Hardware by yaofenji

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									    Computer Hardware Slide Presentation



Terry Begley
Creighton University
College of Business Administration
Created Spring 1996
Revised Fall 2006




                                           1
              Computer

    An electronic device that has the ability
to accept data, internally store and execute
     a program of instructions, perform
  mathematical, logical and manipulative
 operations on data, and report the results.




                                            2
      Computer Classifications

•   Microcomputer
•   Minicomputer
•   Mainframe
•   Supercomputer




                                 3
              Microcomputer

•   Users:    One
•   Speed:    Slow
•   Price:    $500 - $3,000
•   Size:     desktop or smaller
•   Examples: IBM PC, Apple ][, Apple
              Macintosh, Imac
• “personal computers”
      http://home.hccnet.nl/e.p.de.vries/ibm5150.htm   4
                Minicomputer

•   Users:    2 - 50
•   Speed:    Faster
•   Price:    $10,000 - $250,000
•   Size:     file cabinet
•   Examples: HP 9000
              DEC VAX
• “departmental computers”
                                   5
         Mainframe Computer

•   Users:      50 +
•   Speed:      Fast
•   Price:      $500,000 - millions
•   Size:       refrigerator-sized on up
•   Examples:   IBM 3090, Unisys 2200

• company-wide (“enterprise”)
                                           6
            Supercomputer

•   Users:      a few
•   Speed:      very, very fast
•   Price:      $ millions
•   Size:       room
•   Examples:   Cray, Fujitsu

• scientific uses
                                  7
                 Hardware

• consists of all machinery and equipment
     input devices
     output devices
     processing and memory devices
     secondary storage devices
     communications devices



                                            8
                    Software

• the step-by-step instructions that tell the
  computer what to do
   applications software
     • performs useful work on general-purpose tasks
     • available from many places
   systems software
     • enables the application software to interact with the
       computer
     • generally comes from the hardware vendor

                                                           9
   Computer Components
            Secondary Storage



Input      Primary Storage          Output
Devices                             Devices
           Control Unit

           Arithmetic/Logic Unit

          Central Processing Unit


                                              10
                Input Devices
•   keyboard
•   disk
•   tape
•   cards
•   voice
•   scanner (various types)
•   modem
•   mouse/trackballs/glide points

                                    11
Input Devices




                12
                Output Devices

•   monitor
•   disk
•   modem
•   voice
•   microfilm



                                 13
                Printer Types

• Impact printers
   Printhead makes contact with paper
     • Thermal, dot matrix, laser
• Non-impact printers
   Printhead does not make contact with paper
     • inkjet




                                                 14
      Central Processing Unit
• Primary Storage
   random access memory, “scratchpad”
   volatile storage
   limited in capacity
• Control Unit
   controls CPU and it‟s interactions
• Arithmetic/Logic Unit
   math and logic calculations

                                         15
Microprocessors




                  16
             Microprocessor

• A single integrated circuit (chip), mounted
  on a system board (motherboard) of a
  personal computer.
• manufacturers:
     Intel
     Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
     Cyrix
     Motorola
                                                17
           Secondary Storage

• nonvolatile storage
• generally removable
• types
     tape
     cards
     magnetic disk
     optical disk

                               18
    Size Capacity Measurements

•   Bit
•   Byte
•   Kilobyte
•   Megabyte
•   Gigabyte
•   Terabyte
•   Petabyte
                                 19
           Size Capacity - 1

• Bit
   Binary Digit
   either a Zero or a One; basic unit for storing
    data; 0=off, 1=on
• Byte
   Binary Digit Eight; a unit of information usually
    consisting of 8 bits; each byte usually
    represents a character, letter or symbol

                                                     20
             Size Capacity - 2
• Kilobyte
   approximately 1 thousand characters
   1,024 bits (210)
• Megabyte
   approximately 1 million characters
   1,048,576 bytes (220)
• Gigabyte
   approximately 1 billion characters
   1,073,741,824 bytes (230)

                                          21
           Size Capacity - 3

• Terabyte
   One trillion bytes; 10^12.Or, 2^40
    (1,099,511,627,776)
• Petabyte
   A quadrillion bytes (10^15 bytes or 2^50
    bytes)




                                               22
Size Capacity Measurements




                             23
             Floppy Disks

• A removable, round, flexible plastic disk
  that stores data as magnetized spots on
  the disk.
• developed by IBM in the 1960‟s
• disk spins only when accessed
• read/write head makes physical contact
  with the disk

                                              24
 Floppy Disk Size and Capacity

• 8”
   developed by IBM for minicomputer line
   300 - 800K capacity
• 5¼”
      developed by Al Shugart
      used on Apple ][, IBM PC, IBM AT
      DSDD: 360K
      DSHD: 1.2meg
                                             25
 Floppy Disk Size and Capacity
• 3½”
     developed by Sony
     first used on Apple Macintosh, 1984
     DSDD: 720K
     DSHD: 1.44meg
     DSQD: 2.88meg
• 2½”
   developed by Zenith in 1988
   never caught on with consumers

                                            26
Hard Disks




             27
            Hard Disks - 1
• generally nonremovable disk made out of
  metal and covered with a magnetic
  recording surface, holding data in the form
  of magnetic spots.
• hermetically sealed
• disk spins constantly
• read/write head does not make physical
  contact with the disk

                                            28
              Hard Disks - 2

• cost per mega/gigabyte
   1983: $1100 for a 10meg drive
   2006: $120 for a 250 gigabyte drive
    • Rule of thumb: $0.50 per gigabyte
    • Will pay more for 2.5” drives for notebooks




                                                    29
  Hard Disk Size and Capacity
• (5¼”), 3½” and 2½” platter size
• trend is for greater capacity, with smaller
  size and lower cost
• standard drive today is 160 gigabyte
  capacity (and growing….)

• Watch out for rotation speed
   5400, 7600, 10,000 and 15,000 RPM

                                                30
         Interface Types

• Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
  (EIDE)
   Now referred to as Parallel ATA (PATA)
• Serial Advanced Technology
  Attachment (SATA)
• Small Computer Systems Interface
  (SCSI)

                                             31
                  Redundancy
• RAID
   Redundant Array of Independent Disks
         -or-
   Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
    • Using multiple hard drives for sharing or replicating
      data among the drives
          Fault tolerance
          Increased capacity
          Increased throughput




                                                          32
                RAID Levels
• RAID 0
   Striping without parity
• RAID 1
   Mirroring
• RAID 5
   Striping with parity
• RAID 10
   Mirrored RAID 5 configuration

                                    33
                   Optical Disk

• a disk that is written and read by lasers
   Compact Disk, Read-Only Media
     •   CD-ROM
     •   5¼” size
     •   write once, read many times (WORM)
     •   650 megabyte capacity
     •   speeds: 1x, 2x, 4x, 6x, 16x, 24x, 32x, 40x ++
   Compact Disk, Write-Once, Read-Many
     • writeable CD-ROM
                                                         34
                 CD-ROM

• CD-ROM Writers (“burners”)
   approximately $50
   blank disks are $0.10 in quantity




                                        35
                    DVD

• Now standard equipment on most PC‟s
   Cost is approximately $150
   Blanks are about $1 each




                                        36
            Magnetic Tape

• flexible plastic coated on one side with a
 magnetic material, data is represented by
 magnetized spots
   common for mini/mainframe backup
   cartridge form available for mini/pc
   sequential storage medium



                                               37
Modems




         38
  Modem Speed Measurement

• baud and bits-per-second (bps)
• the speed at which a modem can transfer
 information over telephone lines
   baud: measure of signal changes that take
    place over one second of data transfer
   bps: measure of the actual number of bits
    transferred during that second


                                                39
    Modem Speed Measurement

•   300
•   1200
•   2400
•   9600
•   14,400
•   28,800 / 33,600
•   56,600
                              40
(Internal) Modem Connections




                       optional




                                  41
External Modems




                  42
           Cable Modems

• A "Cable Modem" is a device that allows
  high speed data access (such as to the
  Internet) via a cable TV (CATV) network. A
  cable modem will typically have two
  connections, one to the cable wall outlet
  and the other to a computer (PC).
• Cable modem speeds range from 128Kbps
  to 10Mbps
                                            43
               Cable Modems

                                     Motorola
                                     CyberSurfer Cable
                                     modem; used by
                                     Cox@Home service
                                     in Omaha
                                     New DOCSYS
                                     standard


http://www.mot.com/MIMS/Multimedia/prod/specs/modemSpec.html

                                                               44
      Cable Modems




http://www.cablemodems.com/whatis.shtml

                                          45
   Clock Speed Measurement
• how fast a computer‟s CPU processes
 information
   hertz
     • one clock cycle per second
   kilohertz
     • one thousand hertz per second
   megahertz
     • one million hertz per second
   gigahertz
     • one billion hertz per second

                                        46
Intel microprocessors


        Intel produces 80% of
        the microprocessors
        used in all personal
        computers, and
        90%+ of all CPUs
        used in IBM-
        compatible personal
        computers.

                                47
        the   Intel Chip Family - 1
•   8088               • P5 - Pentium
•   80186              • Pentium Pro
•   80286              • Pentium II
•   80386                 Celeron
•   80486              • Pentium III
                       • Pentium IV



                                        48
      the   Intel Chip Family - 2

• 8088
   first used in IBM PC (1981)
   4.77mhz
   8086
    • used by clone manufacturers
    • 6, 8, 10mhz
   used 8087 math coprocessor


                                    49
      the   Intel Chip Family - 3

• 80186
   used only in a Radio Shack clone model
   used in traffic lights and cars!




                                             50
        the   Intel Chip Family - 4

• 80826
     first used in IBM PC/AT (1984)
     6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20mhz
     16 bit external processing
     address 16meg of memory
     used 80287 for math coprocessing



                                         51
        the   Intel Chip Family - 5

• 80386
     first used by Compaq, then IBM
     16, 20, 25, 33, 40mhz
     32 bit external processing
     address 16gig of memory
     used 80387 for math coprocessing
       • SX: 16 bit bus
       • DX: 32 bit bus

                                         52
        the   Intel Chip Family - 6

• 80486
     introduced in 1989
     20, 25, 33, 50, 66, 80, 100, 120, 133mhz
     32 bit external processing
     address 64gig of memory
       • SX: no math coprocessor built-in
       • DX: math coprocessor built-in



                                                 53
        the   Intel Chip Family - 7

• Pentium (P5)
     introduced in 1993
     60, 66mhz (6 volt)
     75, 90, 100, 120, 133, 150, 166 (3.3 volt)
     32 bit external processing
     address 64+gig of memory
     no longer in production as of 4-1-98


                                                   54
        the   Intel Chip Family - 8

• Pentium Pro
     introduced in 1996
     dead-end processor
     150, 180, 200mhz
     32 bit external processing
     address 64+gig of memory



                                      55
      the   Intel Chip Family - 9

• Pentium II
   next version of the Pentium (P6)
   speeds of 200, 233, 266, 300, 400, 450mhz
   out of production in Fall „99




                                                56
     the   Intel Chip Family - 10

• Pentium III
   next version of the Pentium family
   speeds of 450, 500, 550, 600, 700, 733, 800,
    850, 866, 933, 1GHz
   No longer in production




                                                   57
    the   Intel Chip Family - 10

• Pentium IV
    • Speeds from 1.2GHz, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 2.2, 2.8GHz + +
      +
        Intel is now going to use different naming scheme




                                                             58
Intel Microprocessor Prices
 Computer Shopper, March 1996




                                59
   Intel Microprocessor Prices
             pricewatch.com

• http://www.pricewatch.com/




                                 60
    Other Microprocessor Prices
Computer Shopper, March 1996




                                  61
Monitors




           62
        Monitor Specifications

•   Mono Display Adapter (MDA)
•   Mono Graphics Adapter (MGA)
•   Color Graphics Adapter (CGA)
•   Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)
•   Video Graphics Array (VGA)
•   Super VGA (SVGA)


                                      63
             Monitor Types

• CRT
  Cathode ray tube
• LCD
  Liquid crystal display




                             64
                   CRT
• Works by moving an electron beam back
 and forth across the back of the screen.
 Each time the beam makes a pass at the
 back of the screen, it lights up phosphor
 dots on the inside of the glass tube,
 illuminating the active portions of the
 screen. By drawing lots of lines from the
 top to the bottom of the screen, it creates
 an entire screen of images.
                                               65
    Things to Look for - CRTs

• Dot Pitch
   size of smallest dot on the monitor
   the smaller, the better
   Poor .55                      .26 Great
• Interlaced -vs.- Noninterlaced
   how the display is updated
   avoid interlaced monitors!!!
• Viewable area
                                              66
                      LCD
• Uses two sheets of polarizing
  material, with a liquid crystal
  solution between them. An
  electric current passed through
  the liquid causes the crystals to
  align so that light cannot pass
  through them – like a shutter



                                      67
                      LCD
• Monochrome
   Blue or gray on a gray background
• Color
   Passive matrix
     • cheaper
   Active matrix
     • More expensive, sharper images
• May be backlit to be easier to read

                                        68
LCDs are better than CRTs
•   They are smaller and lighter
•   They consume less energy
•   The image is crisper
•   No flickering, which means less eyestrain
    and fatigue
•   Emit much less low-frequency
    electromagnetic emissions
•   Some pivot, so you can work in either
    portrait or landscape mode
•   Less glare due to their flat face
                                                69
   CRTs are better than LCDs
• They cost less
• They display more colors
• They react faster and can display moving
  images without „smearing‟ or displaying
  „artifacts‟
• They use emissive technology, meaning
  that they generate their own light, so you
  can view them from any angle

                                               70
          Monitor Sizes

•   12”
           Measure the screen diagonally
•   14”    (like a television).
•   15”
           Be cautious of the viewable area
•   17”    of the monitor.
•   19”    Prices have dropped recently due to an
•   21”    increase in the production yields of the
           glass used to make the screens.


                                                 71
         Monitor Resolutions

• SVGA
  a function of the monitor and the video card
   •   640 x 480 (standard VGA resolution)
   •   800 x 640
   •   1024 x 768
   •   1280 x 1024
   •   1680 x 1280




                                                  72
         Monitor Purchase Tips
• Go for bigger if you can afford it
• Digital interfaces are good if your video card can
    drive it
•   Longer warranties are better
     What constitutes a warranty repair? Such as: How
      many dead pixels?
     What about an extended warranty?
• What are the panel controls like?
• On an LCD, what is it‟s native resolution?
     Do you like this resolution?
                                                         73
   Case Designs and Sizes - 1
• desktop
   smaller size
   fewer expansion slots
   can be turned over to stand on it‟s side
• tower
     larger size
     more expansion slots
     possibly larger power supply
     frees desktop space

                                               74
  Case Designs and Sizes - 2

• desktop
   AT
   baby AT
   pizza box
• tower
   full tower
   mid-tower
   mini tower
                               75
Integrated (one piece unit)




                              76
77
                   Case Terms

• Bays
   number of open spaces for devices
    • ½-height bays
    • full height bays
    • size
          5¼“
            • for CD-ROM and tape backup units
          3½“
            • for floppy drives, hard drives, some tape units


                                                                78
       Connection Points (ports)
•   Serial port
•   Parallel port
•   Keyboard port
•   Mouse port
•   Joystick port
•   USB ports
     universal serial bus
• Firewire
                                   79
               Serial Ports
•   AKA: RS-232 port
•   Two-way data transfer
•   Theoretically have 4
•   Realistically have 2
•   names:
     com1:     - com2:
     com3:     - com4:
• uses: modems, mice, data collection
                                        80
           Parallel Ports - 1
• originally one-way data transfer, but new
  bi-directional ports allow two-way data
  transfer
• theoretically have 4
• realistically have 2, commonly have 1
• can be emulated in software thru the use of
  network operating system software (Novell,
  NT)

                                              81
             Parallel Ports - 2

• names
   lpt1: to lpt4:
• uses: printers, lap-link data transfer




                                           82
   Joystick, Keyboard & Mouse Ports

• most home computers have a joystick port
• mouse port frees serial ports for other uses
• keyboard port can be regular pin or mini
 pin configuration (adapters available)




                                             83
                 USB Ports
• A personal computer bus which can support up
  to 127 peripheral devices in a daisy chain
  configuration, and has a total bandwidth of 1.5
  megabytes per second. It uses inexpensive
  cable, which can be up to 5 meters long.
   Supported on Win95 R2 and Win98 and Windows
    2000, but not Win95 and NT
   more peripherals available now (cameras, input
    devices, scanners)
   Version 1.1 and 2.0 (now available)


                                                     84
                   Firewire
• A type of cabling technology for transferring data
  to and from digital devices at high speed. Some
  professional digital cameras and memory card
  readers connect to the computer over FireWire.
  FireWire card readers are typically faster than
  those that connect via USB. Also known as IEEE
  1394, FireWire was invented by Apple Computer
  but is now commonly (?) used with Windows-
  based PCs as well.

                                                   85
             Motherboard

• aka: system board
• where components are located, where
  expansion slots are located
• different bus designs




                                        86
             Bus Design - 1

• Bus - links the CPU to hardware devices
• Different bus designs
     ISA
     MCA
     EISA
     VESA
     PCI
     AGP
                                            87
            Bus Designs - 2

• ISA
   Industry Standard Architecture
   developed for original IBM PC
   originally 8 bits, extended to 16 bits




                                             88
           Bus Design - 3

• MCA
  Micro Channel Architecture
  developed by IBM for the PS/2 family of
   computers in 1986
  requires different expansion cards
  16 bit design
  rarely licensed to other vendors
  out of production now

                                             89
            Bus Design - 4

• EISA
   Extended Industry Standard Architecture
   developed by a consortium in response to
    IBM‟s MCA (led by Compaq)
   32 bit design
   could use ISA cards in EISA slots
   popular in servers for a few years
   out of production now

                                               90
           Bus Design - 5

• VESA
  Video Electronics Standards Assoc.
  connects directly to the microprocessor
  32 bit design
  used to speed up video, then hard drive
   controllers
  No longer found on systems


                                             91
              Bus Design - 6

• PCI
     Peripheral Components Interconnect
     local bus using 64 bit design
     used in high-end 486 and P5 systems
     replaced VESA




                                            92
            Bus Design - 7

• PCMCIA
  Personal Computer Memory Card
   International Association
  used for notebooks, to insert credit-card sized
   devices into open expansion slots
  moving onto the desktop
  available in modems, network cards, extra
   RAM

                                                 93
            Bus Design - 8

• AGP
  Advanced Graphics Processing
   • used to speed up the video card display
   • found on newer machines




                                               94
!! The End !!




                95

								
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