Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Hauptstadt: Stuttgart. Baden-Württemberg is one of Germany's most prosperous
states with automakers Daimler Chrysler and Porsche centered around Stuttgart,
precision engineering in the Black Forest, oil refining around Karlsruhe, and industry
in Mannheim and Heidelberg. There are important universities in Heidelberg (1386)
Bayern (Bavaria, Freistaat Bayern)
Hauptstadt: München (Munich). Bavaria is the largest German state. The "Free
State of Bavaria" is also Germany's oldest political entity with a history going back to
at least the 6th century. Germany's tallest peak, the Zugspitze, is located in the
Hauptstadt: Berlin. Long a symbol of Germany's division, Berlin is now the dynamic
capital city of reunited Germany. Since reunification, Berlin has once again become
Germany's main cultural, artistic, and political center.
Hauptstadt: Potsdam. Brandenburg, one of Germany's most thinly populated states
(2.5 million), surrounds Berlin. Because of its small population, there have been
proposals to merge Berlin and Brandenburg into one state, with Potsdam as the
capital, but a 1996 referendum rejected that idea. However, the two states'
broadcast services (SFB/ORB) were merged into Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (RBB)
Bremen (Freie Hansestaat Bremen)
Hauptstadt: Bremen. One of Germany's three city-states (Berlin and Hamburg are
the other two), Bremen is the second oldest city republic still in existence (after San
Marino) and was first mentioned in 782. In 1358 Bremen became a member of the
Hanseatic League (Hanse).
Hamburg (Freie und Hansestaat Hamburg)
Hauptstadt: Hamburg. One of Germany's three city-states (Berlin and Bremen are
the other two), Hamburg is Germany's second largest city and the country's biggest
Hauptstadt: Wiesbaden. Hesse is home to the Rhein-Main region of business and
industry. The state's largest city, Frankfurt am Main, has often been called
Germany's "secret capital" because of its banking, transportation industry (Frankfurt,
aka "Bankfurt," has one of Europe's busiest airports and is a major rail hub), and
general economic power. The state of Hesse was created in 1945/46 by combining
parts of two historic political entities, Hesse-Darmstadt and Hesse-Nassau.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony)
Hauptstadt: Hannover (Hanover)
Nordhrein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia)
Hauptstadt: Saarbrücken. "Das Saarland" is Germany's smallest and newest state.
Named for the Saar River (die Saar), the Saarland was part of France until 1957.
Germany's "Rhode Island" has a population of just 1.1 million.
Sachsen (Saxony, Freistaat Sachsen)
Hauptstadt: Kiel. The two parts of Germany's northernmost state were first united
in 1386, but since the 19th century they have changed hands between Denmark,
Austria, and Germany. Schleswig-Holstein has been a Bundesland since 1946. The
Kiel Canal (der Nord-Ostsee-Kanal) is an important links for shipping between the
Baltic and North Seas. Kiel (pop. 244,000) is home to the annual "Kieler Woche"
regatta every summer.
Thüringen (Thuringia, Freistaat Thüringen)
Hauptstadt: Erfurt. Until 1945, Thuringia's capital was Weimar, a city closely
identified with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and of course the Weimar Republic after
World War I. The state became a Freistaat in 1921, but was dissolved in 1952 when
East Germany created 15 districts to replace the former five eastern Länder.
Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland
1 Schleswig-Holstein 9 Nordrhein-Westfalen
2 Hamburg 10 Hessen
3 Bremen 11 Thüringen
4 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 12 Sachsen
5 Berlin 13 Rheinland-Pfalz
6 Brandenburg 14 Saarland
7 Niedersachsen 15 Bayern
8 Sachsen-Anhalt 16 Baden-Württemberg
A Austria F France
B Belgium L Luxembourg
CH Switzerland NL Netherlands
CR Czech Republic P Poland
DK Denmark D Germany