, generated by the twin threats of
  and chip away at the escalator clauses pegged to the cost-         war and depression, are beginning to counteract conformist
  of-living index; without resorting as yet to outright wage        pressures long imposed by the witch hunt. People in many
  cuts, they put the workers in a position where rising prices      walks of life are asking searching political questions; they
  and stiffening taxes eat into their purchasing power.             are thinking for themselves; and they begin to recognize
     Union demands are met by counter-demands calculated            the need to fight boldly to maintain freedom of thought, ex-
  to tear down long-established job conditions and to weaken        pression, association and action.
  union control generally. The bosses force strikes and drag           In addressing people newly interested in socialist ideas it
 them out in a war of attrition against labor. Strike in-           will be well to keep in mind the political circumstances
 surance, professional scab agencies and direct government          under which their thinking has been previously condi-
 support to strikebreaking attacks are reappearing in new           tioned. Take, for example, a person who came of age after
 forms.                                                             1946. Throughout his adult life he has been subjected to
     On the political front the bosses use their Democratic         an atmosphere of cold war, hot war and witch hunting.
 and Republican agents in government to hamstring the               He has experienced or seen others experience periods of
 unions through anti-labor laws. They will probably go a            temporary economic hardship in times of slump; but he
  little easy on demands for further laws until their stooges       has at most, only hearsay knowledge of severe depression
 have got themselves re-elected in the fall. In the mean-           conditions.
 time they have the new Kennedy -Landrum-Griffin         law to        A person in this position knows union life only under the
 work with; and among its many provisions hostile to labor          domination of an iron-handed bureaucracy which preaches
 this law clears the way for open FBI intervention in the           class peace, extols the virtues of capitalism and stifles
 unions. The future will see these imperialist political police     democracy within the organization. He has little idea of
 attempting to give all of labor the same treatment they            the tremendous power inherent in the working class; and
 have been dealing out to radical workers all through the           he has had virtually no access to a true, complete history
 witch hunt.                                                        of past labor struggles which would help him to under-
     The basic shift in capitalist tactics undermines the posi-     stand that power.
 tion of the union bureaucrats, discrediting their whole line          To reach people who find themselves in this situation
 based on “labor statesmanship.” In the long steel strike —         it will be helpful to start from the big concerns in their
 which clearly revealed the changing class relations — the          minds today and present the socialist answer to these prob-
 union ranks were ahead of the leadership in giving battle          lems in clear language and comprehensible terms; then
 to the bosses. They won a victory in the sense that the            go on from there to deal with even more basic political
 open corporation attack was halted temporarily. But the            questions. By weaving in the class lessons to be drawn
 wage settlement was the poorest in years; the escalator            from world labor history, a sense of class power and a
 clause was mangled; there was no reduction in hours with-          deeper knowledge of sound class principles can be devel-
 out reduced pay to help safeguard employment; and the              oped.
 contract terms open the way for the McDonald bureaucracy              Groundwork can be done in this way to get across a
 to make “statesmanlike” concessions to the bosses on work         basic class-struggle program: formation of an independent
 rules.                                                            labor party in opposition to the capitalist parties; labor sup-
     This experience illustrates the widening gap between bu-      port to the civil rights struggle and promotion of a political
 reaucratic policy and the workers’ needs; and the gap will        alliance between the unions and the minority peoples; an
 become wider still when the next economic slump hits.             economic policy designed to serve labor’s needs; a working
 Mass protests against unemployment reached a post-war             class policy to defeat the imperialist war conspiracy and
 high in the spring of 1959, a trend that forecasts an even         attain world peace; a program to establish workers’ democ-
 greater outburst next time there are mass lay-offs. The           racy throughout the world labor movement; a socialist
 fight for an effective union policy in industry will intensify,   perspective for the United States.
along with labor demands upon the government for mean-                 These are the lines along which the Socialist Workers
ingful social legislation. Life under capitalism will drive the    party will conduct its presidential campaign. Vigorous ef-
workers toward class-struggle economic and political posi-         forts will be made to use every possible medium to reach
tions. In the long run the union bureaucrats won’t be able         people becoming interested in socialist ideas and draw
 to stop it; but they can and will continue to inhibit and         them closer to the movement. This calls for a strong turn-
distort the labor struggle.                                        out of active socialist campaigners and equally strong
    At the present stage of developments the task for social-      financial support.
ists remains primarily one of advancing a class-struggle              If socialist-minded people throughout the country back the
program for labor. This will help union militants to clarify       SWP campaign to the best of their ability, 1960 can be
their thinking and prepare a sound programmatic basis for          made the best year for revolutionary socialism since the
future action when the ranks decide to take union affairs          the cold war began.
into their own hands. In presenting their political analysis
socialists should also pay close attention to developments in
the mass movement as a whole.                                      I
    Formation of the Negro Labor Council within the AFL-
CIO implies action going beyond the announced aim to                                     Subscribe
fight for equal rights in industry and democratic rights in
the unions; it may serve to stimulate more effective union             International         Socialist       Review
support to the general civil rights movement and thereby               116 University           PIace, N. Y. 3, N. Y.
sharpen both the Negro struggle and the class struggle,
particularly in the South. The outbreak of student demon-              Enclo;ed       is $2.50 for           my sub-:cription                for     the next
strations against Jim-Crow lunch counters in the South                 eight imue~.
gives further impulse to mass action in the fight for equal
rights; and it marks a shift of initiative toward younger
Negroes capable of greater militancy.                                  Name      ............................................................................. ... .
    Social ferment is increasing among youth on college cam-
puses and in the high schools. Many are becoming rebel-
                                                                       Street     ...................................................... Apt.      No... ..........
lious against conditions under the capitalist two-party sys-
tem. They are searching for a new political course and,
though they have not yet become socialist-minded, they                 City .......................................... Zone. ....... State ................
are willing to listen to socialist ideas.

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                                                          37
         FirstYear of the Cuban Revolution
                                                 “If       you are afraid,           go get yourself         a little    dog”
                                                 is a popular              saying     among th’e masses             of Cuba,
                                                 who are now confident                    they can change the world

                                                                                  by Henry    Gitano

 H    AVANA,      “one of the wickedest
        cities in the world,” the “Monte
                                                                        tions.” Alongside the Cuban govern-
                                                                        ment’s role, “declining economic activi-
                                                                        ties have also had an influence in
                                                                                                                       Article 43 states that “whenever pos-
                                                                                                                    sible the INRA (National Institute for
                                                                                                                    Agrarian Reform) will promote agrarian
 Carlo of the Americas, a paradise of
 tropical joy,” skyscrapers and luxurious                               moderating     excessive   demands.”    A   cooperatives.” To date, 485 cooperatives
 mansions, — this tourist c o n c e p t ion,                            starving people and a corrupt puppet        have been established. Article 64 is
 never truly reflected Cuban life; for                                  dictatorship provide an ideal atmosphere    widely used to provide flexibility:     “It
 behind the romantic postcards sold for                                 for U.S. investors.                         is the interpretation of this Law that in
 the benefit of visitors existed the very                                  Robert Taber’s competent study of        case of doubt, the decision should be in
real misery of millions.                                                “Castro’s Cuba” in The Nation, Jan. 23,     favor of the person working the land.”
   A survey by the Cuban Catholic As-                                   1960, reviews the Island’s history:            The Law’s objective is to break up the
 sociation in 1957, based on 2,500 rural                                   “From Cuba’s founding as a Republic      plantations and put the land to use
families, found that 60?Z0lived in huts                                in 1903 until Dec. 31, 1958, when the        growing diversified     crops. Cuba has
with thatched palm roofs and bare dirt                                 Batista regime abruptly collapsed, the       been importing thirty per cent of its
floors without running water or sanitary                               country was for every practical purpose      food needs, according to Fortune maga-
facilities of any sort. Kerosene lighting                              a U.S. colony, captive both economically     zine, September 1959. Co-ops are to be
was used by 70~0, with the remaining                                   and politically      . The greater part of   the vehicle for eradicating malnutrition,
30’%. having no illumination at all. Basic                             its resources — sugar, mineral rights,       providing employment and saving hard
foods consisted of rice, beans and vege-                               public-utility concessions, cattle lands —   currency for mechanization and indus-
tables, with only 11% drinking milk,                                   were controlled by U.S. capital. In such     trialization. There is a central plan by
4’% eating meat, and 2?Z0 having eggs.                                 circumstances, it can scarcely be doubted    INRA outlining production quotas and
The result was a caloric deficiency of                                 that the succession of rapacious profes-     resources to be expanded in every zone.
1,000 units daily.                                                     sional politicos who ruled Cuba during          Chester Manly of the Chicago Tribune
   These figures are substantiated by the                              most of the half-century or so of its        Press Service visited a CO-OP. “Los
Cuban government’s own 1953 census.                                    republican existence were necessarily        Pines is an impressive, modern, large-
The census also showed that in rural                                   the caretakers of a vast amount of           scale agricultural operation . . the first
dwellings, 96.5% had no refrigeration,                                 American, rather than Cuban, wealth.         tomatoes produced there were coming in
90.5% had neither tub nor shower and                                   And whatever else he may have been,          for boxing in a new packing plant for
8577. had no inside or outside water                                   the dictator who fled to Santo Domingo       shipment to the U.S. Near the packing
piping.                                                                on the first day of 1959 was one of          plant, work was in progress on a large
   Accentuating the poverty is the ter-                                these — a discredited, dispossessed cus-     maintenance station for the tractor and
rible insecurity. According to invest-                                 todian of the Yankee dollar.”                other modern equipment used . . . The
ment in Cuba, a U.S. Department of                                         Batista’s overthrow marked not the       farmers have no land of their own but
Commerce study of July 1956:                                           end, but a beginning of a revolution         will own and work the land collec-
   “The specter of unemployment affects                                which lashes out against imperialist         tively . .    INRA is starting to build
all thinking on labor . . . Some affirm                                domination. The power of this revolution     houses for the farmers. We visited a
that unemployment normally reaches a                                   can be best gauged by a sketch of the        small group of unfinished concrete block
total of one million; others that it                                   economic and social changes it has           houses and a warehouse full of excellent
reaches a total of one and a half million;                             already accomplished.                        roofing material made from cane fiber
and even the conservative estimates                                       “Those who work the land shall own        . . . INRA plans to build a canning
range between 500,000 and 800,000.”                                    it,” says the Land Reform Law, which         factory at Los Pines       . Two thatched
This in a country of 6,500,000 in-                                     was enacted on May 17, 1959 abolishing       roof ‘peoples stores’ have been opened
habitants. The “investment” study which                                latifundism (huge plantations). Land         at Los Pinos, INRA also is building
is “basic information for U.S. business-                               over 995 acres, or 3,300 acres if it is      school houses and roads.”
men” notes a “distinct improvement has                                 used for cattle, rice or sugar, is “in-         Alan Levy, Louisville Courier-Journal
occurred in recent years, however, in the                              tervened” (taken over by the govern-         staff writer, wrote Jan. 2, 1960, “Every-
atmosphere of labor-management rela-                                   ment). The 1946 census showed that less      where in Cuba, INRA experts are put-
                                                                       than 1.5% owned 467. of all farm land.       ting the rich soil to its most efficient
                                                                       Landowners are to be indemnified with        use. Property     is methodically being
     Henry     Gitano,       correspondent       of    “The    Mili-
                                                                       20-year bonds carrying 4% ?i. interest.      taken from the exorbitantly rich and
tant,”     recently    returned      from    a seven-week       tour   Compensation is based on the owners                            I
                                                                                                                    used for CO-OPS. n Manzanillo, my wife
of     Cuba        where      he   observed      the    profound       evaluation for taxing purposes two years     and I visited a fishing cooperative. The
changes       taking       place   as a result    of the      Agre-    ago. So far over seven and a quarter         250 fishermen were building their own
rian     Reform.                                                       million acres have been expropriated.        homes with unlimited aid from soldiers

38                                                                                                                         INTERNATIONAL    SOCIALIST   REVIEW
                                                                                           La Cane, a Cuban revolutionary daily
                                                                                        noted Dec. 13, 1959, “The Cuban Revo-
                                                                                        lution is something entirely different
                                                                                        as revolutions come. Previously revolu-
                                                                                        tions were a dime a dozen throughout
                                                                                        Latin America, and meant nothing at
                                                                                        all to the people, just one man replac-
                                                                                        ing another.” In previous revolutions
                                                                                        after those who lost power made their
                                                                                        rendezvous with stolen funds deposited
                                                                                        in foreign banks, another new regime
                                                                                        fell under Wall Street domination.
                                                                                           That explains the big smear in the
                                                                                        American press and the threats by the
                                                                                        U.S. government — the attempt of Cuba
                                                                                        to rid itself of American economic ex-
                                                                                        ploitation might be emulated throughout
                                                                                        Latin America. As the New York Times
                                                                                        admitted on April 26, 1959, “If we didn’t
                                                                                        have Latin America on our side, our
                                                                                        situation would be desperate. To be
                                                                                        denied the products and markets of
                                                                                        Latin America would reduce the U.S.
                                                                                        to being a second-rate nation and cause
                                                                                        a devastating reduction in our standard
                                                                                        of living   . . Latin American raw mate-
                                                                                        rials are essential to our existence as a
                                                                                        world power.” Uncle Sam has a beard,
                                                                                        but he is hardly a Santa Claus for
                                                                                        Latin America.
                                                                                           Direct investments by the U.S. in
                                                                                        Central and South America, increased
                TYPICAL   PEASANT    DWELLINGS        UNDER     BATISTA                 from $4.8 billion in 1950 to $9.1 billion
                                                                                        in 1957. In addition holdings of U.S.
 and government architects. A small fac-    men. A ruling on Dec. 22, 1959 author-      corporate stocks in the same area, in-
 tory on the CO-OP was producing the        ized the nationalization of all wealth      creased from $296,000,000.in 1950 to
blocks and bricks the fishermen needed.     belonging to persons convicted of coun-     $632,000,000in 1957.In Cuba, direct U.S.
Other fishermen were building a fleet       ter-revolutionary activities or who leave   investments increased from $686,000,000
of modern fishing boats and a mother        Cuba to evade trial or conspire from        in 1952 to $850,000,000in 1957.
ship that will receive and distribute the   abroad against the Revolution.                 Cuba’s note of Nov. 13, 1959 chal-
fish that are caught.” Nearly 3% mil-
lion acres of expropriated land has been
turned over to co-ops.
    World Wide 60, “Castro’s Year of
Power,” NBC-TV Jan. 23, 1960reported:
“Everywhere a CO-OP is established a
school springs up. It may be in a new
building, or an old one, but it is formed
. . . This is a cooperative tobacco farm
in Pinar del Rio Province. Tobacco is
Cuba’s second largest crop. This land
now belongs to the workers . . . And
these are new homes that have been
built for the CO-OP workers. The same
people who will live in these now live
in thatched and palm-planked bohios.
There are people in Cuba today moving
into homes with plumbing who must be
taught how to flush a toilet.”
   Alongside the agrarian reform, 700
other revolutionary decrees have given
American     millionaires   the creeping
jitters. One law authorizes the Labor
Ministry to take over any business
which discharges w-orkers, goes bank-
rupt or has a serious labor dispute. Law
635 creates a Cuban Petroleum Institute
which regulates the refining and mar-
keting of petroleum products. It is work-
ing three shifts daily copying explora-
tion data obtained by oil companies,
whose files have been sealed and placed
under armed guard. Other regulations
confiscate all property that was stolen     FARM-WOltKEliS        11OLS1AL      1X COOPERATIVE         CUBA    LIBRE    BUILT
or belonged to Batista and his hench-                 BY   SOLDIERS       AND   ‘*VORKERS    SINCE    REVOLUTION

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                 39

Ienged Washington’s profession of phil-      The Revolution is breaking the back          not rent, but the monthly payment for
anthropic interest. “In the last ten years   of imperialist control and replacing it      buying the house. Rentals were slashed
the balance of payments has been ad-         with an economy based on national            in half. Ten partially constructed hos-
verse to Cuba by more than a billion         planning.                                    pitals and six thousand new classrooms
dollars . . . North American investments        INRA spent $75,000,000 in 1959 and        were completed during eight months,
in Cuba have always been character-          has a 1960 budget of $156,000,000.Tex-       including more rural schools than in the
ized by their extremely lucrative re-        tile mills, charcoal CO-OPS, rice and        previous 56 years. Student enrollment
turns.” In its editorial on the Cuban        sugar mills are being sponsored by           mushroomed from 660,000 in 1958 to
note, the Nov. 15 New York Times             INRA; also they are building boats in        over 1,000,000 last year. The beaches
conceded that “some of the things Dr.        nationalized workshops for the fisher-       have been opened up for the benefit of
Castro says certainly merit examination      men co-ops. It has become the sole           all the people. (Sources: Transcript,
. . . We cannot ignore Dr. Castro’s          buying and selling agency for beans,         World Wide 60, NBC-TV. Jan. 22, 1960.
charge that investments in Cuba have         potatoes, fruits, eggs, coffee and min-      Revolution Jan. 1, 1960).
given ‘the Cuban economy a semi-             erals in Cuba’s largest province, Oriente.      The New York Times, Oct. 25, 1959
colonial character.’ “                       Electric rates have been reduced by          complains about the regime’s “organiz-
   The Revolutionary Government’s note       30%, public phone rates halved, medi-        ing cooperatives, financing and manag-
declared “its unvarying determination        cines cut 207’o; 800 miles of new roads      ing practically all the land in the
to carry out . . . a program of deep         built, 35 bridges constructed, 133,000       island.” It is the introduction of eco-
economic and social transformations in       acres reforested by the army; $400,000,  -   nomic planning, the building and plow-
the interest of the Cuban people and,        000 of stolen property confiscated from      ing to smash hunger and unemployment,
particularly its Agrarian Reform Pro-        Batista henchmen.                            the tractors and bulldozers working 22
gram, which is indispensable for the            Ten thousand housing units have been      hours a day for the benefit of the Cuban
industrial development, the social ad-       completed, with a four-room apartment        people, that Washington is aghast at.
vancement and the consolidation of the       going to those earning under $100               On Feb. 20, 1960, all private enter-
democratic institutions of this country.”    monthly. The cost is $15.92, which is        prise was placed under the revolutionary

              FORMERLY        AGRAMONTE        FORTl{   [;SS N() \\’

                                                                                             important economic and political entity
                                                                                             . . . On the provincial level, the 26th
                                                                                             of July Movement has been replaced by
                                                                                             the army and the INRA. This is a com-
                                                                                             bination of supreme importance to Dr.
                                                                                             Castro as he busily shifts the base of
                                                                                             his national support from the middle
                                                                                             class to peasants, workers and soldiers
                                                                                             in what seems to be the prelude to a
                                                                                             class struggle.”
                                                                                                This shift towards building a new
                                                                                             type of society results from the fact that
                                                                                             the Cuban masses have been drawn into
                                                                                             the revolutionary arena in ever greater
                                                                                                The Federation of Cuban Sugar Work-
                                                                                             ers has trained and armed 55,000 sugar
                                                                                             workers in the interior “to defend the
                                                                                             sugar crop.” About 300 Havana Univer-
                                                                                             sity students, including 80 girls, com-
                                                                                             pleted their military training last month
                                                                                             with a climb up Cuba’s highest moun-
                                                                                             tain, the 6,569 feet Pico Turquino. The
                                                                                             New York Times, Jan. 16, 1960 reports
                                                                                             “the sound of marching feet is echoing
                                                                                             throughout Cuba . . . Students, workers
                                                                                             and peasants are being trained and
                                                                                             armed in every district of the Island . . .
                                                                                              [they are]     enthusiastically spending
                                                                                             hours drilling. There are said to be about
                                                                                             35,000 militia members being trained in
MEETING         OF RICE COOPERATIVE            CAMILIO    CIENFUEGOS       IN MATAN-         Havana.”
                                                                                                On World Wide 60, Jan. 23, 1960
ZAS PROVINCE.        JORGE EGANA,        INRA     DELEGATE      (SEATED     AT RIGHT)        NBC-TV      bemoaned that “one of the
                                                                                             most frightening aspects of Castro’s year
                                                                                             of power is the people who are march-
government’s direct control with a cen-         stunning blow to businessmen and bank-       ing, not the least frightening is that
tral planning board to “supervise and           ers.”                                        they march voluntarily.”
coordinate” in order to “rebuild the               Along with the shifting of Guevara,
                                                the Public Works Minister and the Min-          While the people are being armed,
general economy of the country.” Che
                                                ister for the Recovery of Stolen Prop-       the Army is fighting for the Revolution
Guevara, president of the National Bank,
                                                erties were also replaced. The new           with pick, shovel and tractor. This
and part of the top leadership, hurled
                                                Cabinet members are expected to give         writer, on a recent visit to Cuba, saw
defiance at backers of “free enterprise”
                                                their fullest support to a high speed        soldiers building houses for farm work-
over Havana’s Union Radio Feb. 5, 1960:
   “During the past seven years Cuba has        agrarian reform program with the Na-         ers, constructing roads, laying        out
                                                                                             drainage systems, reforesting the de-
lost $450 million in reserves, that is,         tional Bank saving hard currency for
                                                mechanization     and   industrialization;   nuded land, farming on the CO-OPS;and
more than nine times the reserves we
                                                Public Works stepping up its pace in         building an entire school-city which
held on Jan. 1, 1960 (reserves had
                                                building roads to transport crops; Recov-    when      completed   will    accommodate
dropped to $49 million). This proves
                                                                                             20,000 children from the Oriente moun-
that we were paying out of the nation’s         ery of Stolen Properties working to
                                                make itself obsolete by transferring         tain range, where illiteracy and poverty
reserves for the privilege of having a
so-called free enterprise . . . That was        seized properties to the INRA. Previous
free enterprise during Batista’s time . . .     to this the moderate Labor Minister had         Since soldiers work and the workers
This is why some time ago I said that           been replaced. The first president of the    are armed, there is no need for military
we are not interested in free enter-            Republic Urrutia was forced out be-          fortresses. R. Hart Phillips in her book,
prise . . . Money cannot be given out           cause he was too slow-moving           and   “Cuba: Island of Paradox,” states that
indiscriminately. We serve the Cuban            hesitant. Major Huber Mates was sen-         “Camp Columbia controls not only
people and profits are invested in works        tenced to twenty years imprisonment on       Havana but the entire island and the
beneficial to the nation . . . What the         Dec. 15, 1959 for attempting to utilize      government.” Today Columbia’s name
Diario de la Marina [Havana’s leading           members of the Rebel Army against the        has been changed to “Liberty City” and
reactionary daily] advises in its editorial,    Revolution. He had combined red-bait-        its function has been reversed: from
 (that the country’s policy must be an          ing with acts to slow down the agrarian      housing 30,000 soldiers of death it is
open economy) then, is that we continue         reform.                                      being converted into a technical school.
with a type of colonial economy. They              Parallel with the shifting of power       The fortress at Agramonte is already
do not like the idea that the revolution-       from middle class intellectuals who          functioning as an educational complex.
ary government has cut its colonial             believed only in fighting dictatorship       All the big army posts are being trans-
links, both economically and politically.”      and making a place for themselves un-        formed into educational centers.
   The road from the victory of the             der the Cuban sun, to those who are              There are cooperatives where workers
bearded rebel army to Cuba’s planned            presently speaking in the name of the        elect their own leadership. The Rebel
economy has been marked by conflict.            workers and farmers, the 26th of July        Army does not salute. Committees from
In a cabinet shakeup last Nov. 25,              Movement has been relegated to minor         the cooperatives discuss their problems
Major Ernesto “Che”         Guevara Was         importance: making toys for children         at INRA’s regional headquarters, and
named head of the National Bank, re-            who have none, collecting funds for          plan together with INRA technicians
placing Dr. Felipe Pazos. The Times of          arms and tractors. According to Tad          how best to utilize the earth’s poten-
Havana reported Nov. 26: “The replace-          Szulc in the New York Times Dec. 18,         tialities. A worker at Bayamo, Nor-
ment of Pazos by Guevara came as a              1959, INRA “has become Cuba’s most           berto Pantoja, told this writer, “the

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                        41
days that come will be good for us.             The masses had the power to bring           an open house for them and their
Everything that is being done, is for        the Revolution to its present stage, but       bombings with Florida-based planes; it
our benefit.” As he guided me through        they are not yet the supreme power;            has armed and befriended Latin Amer-
the countryside, everything was either       for their strength is not yet conscious        ican dictators while at the same time
“de nosotros” or “particular”; if it had     and organized. What political form will        preventing Cuba from purchasing arms
been intervened, it was “ours,” other-       replace the current de jure cabinet and        for its defense; it has attempted eco-
wise it was “private.” Throughout Cuba,      de facto INRA conferences? An entirely         nomic blackmail, sabre rattling and
outside of the wealthy sections of Mira-     new type of state apparatus is needed if       character assassination. But that is not
mar and Varadero, the people identify        the masses are to hold on to the power.        the total picture. Castro’s visit to the
the Revolution as theirs.                    All authority would have to pass to            U.S. last year demonstrated the friend-
   Castro has turned increasingly to the     the revolutionary mass organizations,          ship of sections of the American peo-
workers and peasants as the govern-          which elect their own representatives          ple for Cuba’s rebirth. The Negro press
ment is faced with counter-revolution-       and forge their own program. Other-            has given favorable treatment to the
ary opposition. Last Oct. 26, one million    wise, the bourgeoisie can regroup, and         Revolution (Pittsburgh Courier: Why is
Cubans gathered on three days’ notice        take advantage of the vagueness of the         it that “everybody is against Castro . . .
after attacks by U.S. based planes. He       “power” situation. Through some new            but the people?”; Chicago Defender:
drew class lines: “Because our Revolu-       parliamentarism the privileged classes         “There is no racial discrimination in
tionary Laws have an adverse effect on       will attempt to bypass the mass or-            Cuba. That is a resounding and impor-
privileged classes inside Cuba and out-      ganizations and reestablish their former       tant declaration.” Cleveland Call Post:
side Cuba, they attack us . . . Since        alliance wtih Yankee imperialism. This         “The Cuban people are shaping their
they know that civilians with military       will remain possible as long as the            democracy.”)      Vitriolic attacks by the
training could defend all they have          question of power remains vague and            American capitalist press have met with
won for themselves, the old privileged       uncertified.                                   little success. Wall Street has realized
classes are allergic to everything that is      We observe that there is, as yet, no        that while Cuba’s revolution has the
implied by the military training of          working class party on the scene which         backing of the people, direct interven-
workers and farmers. On the other hand       is consciously preparing the mass move-        tion is not feasible, much as they would
we believe that the best allies of the       ment for ‘this decisive step. The dis-         like to land Marines and launch an
soldiers are the farmers and workers . . .   credited Communist party of Cuba               Army of Cuban Pacification. An im-
We are their targets but it is the           abandoned its previous policy of support       perialist-backed overturn, such as we
revolutionary reform program that they       to Batista only to adopt a policy of           saw in Guatemala, is not in the cards
oppose.”                                     unqualified acceptance of the status quo.      at present. The Guatemala coup was
   Raul Castro, head of the armed forces,       There are many happy conditions             engineered      successfully because the
in attacking Mates said: “He speaks of       which would favor the working class            revolution had halted short of bold so-
a Revolution which satisfies all inter-      in power. Cuba’s soil is exceptionally         cial and economic changes; the work-
ests at the same time. This would not        fertile and level with a year around           ing masses had been restrained by the
be a Revolution. How can anyone con-         growing season. What imperialism was           Stalinists from undertaking such revolu-
sider the exploiting      latifundista the   exploiting now offers opportunities for        tionary measures and as a result the
same as the exploited farmer?”               expanding and diversifying agriculture         people were in the background. The
                                             as well as utilizing the increased in-         situation today is entirely different in
   The real power in Cuba today resides
                                             come to mechanize and industrialize.           Cuba. In Cuba the revolution is show-
in the workers and farmers who are              The colonial revolutionary movement,        ing its enormous democratic sweep
armed and organized in cooperatives.         the downtrodden of Africa and Asia
The top leadership has been moving                                                          through the direct participation of the
                                             asserting themselves gives the Cuban           masses in a social transformation that
away from the vague middle class pro-        freedom fighters natural international
gram of the July 26th Movement. The                                                         has opened a new vision for the Cuban
                                             allies.                                        people. They will not easily be pushed
new organs of power are the army
which works and the INRA which na-                                                          into the background.
tionalizes and plans. The real top gov-                                                        In Cuba there are signs proclaiming:
erning body appears to be the monthly
INRA conferences where delegates from        T   HE world contest of the Soviet orbit
                                                   in conflict against W’estern imperial-
                                                                                            “If you are fearful, go get yourself a
                                                                                            little dog.”     This epitomizes Revolu-
                                                                                            tionary Cuba. Millions of the poor and
the twenty-seven zones meet with top         ism gives Cuba opportunities along the
government leaders, while INRA itself        line of the February 1960 commercial           wretched who have been pushed around
is fused with the army.                      agreement whereby the Soviet Union             and exploited by Yankee imperialism
   Where is the Revolution going? The        will buy 5,000,000 tons of sugar over a        have acquired tremendous self-confi-
social program of the Revolution has         five year period and give Cuba a credit        dence. This is the vitality of the men
been hammered out on the run; Castro         of $100,000,000   for the purchase of Soviet   and women who are making a success-
has, thus far, responded to the pressure     agricultural and industrial machinery.         ful    revolution,    conscious of    their
of the oppressed for whom the over-          This world contest also restrains the U.S.     strength, confident that they can change
throw of Batista was a mere prelude          State Department and Pentagon, who             everything.
to independence from hunger and de-          must consider international repercus-
gradation which was brought to them          sions. Just as the Negro children in
with the compliments of American             Little Rock could find protection in the
colonialism.    Empirical    actions have    world’s eyes focusing on them, so Cuba
deepened the social revolution and dealt     benefits from Washington’s vulnerability                COMING
heavy blows to the imperialist control       compounded by its whole rapacious
of the economy.                              history in Latin America.
   Today, the real power is in the hands        America’s ruling class and its press
of the armed revolutionary people, but       representatives have threatened to cut
this power remains to be consolidated        Cuba’s sugar quota, to reduce subsidies
by a necessary act. The top leaders have     for Cuban sugar (which are provided
said that this government is of the          to benefit the inefficient American su-
                                             gar producers), to isolate Cuba through
                                                                                                      WILLIAM F. WARDE
workers, peasants and students; what
remains to be done is to certify this        American economic and political in-
reality, i.e., to make the mass revolu-      fluence in other Latin American na-
tionary organizations the legal form of      tions.     Washington      has encouraged                  Summer Issue
state power.                                 Cuban criminals by making the U.S.

42                                                                                                 INTERNATIONAL        SOCIALIST   REVIEW
                   De Gaulle - a LesserEvil?
                   You    felt   like “a bleating         lamb ready         for   the     slaughterhouse,”
                   said    one    French      intellectual.     It was easy to back the general;
                   but how answer: What             “if the fascist     forces had been unleashed?”

                                                         by Shane Mage

o      N MAY 13, 1958, a combination of
        Army    officers and right-wing
European residents seized control of
                                              and discrediting the De Gaulle regime
                                              in international politics. And it is
                                              equally clear that there is no military
                                                                                            ism — from the sugar beet growers and
                                                                                           moonshiners to the Algerian colons —
                                                                                           who were very adept at rolling all the
Algeria. The insurrection of May 13 led       solution to be hoped for: the war can        necessary logs to protect every special
directly to the overthrow of the Fourth       be ended only through negotiations with       interest, no matter how backward or
French Republic. Charles de Gaulle took       those in control of the armed struggle,       detrimental to the system as a whole.
power as the “savior” of France.              the leaders of the “National Liberation      But De Gaulle, who has long been
   On Jan. 25, 1960 history seemed to be      Front” (FLN)      who have formed the         closely linked to the house of Rothschild,
repeating itself. Newspaper headlines         self-styled “Provisional Government of       has formed an authoritarian and “tech-
 screamed of an “uprising” in Algiers,        the Algerian Republic” (GPRA.)               nocratic’” government in which the in-
with the French Army units stationed            At the start of the Algerian revolution    terests of the big banks and industrial
there acting in complicity with the riot-    the governments of the Fourth Republic        corporations count for m“uch more than
ing, armed civilians. But this time there    refused to negotiate with the Algerian        the interests of small businessmen
was to be no Sixth Republic in the off-      nationalists. At that time a socialist         (whose representative, Antoine Pinay,
ing: the “colons” surrendered sullenly.      tendency, the “Algerian         Nationalist   was forced out of the government at the
What had made the difference — De            Movement” (MNA) was predominant in            end of last year).
Gaulle’s “personality,”    or something      the Algerian nationalist movement. Con-          De Gaulle’s colonial policy too, has
more serious, more fundamental?              cessions to Algerian nationalism, then,       been that of the “modern” sections of
   The context of the present tumultuous     would have opened the door to a social-       French capitalism. Well before his re-
development of French politics is the        ist revolution in which French capitalism     turn to power De Gaulle had openly
effort of the Fifth Republic to liquidate    would not merely have lost control of         advocated a “liberal” colonial policy.
the crushing heritage left to it by its      the Algerian economy but would itself         Today the great imperialist countries:
predecessor. The Fourth Republic col-        have been directly menaced.                   England, France, Belgium, the U.S.A.,
lapsed because of its inability to end the      During the past four years however,        have understood that colonialism is an
Algerian war, and the coup de grace was      the FLN, led by former right-wing Al-         outlived, obsolete, and dangerous polit-
administered to it by a combination of       gerian politicians like Ferhat Abbas and      ical form, giving rise to revolutionary
fascists, gangsters, army officers, and      M’hasid Yazid, has been able to gain          movements. They have fully grasped the
ambitious politicians (many of the con-      complete control of the Algerian resist-      fact that in the long run the western
spirators fitting into several or all of     ance movement. The methods it has used        powers can hold on to their present
these categories.) The De Gaulle regime      to eliminate the MNA have been those          dependencies only in partnership with ,
from its very inception has been faced       of assassination and slander — but they       a native ruling class similarly interested
with the continuation of the Algerian        have succeeded, thanks in large measure       in the preservation of capitalism. This
war and a built in conspiracy within         to all-out financial support from the         partnership, of course, requires the polit-
itself. The “men of May 13,” the repre-      Arab States and political support from        ical form of national independence.
sentatives of the French “colons” who        the Stalinists and their fellow travelers     De Gaulle, since 1958, has laid the basis
rule Algeria, have until now held posi-      who have always considered the MNA            for the independence of France’s entire
tions of power on all levels of the state.   “semi-Trotskyist”     and thus a major        African empire, from Mauritania          to
The Prime Minister himself, Michel           enemy. The victory of the FLN has             Madagascar. De Gaulle’s Algeria policy
Debr6, was implicated in an attempt to       meant safe bourgeois control of Al-           can be understood only as an integral
assassinate the commander-in-chief of        gerian nationalism and thus dispelled         part of his general colonial policy.
the army in Algeria. As long as the          the spectre of socialism.                        But before this policy could be im-
fascist plotters kept their grip on the         De Gaulle, though he used the Al-          plemented De Gaulle had to get Algiers
state apparatus, there could be no end       gerian colons and their fascist friends       under control. The softening-up process
to the Algerian war.                         to come to power, is not in the least         went through several stages. Immediate-
   But the Fifth Republic must end the       bound to them. Under cover of “per-           ly after taking power De Gaulle made
Algerian war, which costs France almost      sonal” rule, the Fifth Republic is the        a triumphal trip through Algeria, as-
two billion dollars a year, blocking the     direct representative of the decisive sec-    sured the “colons” that he had under-
further modernization of the French          tions of French capitalism. The Fourth        stood them (“Je vous ai compris”)
economy and military establishment,          Republic, was ruled by a parliament           echoed the slogan “Algerie Fran~aise”;
tying down the bulk of the French army,      made up of representatives of all the         then staged the completely falsified
killing over 2,000French soldiers a year,    special interests within French capital-       “referendum”     of Sept. 28 in which

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                     43
   nearIy 100Yo of the Algerian Moslems
   supposedly voted “Oui” to the French
     In November 1958, having made these
                                                  commander-in-chief Challe and Special
                                                  Delegate Delouvier told the correspond-
                                                  ent of a German newspaper that Massu
                                                  might have some interesting things to
                                                                                               w        HAT happened on Monday, Jan-
                                                                                                         uary 25, was simply this: the
                                                                                                essential arm of the insurrection, the
   gestures to appease the Europeans of           say, that would be worth publishing.          “territorials,” the Ortiz-Lagaillarde fas-
  Algeria, De Gaulle turned to the FLN            Massu, all unsuspecting, spoke his            cists, had been thrown into action some
  with an offer to negotiate “the peace           “mind,” and soon the “Suddeutsche             two months too soon. The political
  of the brave.” At that stage De Gaulle          Zeitung” appeared quoting Massu as            preparation was not accomplished, the
  was not in sure enough command or              denouncing De Gaulle’s self-determina-         French fascists were unready for action,
  under enough pressure to offer any-             tion policy and predicting that the           the army officers had not established a
                                                 Army would oppose any attempt to im-           plan to unite their action to that of the
  thing more definite, and aIthough un-
                                                 plement it. Before he knew what had            Algiers “ultras.” But there they were,
  dercover negotiations took place (GPRA
  “Premier”    Ferhat Abbas met French           hit him, Massu found himself under             behind the barricades, blood had been
  Foreign Minister Couvre de Murville in         temporary arrest and whisked back to           shed, and De Gaulle had instantly de-
                                                 Paris.                                         nounced      their  “evil   blow    against
  Lausanne, Switzerland) there was no
  end to the war.                                    The “uprising” that followed Massu’s
     In the summer of 1959 the French            removal was no surprise to those mem-             In this situation the organizers of the
  high command initiated the “Challe             bers of De Gaulle’s inner circle who in        plot had only two real choices: to ac-
  Plan” to concentrate the overwhelming          the previous weeks had been cited in           celerate everything and move imme-
  power of the French army in the                the press as commenting on the de-             diately to a coup, or to cut their losses,
  Kabylia mountains, stronghold of the           sirability of “trouble” in Algiers in or-      liquidate the adventure as quickly and
  FLN. Supposedly a new attempt to win           der to let De Gaulle take special powers       cheaply as possible.
  the war, in reality the place was de-           (though he already had almost dicta-             The first alternative, however, was
  signed to persuade the cadre of the            torial powers) and put parliament to           manifestly impossible. The “Army” in
  French army of the impossibility of a          sleep for a year (though it could not          a capitalist state is never an independ-
  military solution.                             have been said to be very awake in the         ent and homogeneous social force, still
     Then on Sept. 16, 1959 De Gaulle            first place). No doubt by pure coin-           Iess is it the plaything of a few ex-
  made his key political move — the fa-          cidence, this was exactly what De Gaulle       tremist officers, no matter how highly
  mous offer of “self-determination”      to     did once the “uprising”        had been        placed. It is the decisive instrument of
  Algeria, followed on Nov. 10 by an ap-         squelched.                                    rule for the capitalist class and can never
  peal to the FLN leaders to come to Paris          An informative journalistic account         be permitted to escape from the hands
  and negotiate the application of the           by M. and S. Bromberger, of the over-         of that class. Of all modern armies, the
  self-determination. The response of the        throw of the Fourth Republic was              French army in thirteen years of unin-
 FLN was an acceptance “in principIe”            entitled “The Thirteen Conspiracies of        terrupted counter-revolutionary war in
  combined with a seeming rebuff — a            May 13.” Behind the events of Jan.             the jungles of Indo-China and the
 negotiating committee was named con-            24-30 this year there were also a large       mountains of Algeria has become an
 sisting exclusively of prisoners in French     number of undercover plots — and this          “ideal” breeding ground for all forms
 jails! In reality this response had no         is perhaps the main reason why the             of fascist ideology. Nevertheless, even
 other objective than to give De Gaulle         true situation remained so mysterious          in May 1958 the Army command was
 more time to get full control of the           for the first days, producing among            willing to side with the insurrection
 French administration in Algiers, for          many observers a panic fear of an all-         only after De Gaulle had covered it
 under no conceivable        circumstances      out fascist coup.                              with his full authority, and it threw its
 could the FLN name a genuine negotiat-                                                        full weight into the balance only when
                                                    ing reality there were and still are,
 ing mission excluding its political leader                                                    it became clear that French capitalism
                                                fascist conspiracies involving high army
 Ferhat Abbas and its military chieftain                                                       was turning to De Gaulle, and then it
                                                and police officers, aiming at the over-
Krim Belkacem.                                                                                was under pressure of a mass movement
                                                throw of the De Gaulle government.
                                                                                               of the European population of Algeria
    In December, two further develop-           And although the Algiers “uprising”
                                                                                              and faced with an inept and discredited
 ments fully set the stage for the d6noue-      was the result, not of an attempted
                                                                                              government in Paris.
 ment in Algeria.     In a speech at St.        coup, but of a governmental provoca-
Louis de Senegal De Gaulle consecrated          tion, it also became closely entangled            In January 1960, however, the situa-
the independence of the Federation of          with these conspiracies. It has since be-      tion had basically changed. Lagaillarde
                                               come clear that a serious attempt to           and Ortiz did not speak for the mass
Mali, the former “French West Africa.”
                                               overthrow De Gaulle was (and perhaps           of Europeans in Algiers. Their demon-
Only fifteen months had passed since
                                               still is?) being planned for a precise         strations rallied only 15-20,000 activists.
Mali had gone from colonial status to
                                               date: the beginning of April when De           The rest remained passive, and partic-
“internal autonomy” — and now it was
                                               Gaulle would be visiting this country          ipated in the general strike at the points
to be independent! How long could
                                               and just before the arrival of Khrushchev      of the guns of the “Territorial Militia.”
anyone expect Algeria to lag behind
                                               on his visit to France. An insurrection        More important, vastly more important,
the far more backward countries of
tropical Africa? At the same time, in          in Algiers, whose main forces would be         the big capitalists in France are solidly
                                               provided by the “Territorial       Militia,”   behind De Gaulle and, above all, behind
Tripoli, the FLN after a three-week
                                               the paratroop divisions, and the openly        his Algeria policy. The inescapable con-
meeting reorganized its top leadership.                                                       clusion for the fascist core of army of-
                                               fascist political organizations (like the
Dropped were the leaders oriented to-                                                         ficers was that an open coup would
                                               “French National Front” of the ex-
ward Cairo or Peking — in full control         brothel keeper Ortiz) was to coincide          mean their isolation within the army
remained the “Paris” and “Washing-             with a wave of anti-Khrushchev demon-          and a speedy disaster.
ton” factions.                                 strations to be organized in metropolitan          But the alternative — submission to
    De Gaulle could now move to the            France by the “Catholic Nationalist            De Gaulle — was also decidedly unat-
inevitable test of strength with Algiers.      civic groups” of Georges Sauge. TO             tractive. By his removal of Massu and
The decisive point was the semi-Fascist        “prevent civil war” the Army would be          his “evil blow” statement De Gaulle
Gen. Massu, military commander in                                                             was clearly moving for the first time
                                               forced to take complete power under
                                                                                              to get thorough control of the Algiers
Algiers, darling of the local “ultras” —       the patronage of a “respected” figure          army. Would not an easy victory
and well known political idiot. It was         like Marshal Juin and set up a “Gov-           strengthen his hand and complete the
not hard to organize Massu’s downfall:         ernment of Public Safety” like that            demoralization of the “activists?” Thus,
De Gaulle’s representatives in Algeria,        originally projected for May 13.               although totally unprepared for a coup,

44                                                                                                   INTERNATIONAL    SOCIALIST   REVIEW
 the officer-conspirators were unwilling     This behavior was all that could be             bv De Gaulle was a mave defeat for
 to submit: they sought a way out            expected from the Communist and SO-             tie French workers: t~at of De Gaulle
 through pressure and passive resistance.    cialist parties which in their own respec-      by a front man for the thugs Ortiz,
 The idea was crude and direct: instead      tive ways had become supporters of             Lagaillarde, etc., would be a complete
 of obeying orders to disperse the “in-      De Gaulle after destroying the chance           disaster. There is an answer to the
 surgents” the paratroop garrison of Al-     to resist his seizure of power. But left-      dilemma of “how to defend a capitalist
 giers fraternized with them while their     wing socialists too shared in the flight.      government that is certain to capitulate
 officers “warned” Paris that the “rebel-    The editorial of Jean-Jacques Servan-          to a military coup” and it is not a com-
 lion” would be ended only if De Gaulle      Schreiber in L’Expres of Jan. 28 is a          plicated one: the independent se2f-mo-
 abandoned his self-determination policy     perfect illustration of this.                  bilizatkm of the working class. The ac-
 and generally capitulated to them.             Servan-Schreiber begins by recalling        tion of the Russian workers in August
    This, of course, was pure bluff in the   De Gaulle’s direct responsibility in per-      1917 against the Kornilov insurrection,
 absence of any intention to stage a         petuating the “built-in conspiracy” he         that of the German workers in 1920
 coup — and De Gaulle was in position        inherited from May 13. He then poses,          against the Kapp Putsch, are only two
 to call it at any moment. Though he         as a first step, the question “should          of the many historical examples.
 waited for five days to do so, (partly,     we support de Gaulle?” and responds,               In his own way Servan-Schreiber is
 no doubt, to consolidate his command        “The answer is as clear, as simple, as         aware of this. At the moment of crisis
 of the “Ioyal” army units, but also to      it was in May 1958 concerning M.               he could only plead to De Gaulle to
 heighten the theatrical effect) when De     Pflimlin. There is the present and there       “choose” to resist, but a week later he
 Gaulle in his speech on Friday, Jan. 29     is the future.” For the future he wishes       looked back— and what he saw filled
 stated his definitive refusal to com-       to maintain a principled opposition to         him with panic: “It was not De Gaulle
 promise and ordered reliable forces         the De Gaulles and Pflimlins and the           who yielded before the blow from ,Al-
 from the “front” to take over from the      capitalist system they represent. But          giers, it was we.
 paratroops in Algiers the “revolt” was      the present? There he has no choice
                                                                                                “I do not speak symbolically of ‘we
 as good as over. After swearing to die      but to support the lesser evil, Pflimlin       the left’ or ‘we the democrats.’ I say
 to the last man (and woman and child,       against De Gaulle, De Gaulle against           very precisely, very concretely: you,
 whose bodies the heroes had asked to        Lagaillarde.
                                                                                            myself . . Were you immediately con-
 be added to their barricades) for “Al-                                                     tacted, mobilized, made active and ef-
 g’erie Franchise, ” the “insurgents” sur-
 rendered meekly and ingloriously.
    In a quick follow up, some of the
                                             B    UT is the answer that simple? Ser-
                                                    van-Schreiber    must immediately
                                                                                            fective by a democratic organization of
                                                                                            your choice (party, union, defense com-
                                                                                            mittee, etc) ? Were you in contact with
                                              come to grips with the complete failure
 most notorious Army fascists, notably        of Pflimlin. On that score he has no illu-    friends, comrades, colleagues in order
 Colonels Godard and Bigeard and Gen-         sions: to stop De Gaulle it would have        to act? . . .
 eral Faure, were removed from their          been necessary to call on the working             “You and I, and everyone else were
 posts. The “Territorial Militia” was or-     class, to form armed workers militias;        pos!ng the questions: What will De
 dered dissolved.                             and the bourgeoisie was prepared to           Gaulle say? What will De Gaulle do?
    Alain de Serigny, publisher of L’Echo     face “anything but that! Reach agree-             “But not the question: What will 1
 d’Alger, and spokesman for the most          ment with De Gaulle, compromise with          myself do tomorrow morning?”
 ultra of ultra-colonialists, was arrested    Massu and Salan, that at least would
 for his part in the conspiracy. French       preserve the social order, avoid any              “If the fascist forces had really been
fascist leader Jacques Soustelle was          great upheaval. Bu! to appeal to the         unIeashed this time how would you
 fired from his cabinet position (Minis-      people meant disorder, adventure, who         have defended yourselves, how would
ter of the Sahara and Atomic Energy).         knows? The Popular         Front.”  Note,     you have grouped yourselves, how
Overall responsibility for Algeria was        in passing, how even the most “leftist”      would you have armed yourselves? And
given to the new Minister of Armed                                                         if you cannot answer these questions
                                              of French socialists, whether in the PSA
Forces Pierre Messmer, who as High           or the UGS, refer to the Poptdar F~ont         . . . you were a bleating lamb ready for
Commissioner in West Africa, had just         as to the ultimate in revolutionary ac-       the slaughterhouse.”
proved his qualifications for the Algeria    tion. Even though Servan-Schreiber and            The passivity of the French workers,
job by his preparation of the independ-      Bourdet (unlike the Stalinists) are at        in large part caused by their stunning
ence of Mali.                                times capable of an abstractly correct        defeat of May 1958, is however, not to
    In sum, the diametric difference in      analysis of the failure of two “Popular       be counteracted by support to De Gaulle,
the results of May 13 and Jan. 25 was        Fronts” in the last twenty-five years,        even only in the “present.” Panic, even
not at all the consequence of a fortui-      in practice the Popular Front remains         if it makes some things stand out more
tous factor, the personality of De Gaulle,   their political horizon.                      clearly, is a bad guide to policy. De
however large a part the De Gaulle              Servan-Schreiber’s    argument lands       Gaulle is now moving to end the Al-
myth may have played. The essential          him in a hopeless contradiction: if in-       gerian war, to remove the threat of a
difference is that the weak Fourth Re-       deed the capitalist government is bound       fascist coup: but he is doing this solely
public     was   incapable    of  carrying   to capitulate since it cannot mobilize        on a capitalist basis.
through an effective policy in Algeria       the working class against its own army,           Peace in Algeria on the basis of a
while holding the workers in check —         what can be achieved by giving political      deal between De Gaulle and Ferhat
and that in the person of De Gaulle          support to it, except to lull the workers     Abbas, whether or not Algeria becomes
there was an alternative available. The      and thus aid in the victory of the            nominally independent, would symbolize
Fifth Republic is perfectt~ capable of       “greater evil?” And if the government         the failure of the AIgerian revolution,
finding a capitalist solution to the Al-     can master the rebellion without call-        and could not satisfy the Algerian
gerian war, has more than proven its         ing on the workers, because it retains        masses since the land and resources of
ability to control the working class, and    the confidence of the decisive sectors        their country would remain in French
there is no apparent alternative.            of the capitalist class, then again what      hands.
    Failure to understand this basic point   is gained by supporting it in the                 In France, the De Gaulle regime is
contributed powerfully to the ideological    “present” except to disorient the work-       likely to become even more authori-
bankruptcy and political confusion dis-      ers and undermine your own “prin-             tarian, to move still further to the right.
played (during the January crisis) by        cipled” opposition for the “future?”          Revolutionary socialists cannot give an
virtually +all sections of the French           But this does not in the least imply       iota of political support to De Gaulle or
radical movement which, panic stricken       indifference about various possible gov-      to the leaders of the FLN. The path to
by the “Fascist menace,” fled des-           ernments on the pretext that all are          socialism in France lies in resolute oppo-
perately to De Gaulle as the only savior.    capitalist. The replacement of Pflimlin       sition to the “strong state” of De Gaulle.

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                      45
               A                                      B             f                                                                     f
                              Will   the      West     “lose”      Africa    the    way     it   “lost”
                              China?         Expert   capitalist      observers       are    haunted
                              by this question.         They    have good reason to worry

                                                        by Frances James

T   HE “revolution of rising expecta-
       tions” in sub-Sahara Africa has
                                                  Economic expansion in the Union of
                                               South Africa set the impressive record
                                                                                            cially among the younger generation, of
                                                                                             educational and cultural advancement,
 startled the world with its speed and         of nearly tripling its industrial produc-    has resulted in an enormous population
 scope. Within the last four years seven       tion and more than doubling total na-         shift. The size of the major towns in
African countries have acquired formal        tional output of goods and services in        Northern Rhodesia, for example, was
independence status. The enormous en-         the first post-war decade. In the Belgian      doubled from 1948 to 1950. John Gun-
ergy released by Negro Africa’s fight          Congo there were only 4,200 industrial       ther in 1957 estimated that forty mil-
for independence has rocketed the “dark        enterprises in 1947. Ten years later          lion rural inhabitants were moving
continent” into the brilliant orbit of the    there were 21,000. Kenya petroleum             away from “tribalism” toward urbani-
mid-twentieth century’s anti-imperialist      consumption between 1950 and 1957 rose        zation.
movement.                                     by 500 per cent and consumption of                This growing proletarian force, living
   Arab North Africa has long been             electric power rose by 1,600 per cent.       in terrible poverty, suffering discrimina-
seething with wars for national inde-         Hydroelectrical    projects of enormous       tion and filled with hatred for the
pendence; the Middle East is a whirl-         capacity are planned or are already un-       white-supremacist rulers, possesses some
pool of anti-colonialist revolution; all      der construction in almost every part         unique qualities. Foremost among these
of Asia, and indeed the entire world,         of the continent.                             is its migratory character.
has been struck with admiration and               The construction of dams, of course,          Migrant labor is established by forcing
awe by the giant socialist revolution of      is desi~med primarily to increase pro-        the African into “native reserves,” then
600 million people in New China; now          duction of raw materials for export:          demanding he carry a pass in order to
Cuba has taken the road of revolution         rubber, cocoa, cotton, peanuts, etc. But      leave the reserve, work in mines, on
against the U.S. capitalist colossus and      it also affects subsistence farming on        white settlers’ farms or in industrial
kindled new hope and self-confidence          lands “reserved” for the African peo-         centers. This is true even of the largest
among the oppressed colonial people           ples. Africa Digest (London)        reports   urban centers and in the technically
throughout Latin America.                     that in Kenya (where production of            more advanced areas in Kenya, the Un-
   No wonder gloom and foreboding             cash crops on “reserved”        lands was     ion of South Africa, the mining areas
characterize the mood of Western capi-        prohibited until only recently) “there        of the Central African Federation and
talis~, spokesmen as they observe the         has been something like an agrarian           the Belgian Congo.
turbulent African scene. “Can it be           revolution.” In one province scattered            In Leopoldville only about twenty-one
that Africa is going the way of China?”       holdings have been consolidated “as a         per cent of the working population has
they ask. The question is highly perti-       model for others . . .“                       broken with rural and tribal ties and
nent.                                             Modernization of agricultural methods     is considered permanently city dwelling.
   What has brought about this change         in Southern Rhodesia’s African farms          In the copper belt of Northern Rhodesia
in sub-Sahara Africa? And what chance         has resulted in production of eight to        only sixty-five per cent of the workers
do the African people have to realize         fifteen bags of grain per acre where          have their families living with them.
their hopes and expectations?                 previously only two to three were pro-            This semi-slave status of the African
   The political awakening of Negro           duced. The production per acre on the         worker was designed to prevent organ-
Africa, first of all, is conditioned by       European farms averages only four to          ized resistance to the intense exploita-
the economic boom of the last two dec-        six bags.                                     tion practiced by the white rulers. And
ades. This boom has transformed the               Modernization filters down into the       for a time it had its effect. But today
economic and social structure of a large      most remote villages. Progressive chiefs      the situation is altering. Workers with
part of the continent at an almost un-        begin to seek ways and means of putting       experience in union and political strug-
believable    rate. The extent of the         running water and electric lights in vil-     gles periodically return to their villages
change is indicated by the fact that in       lage housing units. The economic boom         bringing with them the new ideas of
the post-War II years exports from            brings with it the African’s desire and       militant freedom struggle.
these countries have increased on the         his constantly more forceful demand for           Despite the difficulty of organizing
average of four to five times their pre-      a greater share in the continent’s            migrant labor and despite the added dif-
war level. The investment of foreign          wealth.                                       ficulty of a segregationist policy of the
capital in the last ten-year period               By far the most important product         official union movement, African unions
reached almost six billion dollars. This      of Africa’s boom, however, is the growth      have grown to an estimated one-half
is approximately equivalent to the total      of the working class — a social force         million members.
foreign     capital investment   in sub-      that could unite the people and resolutely        Moreover, the very nature of the
Sahara Africa in a period of seventy          lead the revolution to its logical goal—      workers’ problems — government-en-
years — from the discovery of the Kim-        the establishment of a Pan-African            forced color bars, legal limitations on
berly diamond mine in 1871 up to the          Socialist United States.                      job upgrading, etc. — have compelled
second world war. (London Economist,              The demand for labor in the cities        the unions to face political questions
Dm. 13, 1958.    )                            combined with the expectation, espe-          from the outset. This is why leaders

46                                                                                                 INTERNATIONAL    SOCIALIST   REVIEW
of the trade unions, like Tom Mboya,           know full well that concessions often       tion rises to the heat of open conflict,
head of the Kenya Trade Union Federa-          sow the seeds of bolder demands. Even       capital tends to move out. This hap-
tion, become leaders of the Pan-African        the most elementary bourgeois demo-         pened in the Central African Federation
independence movement.                         cratic rights would mean the complete        when the “emergency”       was declared
                                               isolation and ultimate ruin of the          and in the Belgian Congo concurrent
                                               colons. They fear the mass of the Afri-     with the strike wave and “riots” of

A     FRICA’S industrial development was
       accelerated enormously by the war
                                               can people and can conceive of protect-
                                               ing their privileges only through ter-
                                               ror. The political and military strength
                                                                                           January 1958.
                                                                                              Still another problem for imperialism
                                                                                           is the growing influence of the Soviet
 economy of the West. The economic
 and social impact of this process, com-       of the colons in sub-Sahara Africa lies     Union and China in Africa. The polit-
 bined with the influence of the colonial      in the Union of South Africa where          ically conscious forces in the independ-
 revolution at large, aroused hope and         “apartheid” (complete segregation) pol-     ence movement are wary of the Kremlin
 expectation among Africans that they          icy is projected as the white man’s         and this is not due entirely to their
too could build a new life and reap            answer to African expectations.             pro-American illusions. Many of them
 some of the benefits of industrializa-           Increased colon power as an answer       recall with bitterness the exhortations
 tion. These hopes, however, cannot be         to the Freedom movement is pushing          of Moscow to support the imperialist
 realized without uprooting the whole         upward from the Union of South Africa        democracies in World War II. They are
 system of colonialism and returning           through East Africa and the Central         still waiting for a little of this democ-
 Africa to the Africans. Thus the fight       Federation of the Rhodesias and Nyasa-       racy for Africa.
 for genuine independence. Thus the            land. The colon power is attempting            What the African leaders see imme-
 revolution of rising expectations. And        to destroy the African movement of          diately, however, is the contrast be-
 thus Western capital has acted as the         Nyasaland through arrest of its leaders     tween the role of the USSR in support-
 unwitting agent of its own downfall in         (Dr. Banda and 500 others are now in       ing UN recommendations on the racial
 Africa.                                       prison). Britain sent troops to back up     situation in South Africa       and West
     The British, in their east and west       the colons in the “emergency” of last       Africa and the U.S. abstaining from
 African colonies, have long followed a        year.                                       voting until recently. Moreover, the
 policy of concessions to the rising in-          The United States, with its “dollar      Soviet Union has loaned money to the
 dependence movement to which the              diplomacy, “ i.e., economic control com-    independent African states totaling ap-
 name has been attached: “Gradual Self         bined with the granting of formal           proximately the same as the U.S. loans
 Rule.” This policy permits, when the          political independence, presents itself     at about half the interest rate.
 demand is strong enough, formal inde-         more than any other single or com-             The unfavorable situation confronting
 pendence without loss of capital to           bined power, as the “new” liberal im-       the U.S.-dominated cold-war bloc has
British interests. British diplomats have     perialism. Last year a special sub-divi-     compelled it to “moderate” its tactics.
 explained that the secret of success of       sion of the U.S. State Department was       Premature attempts at solving problems
 this policy is to “give before the giving     set up to handle African Affairs with       by purely military means and naked
 is demanded.” Today, there is not a          Assistant Secretary of State Joseph C.       terror have been curbed. This tactical
single British colony that is not already     Satterthwaite in charge. Official policy     shift is of course closely linked to the
 “demanding.”                                 toward the Independence movement             objective of gaining a new foothold for
                                              was stated by him as follows:                imperialism by the use of two familiar
    The French held to the “French Un-            “Insofar as these objectives are pro-    devices:
ion” policy with all power concentrated                                                       (a) Split and atomize the movement
                                              gressive, just, and constructive, insofar
in the Paris government. Last year the                                                     and paralyze its capacity to act against
                                              as the methods employed to achieve the
pressure of the colonial revolution                                                        the common foe. (b) Gain control over
                                              objectives are nonviolent and equitable,
forced a change in policy to the concept      our attitude — in accordance with our        sections of the leadership by means of
of     autonomous republics       within  a   nationaI history, character, tradition —     economic pressure, bribery,        threats,
“French Community.” Threat of with-                                                        concessions, blackmail and playing off
                                              should obviously be one of sympathy
drawal of all economic aid, arms, police      and support.” (State Department press        one segment against another.
protection, technicians, etc., if a country   release, Oct. 8, 1958.  )
voted “non” to remaining within the
                                                  Even such guarded words as these
Community kept all territories except         have brought a protest from European         THESE      imperialist ca~cu~ations have
Guinea within French control. Already,        powers and accusations that the U.S. is        ~ the following basis in reality: The
less than a year later, in the French
                                              encouraging the nationalist movement.        African people are divided and frag-
colony of Dahomey, African political
                                                  Underlying the “free world” problems     mented along religious, tribal, cultural
leader M. Apithy’s party passed a mo-
                                              of political control Iie the economic dif-   and linguistic lines. Over 700 Ianguages
tion demanding independence in 1960           ficulties of the boom-recession cycle of     exist on the continent. Divide and rule
and urging a referendum to consult the                                                     has been the age-old policy of the
                                              capitalism. The “slump” of 1957 re-
electorate, and the Mali Government           sulted in a ten per cent average drop        colonial powers. They have allotted
has made an official demand for inde-         in raw material prices on the world          powers in the “reserves” or labor con-
pendence as soon as possible.                 market. The loss to Africa due to the        tracts in the ports and mines to hand-
   In the Belgian Congo the political         drop is estimated to exceed the total        picked tribal leaders or chiefs. They
movement of the Africans in Leopold-          of U.S. and USSR aid to Africa for the       fostered tribal loyalties and made these
ville last January forced an end to the       last five years. Copper production in        loyalties economically significant. Be-
old policy of Belgian “paternalism” and       the Belgian Congo fell by fifty per          hind “tribal” riots reported in the news
moves toward future self-rule were            cent, resulting in mass unemployment         lie many jurisdictional disputes over
conceded. So-called “riots”        and in-    in Leopoldville.                             work opportunities, land tenure and
creased political debate, organization            The consequence of periodic reces-       other ecc.,omic issues. All these conflicts
and conflict throughout the Belgian           sions is by no means the sole economic       are continuously sharpened and en-
Congo have now won a promise of in-           problem facing capitalism in its drive       couraged by the white rulers.
dependence and immediate self-rule.           to “contain” the African revolution.            Another factor that favors the suc-
    Imperialist attempts to control Africa    Capital, in the form of government           cess of the “new” imperialist policy is
through concessions runs immediately          loans and private investment for indus-      the limited bourgeois and reformist pro-
counter to the wishes of the white set-       trial and development projects is seen       gram and outlook of the present lead-
tlers (colons)     and mining interests.      by the “free world” colonial “experts”       ership of the independence movement.
They, being a small minority holding          as the only hope of maintaining political    This weakness is strikingly expressed in
political power over Africa’s millions,       control. Yet in areas where the revolu-      the illusion that a formally “neutral”

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                      47
but in reality pro-American orientation         In the eighteen-seventies when the       formed the Zambesa National Congress
 in the cold war can serve the cause of      European powers staked out their colo-      which was almost immediately sup-
the African freedom movement. Under-        nial domains in Africa, no concern was       pressed only to reappear as the United
standably, the African leaders want the      given to the social and political prob-     Independence party. This party has
aid of Western capital to help in the       lems of the African people. Land tenure,     just fused with a new split-off from
industrialization    and    modernization   language, tribal      structure, religious   the old Congress movement to form
projects. The idea, however, that such      groups, etc., were all ignored by the        the United People’s party which de-
capital can be secured by commitments       European land grabbers and are still         mands “secession of Northern Rhodesia
to line up with the cold-war bloc is, of    ignored by them when labor needs have        from the Federation and self-govern-
course, a deadly trap which the capi-       to be met in mines and on plantations.       ment for Northern Rhodesia now by
talist West has adroitly sprung on many     For example, the Bakango people at           Africans.”
occasions.                                  the mouth of the Congo River were
    While these factors are not to be un-   arbitrarily divided into territories con-
derestimated and constitute a grave         trolled by French, German, Belgian and       THE       issue of international trade-un-
danger to the success of the struggle,      British powers. Thus a narrow, “na-           1 Ion affiliation     (International Con-
there are important reasons why the         tionalist” struggle, such as the struggles    federation of Free Trade Unions, dom-
independence movement resists atomiza-      that established the present national         inated by the cold-war bloc, versus
tion and will not easily lend itself to     boundaries in Western Europe, is not         World Federation of Trade Unions, sup-
piecemeal destruction. There are also       at all congruent with the freedom and         ported by the Soviet bloc, or “neutral-
reasons why the movement is forced by        independence aspirations of the Bakango      ity”) broke into open conflict last May
 the logic of its development to over-       people who live in five separate coun-       when Mboya called a conference in
 come the limitations imposed by its         tries.                                       Lagos, Nigeria, to form the first All-
 bourgeois reformist program and lead-          The growth of a pan-African concept       Africa ICFTU organization. It was at-
 ership.                                     is reinforced by the fact that European      tended by union leaders from twenty-
    As we pointed out, the economic ex-      capital dominates the entire area. The       one countries. K. Nkrumah who sup-
 ploitation of Africa by Western capital     African miner sees little difference be-     ported trade-union neutralism, coun-
 has had consequences far beyond what        tween Belgian capital in the Congo or        tered with the calling of a trade-union
 the capitalist intended. The growth of      British capital in the Rhodesias and         conference in Ghana at the same time.
 industry, the proletarianization     and    the African peasant gets the same vile       This conference      had delegates only
 urbanization of large sections of the       treatment    from    European     farmers    from Guinea, Morocco and the United
 population have served to enhance the       whether on British cotton plantations        Arab Republic.
 interdependence of all areas of the con-    in Uganda or on Portuguese peanut               These programmatic and organiza-
 tinent. Thus the independence move-         farms in Mozambique. They all repre-         tional clashes reflect the strivings of
ment tends from its earliest manifesta-      sent European exploitation of African       the African independence movement to
tions to acquire a continent-wide scope     natural resources and labor power for         achieve clarity in its concept of where
 and perspective.                           the benefit of foreign capitalists.          the struggle is going and how it is go-
    Here we witness not a mere historical                                                ing to get there. The concept of pan-
                                                As modernization and urbanization
repetition of the old “nationalism” that                                                 Africanism, so overwhelmingly dictated
                                            preceded the African National Congress
shaped the modern countries of Europe                                                    by the course of Africa’s historical
                                            movement sprang up around issues of
in the course of their bourgeois revolu-                                                 development, still leaves open the ques-
                                             education, work passes and voting
tions. In the concrete circumstances of                                                  tions: What class in African society can
                                            rights. The leadership of these Congress
the combined historical development of                                                   realize a continent-wide organization of
                                            organizations, in their early stages,
Africa, the tasks of the bourgeois rev-                                                  the economic struggle to industrialize
                                            came primarily from the tribal elders,
                                                                                         and modernize? Can such a struggle
olutions of the eighteenth and nine-        chiefs, the educated elite and others
                                                                                         be led to victory by any group that
teenth centuries must be solved in the      who served the interests of colonial
                                                                                         isn’t ready to break with the capitalist
middle of the twentieth century. In the     powers as a rule.
                                                                                         exploiters internationally and take the
light of the world pressures imposed on         Today, when independence has be-         road of building a planned socialist
Africa, as well as the peculiarities of     come the dominant and immediate issue,       economy in Africa?
the African national problem itself, the    it is the leaders with a pan-African out-        Those who would reject the socialist
solution of these tasks requires an all-    look that are winning aui+e rapidly a        road for Africa on the grounds that
continental scope.                          dominant position in the Congress move-      Western capital is required to make
   The economic and technological prob-     ment, the trade unions and in all ,Afri-     progress, fail to take some weighty
lems the newly formed independent           can political organizations. The Accra       facts into account. Western capital can-
African states must face, illustrate this   Conference of 1958 and the permanent         not be obtained by political subservi-
conclusion. Take the hydroelectric plant    organization of the All African People’s     ence to Western capitalism without ac-
projected for the Volta River in Ghana.     Conference demonstrated that the ini-        cepting exploitation.
It would supply power to Ghana, Togo-       tiative and the leadership in the imme-          On the other hand, if through the
land, Nigeria and the French community      diate future lie in the hands of pan-        promising development of the African
countries of Dahomey and the Voltaic        African leaders such as Dr. K. Nkrumah       working class, a Marxist program and
Republic. The plant on the Congo river      of Ghana, Tom Mboya of Kenya, Tour6          leadership can be forged that will take
will supply parts of the Belgian Congo,     of Guinea, Dr. Banda of Nyasaland, etc.      the road of socialist revolution — that
Angola and the French equatorial coun-         What is most important, however, is       would indeed contribute immensely to
tries. The problems of one-crop econ-       not the momentary composition of the         solving the problem of Western aid.
omies — coffee in Kenya, cotton in          leadership but the debates over pro-         The African       revolution,   taking the
Uganda, cocoa in Ghana — cannot be          gram that are seething in the whole          Chinese path of expelling imperialism
solved by diversifying crops and de-        politically active mass of the popula-       and overthrowing the exploiters, would
veloping internal markets within the        tion.                                        strike a mighty blow at world capi-
narrow limits of each separate country.        Last year the African Congress move-      talism. It would speed the day when the
Economic cooperation in broad areas is      ment in Northern Rhodesia split over         British, French, Belgian and American
a technological necessity. Already tech-    the question of militant mass action         workers would establish their own
nical assistance programs exist in sev-     versus the passive-resistance methods        power and thereby form an economic
eral areas. Ghana-Guinea being a sig-       of the old National Congress. Those          and political alliance with Africa and
nificant case among the newly inde-         supporting the use of violence when          with all the oppressed to build a world
pendent states.                             necessary in the struggle for freedom        socialist society.

48                                                                                             INTERNATIONAL    SOCIALIST   REVIEW
            Case History of an Experiment
                                     Why       did “American        Socialist”     fold up? It
                                     could be cha rg’ed to a failure             of nerve. But
                                     closer study yields some instructive              lessons

                                                          by Murry Weiss

A     FTER six years of publication, the
       American Socialist, a monthly mag-
 azine which made considerable impres-
                                               movement must make “fresh investiga-
                                               tions” into many questions including “a
                                               number of classic socialist assumptions
                                                                                           and all efforts to test contending pro-
                                                                                           grams in the laboratory of experience.
                                                                                              Is this criticism too harsh? In de-
 sion in radical and student circles when       [not identified]. But we never believed    fense of Cochran, Braverman and Gel-
 it first appeared, announced December         — we do not believe now — that the          ler it can be argued that in their final
 1959, “This is our last issue.” In a          Kremlin or the State Department were        statement they profess optimism about.
 statement to their readers the editors        the best mentors, overtly or covertly,      the prospects of the sixties. “From a
 admitted that the decision to close up        wholly    or partially,   for these re-     number of signs,” they say, “it would
shop “stems from more than just fi-            searches.” Interpreting this Aesopian       appear that the tensions which have
nancial difficulties. ”                        language, we take this as advice to stay    built up in our society will lead to a
    What then were their political rea-        away from both the Communist party          new burst of political creativity in the
sons? The editors of the American SO-          and the Socialist Party-Social Demo-        coming decade.” We agree with that
 cialist felt that the promise of a favor-     cratic Federation.                          forecast. But for Marxists the next
 able regroupment among radical forces            What of the Socialist Workers party      question is how should we prepare for
in the U.S. had not been realized. In          and the Trotskyist movement generally?      the new upsurge? How can we help
the absence of a radical upsurge, they         You would never guess from reading the      transmit to the young socialists of the
explained, they never thought that a           American Socialist that editors Bert        sixties the precious lessons of more
regroupment would result in a new              Cochran, Harry Braverman and J. Gel-        than a century of Marxism? Don’t such
socialist party. But they did hope “that       Ier had spent the greater part of their     tasks call for organized Marxist activity,
it might be possible to start a modest         adult life in the Trotskyist movement,      even if it is reduced to the bare essential’
educational society outlining a body of        breaking from it only in 1954. Do they      of running a mimeograph?
ideas and approaches for a New Left if         finally draw some kind of balance sheet        The editorial trio apparently thought
enough of the old radicals took the cure,      on this experience in the final issue of
                                                                                           of this — and excluded it: “Of course,
rid themselves of their past misconcep-        the magazine they founded? No. They         the Left is by now too shrunken to
tions, derelictions, and bad habits, and       conclude their experiment as they began
                                                                                           permit an~ continuing between the
grew up to understand the requirements         it — without an explanation, without a      movements of the thirties and any mani-
of the epoch.” This was an illusion, they      programmatic accounting. Like fleeting,     festations in the sixties.” (Our em-
conclude, “In retrospect, we can see           ghostlike birds of passage one could        phasis.) What does this mean? If there-
that the regroupment discussion of sev-        say of them: “From nothing, through         is no possibility of any continuity be-
eral years ago had no chance. The de-          nothing, to nothing.”
                                                                                           tween the radical movement of the
cay had gone too far, and the atmos-              Cochran, Braverman and Geller thus       thirties and the coming movement of
phere in the country was too forbidding        end their magazine experiment with
                                                                                           the sixties, then the next generation,
to encourage a new beginning.”                 ideological bankruptcy. Although they
                                                                                           which will undoubtedly be called upon
    So what should be done now? The            gratuitously include the whole socialist
                                               movement in this, they are really only      to solve fateful problems, will be left.
prospects appear dispiriting. “There are
a number of possibilities open to us to        speaking for themselves. To indict the      hanging by itself; it will be excluded
overcome our difficulties, but these add       movement as a whole, it is necessary        from the benefits of learning from the
up to converting ourselves into still          to do more than assert; it is necessary     experience of the generation of the
another messianic sectlet. We have re-         to discuss points of disagreement, to       thirties, in both their positive and nega-
jected such a course in the past and we        attempt to prove one’s contentions. In      tive aspects.
do so now.” Has the American Socialist         other words, it is necessary to engage
then nothing further to say? It seems          in ideological struggle.
not. “We have already exceeded the                But this is exactly what the three
life-span     for non-institutional  ‘little   editors have always refused to do, avoid-   THEY      are condemned to start from
magazines’ in this country and the time        ing controversy by assuming a blas6           ~ scratch in considering such mighty
has now clearly come to close up this          manner: It is all too, too wearisome to     questions as the failure of the working
particular venture.”                           squabble about ancient issues that in-      class parties to stop the rise of fascism
   What of other publications or other         terest no one but devotees of sectlets.     in Europe; the failure of the labor
currents in the radical movement?                 With all its appeal for the tired and    movement to prevent World War II;
Should readers of the American Socialist       the demoralized, such posturing signi-      the liquidation of the revolutionary-
turn to any of these? The editors seem         fies the abandonment not simply of          socialist parties into class-collabora-
embarrassed. They say that the socialist       Marxism but of all science, all method      tionist popular fronts in Europe; the

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                       4?
rise of a bureaucratic dictatorial regime     a part, of the story of the decline of       working-class political struggle against
in the Soviet Union; the stifling of all      the American radicalism in the fifties.      the parties of the rich and the middle
independence     and revolutionary     in-    To understand the main features of           class.
tegrity of the Communist parties of the       this group and what made them act as            The American Trotskyist movement
world by the Kremlin; the successive          they did is therefore part of the prep-      from the outset fought for this Leninist
betrayals of reformist Social Democracy;      aration for the future we have been          view. In 1940 a petty-bourgeois opposi-
the decimation of radicalism in America       talking about.                               tion, reflecting the pressure of the on-
due to supporting capitalist parties; the         In essence Cochran and his followers     coming war, sought to persuade the
defeat of the militant and radical wing       broke from the Socialist Workers party       party to give up unconditional defense
of the American trade-union movement          in 1954 over the concept and role of a       of the Soviet Union. The debate then
and the rise of the present labor             Leninist party.                              also turned on the Leninist concept of
bureaucracy . . .                                 The American Trotskyist movement         the party. The anti-Leninist faction
   If the Marxist movement today does         was founded in 1928 as part of the in-       headed by James Burnham and Max
not do everything in its power to trans-      ternational struggle begun by Lenin and      Shachtman felt itself “imprisoned” the
mit such lessons, then it is indeed           Trotsky against the rise of Stalinism.       moment it sought to reduce key prin-
bankrupt. And if one argues that              The bureaucratic caste that arose in the     ciples to mere phrases — good for times
there’s nothing wrong with Marxism            Soviet     Union                             of peace but not so good in war.
                                                                   displaced  democratic
but no humans in this country exist           workers rule. In other countries the            Cochran and the other editors of the
capable of giving continuity to its body                                                   American Socialist were reared in the
                                              Communist parties were reduced to
of thought, as Cochran does, it comes                                                      Leninist school and played a consider-
                                              servile appendages of the Kremlin. Con-
to the same thing. A theory that resem-                                                    able role in building the Socialist Work-
                                              sequently, they were unable to measure
bles some “truth” of the spirit world,                                                     ers party and defending its basic prin-
                                              up to their tasks in one revolutionary
unconnected with any living tendency,                                                      ciples. They were an integral part of
                                              situation after another.
is hardly a useful guide to action.                                                        the Trotskyist cadre shaped in hard
                                                  The Leninist tendency, led by Leon
                                              Trotsky, carried on the chore of ex-         struggles such as the one against the

w       HY accept such a nihilistic diag-
         nosis? It is not related to social
 reality but to emotional collapse. The
                                              pounding the theories of Marxism and
                                              Leninism against the systematic revi-
                                              sionism of the Stalinists and their un-
                                              ending falsification, slander, frame-ups,
                                                                                           Shachtman-Burnham deserters. Their
                                                                                           break, beginning in 1952, with the pro-
                                                                                           gram, theory and tradition of the SWP
                                                                                           understandably resulted in a severe in-
                                                                                           ternal struggle.
editors express despair at the incapacity     and murder. In every crucial situation
 of the “old radicals” to rid themselves of   in the world the cadre of Leninists,            The Cochran group did not, of course,
their past “misconceptions, derelictions,     called “Trotskyists” by the Soviet bu-       commence with an open declaration
and bad habits,” their inability to grow      reaucrats, fouzht for revolutionary-         against Marxism and against the Lenin-
up “to understand the requirements of         socialist   ~olicies    and painstakingly    ist concept of the party. As Rosa
the epoch.” Wouldn’t a Marxist begin by       analyzed the causes of the defeats re-       Luxemburg observed in 1899 in her
explaining such phenomena in order to         sulting from the Stalinization of the        instructive essay against the reformist
overcome them? Precisely what were            Communist parties.                           revisionism of Eduard Bernstein:
these “misconceptions, derelictions and                                      on first by      “To expect an opposition against
bad habits?” In what way did the old                                                       scientific socialism, at its very beginning,
                                              the Left Opposition, which sou.~ht to
generation fail to understand the “re-        reform the Communist parties. and then       to express itself clearly, fully and to
quirements of the epoch”? And what            the Frvlrth International, which was         the last consequence on the subject of
are these requirements?                       founded after the Third International        its real content; to expect it to deny
   The    American     radical   movement                                                  openly and bluntly the theoretic basis
                                              and the Communist parties adhering to
showed great promise at the beginning         it had lost all elementary revnlutionar~~    of    Social   Democracy       [Marxism] —
of the century; it became a powerful          reflexes. The historical significance of     would amount to underrating the power
force among industrial workers in the         this was the maintenance of +he con-         of scientific socialism. Today he who
thirties; then it suffered rout and de-       tinuity of Marxism throughout the we-        wants to pass as a socialist, and at the
moralization in the fifties. How did the      riod of Stalinist reaction. The new          same time would declare war on
misconceptions and derelictions (not to                                                    Marxian doctrine, the most stupendous
                                              generation that came to radicalism
speak of bad habits) lead to this?            found intact the most advanced scien-        product of the human mind in the cen-
Aren’t the youth entitled to this wis-        tific theory of the class strugqle. With-    tury, must begin with involuntary
dom?                                          out this, Stalinism would have suc-          esteem for Marx. He must begin by
   If the movement of the coming dec-         ceeded not only in blighting the first       acknowledging himself to be his disciple,
ade is to succeed where the movement          workers state with a police regime and       by seeking in Marx’s own teachings the
of the thirties failed, such questions        in wrecking mzmv promising revolu-           points of support for an attack on the
must be answered by the Marxists. This        tionary ormortunities. but in burying        latter, while he represents this attack
will be demanded by young militants           the socialist “memory” of the working        as a further development of Marxian
who will enter the ranks in the years         class for decades to come.                   doctrine. On this account, we must, un-
to come.                                                                                   concerned by its outer forms, pick out
   For the knowledge-hungry          youth                                                 the sheathed kernel of Bernstein’s the-

                                              TF s                             i             I          n                           g I
turning to socialism this work of Marx-                                                    ory.” (Reform or Revolution?)
ism provides indispensable answers to                        most important ~-e:ept of        The revisionists of the Cochran group
their urgent questions. But the youth              Marxism rescued from Stalinist revi-    ran true to form in this respect. For
will not find even a hint to the answers      sionism is the need for an independent       some time they held to ambiguous
in the American Socialist. The editors        party of the working class. Lenin de-        formulas with double meanings which
abandoned their project, bitterly skep-       voted his life to advancing and refin-       could be read different ways by dif-
tical, disillusioned, without anything to     ing this principle, bequeathing a rich       ferent people. In the Socialist Wo~kers
say to the future.                            legacy to subsequent generations. Lenin’s    party a minority is guaranteed full op-
   If this were merely the default of a       key thought was that the party is the        portunity to present its views but the
few individuals, the subject would            concrete manifestation of the program        Cochranites were slow to spell out their
hardly be worth pursuing. But there           and the indispensable agency for giv-        thinking.
is much more involved. Important les-         ing it life. Marxism would be palatable         When they finally made their position
sons can be learned from the evolution        to many dilettantes and dabblers in          more or less clear it went as follows:
of the group that launched the Ameri-         radicalism if it weren’t so insistent upon   Trotskyism was all right in its time but
can Socialist. This evolution is itself       converting its program into an organized     the events of the postwar world have

50                                                                                                INTERNATIONAL     SOCIALIST   REVIEW
upset the old Trotskyist conceptions.         general strike in France in the summer      against the regrouped and reinforced
 The Stalinists were able to lead a           of 1953 indicated the workers’ urge to      labor bureaucracy. The Trotskyist saw
revolution in China, they argued. In          struggle.                                   the CIO as the auspicious beginning of’
Eastern Europe the Kremlin initiated            Yet, through doctrinaire reasoning,       the mass radicalization of the American
a bureaucratically rigged social revolu-      the Cochran group responded to these        workers, requiring more than ever a
tion. With Stalin’s death, Malenkov and      encouraging international developments       revolutionary left wing and continuous.
the other heirs of the dictator turned       in a pessimistic and demoralized way.        struggle against the capitalist-minded
toward democratic reforms. Here in the       Instead of seeing in these world revolu-     labor bureaucracy.
U.S. the Reuther wing of the labor of-       tionary advances, whatever their form,          The Cochran group was familiar with
ficialdom is to the left of the workers      a source of fresh confidence and in-         this. Some of them were organizers
in some respects. Now if revolutions,        spiration, a verification    of the theory   during the rise of the CIO. But they
however distorted, can be led by Stalin-     of Marxism, they became disoriented.         seemed to suffer from amnesia. They
ists and without a Marxist program,          The revolutionary advances took place        looked at world phenomenon compar-
and some labor bureaucrats are quite         without first settling accounts with         able in its main lines to their own
leftist, who are we to say that it can’t     Stalinism.     Therefore,   they   argued,   experience as if it were utterly without
happen that way right here in America?       Trotskyism (or “the old Trotskyism”)         precedent. This reaction to the big world
Then what’s the point of insisting on        had to be “junked” and everything re-        events, which was really a way of caving
the need for a Leninist combat party?        thought from the beginning.         As if    in to isolation and prosperity-reaction
Why make sacrifices for socialist ideals?    Marxist analysis could be reduced to a       resulted in a pen men flight from Marx-
Why go through the ordeal of election        simple logical sequence and its power        ism, a new and awed attitude towards
campaigns with limited forces? Why           judged on how perfectly this sequence        entrenched bureaucracies and a general
put time and energy in party-building        fitted the actual history of the destruc-    throwing overboard of principles, pro-
projects?                                    tion of Stalinism!                           gram and — above all — “tradition.”
   To understand this mood it is help-          Instead of seeing the revolutionary          Unfortunately, this is still not the
ful to recall the social pressures at the    advances as a premise for further            whole story. Marxists are capable of
time. The Korean War was still on. The       progress of the international socialist      withstanding pressures greater than
McCarthyite witch hunt was mounting          movement and therefore as a prelude          these. To suffer such precipitous col-
in fury. The trade-union bureaucracy         to the mmt profound crisis of Stalinism,     lapse one more impulsion was required:
had been transformed into a direct           they took the momentary appearance           authoritative backing from within the
agency of the cold war and was col-          for the whole reality. The Communist         Trotskyist movement itself. This they
laborating with the FBI in hounding          parties in China, Yugoslavia, etc., stood    received from a most unexpected source,
radicals out of the plants and unions.       at the head of the movement, they rea-       a source that should have remained
Less dramatic, perhaps, but profoundly       soned. Therefore,      this brought into     firmly against them, the group in the
important in its effects was the trans-      question the need for Leninist-type          European Trotskyist movement in charge
formation taking place in what had           revolutionary parties in bringing about      of the International Secretariat of the
formerly been the most militant and          a successful revolutionary change.           Fourth International.
advanced section of the American work-          The consequences of such reasoning —         This was an important test of the
ing class.                                   or, better, such emotional reaction —        world Trotskyist movement since the
                                             could not but be devastating to a dis-       assassination of its founder. The chal-
                                             heartened group in the U.S. If Stalinism,    lenge of the Cochran group to the
                                             or labor bureaucracies in general, can       basic ideas of Trotskyism raised a ques-
A      DOZEN years of war and arma-
       ments boom substantially changed
                                             act as the prime agencies of social
                                             change, why bother to build a Leninist
                                                                                          tion of international importance: does
                                                                                          the Trotskyist movement represent the
the economic position and political out-     party in the U.S.? Every effort involv-      continuity of Leninism? Were the cadres
look of the militant industrial workers of   ing party building became intolerably        assembled by Trotsky capable of carry-
the thirties. This was supplemented by       burdensome to them.                          ing on the work after his death? History
the cold-war hysteria. The normal influx        A section of the Cochran group was        has answered these questions in the
of youth into the radical movement was       composed of trade unionists who had          affirmative, we believe, but the answers
reduced to a trickle. These were rough       experienced in their own way some
years for a revolutionary party, rough                                                    were not given without struggles.
                                             wear and tear. Beginning as militants
on the nerves, rough on staying power                                                        In response to the new world develop-
                                             devoted to the socialist cause, these un-
and on the composition of the member-        ionists had become isolated and softened     ments since World War II, the group of
ship. The Cochran faction in the last        with prosperity until they came to feel      Trotskyist    entrusted with the grave
analysis reflected this heavy pressure       that nothing “real” or tangible was left     responsibility of co-ordinating the in-
by falling into a mood of despondency        in the Marxist program. They were            ternational efforts of the Trotskyist
and inclination to give up what seemed       ripe for systematic adaptation to the        movement, began to see “new features”
like a lost cause.                           “reality” in the labor movement; that        in Stalinism, not in the sense of its
   It might appear that the develop-         is, to the powerful bureaucratic ma-         decay but in its possibly playing a pro-
ments of this period elsewhere in the        chines that proscribe organized socialist    gressive role under certain circum-
world should have offset the pressures       activity.
                                                                                          stances. Ordinarily such new opinions
bearing down on American radicals.              In this the Cochran group was hardly
                                             guilty of innovation. During the rise of     in the Fourth International and or-
The Chinese revolution had gained a
sweeping victory against imperialism         the CIO almost every section of the          ganizations like the Socialist Workers
and its native supporters; in Korea its      radical movement was ridden with the         party which sympathize with it are sub-
forces had held back the world’s most        opportunist disease of finding new vir-      mitted to rigorous and fully democratic
powerful imperialist army; in Eastern        tues in the labor bureaucracy or the         discussion. In the process differences are
Europe capitalism had been replaced by       equally fatal sectarian disease of “re-      generally resolved without too much
workers states even if via military-bu-      je~ting” the CIO because it was headed       difficulty. However, the incipient con-
reaucratic action and without the in-        by the bureaucracy. The American             ciliationism towards Stalinism displayed
dependent revolutionary struggle of the      Trotskyist movement, however, retained
                                                                                          by this European Trotskyist group,
masses. In Western Europe powerful           its Marxist balance. It stressed the dual
                                                                                          which was headed by Michel Pablo,
mass Communist and Socialist parties         character of the development — the
and trade unions still existed although      enormous progressive significance of the     greatly encouraged such groups as the
capitalism had succeeded in regaining        appearance of industrial unionism and        Cochranites. On top of this Pablo used
relative stability. Situations like the      the new ground for struggle it gave          his formal authority as secretary to en-

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                    51
courage and inspire the Cochran group        major accomplishment, according to           were saved. Despite the witch hunt,
to more vigorous action along the course     Braverman, in addition to the launching      new recruits joined. By 1956 the party
it had taken.                                of the American Socialist was “the deci-     was able to swing into the presidential
                                             sion not to conduct a polemic with the       election campaign in effective fashion.
                                             the SWP.”                                       In that same year came a test that

u    NDOUBTEDLY          Pablo   regarded
      Cochran with some hopes in 1954
as a possible American protagonist.
                                                This curious accomplishment meant a
                                             refusal to explain to militant workers,
                                             or anyone else, why they left the SWP,
                                             what the issues in dispute were, and on
                                                                                          was to prove decisive in the further
                                                                                          development     of both the American
                                                                                          Socialist group and the Socialist Work-
                                                                                          ers party, if not every tendency in the
Cochran, however, wasn’t interested in       what program they now stood. The rea-        American radical movement. This was
any subtle revisions of the Trotskyist       son Braverman gave for such a suicidal       the regroupment opportunity.
program, once he had launched his fac-       political course was that “the Trotskyist       The faction led by Cochran made
tionon acourse of split. Hewasn’t inter-     movement had wasted away so badly            much of its eagerness to influence the
ested in conciliation with Stalinism. As     that there was absolutely no periphery—      radical movement and its know-how in
subsequent events showed, Cochran was        1 repeat and underline — absoZutelV no       accomplishing this aim in contrast to
moving away from Marxism without any         circle of sympathetic opinion before         the “old” Trotskyists who were much
intention oftaking itstage by stage in the   whom we had to wrestle with them.            too rigid, inflexible and altogether too
manner described by Rosa Luxemburg.          Second, the point of view against which      dead to play any role in this. However,
But while he was forming his faction         we would be pdemicizing is not a na-         when the great shakeup of the Ameri-
he was not averse to using the authority     tural growth representing a trend of         can radical movement came, following
of Pablo for the moment to pick up           opinion in the U.S., but a hothouse          Khrushchev’s famous revelations and
support from Trotskyist workers in the       product of sectarianism, and as such         smashing of the Stalin cult, it was the
U.S. intensely devoted to the concept of     entirely without interest for any part of    SWP that moved into the crisis, mapped
internationalism. In fact, he couldn’t       American labor or radical circles, and       out a flexible policy, began joint dis-
have taken many of them with him in          by that I mean any part . . .“               cussions and common actions and — this
his break from the Socialist Workers            The empirical facts provided some         is now admitted by the SWP’s worst
party without this assistance from           justification for Braverman’s explana-       enemies — emerged from the regroup-
Pablo. Under fire from the SWP major-                                                     ment process as the only gainer in rela-
                                             tion of why the American Socialist group
ity, Cochran needed the cover and di-                                                     tion to either the radical movement or
                                             decided to make an anonymous entry on
rect assistance supplied by Pablo.                                                        new forces.
                                             the stage of radical publications. His
   This is the bitter truth about what       description of the SWP periphery at             The capacity of a Marxist movement
happened. It is a tragic irony that im-      that time is not greatly exaggerated.        to inspire a new generation of radicaI
mediately after the split, the Cochran       Nevertheless, the decision was a fatal       youth is a decisive measure of its fresh-
group was designated by the Pablo            mistake and expressed in its way the         ness, vigor and determination. Begin-
leadership as the “official Trotsky ists”    basic defect of the group which fore-        ning with 1956 it was the SWP alone of
in the United States. This probably gave     doomed it to impotence.                      all the radical groups that attracted a
the Cochran group some amusement.
                                                Any political group which conceals its    dynamic youth movement genuinely in-
They shortly explained to their Euro-
                                             programmatic origins (for whatever rea-      terested in revolutionary socialist poli-
pean allies that they hadn’t the slightest
                                             son, be it “shrewd” tactical duplicity,      tics and participation in the struggles of
intention of playing such a game and in
                                             or the claim that no one is interested)      young people both North and South,
fact weren’t much interested in further
                                             has broken with the most elementary          Negro and white.
                                             requirements of Marxism. Once the
   While we are on the point, we might       discipline of programmatic accounting is
add that Pablo’s role in encouraging this    tossed aside, a group becomes highly
kind of a split-off from the Marxist
movement in the U.S. was reproduced in
                                             vulnerable to impressionism, moods-of-
                                             the-moment, personal caprice and ar-
                                                                                          T   HE American Socialist group, in con-
                                                                                               trast, displayed the obverse side of
both France and England. The startling       bitrary regimes.                             organic opportunism during the regroup-
shift of the Lawrence group in England          Laboratory proof of this is offered by    ment period; namely, sectarian aloofness,
and the Mestre group in France from          the experience of the American Socialist     snobbishness, a you-come-to-us-or-else
Trotskyism to Stalinism demonstrated         group. Having launched themselves as         attitude, and, finally, an Olympian pro-
that when a revisionist tendency is in       a group solidly agreed on acting like        nouncement on the eve of the big
flight from revolutionary socialism, it is   political amnesiacs unable to remem-         shakeup that everyone’s       bankruptcy
unwise to take surface adherence to the      ber where they came from, the “1007’.        barred anything coming of the whole
phrases of Marxism for good coin. And        solid” very soon discovered they had         turmoil.     The Cochran group proved
it is fatal to provide such groups with      disagreements. Did they then engage in       utterly incapable of building a youth
the cover of subtle arguments to facili-     a serious internal discussion allowing       following — and it must be admitted
tate their transition to the camp of anti-   each point of view full rights of ex-        that if good journalism is sufficient they
Marxism, as Pablo did.                       pression, as they were accustomed to in      had every chance to succeed at it. The
   Pablo and his group did not follow        the SWP? Of course not! That would           American Socialist was well written
Cochran. Undoubtedly they were even          have been reverting to the habits of         and well illustrated. It published in-
surprised by its “sudden” evolution to       sectarianism. Instead Cochran simply         formative articles that took a general
anti-Trotskyism. This did not say much       struck the names of the dissident editors,   socialist point of view. But it had no
for the capacity of these leaders to         including George Clarke and Mike             theoretically    grounded program and
forsee and to prepare — and not to per-      Zaslow, off the masthead, and threw a        therefore no plan to organize a serious
sist in repeating the same mistake           large majority of the New York mem-          movement. Thus it could not really
because of prestige considerations.          bership out of the organization. That’s      inspire new converts to socialism to
   Six months following the split of the     living, nonsectarian politics! This split,   work for the goals that inspired past
Cochran group from the SWP, Harry            too, was not reported or explained to        generations of socialists.
Braverman, one of its leaders, summed        anyone.                                         In the same conference, six months
up its “achievements” in a speech pub-          The Socialist Workers party, mean-        following their split, the Cochran group
lished in the June 1954 Educator, a          while, repaired the breach left by the       adopted a resolution, “Our Orientation.”
mimeographed publication. Braverman          desertion. Younger members moved for-         (This was never publicly distributed.)
said: “We carried through the split and      ward into positions of responsibility and    “Our purpose,” the resolution reads, “is
re-formed our ranks in excellent order.      leadership. A few retrenchments had to       to bring our ideas into the mass move-
We remained just about 100% solid,” The      be made but all the party institutions       ment, and to gradually raise the con-

52                                                                                               INTERNATIONAL   SOCIALIST   REVIEW
sciousness of the ranks to the historic       theoretical struggle for Marxism, the                            own Cochran faction, the Lawrence
tasks. But the last thing in the world we     SLL has been selected as a target for                            group, back in 1953. They faced the
should attempt is to inculcate the ranks      witch-hunting. The British capitalist                            same    problem as the American Trotsky-
with the necessity of adopting our            press and the right-wing trade-union                             ist   in coping with destructive factional
specific traditions, and impressing upon      bureaucrats are displaying the keenest                           intervention on the part of Pablo. They,
them the truth of all the evaluations         alarm over the fact that the SLL has                             too,   had to overcome the effects of a
and proposals broached by Trotsky             become an inspiring and attractive force                         split that was unnecessarily deep due
from 1923 on.”                                for radical youth, for trade-union mili-                         to Pablo’s     influence. Their success in
   All this sounds very broad-minded and      tants, for the entire left wing in the                           overcoming the internal dispute in a
realistic. In the atmosphere of the pros-     Labor party. The SLL is in the fore-                             principled way, in strict accordance
perity-crazed, McCarthyized, hysteria-        front of every struggle to unite workers,                        with Leninist tradition, is what prepared
ridden U.S. it gave the impression of         students and intellectuals in the fight                          them to play their magnificent role
having one’s feet planted solidly a good      against British imperialism, for with-                           today. *
distance from immature sectarian non-         drawing British troops from every part                               Historically England “mirrors”      the
sense. On closer examination you get a        of the world, for ending the H-bomb                              future of the United States. Marxists
different impression. After all, what         tests, strengthening the socialist pro-                          have long felt that the American trade
are these “evaluations and proposals          gram of the Labor party and defeating                            unions will eventually follow the British
broached by Trotsky from 1923 on”?            the right wing’s attempt to scuttle the                          example and organize a Labor party.
They happen to be nothing less than           party’s stand in favor of public owner-                          The differences between the U.S. and
the systematic exposition of the Marxist      ship.                                                            Britain assure that such a development
class-struggle policy for every situation          The SLL is taking the lead in the fight                     will most likely occur at a far swifter
of major importance in the international      for full democracy in the unions, the                            tempo and depth in this country than
workers’ movement for more than a             Labor party and in every aspect of                               it did across    the Atlantic. We hope that
quarter of a century. They happen to          British life. The SLL has shown its                              when this time arrives — and it can be
be also the Marxist evaluation of the         fighting mettle in beating back racist                           relatively soon — the Socialist Workers
causes for some major catastrophes such       attempts to whip up a lynch movement                             party will prove itself capable of living
as the working class falling victim to        against Negro workers in London.                                 up to the Marxist traditions as well as
fascism, to pauperizing depressions, and           Where did this magnificent movement                          the British Trotskyists have. To put such
a second world war.                           come from? It is obviously without a                              ventures as the American Socialist un-
    All this is dismissed as simply out-      trace of sectarianism or disdainful aloof-                        der the microscope, as we have tried to
 ward trappings, inner-group        jargon,   ness from the actual movement and life                            do in this post-mortem, is part of the
 family circle memories and old grudges        of the working class. It is popular,                             necessary preparation.
 lingering from ancient factional squab-       energetic and colorful in its public
 bles! But in the regroupment test this        appeal.                                                            * Pablo has not disrdayedprecociousnessin
 absence of theory proved fatal. On the            The real secret of the strength of the                       learning. He has persisted in sniping at the
 other hand the doctrines, methods and                                                                          British Trotskyist despite all their successes,
                                               SLL is in its concern for the theoretical                        as if he were still fighting the battle of 1953-
 theory to which the SWP adhered gave          basis of socialism, its “preoccupation,”                         54 and had hopes of turningup another Coch-
 another indication of how practical they      if you please, with the “old disputes”                           ran. In the witch-huntingattack Onthe socialist
 really are.                                                                                                    Labor League,Pablo has failed,up to thistime
                                               and its rejection of every attempt at                            at least, tu take a Public stand in defense of
    In their despairing “Statement to          lightminded improvisation in the field                           the victims. This was not due to lack of time,
 Readers,”    the editors of American          of principle. This is trl~e of the SLL and                       for he has busied himself with getting in touch
 SociaZist dolefully express the feeling                                                                        with the few intellectualswho buckled under
                                               its   leadership as a whole, both those                          the pressure.lie has even gone so far as to de-
 that what is happening in the radical         who came recently from the Communist                             fend members of the Labor party who took an
 movement across the Atlantic in Britain      party as well as the older Trotskyist                             equivocalstandon the witch-huntattack against
 is much superior to what is happening        cadre.                                                            the SocialistLabor League. It is difficult to see
 in the U.S. “What has been done in                                                                             what advantagehe sees in this for his faction
                                                   The British Trotskyists prepared for                         in the Fourth International. It would seem
 Britain in the past two years,” they say,                                                                      more practical, and certainly a lot more prin-
 “was not and could not be duplicated         the opening of the kind of opportunities                          cipled, for a leading member of the Fourth
 here.” We don’t know specifically what       prevalent in their country today and                              International,whatever faction he belongs to,
                                              that will surely confront us in the U.S.                          to make clear which side of the Picket line
the editors regard as hopeful in Britain.                                                                       he stands on, above all where Trotskyismis
But they are right in concluding that         tomorrow, by struggling against their                             the Principaltarget.
real progress is being made there. This,
however, is a result of following the
very course they turned their backs on.
    In Britain during the past two years
a major group of highly qualified intel-
lectuals and workers in the mass move-
                                                         The Young                                                   Socialtd
ment broke away from the Communist               Please begin my subscriptionwith the specialApril issue which carries
party. The break was programmatic,               nation-wide reports on the sit-in demonstrationsfor integration.
entailing thorough review and study of
the very “Stalin-Trotsky dispute” which          The Young Socialist
Cochran and his collaborators put in the
same category as the Dempsey -Tunney             P.O. Box 471, Cooper Station
fight. Among those in Britain who have           New York 3, N. Y.
broken definitively with Stalinism there
has been impressive ideological ferment.         Enclosed find $1.00 for a one year subscription.
A significant group, having studied the
programmatic issues to the end, turned
toward fusion with the British Trotsky-          Name .....................................................................................................................
ist. This resulted in formation of the
 Socialist Labor League, a group within          Street .............................................................................. Apt. No. ......................
the Labor party and the unions dedi-
cated to advancing the Marxist view.
    As ‘an organizing center of both class-
                                                 City ....................................................zone................     State ............................
struggle action by militant unionists and

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                                                                 53
                    The Fate of Dewey’sTheories
                                Conservatives                blame the noted educator                     for    America’s         lag
                                in space rocketry.                   Are they right?           A socialist      examination         of
                               Dewey’s            theories           in practice           suggests     the     correct      answer

                                                                          by William F. Warde

D     EWEY went wrong, not in what he proposed for the
       school itself, but in his lack of understanding of the
                                                                                             at variance with the realities of the business civilization
                                                                                            outside. Dewey was aware that the school provided only
                                                                                            a fraction of the social influences at work upon the child’s
forces at work in American society and of the real rela-
tions between the educational and the economic systems,                                     development, and usually not the most decisive ones. The
under capitalist rule.                                                                      emotional responses, behavior and standards of city children
    For Dewey, education was to be the principal means for                                  are shaped far more by circumstances in the home and
correcting economic evils and attaining progressive political                               family, the neighborhood and the streets, by the social level
ends. The school system was to serve as the major institu-                                  they occupy, and by the media of commercialized mass
tion for carrying the democratic processes initiated by the                                 culture than by the classroom. James T. Farrell’s Stud-s
founding fathers to their logical conclusion. He fervently                                  Lonigan and Richard Wright’s Black BOV present two ex-
believed in Emerson’s prophecy: “Efficient universal educa-                                 treme cases of this predominance of the external environ-
tion . . . is the mother of national prosperity . . . We shall                              ment over the school. But processes similar to those depicted
one day learn to supersede politics by education.”                                          by these realistic novelists for Chicago’s South Side go on
    The transformed schools would remake American society                                   in some measure among all parts of the juvenile population.
in two ways. First, by bringing forth the most desirable                                       The spotlight has been thrown on the “Blackboard Jun-
attitudes in the student body, experimental education would                                 gles.” But children made miserable, resentful and rebel-
create new generations of inquiring, equalitarian-minded,                                   lious by poverty, malnutrition, discrimination, and lack
scientifically oriented individuals. These in turn would in-                                of recreational facilities, are only the most obvious victims
tervene in the solution of social, economic and political                                   of the capitalist environment. The sharp contrasts between
problems and remodel our culture after the pattern of their                                 the intellectual habits, moral values and code of conduct
school training and experiences.                                                            instilled in the schools and what they experience around
   Progressive teachers would thereby become the leaders of                                 them generate deep uncertainty, confusion and frustration
social advancement. By their guidance of the youth and                                      among growing children in all walks of American life.
their partnership with the parents in Parent-Teachers As-                                      If children are treated as equals at school, they encounter
sociations, they would convert the school into a central                                    many gradations of poverty and wealth outside. If students
powerhouse of democratic doctrine which would enlighten                                     are taught to be mutally helpful, considerate and cooper-
and energize the community and eventually the nation.                                       ative, the first commandment of the acquisitive and com-
   “Education,” Dewey declared in My Pedagogic Creed                                        petitive world around them is “look out for number one.”
 (1897), “is the fundamental method of social progress and                                  Teachers prate about decency and kindness while the TV,
reform.” This key proposition exposes the fundamental flaw                                  movies and comic books glorify crime, brutality and vio-
in his position. He assumed that his aims of democratic                                     lence. Honesty may be the best policy — but what about
education could either be harmonized with those of the cap-                                 the fixed TV quizzes?
italist regime or, wherever these came into conflict, the
democratized schools, their supporters and graduates would
prevail against the forces of reaction. He staked the whole
fate of progressive education and the future of American
life on this assumption.
                                                                                            H    OW can education proceed with serenity and security
                                                                                                  when fears and rumors of war and H-bomb annihila-
                                                                                            tion are ever-present? And the more enjoyable learning is
   In reality, the kind of education he urged went counter
                                                                                            made in progressive schools, the more intolerable is the
to the dominant traits and trends of capitalist development.
                                                                                            monotony and drudgery of factory and office occupations
   The modes of life and learning inside the schools were
                                                                                               “A society of free individuals in which all, through their
                                                                                            own work, contribute to the liberation and enrichment of
    This is the second of two articles.           The firs+ was published        in our
Winter     1960 issue and dealt with the main features               of John Dewey’s
                                                                                            the lives of others, is the only environment in which any
theories    of education.      The author    showed how the Progressive           move-     individual can really grow normally to his full stature. An
ment     in the field     of child education       resulted    from the rise of in-         environment in which some are practically enslaved, de-
dustrial   capitalism.    The entire social structure       and cultural    pattern   of    graded, and limited will always react to create conditions
the colonial      period    was destroyed       and the theory       and practice     of    that prevent the full development even of those who fancy
education     had to be revamped.            The Progressive       movement     was an      they enjoy complete freedom for unhindered growth,” Dewey
attempt     of enlightened        elements    of the middle       class to meet     the     wrote. The virtues of progressive education were counter-
new social problems         with a democratic      educational     system that would
                                                                                            acted and corroded by the evils of the capitalist environ-
have profound        effects    in creating    a rational    and harmonious       social
order. The article       concluded     with the question:     Why haven’t      Dewey’s
+heories    been realized       in practice?     And   why have they        become     a       The liberal thinkers of the Progressive school found
favorite   target    of reaction     today?                                                 themselves in a dilemma whenever they bumped up against

54                                                                                                                        INTERNATIONAL   SOCIALIST   REVIEW
these realities of capitalist life. On the one hand, they op-        ican Education, pp. 127-128. The remnants of his own lib-
posed any indoctrination in the schools. As advocates of             eral conscience prompted Professor Riesman to remark that
“the open mind,” they said that children should not have             “John Dewey, with his orientation towards problem-solving
any preconceptions imposed upon them by their elders but             as the principal basis of thought, and towards the school
should be encouraged to inquire freely and arrive at their           as a factor in the life of the community, would probably
own conclusions.                                                    have regarded my view as an unwarranted concession to
   It was an enigma how neutral and impartial teachers in           reaction.” So it was. But the fact that the suggestion was
neutral and impartial schools were to produce progressive-          put forward in earnest indicates how much the capitalist
minded students. After all, the “free intelligence” they            steamroller has succeeded in flattening out the spirit of in-
hoped to cultivate did not operate in a void or in a society        quiry and the progressive’s will to struggle.
where everyone shared “a common knowledge, a common                    The “cowardice and hypocrisy” which so disturbed Pro-
worth or a common destiny,” as Dewey put it. Progressive            fessor Beale has been saddled upon the teachers by the
education had to make its way in a society torn by anta-            actual overlords of their profession. State control once meant
gonistic class interests. The disciples of Dewey could not          liberating education from religious control; it now means
in fact adhere to their angelic impartiality if they wished         subordinating education to the upper classes who dominate
to further the cause of progressive education. The progres-         the government, determine the school budget and police
sive educationists were in a small minority pitted against a        its personnel. In 1922 the Brook2~n Eagle asked: “Why
majority of teachers with orthodox views not only on edu-           should public money be employed to produce teachers dis-
cation but on most other matters. If they were not to be            posed to break the established order rather than sustain it?”
rendered impotent by conservatism, the Deweyites were               The representatives of the money masters take care to in-
forced to cast aside their assumed neutrality on disputed           sure that the hand that writes the teachers’ paychecks is
issues and lead their students along the path of liberalism.        the hand that rules the schools.
   Even their efforts to obtain reforms within the confines            “Perhaps the most dangerous, because the most general
of capitalism stirred up fierce resistance from the business        and most subtle, control over teachers is that exercised by
interests who insisted that the schools serve aims geared           business,” reported Beale. “Businessmen . . . dominate most
into the operations of capitalist enterprise. Businessmen           boards of school trustees whether private or public . . .
wanted docile and trained personnel for their offices and           Business’s chief interest in the schools is the indoctrina-
factories and voting sheep for their parties. They did not          tion of pupils and teachers with concepts that will silence
need independent, critical-minded individuals but standard-         criticism of business and its methods and insure large pro-
ized units who could function as interchangeable parts in           fits for the future. Reforms, which might limit its profits,
their organizations.                                                must never be discussed in the schools . . . Men are so used
   They could no more tolerate free discussion and un-              to confusing their own desires with fine principles that
hindered consideration of social and political questions in         most men seeking to control the schools in order to protect
the classrooms than they could in the country at large.             their business probably have really convinced themselves
Teachers with unorthodox views were liable to infect the            that this is an act of pure public service,” he ironically
younger generation.                                                 comments.
                                                                       Business, big or little, directly or indirectly, has the
                                                                    economic, political and propaganda power to exercise a

I  N THE 1920’s Upton Sinclair wrote The Goslings and The
     Goose-Step which showed how subservience to Big Busi-
                                                                    veto over the whole realm of American education. For
                                                                    Dewey the schools came first, but education for the masses
                                                                    has no such priority for the plutocracy. During the depres-
ness was bred and enforced in the schools. In the early
 1930’s the more respectable Commission on Social Studies           sion businessmen slashed educational appropriations and
in the Schools subsidized a study of freedom of teaching             crippled the schools to save their own pocketbooks. Now-
 since the first world war by the prominent American his-           adays, during the Big Boom, Congress passes a $40-billion
torian Howard K. Beale.                                             program for building highways because the Defense Depart-
   Here are some of his findings: School administrators were        ment, steel, cement, auto and oil corporations were behind
usually unsympathetic to the inquiry. They “are not in-             it and then turns down any appropriation for schooI con-
terested in freedom.” Many teachers “care nothing about             struction. Federal appropriations for education are at the
freedom or a study of freedom and want only to draw their           bottom of a budget of which two-thirds go for military
salaries with as little effort as possible . . . The multiplicity   purposes. Evidently guided missiles with atomic warheads
of examples of fears of teachers about supplying facts is in        are more important for capitalist survival than students who
itself eloquent testimony of the lack of freedom in the             might have critical minds.
schools.”                                                              Dewey looked to the educational system to lift American
   In conclusion, Beale exclaimed: “Can teachers who are            culture, like a giant crane, to ever greater heights and lead
cringing, obedient ‘hired men,’ cowards, and hypocrites             the American people to a wider democracy, step by step,
create citizens of courage and integrity? As the writer com-        generation by generation. But the level of education cannot
pletes this study, he is appalled by the extent to which            be higher than the surrounding social structures permit.
American teachers are dominated by cowardice and hypoc-             Dewey loaded onto the institution of education more than
risy. There are admirable exceptions. Yet almost univer-            it could be expected to bear. The forward movement im-
sally teachers teach not what they would like, but only so          parted by his ideas proved considerably weaker than the
much of it as they dare.”                                           backward pressures of the monopolist regime which kept
   This was said at the height of the New Deal when teach-          dragging education down to its own level.
ers had much more latitude in expressing liberal and even
radical opinions than they have enjoyed since. Over the
past twenty-five years the area of freedom has appallingly
contracted. Today public school and college teachers, be-
deviled by conformist, loyalty tests, and witch-hunts, are
                                                                    s   O IT was that the progressive crusade registered such
                                                                         meager and disappointing results over the past half
                                                                    century. Today the exhilarating experimental ~lan of the
the most timid, vulnerable and terrorized section of the            early years has evaporated. ,About as much of the progres-
middle-cIass intellectuals.                                         sive proposals as can be accommodatedto the status quo has
   The situation of social studies teachers in the secondary        been incorporated into current public school practice. But
schools had grown so untenably oppressive that in 1954              the movement itself appears afflicted with hardening of the
the noted sociologist David Riesman proposed “that social           arteries, like the rest of contemporary liberalism. Enlight-
studies be abandoned in the public schools, since they could        ened educators are asking in bewilderment: where do we
not, without more protection for the teachers, be taught with       go from here?
any candor or vigor . . .“ — C                   c
                                         and Variety in Amer- w               v                             r
                                                                       The evolution of the tstrictly experimental schoolsahas       s

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                  55
 been exceedingly ironic. These laboratory schools were to      ‘protest’ schools, expressions of the parents’ rebellion against
serve as pilot plants where new methods would be evolved        the regimentation of childhood,” writes Rugg. “They were
and tested and the ideals of progressivism would flourish.      formed in the years of the nation-wide shift from the con-
Instead they have become private precincts of a narrowing       ventional practices and allegiances of the nineteenth cen-
cult, almost exclusively patronized by the offspring of well-   tury to the new ones of the twentieth. The parents were
to-do parents dissatisfied with the public schools. They have   themselves caught in a period of rebellion against the old
not come closer to the community and the workaday world,        ways of living and of hectic attempts to improvise new
as Dewey projected, but grown more isolated and turned          ones. It was natural that this same spirit of revolt and
back upon themselves.                                           improvisation should mark the work of these schools in these
   Professor Harold Rugg of New York University, himself        first years. It was in the spirit of ‘Try anything once and
a leading light among the progressive educationists, de-        see if it works.’ I recall dozens of times when that phrase
tected this retrograde tendency some time ago: “From 1942       was bandied about in the early days of the Lincoln School.
to 1945 I spent forty-odd days in a score of older progres-     It was educational innovation — not thought out, designed
sive schools, choosing principally those that had the ad-       experiment.”
vantage of many years of uninterrupted experiment under                                   ***
fairly continuous administration,” he wrote in Foundations
of American Education, pp. 19-21. “I saw some good teach-
ers in action — occasionally true artist-teachers — who re-        Disappointment with the fruits of progressive experi-
spected their young people as Persons and carried on their      mentation is one of the factors in the present widely dis-
groups as societies of equals. I saw them reflecting the        cussed “crisis of American education.” Conservative spokes-
American psychology of freedom and action — the young           men are exploiting its shortcomings to discredit the entire
people free to move about and talk, and each one expected       venture of progressivism. The attacks of the anti-progres-
to speak of what he sees in his own unique way . . . Their      sives have increased in intensity over the cold-war period.
climate of opinion was marked by a spirit of inquiry rather        They have made Deweyism the scapegoat for all the
than of dogmatism; teachers sent young people to sources        failures of the educational system. Johnny, they cry, isn’t
and put responsibility on them for organizing material and      taught to read, spell or figure. The schools are too full of
for facing issues. Thus the old dissectional atomism of the     “frills and fads.” Deweyism is almost un-American and the
mechanical school had largely disappeared and young peo-        abettor of “a crawling socialism.”
ple were being offered a program in which total jobs, total        It may be true that here and there overindulgent teach-
enterprises, could be confronted and to which each could        ers have placed too little emphasis upon the acquisition of
bring as much of himself as possible. In psychological terms    the elementary tools of culture and that this unbalance
this was no mean achievement . . .                              in the curriculum needs correction. Dewey himself never
   “But . . something seemed to be missing in these schools.    slighted the importance of the formal elements in instruc-
A strange aloofness from society seemed to mark them . .        tion but simply insisted that they serve the more informal
They seemed afraid of forthright realistic dealings with the    activities in a rounded educational development.
actual conditions of their local communities; certainly they
dodged most of the major controversial issues of the day
After fifty years of creative study and innovation our
people had found no effective way to incorporate youth into
the actual design and operation of society; they are still
                                                                T    HE right-wing critics, however, want to do more than
                                                                     correct one-sidednesses. They aim to wipe out the ‘Newf-
                                                                angled notions” and go back to the old-fashioned ways.
regarded as onlookers, as observers, — and unofficial at        They urge a revival of the classical curriculum through
that. This revealed itself clearly in the inability of the      “The Great Books,” the institution of more discipline and
schools — except in two of those I have seen, where an
                                                                uniformity, the reinstatement of the 3 R’s as the core of
excellent program is under way — to engage the young            primary instruction, the inculcation of religion and moral
people in socially useful work which is significant in their    lessons. Their prescriptions would not only sweep away the
personal lives.”                                                advances made under progressive tutelage. They would shift
                         ***                                    the responsibility for the failures of American education
                                                                from the capitalist culprits to the liberal educators who
                                                                did their best to improve the schools.
   At the bottom of Dewey’s naive and almost magical belief        American education cannot “go back where it came from,”
in the omnipotence of education in relation to the rest of      either to the absolete traditional methods or to the Utopian
social life was the implicit and unexamined assumption that     premises of the original progressives. It has to move to
progressive education could find everything necessary to        higher ground, taking off from the ideas and achievements
realize its aims within the existing social system. He shared   of Dewey’s school.
this outlook with the entire Populist-Progressive mass move-       “To educate on the basis of past surroundings is like
ment which tried in vain to smash the stranglehold of the       adapting an organism to an environment which no longer
monopolies upon American life, on the assumption that it        exists. The individual is stultified, if not disintegrated; and
could manage capitalism more fairly than the capitalists.       the course of progress is blocked,” Dewey once wrote. Those
   Dewey’s exaltation of education as the prime solver of       in quest of a fresh approach to the problems of American
social problems was a direct translation into general theory    education should heed these words.
of the aspirations of the rising middle classes who looked         The conditions which confront the present generation are
to the education of the younger generation as the justifica-    vastly different from those at the beginning of the cen-
tion of their own struggles and sacrifices and as the guaran-   tury when Dewey first put forward his ideas. The change-
tor of progress. The immigrants envisaged their sons be-        over from colonial and rural to urban and industrial life
coming lawyers, doctors, dentists, professors or successful     which so preoccupied him has not only been completed; the
business men — and their daughters marrying such prizes —       countryside itself has become modernized and mechanized.
achieving higher social status along with financial security.   The mighty influences of corporate wealth, the rise of
The native-born workers likewise cherished the hope that        organized labor, and the contest between these two giant
education would enable their children to raise themselves       social forces dominate our national life, including that of
out of the working class.                                       the middle classes wedged in between them. The world
   The specific demand for the innovations of progressive       arena is the stage of a prolonged struggle for supremacy
education came, however, mostly from middle class intel-        between a capitalism in retreat and the advancing forces
lectual circles who were not very radical in their political    of socialism.
outlook but were keenly cognizant of the deficiencies of           The old social fabric is rotting and collapsing and a new
traditional schooling. “These (Progressive)      schools were   one is being woven before our eyes. Any theory of educa-

56                                                                                          INTERNATIONAL    SOCIALIST   REVIEW
tion which refused to take these fundamental features of our        the problem from the other end. They tried to reform the
 era as its starting point would be divorced at its root from       educational system before and without effecting a thorough-
sociaI reality and sterilized at its source. Dewey maintained       going reorganization of the social system. Consequently their
that education must be socially and practically useful —            experimentation did not yield the promised results.
and what is more useful than a correct understanding of the           Looking back in 1956 to the hopes expressed by Dewey
economic and class forces operating around us and their             in 1899 that” the schools would remake society, Professor
effects upon the educational process?                              Riesman observed that the opposite had come about. The
   Dewey himself learned from the experiences of the Pro-          schools and colleges had become so pressed into conform-
gressive movement and drew certain conclusions from them.          ity that they could no longer act as a countervailing force
In the thirties he came to recognize that the schools in and        against the predominant trends of their environment.
of themselves could not be the prime instrument of social             Does Dewey’s vision of democratically functioning schools
change. “It is unrealistic, in my opinion,” he then wrote,         in a free and equal society have to be given up, as reac-
“that the schools can be a main agency in producing the            tionaries demand and despairing liberals fear? The guiding
intellectual and moral changes, the changes in attitudes and       principles of his educational policy remain the most viable
disposition of thought and purpose which are necessary for         cultural creation of the defunct Progressive movement.
the creation of a new social order. Any such view ignores          Their admirable objectives cannot be achieved within the
the constant operation of powerful forces outside the school       framework of an increasingly monopolistic, militaristic and
which shape mind and character. It ignores the fact that           despotic capitalism. But they can be realized under a work-
school education is but one educational agency out of many,        ers’ democracy such as the socialist movement aspires to
and at the best is in some respects a minor educational            build.
force.” — Sociul Frontier, May 1937.                                  To link the future of progressive education with the pros-
   He advocated that progressive education associate more           pects of socialist revolution in the United States is almost
closely with the labor movement. He had earlier taken the          as repugnant to our liberals as to the conservatives who
initiative in organizing the teaching body into unions and         combat them. They hope to gather the harvest in the field
was one of the founders of the American Federation of              of education without first ploughing up the social soil.
Teachers. He called upon teachers to “ally themselves with            And yet American history shows how much a successful
their friends against their common foe, the privileged             revolution of the people can do for educational progress.
class, and in the alliance develop the character, skill and        The First American Revolution made possible free uni-
intelligence that are necessary to make a democratic social        versal public education in this country. The Civil War
order a fact.”                                                     cleared the way for the rapid expansion of the public
                                                                   schools and shattered the Southern slave stronghold of il-

 u     NDER the impact of the Great Depression he took the
        further step of proclaiming his belief in socialism. His
 socialism was of the Norman Thomas type: a vague ideal
                                                                   literacy and backwardness, even though integration has still
                                                                    to be won in its public schools over seventy-five years later.
                                                                      Immediately present, however, is the Russian example
                                                                   dramatized by the launching of Sputniks and Luniks. Here
                                                                   is the most spectacular illustration of the tremendous im-
 of justice, equality and democracy which would ensure the
 material welfare of everyone in the community and the             pulsion revolution can give to education in backward
 spiritual self-realization of the individual. It hovered on       countries.
 the borderline of liberalism and socialism.
    He rejected scientific socialism which taught that the in-
 dependent struggle of the working class for power was
 the only way to abolish privilege and parasitism and
 achieve real democracy. This cut straight across his own
 middle-class, “superclass” outlook. Neither in his politics nor
                                                                   A     MERICANS regard themselves as the most advanced
                                                                          nation on earth. This cocksureness has suddenly been
                                                                   put in doubt. The complacent rulers of the country have
his educational theory would Dewey admit that the dif-             been jolted into the realization that they have fallen behind
ferences between capital and labor could be deep and ir-           the Soviet Unicm in military and space technology. Admiral
reconcilable. He tried to prevail upon both capital and labor       Hyman Rickover and others bitterly blame Dewey’s philo-
to subordinate any specific class interests to some more           sophy for the failure of the schools to produce enough
comprehensive national interests, hoping that intelligent,         technical and scientific personnel to keep up with the Soviet
forward-looking      members of all social strata could and        racketeers.
would unite in a common endeavor to democratize America.              But the challenge of Soviet education ought to convey a
   Some of his left-wing followers abandoned the original          quite different message to the American people than it
 injunction of the progressive educators that the teacher and       does to the monopolists and militarists who are primarily
the school should abstain from taking sides on controversial       concerned about preparing for World War 111.It is a force-
issues and openly proclaimed the need for active alignment         ful warning that our schools are far from fulfilling their
with the forces working for a new social order. Among              function of preparing the youth for this age of nuclear
these was Professor George S. Counts of Teachers College           energy, space exploration, automation — and the transition
who wrote a book in 1932 with the challenging title: Dare          from capitalism to socialism.
the School Build a New Social Order?                                  “In America we have buiIt many wonderful school build-
   More recently a tendency called Reconstructionism, headed       ings, and we have put more of our teenagers in the custodial
by Theodore Brameld of New York University, has come               care of the high school than has any society in history,”
forward. It stresses the duty of educators to prepare stu-         says Edward U. Condon, past president of the American
dents for a voluntarily planned society. However, its theo-        Association for the Advancement of Science. “Nevertheless
reticians disagree on what this new society is to be like and      we have an uneasy feeling that this enormous educational
how it is to be attained.                                          apparatus is not doing as much as we feel it ought to do.
   One thing is certain. The big business masters of America       Too large a proportion of our high school graduates are
know what they want: schools which serve their “free en-           unable to read and write English; almost none have a mas-
terprise” profit system. Their opponents ought to be equally       tery of any foreign language; the overwhelming majority
clear about what kind of replacement is required for a             are quite illiterate about mathematical reasoning and are
suitable education in this modern world.                           ill at ease even with arithmetic; very few have any dis-
   Horace Greeley, the radical editor of the N. Y. Tribune         ciplined grounding in the basic principles of any science.”
before the Civil War, wrote in his Hints Toward Reforms:              But the most alarming educational lag is not in the
“Before Education can become what it should be and must            natural sciences, as Admiral Rickover and Professor Condon
be, we must reform the Social Life whence it proceeds,             state. It is in the social sciences. Marxism and socialism,
whither it tends.” Dewey and his fellow progressives tackled                          (Continued   on page   61)

SPRING   19613                                                                                                                 57

       A S                                  G
       o t                         L                     V
                                                       by Bert Deck

THE LONG VIEW OF HISTORY,by William       ical sphere and thereby a political road     cernible pattern which describes the
  F. Warde. Pioneer Publishers, New       back to support of American capitalism.      manner of that movement; an extended
  York City. 1960. 64 pp. 35 cents.       Warde, alone of the whole group, went        period of slow evolutionary progress ac-
                                          on to absorb fully the Marxist approach      companied by a growth of internal con-
   These lectures were originally given   to social reality and is able to bring to    tradictions; the development of an ir-
by William F. Warde at the West Coast     a new generation the valid achieve-          reconcilable conflict between the forces
Camp in September, 1955. The pub-         ments of a previous period of intel-         striving for a higher level and those
lishers should be commended for re-       lectual upsurge in the United States.        which wish to hold society back; the vic-
printing them in their remarkable Pio-       “Many people,” the author notes, “be-     tory of the progressive forces through
neer Pocket Library series.               came frightened by the immensity of          a revolutionary “leap” shattering the
   At first glance it would seem that     the tasks, or crushed by adversity to        old social structure and the reconstruc-
the author had set himself an impossible  the point of losing their moral and in-      tion of the social organization on a new
task:                                     tellectual backbones, and losing sight       and higher plane.
   “I propose first to trace the main     of the main line of social evolution . . .      There have been three such “leaps”
line of human development from our        This ‘lost generation’ has forgotten, if     in human history since the advent of
remote animal ancestors to the present    they ever learned. the supreme lesson        civilization: from slavery to feudalism;
when mankind has become lord of the of both world history and American                 from feudalism to capitalism; and now,
earth but not yet master of his own       history. This is that the forces making      we are participating in the most signif-
creations, above all of his own social    for the advancement of mankind have          icant leap of all, the transition from
system. After that, I will deal with the  overcome the most formidable obstacles       capitalism to socialism.
central course of evolution in that spe-  and won out in the end.”                        American history shows the same
cific segment of society which occupies      The anti-scientific view presents his-    lawfulness, the same logical relation-
the bulk of North America and rep-        tory as a mish-mash of unrelated ac-         ships between its various stages.
resents the most developed form of cap-   idents. Those holding this view may ac-         We have already experienced two rev-
italist society.”                         cept lawful progression or ascent in         olutionary leaps forward: the War for
   From the first vertebrates to the com- natural history, but deny it for social      Independence and the War Between
ing American labor party is the scope     history. The social, material source of      the States. Each of these cataclysmic
of this essay by William F. Warde, who    this denial of science is quite apparent.    events was the end product of an
is no stranger to readers of the Inter- . It-would be impossible to maintain “that     evolutionary accumulation of irrepres-
national Socialist Review. The boldness   the established capitalist regime in the     sible internal conflicts. Each permitted
of this venture would, in any case, de-   United States embodies the highest at-       a social reorganization which allowed
serve “A” for effort; but happily, the    tainable mode of life and an unsur-          for a more rapid growth of the pro-
results match the daring of purpose.      passable type of social organization” if     ductive forces. Each in turn set the
   Warde was part of that promising       all of history disclosed but one absolute:   stage for a new and higher struggle
group of young intellectuals who, in      the law of continuous change and pro-        which prepared for the subsequent de-
the early thirties, attempted to break    gression to ever higher stages of social     velopment.
through the ideological restrictions of   organization.                                   The “long view”       dictates that an
American pragmatism and achieve the          The idea, that American capitalism        understanding of American society to-
Marxist “long view of history.” The       is the happy final chapter of human          day requires that we analyze its con-
group included such notables as Sidney    history, is but a repetition of the pre-     tradictory aspects and seek in them
Hook, James Burnham, Dwight Mac-          judice prevalent in both feudal and          the main spring for the next leap for-
Donald, Vincent Sheean and others of      slave societies. Without a scientific or     ward. Any other approach means to
that calibre. However the rise of the     “long view” of history it is impossible      turn one’s back on history, on science,
Stalinist dictatorship in the USSR, the   for peoples at a given stage of culture      on reason itself.
approach of World War II, the working     to relate their past with their future;         Marxism has not only the distinction
class defeats and the fascist victories,  thus they accept their present as given      of applying scientific method to the stu-
demoralized and routed almost the en-     and unchanging.                              dy of all human history but it uncov-
tire group. Each of them, in his own         History not only shows that mankind       ered the internal mechanism in mod-
way, “rediscovered” the more primitive    has moved upward from level to level          ern society which is preparing the evolu-
method of pragmatism in the ideolog-      but also indicates that there is a dis-      tion of man on to the higher stage of

58                                                                                            INTERNATIONAL    SOCIALIST   REVIEW
 socialism: the class struggle between          gether with the rate of growth of the           probably the biggest single factor in the
 the working class and its direct op-          working class movement on a world                loss of Communist Party influence in
 posite, the capitalist class.                 scale, the balance of forces has been            the Negro vanguard.
   Warde places our contemporary his-           steadily shifting, despite all oscillations,       The influence of non-capitalist ideas
tory in an international context. “The         more and more toward the side of the             in individuals such as A. Philip Ran-
movement for the advancement of cap-           working class power. Nothing what-               dolph, Paul Robeson and W.E.B. DuBois
italism which dominated world history          soever, including imperialist war, the            are treated as aberrations rather than
from the 16th to the 19th century has          Taft-Hartley     Act, McCarthyism, have          as serious factors in the development of
been succeeded by the anti-capitalist          been able to stop this basic momentum            their thought and expression as lead-
movement of the socialist working class        of the U.S. labor movement.”                     ers.
in the 20th century. This is the central          We can expect that this evolutionary             He gives no serious consideration to
line of world social development in our        process will, as before, culminate in a          the ideological struggles in which the
time.”                                         revolutionary “leap.” And, as before, the        vanguard was involved.        “They   dis-
   After noting the growing strength of        leap will come totally unexpected to             agreed . . . about the wisdom of work-
the American       labor movement    the       most. “The Long View of History” dem-            ing through political parties, about es-
author concludes, “Reviewing this coun-        onstrates that a socialist America is not        tablishing an independent Negro aboli-
try’s history from 1876 to 1955, to-           so distant as it might appear.                   tionist press, and even about the pace
                                                                                                of the campaign . . . Indeed the pro-
                                                                                                pensity for divisions in its leadership,
                                                                                                combined with apparently irreconcilable
                                                                                                wranglings over ideologies, had already
                                                                                                exhibited itself in Negro America be-
 M                a        S                   o H                                              fore the Civil War.”
                                                                                                                            o h
                                                                                                   No mention is made of the wealth of
                                                                                                evidence which exists in the written
                                                                                                record of the challenge by the Negro
                                                                                                vanguard to the author’s basic thesis:
                                                                         by Jean Blake
                                                                                                the essential health of the American
                                                                                                democratic tradition.
                                                                                                   His dismissal of the ideological dif-
                   by                           whites and prominent Negroes upon               ferences in the vanguard as “wrangling”
   dolph. Rinehart & Company, Inc.,             their development; local and regional           and a “propensity for divisions” is quite
   New York. 1959. 388 pp. $6.95.               advantages and, so far as the data per-         significant: Either Bardolph discounts
                                                mit, some tentative conclusions about           the capacity of Negro leaders to think
     Richard Bardolph, a professor at the       the development of the selective mech-         independently, since ideological differ-
  Women’s College of the University of          anisms and social climate that favored         ences are certainly       present among
  North Carolina at Greensboro, recipient       their rise.”                                    white leaders also; or, as is more likely,
  of Ford and Guggenheim Foundation                He then examines briefly a few of            the author has a limited capacity for
  fellowships, and author of articles and       the most typical according to his cri-          understanding and dealing with ideo-
 book reviews in many professional his-         teria, and one or two of the exceptions         logical questions generally.
 torical journals, wrote this book be-          “that prove the rule.”                             Nevertheless, the volume of reading,
 cause, as he says:                               The author concludes that in the early       discussion and thought on the question
     “The time has come to lodge the           period such factors as family, accept-          by Bardolph does result in some inter-
 Negro movers and shakers of American           ability to whites, degree of whiteness,        esting contributions to an understand-
 social history more firmly in the record,     economic advantages, etc., tended to            ing of the Negro problem in the United
 and to assemble, while they may still         determine status and emergence as lead-         States.
 be discovered, the scattered and elusive      ers, but changing conditions have made              For example, his examination of the
 facts about their social origins.”            the decisive factor individual ability          origin and role of the Negro Christian
     His criterion for selecting his list of   since opportunities are no longer limited       church notes the reasons that many
 persons included in the Negro vanguard        by race.                                        Negro leaders in the past as well as
 is candidly stated in his Prologue: “I           The “message” of the book, which             today     have   been ministers. Negro
 have been at great pains to minimize          the publishers quote on the jacket, is          church leaders, unlike isolated leaders
 my subjective judgments, for I have           “a testament of hope, a reaffirmation           in the professions, education, art and
tried to assemble a list of those persons       of the writer’s belief in the essential        two-party politics, had. more direct ties
who appear most prominently in the             health of the American democratic tra-          with and opportunities to win support
written historical record.” His theme is       dition.”                                        from a mass base. The Negro church af-
that the central tendency in the evolu-           The author’s selection of evidence to        forded opportunities for development of
tion of the Negro, like the rest of            support this thesis, fails, therefore, to       talents, barred elsewhere by race dis-
American society, has been the “devel-         go beneath the surface of the birth,            crimination.
 opment of an order in which status was        education and occupation and connec-               A noted forerunner of Bardolph in
determined by achievement, not ascribed        tions with whites or other Negro leaders.       the study of the vanguard, George
by birth or caste.”                               He ignores completely the develop-           Plekhanov, wrote in The Role of the
    Bardolph proceeds as follows: He lists     ments in the class struggle and the ac-         Individual in History:
the most celebrated Negroes in U.S. his-       tions of the masses, even the Negro                “A great man is great not because his
tory chronologically for three periods         masses, as the framework within which           personal qualities give individual fea-
— 1770 to 1900, 1900 to 1936 and 1936          leaders emerge. He mentions only in-            tures to great historical events, but be-
 to 1959 — divided into categories: reli-      cidentally a few fragmentary highlights,        cause he possesses qualities which make
gious leaders, educators, artists and en-      like the Montgomery bus boycott, the            him most capable of serving the great
tertainers, business and professionals,        March on Washington movement and                social needs of his time, needs which
etc. He makes some generalizations             some statistics on population compos-           arose as a result of general and par-
 about “their family backgrounds, their        ition changes. And he fails even to men-        ticular causes. Carlyle, in his well-
early economic and community environ-          tion the monumental conflict within the         known book on heroes and hero-wor-
ment, educational influences; the role         Negro movement during World War 11              ship, calls great men beginners. This
of accident, sources of motivation, the        over the policy of subordination of the         is a very apt description. A great man
importance of contacts with sympathetic        Negro struggle to the war effort —              is precisely a beginner because he sees

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                          59
further than others. He solves the sci-       class citizenship, at a time when the       time was in the mushrooming railroad
entific problems brought up by the pre-       resolution of the American Dilemma is       industry. The railroad baro=s spread
ceding process of intellectual develop-       our major domestic preoccupation, and       their greedy tentacles over the whole
ment of society; he points to the new         when all our people need, as never be-      of American economic life. They swin-
social needs created by the preceding         fore, the knowledge and insights that       dled the investor, squeezed the farmer
development of social relationships; he       inform sound judgment and prudent           and trampled on the worker.
takes the initiative in satisfying these      decisions.”                                    The American capitalist class, en-
needs.”                                          But an analysis of Negro leaders that    gaged in the bloody process of primitive
   Bardolph shows some intimation of this     fails to examine their ideas and the        accumulation, were insatiable in their
view in his Prologue where he states:         class-struggle context which gave rise      greed and merciless in their disregard
“Especially   important is the distin-        to these ideas can provide only a limited   of the most elementary human rights.
guished Negro’s place in current discus-      understanding of the role of the Negro      Beginning with the economic crash in
sions of the race’s capacity for first-       vanguard.                                   1873 the railroad tycoons repeatedly
                                                                                          slashed wages and worsened conditions
                                                                                          to maintain a high rate of dividend pay-
                                                                                          ments on generously watered stock. The
                                                                                          rest of the employers followed suit.

C               S                — A                       S                                     t                        m
                                                                                             The author records that: “By late
                                                                                          1873 even skilled craftsmen could be
                                                                                          hired for board alone.” When the rail-
                                                                                          road bosses announced another ten per
                                                                      by Tom Kerry        cent cut for June 1, 1877, it was more
                                                                                          than flesh and blood could stand. A
                                                                                          spontaneous strike movement erupted
1877:    YEAR   OF VIOLENCE, by Robert V.     rich continent to ravage and they set       and soon swept through all the major
     Bruce. Bobbs-Merrill,   New York City.   about systematically    to pillage    and   railroad centers. Police, special deputies,
     384 pp. $5.00.                           plunder its wealth. Some of America’s       company thugs, vigilantes, militia and
                                              greatest family fortunes — Rockefeller,     finally federal troops, were called upon
   According to the publisher’s blurb, the    Morgan, Vanderbilt, etc., etc., — date      to smash the strike. Lacking organiza-
 author spent “over two years of inten-       from that era. The stockjobbers, land-      tion and leadership the strike was
sive research and a year and a half of        grabbers and money changers bought          broken.
writing,” to complete this book. He           up city officials and state legislatures;      From an historical point of view the
 should be commended for the research.        they named Governors, Congressmen           1877 strike movement established a
The facts speak more eloquently than          and Senators; the federal government        number of memorable firsts. It was the
the author whose understanding of the         in Washington was at their beck and         first strike to achieve national scope;
events is shallow and whose interpreta-       call.                                       the first in which federal troops were
tion is colored by a definite class bias.        In 1876 the northern capitalist class,   used as strikebreakers; the first in
   The class prejudice of the author is       ruling through the Republican party,        which the anti-labor injunction was
most marked in the use of a derogatory        betrayed the Negroes in the South and       introduced as a strikebreaking weapon.
terminology. Contrast, for example, the       terminated Reconstruction for a deal        Despite the author’s bias the book con-
sensitivity of labor historian Samuel         with the Democrats which landed Hayes       tains much factual material of interest
Yellen who wrote in his introduction          in the office of U.S. president. The        to the student of American labor strug-
to his book: American Labor Struggles,        greatest concentration of capital at the    gles.
“eXC@     in a few instances, I have used
the word ‘crowd’ rather than ‘mob’ be-
cause of the dubious application of the
latter by newspapers.” With Bruce it’s
the other way around.
   In his summary chapter, Bruce pro-
jects his interpretation       of the 1877    C                C                C                                                 a
events onto the railroad strike of 1894,
and says “With the outbreak of the
Pullmm Strike in 1894, memories of ’77
came rushing back. Many of the old in-                                                               by Constance F. Weissman
gredients were there: railroaders on
strike in twenty-seven states and terri-
tories; a call for a general strike at Chi-
                                              MEMOIRS OF A DUTIFUL DAUGHTER, by              While later gaining fame as a cham-
cago; tramps, hoodlums, depression un-
                                                Simone de Beauvoir.      The World        pion of women (Th; Second Sex) she
employed and teenagers stirring up
                                                Publishing Co., Cleveland and New         never resented being a girl. She en-
trouble; fine July weather bringing out
                                                York. 1959. 382 pp. $5.                   joyed her position as the older daughter
crowds; dozens killed in rioting.”
   It is from this kind of an amalgam            “I was and I would always remain,        in a middle-class family, secure in her
that the author derives the title of his      my own master,” writes Simone de            Roman Catholic faith which protected
                                              Beauvoir about her childhood. Born in       her from fear of death as a child, and
book which comes enclosed in a lurid
                                              Paris in 1908, her childhood was happy      convinced her of her immortality.
dust jacket depicting a raging con-
flagration with figures of the “mob”          and secure. “Sheltered, petted and con-        In the bourgeois environment, in
dancing about in the flames. The year         stantly entertained by the endless nov-     which the family belonged, the con-
1877 was indeed a year of violence — of       elty of life, I was a madly gay little      tradiction between religion and patriot-
frightful, murderous violence, directed       girl.” Yet in her twenties, she was to      ism put national values before Catholic
against the working people by the min-        write in her diaries, from which she        virtues. “At an early age I was indoc-
ions of capital; and of workers goaded        reconstructed her autobiography, “I was     trinated . . . to make a clear distinc-
beyond endurance to militant resistance.      cabin’d, cribb’d, confined! I felt suf-     tion between God and Caesar and to
   With the end of the civil war the          focated, I was eating my heart out, I       render unto each his due; all the same,
Northern capitalists set out to garner the    wanted to hammer my head against            it was most disconcerting to find that
fruits of victory. There was an entire        those prison walls.”                        Caesar always got the better of God.”

60                                                                                               INTERNATIONAL    SOCIALIST   REVIEW
She decided that religion was for purely            ties, or even interest in the people           the Revolution which would feed all
spiritual matters.                                  around her, in the world at large, in          the starving people on the earth. I
   She received a shock at confession               politics, or especially any relationship       retorted no less peremptorily, that the
when the priest to whom she was con-                with men. Having logically fought out          problem was not to make men happy,
fessing her spiritual “sins” interrupted            the battle against religion and her fam-       but to find the reason for their exist-
with a scolding about her behavior in               ily, she still had to learn how to partic-     ence. She looked me up and down: ‘It’s
school. “I gazed with horror upon the               ipate in the world as a free person, not       easy to see you’ve never gone hungry, ’
impostor whom for years I had taken                 one bound by the invisible bonds of            she snapped . . I realized that she had
as the representative of God on earth;              bourgeois-Catholic conditioning.               classified me as a ‘high-minded little
it was as if he had suddenly tucked up                                                             bourgeois,’ and this annoyed me . . . I
                                                       Fortunately for her, her father lost
his cassock and revealed the skirts of                                                             believed that I had freed myself from
                                                    his money, Because she would have no
one of the religious bigots; his priest’s                                                          the bonds of my class . . .“
                                                    dowry and hence could not marry in
robe was only a disguise; it covered an                                                               Americans are surprised to find in
                                                    bourgeois French circles, the only alter-      French literature that many of the
old busybody who fed on gossip.”
                                                    native was to be educated to make a            heroes and heroines are radicals; how-
   Even when she became a university
stuflent she dared not tell her parents             living. Her brilliance finally brought         ever Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter
that she had been an atheist for many               her into the circle around Jean Paul           tells the story of another aspect of
years. Actually her intellectual break              Sarire.                                        French life: the steeping of the young
with the church was of little help in                  The author was later to become a            in conservative property-preserving pre-
mitigating her own confusion and de-                radical. One of the interesting anec-          cepts of behavior.
spair in growing to maturity. Although              dotes in a book filled with illustrations         How one woman freed herself in a
a brilliant stu~ent at the university, so           of honesty in self-evaluation is about         mighty struggle, told in a rapid, com-
imbued was she with Catholic restraints             her meeting with Simone Weil, who told         pressefl, highly readable style with great
ani inhibitions that she was prevented              her, “in no uncertain tones that only          honesty and without self-pity, makes
from any participation in student activi-           one thing mattered in the world today:         an absorbing book.

q    The Fate of Dewey’s Theories
                   (Continued   from   page   57)                          curriculum would aim to give children such a grasp of
                                                                           science, technology and the productive processes that they
which in one form or another are taken as guides by the                    could take their places without difficulty as active citizen-
majority of mankind today, are taboo in our schools. School-               producers of a cooperative community. And there would
children and college students are not given a fair chance                  be plenty of places for them to fill which would develop
to learn the fundamental facts about the profit system and                 the powers and skills they acquired in school.
class society they live in and little objective information                   Experiments in teaching techniques would be systemat-
about the socialist alternative to it. They are as much the                ically encouraged and improvements adopted as speedily as
victims of obscurantism in this vital field of knowledge as                possible. The schools, not the advertisers and private mo-
 the students of feudal times who were forbidden by the                    nopolies, would be the first beneficiaries of new technical
Church and State to inquire into the discoveries and teach-                devices like television. Unharrassed by overwork and anx-
ings of the new physical science.                                          ieties, fathers and mothers would have the time, energy
   The Soviet educational system and its methods need not                  and inclination to participate with their children as partners
be taken as a model for uncritical emulation. It has ac-                   in their educational progress.
complished great things in liquidating illiteracy, spreading                  The ideal of democratic schools serving a democratic
 culture, training professional, technical and scientific work-            society, which inspired Dewey’s philosophy of education —
ers. But it remains regimented, formalized and authoritarian.              schools where scientifically formed and informed intelli-
   Between 1923 and 1933 Dewey’s experimentalism con-                      gence cmomotes freedom. eaualit~ and woswess — would
siderably influenced the Soviet schools through the Com-                   ~hen b~come the guide to ev~ryday practice_.
missar of Education Lunacharsky. These innovations were
uprooted under Stalin. By the late thirties school uniforms,
strict teacher control, formal pupil-teacher relations and
formal classroom procedures, organization and discipline
were reintroduced and persist to this day.

D    ESPITE this retrogression in educational methods, the
      impetuous advances of Soviet education offer an anti-
cipation of the immense opportunities that could be opened
                                                                                    — A Frenchman’s              ~eporf     on the
up for educational progress under a socialist government in                              American
the rich United States.
   The younger generation would be treated as the most
precious of social assets and from infancy to maturity its
needs would receive the highest priority. Freed of the crush-
                                                                           I                       By Daniel Guerin

                                                                                                                            $1.50   (cloth)
ing burdens of the military budget and the restrictions
of profiteering, the government of the working people could                                                                $1.00 (paper)
allot all the resources and human energies required for a
vastly expanded educational program. This would be a                                            PIONEER PUBLISHERS
keystone of its economic and cultural planning.
   The work of the head would be united with the work of                       116 University    Place                New York      3, N. Y.
the hand from the start of the educational process. The

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                                  61
                                             States by an Axis victory? Surely this       line in the Middle East. Describing
                                             was part of the reason why Great             Iraq, where       the CP stood within
                                             Britain’s cause was ‘our’ cause in the       inches of establishing worker’s power,
     periodicals                             war . . . .“
                                                Gardner brilliantly sums up the eco-
                                                                                          Deutscher says, “In the summer, the
                                                                                          Communist offensive         was suddenly
                                             nomic forces which brought an end            called off — on urgent demands from
                                                                                          Moscow, where reports about the rising
                   i                         to the Great Depression but only at the
                                             cost of embroiling the U.S. and the
                                             world into another colossal war:
                                                                                          revolutionary temperature of Iraq had
                                                                                          caused alarm. Khrushchev refused to
                                                “American leaders had to face Ger-        countenance a Communist upheaval in

                   Review                    man and Japanese opposition to their
                                             goals . . There is no attempt to state
                                                                                          Baghdad — he feared that this would
                                                                                          provoke renewed Western intervention
                                                                                          in the Eastern Mediterranean, set the
 —        by Tim Wohlforth —
                                             here that the New Deal wanted or
                                             promoted American entrance into the
                                             Second World War. Instead the evidence
                                                                                          Middle East aflame and wreck his policy
                                                                                          of peaceful coexistence.” Khrushchev ac-
                                                                                          complished this switch in the Iraq CP
                                             shows that Administration leaders tried
                                                                                          line by direct intervention. “A bill of
FROM OUT OF THE ACADEMY                      to convince the Axis powers that ‘lib-
                                                                                          indictment against the Iraqi Communist
   The intellectual    resources of the      eral’ trade programs and the Open Door
                                                                                          leaders was drawn up in Moscow and
radical movement in this country are         were more productive of international
                                             well-being than Axis bi-lateral,ism. But     the Party was ordered not merely to
not very large. Intellectuals that are                                                    make its peace with Kassem but to sur-
active radicals have many pressing de-       the New Deal would not back ‘down in
                                                                                          render unconditionally with only a min-
mands on them and little time for            the face of threats to liberal trade and
                                             the Open Door. Thus the clash became         imum of face saving . . . Since the far-
scholarly pursuit.     There are some                                                     off days in the middle 1920’s when
radical and semi-radical intellectuals       inevitable.”
                                                                                          Stalin ordered the Chinese Communists
who are so situated in the universities         This confirms the revolutionary so-       to serve as the ‘Koumintang’s coolies,’
that they are able to devote themselves      cialist view of World War H as an im-        no Communist Party has ever been ex-
more fully to scholarly pursuit. While       perialist war flowing out of economic        posed t.o quite as abject a humiliation.”
most of their work has limitations,          rivalry. Needless to say the author’s
                                             reservation that the U.S. did not want          The general outline of this develop-
almost all of it has value. The Marxist                                                   ment was sketched by Shane Mage in
movement should utilize what is valu-        war is not important for no country
                                             ever wants war. Each country would           his article, “Will Another Deal at the
able in this work in order to add to                                                      Summit Bring World Peace?” in the
its understanding of the modern world.       prefer for the enemy to peacefully bow
                                                                                          Summer 1959 issue of the Young So-
                                             out and allow it to dominate the world.
   It is with this view in mind that we                                                   cialist. In this article, written prior to
                                             But, since the enemy wishes the same
approach Studies on the Left, a scholarly                                                 the events Deutscher describes, Mage
                                             of it, “the clash became inevitable.”
journal published by radical graduate                                                     said: “For the sake of ‘coexistence’
students largely from the University of                                                   Khrushchev agreed to use the CP of
Wisconsin. (See the February Young                                                        Iraq to contain the Arab revolution
Socialist for a discussion of the strength   7HE KHRUSHCHEV           IKE LIKES           within capitalist limits. ”
and weaknesses of this publication. )                                                        Part of this same pattern, Deutscher
                                                It is difficult to get from the press —   points out, is Khrushchev’s support to
   By far the most important article in
                                             left or right — a realistic picture of the   De Gaulle’s Algerian policy, a view
this new journal is, “From New Deal
                                             Soviet Union and the role of the             which with great difficulty         Thorez
to New Frontiers: 1937-1941” by Lloyd
                                             Khrushchev regime’s policy in world af-      forced upon the French CP. Also sig-
Gardner. The author contends that
                                             fairs. The capitalist press, liberal, con-   nificant was Khrushchev’s refusal to
“when the recession of 1937-1938 struck
                                             servative and reactionary, invariably        support China in its border dispute with
down the superficial progress of the
                                             conjures up the image of a Red Ogre          India even though the latter country
New Deal,” the Roosevelt Administra-
                                             aiming at enslaving the world through        has been acting more and more as a
tion, “forsook viable domestic remedies
                                             a Kremlin-directed       world revolution.   u. s. tool.
and readied itself for the pursuit      .
                                             The social democrats repeat the Red
of world frontiers as its solution to the    Ogre myth of the capitalist press, add-         Perhaps the most thought-provoking
crisis of the 1930’s.” In other words                                                     contribution of Deutscher in this article
                                             ing only a bit of friendly advice to the
when Roosevelt was unable to save the                                                     is his view of China’s reaction to the
                                             U. S. State Department on how to com-
capitalist system through domestic re-                                                    Khrushchev-Eisenhower        love-match.
                                             bat the Ogre more effectively. The Com-
form he turned to world economic                                                          Peking feels, “that in pursuing his sum-
                                             munist party presents us with an idyllic
domination. Among the foremost advo-                                                      mit diplomacy Khrushchev has been
                                             picture of a Soviet policy which at one
cates of a turn to what we socialists                                                     needlessly sacrificing revolution in Asia
                                             and the same time champions socialism
call imperialism was none other than                                                      and had come close to betraying prole-
                                             and wins the warm friendship of the
Henry A. Wallace, according to Gardner.                                                   tarian internationalism,” according to
                                             worst enemies of socialism.
   This search for foreign        markets                                                 Deutscher.     In concluding, Deutscher
                                                Isaac Deutscher in the Jan. 21 issue      strikes an interesting historical note:
brought the New Deal into sharp con-         of Repo~ter, ignores both myths and
flict with the Axis powers who were                                                       “In all these differences there is stuff
                                             considers the actual role of Khrushchev’s    for a grave controversy in which one
attempting to establish economic foot-       line in world politics.
holds in Latin America and to freeze                                                      may see reproduced, in a new context,
out American interests in Europe and            Deutscher’s thesis is that under the      some of the motifs of the Trotsky-
Asia. Gardner quotes the Henry Wal-          slogan, “we are fighting for the preser-     Stalin controversy of the 1920’s.”
lace of this period: “I think we ought       vation of the international status quo,”        In this historic struggle Trotsky urged
to face the fact that with Hitler con-       the Sta]inist movement everywhere is         that the USSR continue the policy it
trolling the exports, imports and ex-        being tamed to the needs of the detente      conducted under Lenin of supporting the
changes, it is impossible to get an ade-     with the West. In Italy, he notes, the       coming to power of the working class
quate flow of exports from the United        CP greeted President Eisenhower with         in other lands. The victory of the work-
States.” Gardner concludes from this:        the chant, “We too like Ike” and the         ers in Western Europe was important,
“Could there be any doubt that the           Communist parties of the other Western       he felt, not only in itself but as a solu-
Administration and the business com-         European countries followed suit.            tion for the isolation and economic
munity would accept self-containment            Even more disastrous was the impact       backwardness of Russia.
unless it was forced on the United           of Khrushchev’s peaceful coexistence            Stalin, by contrast, formulated his

62                                                                                               INTERNATIONAL   SOCIALIST   REVIEW
“socialism in one country” thesis. He         mand for “Hands Off the Imagination”        the Chinese. ‘murderers.’ and all sorts
subordinated the Communist parties in         — which provided the spark for the          of other dirty names in public . . . The
all countries to the diplomatic maneu-        Hungarian Revolution. The crushing of       quickest way for the Chinese Reds to
vers of the USSR through which he             the Revolution in Hungary and its ebb       be accepted at the U.N. is for her to
sought, in vain, to establish “peaceful       in Poland was accompanied by reinsti-       become as potent a mass murderer as
coexistence.” This is still the funda-        tution of thought policing of culture —     the pious Christian nation that ii:st
mental issue facing the Communist             although not as thoroughly as p~eceding     used the ghastly atom bomb against
movement:     should socialists struggle      the Revolution.                             mankind.”
seriously for socialism or should they           The reorganization of the shattered         On PoliticalAction: “When will the
prop up the existing capitalist regimes       and reduced American        CP by the       average Negro wake up to the fact the
hoping that these regimes will be             Stalinist old guard is also being accom-    two party system is a farce? In the
“friendly”   to the USSR? It is to            panied by a policing of the artists; and    realm of civil rights and social justice
Deutscher’s credit that he spotlights         this is the meaning of the anti-Main-       the two party lines are the same . . .
these issues in a journal which is widely     stream move. We understand why an           The Negro must transform his vote in-
read.                                         authoritarian regime in power which         to a new independent political force
                                              rules in the interests of a privileged      . . . If the two major parties want our
                                              bureaucracy cannot tolerate free expres-    votes, we must demand that they earn
MAINSTREAM         ON THE BLOCK               sion anywhere — even in the field of        them.”
                                              poetry. What we learn from the Main-           On the Labor Movement: “The only
    It now seems clear that the Com-          stream controversy is that a Stalinized     avenue to a higher standard of living
 munist party has decided to axe Main-        party out of power which does not           in the South is labor unions . . . It is
 stream. Mike Newberry declares in the        determine its own policies, but slavishly   time for labor to roll up its sleeves
 Jan. 3 issue of the Worker, “The progres-    support those of the Soviet bureaucracy,    and enter the arena of combat politics
 sive movement is hardly now large            likewise cannot tolerate free inquiry       . . . The labor movement as a whole
 enough to support such a rarefied, spe-      within its ranks or periphery.      Only    has nothing to lose by establishing a
 cialized magazine, not at this time. ”       those who determine their own policies      labor party and entering its own slate
 The reasons for the CP’s campaign            and are not alien to the working class      of candidates . . .“
 against Mainstream and the way in            have nothing to fear from free inquiry
 which it has been conducted give us an       in the arts or any other field.                                       “
                                                                                            On ColonialRevolutions: Oppressed
 insight into the relationship between           We will hate to see Mainstream go —      peopleseverywhere are demanding   hu-
 Stalinism and culture. What is espe-         even with all its weaknesses. The rad-
                                                                                          man dignity and the right of self-de-
 cially interesting is that this relation-    ical movement is too culturally starved     termination. The darker colonials are
 ship seems to be as true of a little iso-                                                moving toward freedom. The American
                                              to blithely allow any cultural institu-
 lated Communist party in the world’s                                                     Negro must identify himself with the
                                              tion to be destroyed. Possibly others
 most powerful capitalist nation as it is                                                 new world order . . . Any struggle any-
                                              feel likewise and the CP will not be
 of Stalinism in power.                       able to accomplish its goal.                where in the world for freedom is re-
                                                                                          lated to the American Negro’s struggle
    It all began with a love poem titled                                                  for human dignity. The fight in Africa,
 “Morning Departure” by Hershel Horn
                                              THE CRUSADER                                Cuba, South America and Asia is one
 which appeared in the July Mainstream.                                                   and the same fight.”
 Mike Gold, Worker and People’s World            Evelyn Sell. a frequent contributor
 columnist, utilized this poem to launch      to the International Socialist Review,
 a hatchet job on Mainstream for print-       has been following The Crusader, a          RANDOM      NOTES
 ing “unintelligible,   irrational, deathly   small mimeographed newsletter pub-
 stuff, the metaphysics of an expiring        lished weekly in Monroe, North Carolina,       The Nation continues to be the most
 class.” Mainstream, seeing in Gold’s         by Robert F. Williams. Evelyn sent us       stimulating liberal periodical published
 attack an attack against the whole pub-      the following comments on this inter-       in this country. We read Ira Wolfert’s”
 lication, printed in its October issue a     esting publication along with some          “Monster in the Mine” in the Jan. 2,
 stirring answer to Gold, “Hands Off the      typical extracts from it:                   1960 issue and the story still haunts us.
 Imagination” by John Condell. Condell           “The past decade presented a bleak       Here is a realistic, well-written, moving”
 attacks Gold’s ruminations as being          terrain to many American radicals and       bit of fiction which makes abstract
 “nothing but a barrage of reactionary        militants. During this same past dec-       terms like “automation” breathe with
 infantile leftisms.” (See “Clean Up That     ade, however, the militancy of the          life . . . The Winter 1960 issue of AnviZ
 Poetry” by L. P. Wheeler in the Jan-         Southern Negroes stood out as an in-        is no longer missing in action. The last
 uary 11, 1960 Militant for a good run-       spiring and instructive exception to the    issue of this sporadic annual was Win-
ning commentary on the controversy. )         general rule of hesitancy and fear.         ter 1959. Interestingly, this publication,
    It soon became clear that Gold’s at-         “The Cmsader is of particular value      an unofficial organ of the Young Peo-
 tack was officially inspired by the CP,      to those removed from the actual social     ple’s Socialist League, calls itself “a
 for suddenly the Worker opened its           battlefields in the South who want to       student socialist magazine.” The cur-
 pages to the controversy and, through        get a feel of what is going on in the       rent issue does not contain a single
 the agency of Mike Newberry, “de-            minds and lives of the front line com-      article written by a student — or for
 fends” Mainstream only to open an            batants. The thirty-five year old Wil-      that matter anyone under 30. The only
 even more sinister attack, putting into      liams brings to its pages the lessons       socialist article in the magazine is “The.
 question the whole character of the          taught him as a Negro born and bred         Two Souls of Socialism” by Hal Draper,
 magazine and suggesting that it is a         in the South, as a Marine, as a Detroit     a rather good attack on the “socialism
 luxury today. It is clear that the CP,       auto worker and as a president of a         from on top” viewpoint, e.g., those who
 to the extent that it is able, is now        local NAACP branch.”                        run the party Draper belongs to . . .
 proceeding to deal with Mainstream as           Here are some typical quotations         Venture, a rather obscure publication of”
they did with the Daily Worker — let it       culled from several       issues of the     the Student League for Industrial Dem-
 die of financial strangulation (a process    Crusader:                                   ocracy (SLID)      came across our desk
 which they helped organize) and then            On U.S. ForeignPolicy: “We see by        recently. It is put out by graduate stu-
 replace it with a completely tamed           the papers that Red China has been          dents who seem to be more preoccupied
 creature of their own.                       barr;d ‘from the universal. respectable,    with “fighting Communism” than even
    But the Gold-Mainstream controversy       august body called the United Nations       the State Department is. If you are in-
,brings to mind other memories: the                They say exponents of the land of      terestd in a junior New Leader this
rebellion of the intellectuals — their de-    M“a~k Parker and Emmett Till called         is your meat.

SPRING   1960                                                                                                                    63
             Build Your Library                                                                                    .

         by Leon Trotsky                                                                             by James P. Cannon
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                                                                                                 and Combined Development)     .25

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      116 University              Place                                                              New   York    3, N Y.

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