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Module 6 Organization of the Body

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Module 6 Organization of the Body Powered By Docstoc
					Elsevier
                                                              Leonard
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Date                     September 2, 2011
Author                   LOCALADMIN
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Instructional Designer   Gary Baum
Module                   Module 6: Organization of the Body




MMTO                                     1 of 163
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Module Outline
Module Title                        Module 6: Organization of the Body
       Introduction ........................................................................................ 6
       Section I Objectives ........................................................................... 7
       1.1 Atoms ............................................................................................ 8
       1.2 Molecules .................................................................................... 10
       1.3 Cells ............................................................................................. 12
       1.4 Activity: Catch That? ................................................................. 14
       1.5 Stem Cells ................................................................................... 15
       1.6 Activity: Matching ...................................................................... 17
       1.7 Tissues ........................................................................................ 18
       1.8 Organs ......................................................................................... 20
       1.9 Body Systems ............................................................................ 22
       1.10 The Body ................................................................................... 24
       1.11 Activity: Listen and Spell ........................................................ 26
       1.12 Activity: Write It, Find It ........................................................... 27
       2.1 Positioning Terms for Medical Treatment ............................... 28
       2.2 Body Structure Relationships .................................................. 30
       2.3 Threaded Case Study: Karen .................................................... 32
       2.4 Anatomic Position ...................................................................... 34
       2.5 Activity: Catch That? ................................................................. 36
       2.6 Body Planes ................................................................................ 37
       2.7 Anterior, Ventral ......................................................................... 39
       2.8 Threaded Case Study: Karen .................................................... 41
       2.9 Terms Related to Radiographic Projections ........................... 43
       2.10 Dorsal, Dorsoventral ................................................................ 45
       2.11 Lateral, Dorsolateral ................................................................ 47
       2.12 Unilateral, Bilateral ................................................................... 49
       2.13 Medial ........................................................................................ 51
       2.14 Anteromedial, Anterolateral, Posterolateral, Posteromedial53
       2.15 Threaded Case Study: Karen .................................................. 55
       2.16 Activity: Matching ................................................................... 57
       2.17 Superior, Inferior ...................................................................... 58
       2.18 Cephalad, Caudad .................................................................... 60
       2.19 Proximal, Distal ........................................................................ 62
       2.20 Muscle Strength Assessment ................................................. 64
       2.21 Palmar, Plantar ......................................................................... 66
       2.22 Supine, Prone ........................................................................... 68
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       2.23 Supination, Pronation (animation) ......................................... 70
       2.24 Activity: Write It, Find It ........................................................... 72
       2.25 Activity: Matching .................................................................... 73
       2.26 Activity: Memory Match ........................................................... 74
       2.27 Activity Word Shop .................................................................. 75
       2.28 Activity Matching ..................................................................... 76
       3.1 Body Cavities ............................................................................. 77
       3.2 Dorsal Cavity .............................................................................. 79
       3.3 Ventral Cavity ............................................................................. 81
       3.4 Thoracic Cavity .......................................................................... 83
       3.5 Abdominal Cavity ....................................................................... 85
       3.6 Peritoneum ................................................................................. 87
       3.7 Abdominopelvic Cavity (animation) ......................................... 89
       3.8 Activity: Write It, Find It ............................................................. 91
       3.9 Divisions of the Abdominopelvic Area .................................... 92
       3.10 Abdominopelvic Regions ........................................................ 94
       3.11 Umbilicus .................................................................................. 96
       3.12 Upper Abdominopelvic Quadrants (RUQ and LUQ) ............. 98
       3.13 Lower Abdominopelvic Quadrants (RLQ and LLQ) ............ 100
       3.14 Threaded Case Study: Karen ................................................ 102
       3.15 Activity: Write It, Find It ......................................................... 104
       3.16 Activity: Write It, Find It ........................................................ 105
       3.17 Activity: Listen and Spell ...................................................... 106
       4.1 Acr/o .......................................................................................... 107
       4.2 Dactyl/o ..................................................................................... 109
       4.3 Chir/o, Pod/o ............................................................................. 111
       4.4 Somatogenic Classifications for Disease Origins ................ 113
       4.5 Psychogenic Classifications for Disease Origins ................ 115
       4.6 Conditions of the Head ............................................................ 117
       4.7 Conditions of the Brain ........................................................... 119
       4.8 Development ............................................................................. 121
       4.9 Conditions of the Skin ............................................................. 123
       4.10 Hernias .................................................................................... 125
       4.11 Wounds ................................................................................... 127
       4.12 Infectious Disease .................................................................. 129
       4.13 Inflammation ........................................................................... 131
       4.14 Fever ........................................................................................ 133
       4.15 Activity: Memory Match ......................................................... 135


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       4.16 Activity: Word Shop ............................................................... 136
       4.17 Activity: Matching ................................................................. 138
       4.18 Activity: Sound It Out ............................................................ 139
       4.19 Activity: Fill-In ........................................................................ 140
       Word Parts ...................................................................................... 145
       Activity: Fill-In ............................................................................... 147
       Activity: Fill-In ............................................................................... 148
       Activity: Part Puzzler .................................................................... 149
       Activity: Matching ......................................................................... 150
       Activity: Matching ......................................................................... 152
       Activity: Listen and Spell ............................................................. 154
       Activity: Identification ................................................................... 155
       Case Study 1 ................................................................................... 157
       Case Study 2 ................................................................................... 159
       Learning Links ................................................................................ 160
       Conclusion ...................................................................................... 161




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Screen Number           1.

Screen Type         Module Introduction

Module Title        Module 6: Organization of the Body

Screen Title        Introduction

On Screen Text      In this module you will learn terms associated with the body's structure and organization. You'll
                    also learn about medical terms used to designate position, direction, and location, and terms
                    related to the body as a whole. You'll continue to develop an understanding of drug classes,
                    uses, and effects.


                    Exercises in this module may require you to review the structure of medical terms, as
                    introduced in Module One.


                    Remember that this integrated learning program is intended as a supplement to your text—not
                    as a substitute. Be sure to keep your text available for ready reference.


                    Note: Not all terms presented in your text will appear in this module. Some terms in this module
                    may not appear in your text.



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Objective:




Screen Number             1.

Screen Type         Section Objectives

Module Title        Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title       Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title

Screen Title        Section I Objectives

On Screen Text      In this module, you will learn to:
                    •          Recognize the relationships between cells, tissues and organs.
                    •          Name four main types of tissue.
                    •          Identify body cavities.
                    •          Compare the two systems of identifying abdominopelvic regions.
                    •          Identify four abdominal quadrants.
                    •          Identify the nine abdominopelvic divisions used by anatomists.
                    •          Write the meanings of word parts and use them to build and analyze medical terms.

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                        http://coursewareob                             Student at computer
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Screen Number        1.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title     1.1 Atoms

On Screen Text   This lesson will introduce you to the building blocks of the body, from the tiniest particles to the
                 living body as a whole.


                 On a chemical level, the basic building block of the universe, including human beings, is the
                 atom. This term combines a-, without, and tom/o, meaning to cut. The atom is so named
                 because, at the time term was established, it was thought that atoms could not be divided into
                 smaller parts. Although we now know that atoms may be split and that they can contain as
                 many as 100 different subatomic particles, the smallest particle of any substance that contains
                 all the characteristics of that substance is the atom.


                 A substance that contains only one type of atom is called an element. The body is made up of
                 many elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and calcium.



Glossary Terms   Atom, a-, tom/o

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                      http://www.coursew                           Bohr’s atom
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Screen Number        2.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title     1.2 Molecules

On Screen Text   The combination of two or more atoms is called a molecule. Molecules form substances that
                 are quite different from the elements that compose them. For example, hydrogen and oxygen
                 are gases, but they combine to form water. The chemical symbol for water, H2O, indicates that
                 it is made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. Water molecules make up
                 more than half of the total body weight of most individuals.


                 Many other molecules are also present in the body, including various sugars and salts.
                 Substances composed of molecules are called compounds.


                 Portions of molecules or atoms that are incomplete and therefore carry an electric charge are
                 called ions, the term for changed particles.



Glossary Terms   molecule, compounds, ions

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Screen Number        3.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title     1.3 Cells

On Screen Text   The basic building block of all living things is the cell. There are many different types of cells,
                 but most have some of the same basic characteristics. All have an outer membrane and
                 contain specialized structures called organelles that have specific functions. As the name
                 implies, you can think of organelles as small organs. The organelles are suspended in a liquid
                 called cytoplasm. This term is built from familiar word parts: cyt/o, meaning cell, and –plasm,
                 which refers to growth or development.


                 For example, the nucleus of the cell is the organelle that contains the chromosomes. These
                 thread-like structures are composed of a special protein called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in
                 specific configurations called genes. The genes determine the characteristics of the individual
                 and the functions of the cell. The term that means pertaining to genes is genetic.


                 The DNA transmits genetic information from one generation to the next. Genetic diseases are
                 those that are congenital, which literally means pertaining to with genes. Congenital refers to
                 conditions that are present at birth.



Glossary Terms   cell , organelles, cytoplasm, –plasm, nucleus, genetic, congenital

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Screen Number           4.

Screen Type         Catch That

Module Title        Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title       Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title        Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title        1.4 Activity: Catch That?

On Screen Text      Did you catch that? The fundamental unit of all living tissue is the ________, whose ________
                    perform specific functions within each cell that provide for cellular survival.


                    Type your answers in the text box below, and then click Submit to check your answers.



Feedback Popup      Answers: cell, organelles
Content
                    The basic building block of all living things is the cell. There are many different types of cells,
                    but most have some of the same basic characteristics. All have an outer membrane and
                    contain specialized structures called organelles that have specific functions. As the name
                    implies, you can think of organelles as small organs. The organelles are suspended in a liquid
                    called cytoplasm. This term is built from familiar word parts: cyt/o, meaning cell, and –plasm,
                    which refers to growth or development.



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Screen Number        5.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title     1.5 Stem Cells

On Screen Text   Life begins with a fertilized egg, which proceeds to divide and multiply, creating more and more
                 cells that eventually develop into a mature individual. During development, cells become
                 specialized for their specific functions. Cells that have the ability to divide without limit and give
                 rise to specialized cells are called stem cells.




Glossary Terms   stem cells

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                      http://www.coursew                          Stem cell division
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Screen Number                6.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title            1.6 Activity: Matching

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                                 Matching

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Screen Number        7.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title     1.7 Tissues

On Screen Text   A group of similar cells that functions as a unit is called a tissue. There are four basic tissue
                 types:


                 Epithelial tissue forms the covering of body surfaces. Epithelial tissues include the skin that
                 covers the outer surface, and the mucosa, the mucous membrane that forms the covering of
                 inner surfaces such as the inside of the mouth and the digestive tract.


                 Connective tissue binds and supports other body tissue and parts, such as bone and cartilage.


                 Nervous tissue makes up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; nervous tissue conducts
                 messages to and from the brain and other parts of the body. It controls and coordinates many
                 body activities.


                 Muscle tissue produces movement. Skeletal muscle (striated or striped) tissue produces
                 voluntary movement of the body; smooth muscle tissue produces the involuntary movements of
                 internal organs such as the stomach; cardiac muscle, which you’ll recall is called myocardium,
                 is a specialized tissue that forms the basic structure of the heart.



Glossary Terms   tissue, Epithelial tissue, mucosa, Connective tissue, Nervous tissue, Muscle tissue,
                 myocardium

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                      http://www.coursew                            Types of tissue
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Screen Number        8.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title     1.8 Organs

On Screen Text   Groups of tissue types that combine to form a more complex structure and work together to
                 perform specific functions are called organs. You are familiar with many organs, such as the
                 heart, the liver, the kidneys, and the lungs. The largest organ of the body is the skin, which is
                 not commonly thought of as an organ, but which precisely fits the definition.




Glossary Terms   organs

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                      http://www.coursew                          Organs
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Screen Number        9.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title     1.9 Body Systems

On Screen Text   A body system is a group of several organs that work together to accomplish a set of related
                 functions. For example, the urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. It
                 functions to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood and excrete them from the
                 body as urine.


                 There are eleven body systems that have specific roles in the function of the body as a whole.
                 They are listed in this illustration and described in your text in Table 6-1. Each system will be
                 considered in detail in Modules 8 through 17.



Glossary Terms   body system

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                      http://www.coursew                            List of body systems
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Screen Number        10.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title     1.10 The Body

On Screen Text   Together, the body systems and their component parts—the organs, tissues, and cells—make
                 up the living, functioning body. The combining forms for body are som/a and somat/o; the term
                 that means pertaining to the body is somatic.


                 Somatic cells are all the cells of the body with the exception of the sex cells, the male sperm
                 and the female ova. Somatic cells have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs (see illustration). Sex cells
                 have only 23 chromosomes, which are not paired. They become paired when combined with
                 each other at conception.



Glossary Terms   som/a, somat/o, somatic

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                      http://www.coursew                            Chromosomes
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Screen Number                11.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title            1.11 Activity: Listen and Spell

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                      Listen & Spell - {fill out the engine template below}

 Instructions

                                            Word                              Audio File

 Word 1             cytoplasm

 Word 2             chromosome

 Word 3             somatic

 Word 4             organelle

 Word 5             congenital

 Word 6             epithelial

 Word 7             ions

 Word 8             mucosa

 Word 9             tissue

 Word 10            nucleus

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Screen Number                12.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 1: The Body's Organizational Scheme

Screen Title            1.12 Activity: Write It, Find It

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                               Write It, Find It

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Screen Number        1.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.1 Positioning Terms for Medical Treatment

On Screen Text   Medical treatment often requires a patient to be arranged or placed in a certain posture or
                 position. For example, specific positions may be used to promote healing, to reduce the risk of
                 medical complications, or to produce an x-ray image of a particular organ. Medical professionals
                 use specific terms to communicate clearly about directions and body positions.




Glossary Terms

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                      http://www.coursew                          Positioning for
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Screen Number        2.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.2 Body Structure Relationships

On Screen Text   Similarly, special terms are used to describe the location or spatial relationship of one bodily
                 structure to another. Instead of saying that the intestines are "below" the stomach or that the
                 heart is "between" the lungs, we use specific medical language to help define these
                 relationships.




Glossary Terms

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                      http://coursewareob                         Body organs
                      jects.elsevier.com/o
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Screen Number       3.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.3 Threaded Case Study: Karen

On Screen Text   As we try to understand how these medical terms are used, let's meet Karen Ross. Karen wants
                 to begin an exercise regimen to improve her fitness. She's decided to visit her doctor for a
                 routine physical exam before she begins her new program. We’ll see how some of our terms
                 are used during the course of Karen's exam.




Glossary Terms

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                      http://www.coursew                          Karen in doc’s office
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Screen Number        4.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.4 Anatomic Position

On Screen Text   When directional terms are applied, it is assumed that the body is in the standard neutral
                 position of reference known as the anatomic position. In this position, the body is in an erect,
                 or standing, posture, facing directly forward, with the arms hanging down at the sides and the
                 palms facing forward.




Glossary Terms   anatomic position

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                      http://www.coursew                          Anatomic position
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Screen Number           5.

Screen Type         Catch That

Module Title        Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title       Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title        Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title        2.5 Activity: Catch That?

On Screen Text      Did you catch that? In the anatomic position, the body is in an _____________ or standing,
                    posture, facing directly ______________, with the arms hanging down at the sides and the
                    palms facing _______________.


                    Type your answers in the text box below, and then click Submit to check your answers.



Feedback Popup      Answers: erect, forward, forward
Content
                    When directional terms are applied, it is assumed that the body is in the standard neutral
                    position of reference known as the anatomic position. In this position, the body is in an erect,
                    or standing, posture, facing directly forward, with the arms hanging down at the sides and the
                    palms facing forward.



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                             Source                 Description           Alternate Text




Engineering Notes




MMTO                                    36 of 163
Screen Number        6.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.6 Body Planes

On Screen Text   Body planes are imaginary lines that divide the body into sections, providing another type of
                 orientation to its structure and organization. There are three major planes that lie at right angles
                 to one another, the frontal or coronal, sagittal, and transverse.


                 The frontal/coronal plane is a lengthwise vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and
                 posterior portions. The sagittal plane, running lengthwise from front to back, divides the body
                 into right and left portions. If a sagittal section is made in the midline, it is called a midsagittal
                 plane. The transverse plane runs horizontally through the body, dividing it into upper (superior)
                 and lower (inferior) parts. A transverse plane may be drawn at any level.



Glossary Terms   Frontal, coronal, sagittal, transverse, midsagittal

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                             Source                   Description      Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                            Body planes
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0405.jpg

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MMTO                                      38 of 163
Screen Number        7.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.7 Anterior, Ventral

On Screen Text   Many of the terms used to identify body directions are constructed from word parts. The term
                 anterior is built from the combining form, anter/o—meaning front—and the suffix, -ior, which
                 means pertaining to. Thus the definition of anterior is pertaining to the front.


                 The combining form ventr/o means belly or front. When joined to the suffix -al—pertaining to—
                 the word ventral is formed, meaning pertaining to the belly or front. When referring to humans,
                 the terms anterior and ventral are used interchangeably.



Glossary Terms   Anterior, anter/o, -ior, ventr/o, -al, ventral

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                      http://www.coursew                            Anterior, ventral
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0406.jpg

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MMTO                                      40 of 163
Screen Number        8.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.8 Threaded Case Study: Karen

On Screen Text   Posterior—built from the combining form poster/o, meaning back or behind, and the suffix, –
                 ior—is defined as pertaining to the back.


                 To designate a location that is on the outer side of a posterior surface, we use the term
                 posteroexternal. Posterointernal, on the other hand, describes a location that is within and
                 toward the back.


                 To assess Karen's ability to begin her new fitness program, Dr. Likens will conduct a thorough
                 inspection of her posture and skeletal alignment from both anterior and posterior aspects.



Glossary Terms   Posterior, poster/o, posteroexternal, Posterointernal

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                             Source                   Description      Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                            Posterior view
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0407.jpg

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MMTO                                      42 of 163
Screen Number        9.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.9 Terms Related to Radiographic Projections

On Screen Text   When necessary, more specific directional information can be provided by constructing a single
                 term from two combining forms. Remember, at the beginning of this module, we mentioned that
                 directional terms are used in radiology. In that setting, directional terms indicate the path of the
                 x-ray beam, indicating by the order of the word parts which aspect of the body will be struck first
                 by the x-ray beam. For example, the term posteroanterior, abbreviated PA, tells us that the x-
                 ray will travel from back to front as in the top figure.


                 Anteroposterior, abbreviated AP, informs us that the source of the x-ray is in front of the body
                 and that the beam will exit from the back (bottom figure).



Glossary Terms   Posteroanterior, PA, Anteroposterior, AP

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                             Source                   Description      Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                            Posteroanterior,
                      areobjects.com/obj                            anteroposterior
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0408.jpg

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MMTO                                      44 of 163
Screen Number        10.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.10 Dorsal, Dorsoventral

On Screen Text   The term dorsal, built from the combining form dors/o, which means back, and the suffix –al
                 (pertaining to), is often used as a synonym for posterior. And just as we joined two combining
                 forms to create the term posteroanterior, we can construct a like term—dorsoventral—by
                 joining the combining forms dors/o and ventr/o and adding the suffix –al. Dorsoventral is also
                 defined as pertaining to the direction from the back and to the front.



Glossary Terms   Dorsal, dors/o, –al, dorsoventral

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MMTO                                  45 of 163
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                             Source                 Description      Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                          Dorsal, dorsoventral
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0409.jpg

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MMTO                                    46 of 163
Screen Number        11.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.11 Lateral, Dorsolateral

On Screen Text   Lateral, which contains the combining form later/o, means pertaining to the side. It indicates a
                 direction that is away from the body's midline. If one body part is described as lateral to another,
                 its relationship is to the side of that structure. For example, the lungs are lateral to the heart.
                 The abbreviation for lateral is lat.


                 Dorsolateral combines dors/o and later/o to form a term that indicates a location that is both to
                 the side and to the back, or at the side of the back.



Glossary Terms   Lateral, later/o, lat, Dorsolateral

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                      http://www.coursew                            Lateral
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0410.jpg

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MMTO                                      48 of 163
Screen Number        12.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.12 Unilateral, Bilateral

On Screen Text   Now let's add some prefixes to the term lateral to see how the meaning of the word changes.


                 You will recall from Module 5 that the prefix uni- means one. If we place the prefix uni– before
                 the term lateral, we form the word unilateral, which means pertaining to one side. In the
                 accompanying illustration, we see the assessment of the extent of unilateral movement,
                 abduction of a hip joint on one side—the right side only.


                 Now, if we take the term unilateral and replace the word part uni– with the prefix bi-, meaning
                 two, we form the word bilateral. Therefore, the assessment of range of motion on both the right
                 and left sides would be a bilateral assessment.



Glossary Terms   uni–, unilateral, bi-, bilateral

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                             Source                   Description       Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                            Unilateral, bilateral
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0411.jpg

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MMTO                                      50 of 163
Screen Number        13.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.13 Medial

On Screen Text   The term medial means pertaining to the middle and may also be used to describe the location
                 of a structure that is toward the midline of the body. For example, the nose is medial to the left
                 eye.


                 Mediad, defined as toward the middle, refers to the direction from side to center. For example,
                 the location of the umbilicus is mediad to the stomach.


                 You will recall from Module 5 that both medial and mediad are built on the combining form,
                 medi/o, which means middle.



Glossary Terms   Medial, Mediad, medi/o

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                      http://www.coursew                            Medial
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0412.jpg

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MMTO                                      52 of 163
Screen Number        14.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.14 Anteromedial, Anterolateral, Posterolateral, Posteromedial

On Screen Text   As demonstrated earlier in this lesson, we can create specific directional terms by joining two
                 combining forms. In this way, we form such words as anteromedial, defined as pertaining to
                 the front and the middle, and posterolateral—pertaining to the back and the side.


                 Likewise, anterolateral means located on the front and the side, and posteromedial means
                 near the back and the center.



Glossary Terms   Anteromedial, posterolateral, anterolateral, posteromedial

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                             Source                   Description      Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                            Anteromedial,
                      areobjects.com/obj                            posterolateral
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0413.jpg

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MMTO                                      54 of 163
Screen Number        15.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.15 Threaded Case Study: Karen

On Screen Text   During Karen's physical examination, she and Dr. Likens will discuss her health history, her
                 health habits, and her family's health history. Karen will be asked whether she smokes and what
                 her previous level of exercise tolerance has been. Dr. Likens will gather additional information
                 by listening to her heart and lungs, moving the stethoscope systematically—laterally and
                 medially—for a thorough assessment.



Glossary Terms

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MMTO                                  55 of 163
On Screen Image

                             Source                 Description      Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                          Karen in doc’s office
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0414.jpg

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MMTO                                    56 of 163
Screen Number                 16.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title            2.16 Activity: Matching

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                         Matching - {fill out the engine template below}

 Instructions       Match the terms to their definitions

 Questions                 Terms                    Clues                  Media Link

                    ventral               front or belly side

                    posterior             back

                    mediad                toward the middle

                    dorsolateral          to the side and the back

                    anteroposterior       directed from the front
                                          to the back

                    bilateral             pertaining to both sides

                    posteroexternal       outside the surface of
                                          the back

 Distracters        medial                unilateral                 posteroanterior



 Engineering
 Notes



Engineering Notes




MMTO                                         57 of 163
Screen Number        17.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.17 Superior, Inferior

On Screen Text   As you will recall from Module 5, superior, which combines the prefix super– and the suffix –
                 ior, indicates a position that is above.


                 Anterosuperior, then, means above and toward the front. Another related term is superficial,
                 which means on or near the surface, or related to the surface.


                 Inferior, a combination of infer/o, which means below, and –ior, is the opposite of superior and
                 refers to a position that is below.


                 The related terms inferomedial and inferomedian are used to indicate a location that is below
                 and toward the midline.



Glossary Terms   Superior, super, ––ior, Anterosuperior, superficial, Inferior, inferomedial, inferomedian

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                      http://www.coursew                            Superior, inferior
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0416.jpg

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MMTO                                      59 of 163
Screen Number        18.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.18 Cephalad, Caudad

On Screen Text   Cephalic—built from the word parts cephal/o, meaning head, and the suffix –ic, meaning
                 pertaining to—may also be used to refer to a structure that is situated above another, or nearer
                 the head.


                 A related term, cephalad, ends in the suffix –ad, meaning toward; thus cephalad is defined as
                 toward the head.


                 Dorsocephalad is a related term that means toward the back of the head.


                 Caud/o is a combining form meaning tail or the lower part of the body. Thus, caudal, meaning
                 below, or nearer the feet or tail, describes an inferior position and is the opposite of cephalic.


                 Caudad literally means toward the tail. This term indicates a direction toward the lower part of
                 the body, and is the opposite of cephalad.



Glossary Terms   Cephalic, cephal/o, –ic, cephalad, –ad, Dorsocephalad, Caud/o, caudal, Caudad

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                      http://www.coursew                            Cephalad, caudad
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0417.jpg

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MMTO                                      61 of 163
Screen Number        19.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.19 Proximal, Distal

On Screen Text   The term proximal is formed by adding the suffix –al to the combining form proxim/o, meaning
                 near. Proximal means near the point of attachment or origin. It describes the location of a
                 structure in relation to the trunk of the body or to the structure’s point of origin.


                 The opposite of proximal is distal, formed by adding –al to the combining form dist/o, meaning
                 far. Distal means away from that point of reference. For example, the elbow is proximal to the
                 wrist and distal to the shoulder.


                 Another combining form that means distant, far, or remote, is tel/e. There are many familiar
                 terms in conversational English that are based on this word part, such as telephone and
                 television. A related medical term is telecardiogram, which refers to an ECG study that is
                 recorded at a location remote from the patient by sending the electric signals over a telephone
                 line.



Glossary Terms   Proximal, proxim/o, distal, dist/o, tel/e, telecardiogram

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                      http://www.coursew                            Proximal, distal
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0418.jpg

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MMTO                                      63 of 163
Screen Number        20.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.20 Muscle Strength Assessment

On Screen Text   In the accompanying illustration, muscle strength is being assessed. Notice that the doctor
                 places one hand at the distal end of the forearm and the other hand near the elbow at the distal
                 end of the upper arm. The doctor will evaluate muscle strength bilaterally.




Glossary Terms

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                      http://www.coursew                          Muscle strength
                      areobjects.com/obj                          assessment
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                    65 of 163
Screen Number        21.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.21 Palmar, Plantar

On Screen Text   Now let's consider another set a terms that refer to body surfaces. Remember that when a
                 person is in anatomic position, the palms—the somewhat concave part of the hand between the
                 base of the fingers and the wrist—are facing forward. In other words, the palmar surface of the
                 hands is showing as in the illustration on the left.


                 A corresponding term, plantar, is used to refer to the sole, or undersurface, of the foot, seen in
                 the illustration.



Glossary Terms   Palmar, plantar

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                      http://www.coursew                            Plamar, plantar
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0420.jpg

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MMTO                                      67 of 163
Screen Number        22.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.22 Supine, Prone

On Screen Text   Supine and prone, are terms that refer to specific body positions. To be in a supine position
                 means to lie horizontally on the back. The prone position involves lying face downward.


                 Both the supine and prone positions are also considered recumbent positions, that is, the
                 person is lying down. A person lying on one side would be said to be in the lateral recumbent
                 position.



Glossary Terms   Supine, prone, recumbent

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                      http://www.coursew                            Supine, prone
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0421.jpg

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MMTO                                      69 of 163
Screen Number        23.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title     2.23 Supination, Pronation (animation)

On Screen Text   Related to these descriptors are the terms supination and pronation.


                 Besides referring to the act of lying on the back, supination is also defined as a kind of rotating
                 movement, such as that which turns the palm upward.


                 Similarly, pronation indicates the assumption of a prone position, and also the downward and/or
                 backward rotation of a joint, such as that which turns the palm downward.


                 Supination and Pronation of the Hand



Glossary Terms   Supination, pronation

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                      http://www.coursew                             Supination and
                      areobjects.com/obj                             pronation of the hand
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0422.jpg

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                      Link in Onscreen       Supination and Pronation of the Hand
                      Text

                      Media Type             Animation

                      Media Title

                      Pop-Up                 http://www.coursewareobjects.com/objects/leon
                      Content/Source         ard6e_v1/mod06/assets/06s01l0422p.htm




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MMTO                                      71 of 163
Screen Number                24.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title            2.24 Activity: Write It, Find It

On Screen Text          Let's review the material we've covered in this lesson by completing the activities that follow.

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                               Write It, Find It

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0423.htm




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MMTO                                         72 of 163
Screen Number                25.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title            2.25 Activity: Matching

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                                  Matching

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0424.htm




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MMTO                                       73 of 163
Screen Number                26.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title            2.26 Activity: Memory Match

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                            Memory Match

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0425.htm




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MMTO                                       74 of 163
Screen Number                27.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title            2.27 Activity Word Shop

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                              Word Shop

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Engineering Notes




MMTO                                       75 of 163
Screen Number                28.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 2: Anatomic Position and Directional Terms

Screen Title            2.28 Activity Matching

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                                 Matching

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Engineering Notes




MMTO                                       76 of 163
Screen Number        1.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.1 Body Cavities

On Screen Text   A useful way to consider body structure and learn its parts is to partition it into the internal
                 spaces that contain the body's organs. These spaces within the body are known as the body
                 cavities.


                 The body contains two major cavities, the dorsal and the ventral. The dorsal cavity is
                 subdivided into the cranial and spinal cavities. The ventral cavity has three subdivisions, the
                 thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities.



Glossary Terms   dorsal, ventral, cranial, spinal, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic

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MMTO                                  77 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                            Body cavities
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0501.jpg

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MMTO                                      78 of 163
Screen Number        2.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.2 Dorsal Cavity

On Screen Text   Together, the cranial and spinal cavities form the dorsal cavity, so called because of its location
                 at the back, or posterior, part of the body.


                 The cranial cavity contains the brain; the spinal cavity houses the spinal cord and the roots of
                 the spinal nerves.


                 The term cranial is a combination of crani/o and –al, meaning pertaining to the skull,
                 specifically that portion of the skull that contains the brain.


                 Likewise, spinal is a combination of spin/o and
                 –al. It means pertaining to the spine.



Glossary Terms   cranial, crani/o, –al, spinal, spin/o

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MMTO                                  79 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                            Dorsal cavities
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0502.jpg

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MMTO                                      80 of 163
Screen Number        3.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.3 Ventral Cavity

On Screen Text   The ventral cavity consists of the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities, which are located at
                 the anterior, or front, part of the body.




Glossary Terms

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MMTO                                  81 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                          Ventral cavities
                      areobjects.com/obj
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                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                    82 of 163
Screen Number        4.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.4 Thoracic Cavity

On Screen Text   The thoracic cavity is the space between the base of the neck and a muscular wall, the
                 diaphragm, that separates it from the abdomen. The thoracic cavity contains the lungs, the
                 heart, and major blood vessels leading to and from those organs. It also contains other
                 structures that are parts of the respiratory and digestive systems. You'll learn about these in
                 later modules.


                 Thoracic is a combination of thorac/o and –ic. This term therefore means pertaining to the
                 thorax or chest.


                 Perhaps you recall the term transthoracic, through the chest, from Module 5. In Module 3 you
                 were introduced to the term thoracocentesis, a surgical puncture of the thorax to aspirate fluid.
                 Other related terms include thoracotomy, an incision through the chest wall; thoracodynia,
                 meaning chest pain; and suprathoracic, meaning above the thorax.



Glossary Terms   diaphragm, Thoracic, thorac/o, –ic, thorax, transthoracic, thoracocentesis, thoracodynia,
                 suprathoracic

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MMTO                                  83 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                            Thoracic cavity
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                      84 of 163
Screen Number        5.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.5 Abdominal Cavity

On Screen Text   The abdominal cavity—the space between the diaphragm and the pelvic area—contains the
                 stomach, small and large intestines, and other organs of the digestive and urinary systems.


                 This area is also referred to simply as the abdomen, abbreviated abd. The combining form that
                 means abdomen is abdomin/o, and thus abdominal means pertaining to the abdomen.


                 Abdominoplasty is a term for a surgical procedure to tighten the abdominal muscles, referred
                 to in lay terms as a ―tummy tuck.‖


                 Abdominothoracic joins the combining forms for both abdomen and thorax to build a term that
                 means pertaining to both the abdomen and the thorax.



Glossary Terms   Abdomen, abdomin/o, abdominal, Abdominoplasty, Abdominothoracic

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MMTO                                 85 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                            Abdominal cavity
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0505.jpg

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MMTO                                      86 of 163
Screen Number        6.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.6 Peritoneum

On Screen Text   The wall of the abdominal cavity is lined by an extensive membrane called the peritoneum,
                 which also enfolds the abdominal organs, the viscera (sing. viscus), and holds them in place.
                 The combining form for viscera is viscer/o, and visceral means pertaining any of the large
                 organs of the ventral cavity, particularly those in the abdominal cavity.


                 You will recall from Module 4 that the suffix –eum means membrane. Periton/o is a combining
                 form that refers to the peritoneum. The parietal peritoneum is that which lines the cavity; the
                 visceral peritoneum covers the organs.


                 The peritoneum is a serous membrane, which means that it secretes serous fluid, a thin,
                 watery liquid that lubricates the membrane, allowing smooth movement between the parietal
                 and visceral peritoneum. An abnormal collection of serous fluid in the abdomen is called
                 ascites.


                 You will recall from Module 3 that –centesis is a suffix that refers to a surgical puncture to
                 remove fluid. Therefore, the surgical puncture of the abdominal wall to treat ascites is called
                 abdominocentesis or abdominal paracentesis.



Glossary Terms   Peritoneum, viscera, viscer/o, visceral, –eum, Periton/o, parietal, serous, ascites, –
                 centesis, abdominocentesis, abdominal paracentesis

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MMTO                                  87 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                            Abdominal
                      areobjects.com/obj                            paracentesis
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                      88 of 163
Screen Number        7.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.7 Abdominopelvic Cavity (animation)

On Screen Text   The pelvic cavity is the area below the abdomen that contains the urinary bladder, the
                 reproductive organs, part of the intestines, and the rectum.


                 Pelvic means pertaining to the pelvis. The term pelvis refers both to the lowest portion of the
                 trunk of the body and to the innominate bones, the pair of hip bones that form the bony structure
                 of the lower trunk.


                 Because the pelvic cavity is not separated from the abdomen by a dividing structure, these
                 spaces are often jointly referred to as the abdominopelvic cavity.


                 Abdominopelvic Cavity



Glossary Terms   Pelvic, pelvis, abdominopelvic

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MMTO                                 89 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                             Abdominopelvic
                      areobjects.com/obj                             cavity
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0507.jpg

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                      Link in Onscreen       Abdominopelvic Cavity
                      Text


                      Media Type             Animation

                      Media Title

                      Pop-Up                 http://www.coursewareobjects.com/objects/leon
                      Content/Source         ard6e_v1/mod06/assets/06s01l0507p.htm




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MMTO                                      90 of 163
Screen Number                8.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title            3.8 Activity: Write It, Find It

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                               Write It, Find It

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0508.htm



Engineering Notes




MMTO                                         91 of 163
Screen Number        9.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.9 Divisions of the Abdominopelvic Area

On Screen Text   To continue our discussion of the body's orientation and organization, let's focus on the
                 abdominopelvic area. It may be divided into nine regions by imposing four imaginary lines in a
                 tic-tac-toe pattern over its anterior surface. These anatomic divisions help health care providers
                 locate internal organs. They also serve as useful points of reference for describing health
                 problems



Glossary Terms

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MMTO                                  92 of 163
On Screen Image

                             Source                 Description      Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                          Quadrants of
                      areobjects.com/obj                          abdominopelvic area
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                    93 of 163
Screen Number        10.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.10 Abdominopelvic Regions

On Screen Text   The imaginary lines that divide the abdominopelvic area form three upper, three middle, and
                 three lower regions. The upper right and left sections are the hypochondriac regions; these
                 are separated by the epigastric region, so named because it lies directly above the stomach.


                 The middle right and left sections are the lumbar regions, between which lies the umbilical
                 region where the navel, or umbilicus, is located.


                 The lower right and left sections are called the iliac regions, because of their proximity to the
                 ilium, the upper portion of the hip bone. These regions are also sometimes referred to as the
                 right and left inguinal regions because they are near the groin and inguinal means pertaining
                 to the groin.


                 The hypogastric region is the lower middle section below the umbilicus. You will recognize
                 that this term means below the stomach.



Glossary Terms   hypochondriac regions, epigastric region, lumbar regions, umbilical region, umbilicus,
                 iliac regions, inguinal regions, inguinal, hypogastric region

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MMTO                                  94 of 163
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                             Source                   Description      Alternate Text

                      http://www.coursew                            Abdominopelvic
                      areobjects.com/obj                            regions
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0510.jpg

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MMTO                                      95 of 163
Screen Number         11.

Screen Type       Content w/ Fast Fact

Module Title      Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title     Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title      Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title      3.11 Umbilicus

On Screen Text    As indicated earlier in this lesson, one combining form that indicates the umbilicus or navel is
                  umbilic/o, and umbilical means pertaining to the navel. For example, an umbilical hernia is an
                  intestinal protrusion through the abdominal wall at the navel, as seen in this illustration.


                  Another combining form with the same meaning is omphal/o. Omphalus means navel and
                  omphalic is a synonym for umbilical. Omphalitis means inflammation of the umbilicus, and an
                  omphaloma is a tumor of the umbilicus. Omphalorrhexis is the term for rupture of the
                  umbilicus.


                  Did you know?



Glossary Terms    umbilic/o, umbilical, omphal/o, Omphalus, omphalic, Omphalitis, omphaloma,
                  Omphalorrhexis

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                   Pop-Up Content        The term umbilicus is from the Latin word
                                         umbo, which referred to the boss or protruding
                                         part of a shield. The term later came to signify
                                         a raised or depressed spot in the center of any
                                         object.




MMTO                                  96 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                            Umbilical hernia
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                      97 of 163
Screen Number        12.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.12 Upper Abdominopelvic Quadrants (RUQ and LUQ)

On Screen Text   The abdominopelvic area can also be divided into quadrants (four sections) by drawing
                 imaginary vertical and horizontal lines through the umbilicus.


                 The right upper quadrant (RUQ) contains the right lobe of the liver, the gallbladder, part of the
                 pancreas, portions of the small and large intestines, and the right kidney.


                 In the left upper quadrant (LUQ) we find the left lobe of the liver, the stomach, the spleen, part
                 of the pancreas, portions of the large and small intestines, and the left kidney.



Glossary Terms   right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant

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                      http://www.coursew                            RUQ and LUQ
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0512.jpg

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MMTO                                      99 of 163
Screen Number        13.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.13 Lower Abdominopelvic Quadrants (RLQ and LLQ)

On Screen Text   The right lower quadrant (RLQ) of the abdominopelvic region contains parts of the small and
                 large intestines, the appendix, the right ureter, the right fallopian tube and ovary in women, and
                 the right spermatic duct in men.


                 Located in the left lower quadrant (LLQ) are portions of the intestinal tract, the left ureter, the
                 left fallopian tube and ovary in women, and the left spermatic duct in men.



Glossary Terms   right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant

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                      http://www.coursew                             RLQ and LLQ
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                      101 of 163
Screen Number        14.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title     3.14 Threaded Case Study: Karen

On Screen Text   Karen has mentioned to Dr. Likens that, in conjunction with her new exercise program, she
                 intends to introduce some changes in her diet, for example, the inclusion of more fruits and
                 vegetables for dietary fiber. Consequently, Dr. Likens will ask about her current and past
                 nutritional habits, examine the abdominopelvic area, and explore any reported digestive
                 problems.



Glossary Terms

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MMTO                                  102 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                           Palpation of the
                      areobjects.com/obj                           abdomen
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                    103 of 163
Screen Number                15.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title            3.15 Activity: Write It, Find It

On Screen Text          Let's review the material we've covered in this lesson by completing the activities that follow.



{Insert Activities below this text}

                                               Write It, Find It

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MMTO                                         104 of 163
Screen Number                16.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title            3.16 Activity: Write It, Find It

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                              Write It, Find It

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0516.htm



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MMTO                                        105 of 163
Screen Number                17.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 3: Body Regions and Body Cavities

Screen Title            3.17 Activity: Listen and Spell

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                            Listen and Spell

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0517.htm



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MMTO                                       106 of 163
Screen Number        1.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.1 Acr/o

On Screen Text   The body's paired appendages, the four limbs, are often referred to as the extremities. The
                 arms with all their component parts—the wrists, hands, and fingers—are the upper extremities;
                 the legs—including the knees and feet—are the lower extremities.


                 The combining form acr/o denotes a relationship to an extremity. An example of its use in a
                 medical term can be seen by adding the suffix –megaly, which means enlargement. The word
                 acromegaly is defined as enlargement of portions of the skeleton, a condition caused by
                 excessive secretion of growth hormone in adulthood and marked by enlargement of distal
                 portions of the skeleton, particularly the extremities and the jaw, as seen in this illustration.


                 You will recall that –osis is a suffix meaning condition and that cyan/o is the combining form for
                 the color blue. Therefore, acrocyanosis is a condition in which the extremities appear blue.
                 This persistent, uneven, bluish discoloration is also known as Raynaud’s sign.


                 Acroparalysis is a term that means loss of motor function or sensation or both with respect to
                 the extremities.



Glossary Terms   acr/o, –megaly, acromegaly, –osis, cyan/o, acrocyanosis, Acroparalysis

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MMTO                                 107 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                             Acromegaly
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0601.jpg

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MMTO                                      108 of 163
Screen Number        2.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.2 Dactyl/o

On Screen Text   Now let's look at some additional word parts that are used to refer to the extremities.


                 The term digit refers to a finger or toe. The bones of the digits are called phalanges (sing.
                 phalanx).


                 Dactyl/o is a combining form that means digit. When used in a medical term, dactyl/o may refer
                 to either a finger or a toe. If we add the suffix –itis, which means inflammation, we form the
                 word dactylitis, a painful inflammation of the fingers or toes.


                 Dactylography is the analysis of fingerprints for identification, and the term for fingerprint is
                 dactylogram.


                 Another term based on the combining form dactyl/o is dactylospasm, which refers to the
                 muscle contraction of the fingers known as ―writer’s cramp.‖




Glossary Terms   Digit, phalanges, Dactyl/o, –it is, dactylitis, Dactylography, dactylogram, dactylospasm

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MMTO                                  109 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                             Dactylitis
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0603.jpg

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MMTO                                      110 of 163
Screen Number        3.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.3 Chir/o, Pod/o

On Screen Text   In Module 3 you were introduced to the combining form chir/o, which means hand.


                 Pod/o, as you'll recall from Module 4, is a combining form that means foot. A chiropodist, now
                 more commonly known as a podiatrist, is one who specializes in treating disorders of the foot.


                 The term chiropodist probably referred originally to those who manually—that is, by using their
                 hands—treated pathologic foot conditions.



Glossary Terms   chir/o, Pod/o, podiatrist, chiropodist

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MMTO                                 111 of 163
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                      http://www.coursew                             Podiatry
                      areobjects.com/obj
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                      mod06/images/06s0
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MMTO                                      112 of 163
Screen Number        4.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.4 Somatogenic Classifications for Disease Origins

On Screen Text   Now we'll consider some terms that relate to the body in a more general way.


                 Recall from Lesson 1 of this module that somat/o is a combining form that means body. Let's
                 add suffixes to this word part to form some commonly used medical terms.


                 You will recall from Module 4 that –genic means produced by or originating in. If we join this
                 suffix to somat/o, we create somatogenic, a term that means originating in the body.


                 Somatic death refers to the death of the organism and is characterized by the discontinuation
                 of cardiac activity and respiration that eventually leads to the death of all body cells. For
                 approximately six minutes after somatic death—a period referred to as clinical death—a person
                 whose vital organs have not been damaged may be revived. Achievements of modern
                 biomedical technology have enabled physicians to artificially maintain critical functions for
                 indefinite periods following somatic death.



Glossary Terms   somat/o, –genic, somatogenic, Somatic death

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                      http://www.coursew                             Somatogenic
                      areobjects.com/obj
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                      mod06/images/06s0
                      1l0605.jpg

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MMTO                                      114 of 163
Screen Number        5.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.5 Psychogenic Classifications for Disease Origins

On Screen Text   While many diseases are somatogenic, there are two other common classifications for disease
                 origins. Exogenous diseases are the result of causes originating outside the body, and
                 psychogenic conditions are those that originate in the mind or are caused by mental
                 processes. Recall from Module 4 that psych/o means mind. Psychic means mental or
                 pertaining to the mind.


                 Psychosomatic, therefore, means pertaining to the relationship and interaction between the
                 mind and body and refers to the manifestation of bodily symptoms due to mental or emotional
                 causes. For example, the role of mental and emotional stress is commonly recognized as a
                 contributing cause of certain physical conditions including ulcers, asthma, and certain skin
                 conditions. Psychophysiologic has the same meaning as psychosomatic, but is less
                 commonly used.


                 Somatopsychic, on the other hand, refers to the effects of the body on the mind. Diseases of
                 the circulatory system, for example, may affect the blood supply to the brain causing memory
                 loss or other mental problems.


                 If you remember from Module 4 that esthesi/o is the combining form that means feeling, you
                 will recognize that somesthetic means pertaining to the general feeling or sense of one's body
                 and of the functioning of one's own organs. The somesthetic area of the brain is the part where
                 the awareness of sensations occurs.



Glossary Terms   Exogenous, psychogenic, psych/o, Psychic, Psychosomatic, Psychophysiologic,
                 Somatopsychic, esthesi/o, somesthetic

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MMTO                                      116 of 163
Screen Number        6.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.6 Conditions of the Head

On Screen Text   Let's look at two more word parts that may be used to describe the body or body parts
                 generally.


                 The prefixes macro- and micro- refer to size. Remember the combining form cephal/o which,
                 as we learned in an earlier lesson, means head? If we join the prefix macro– to the combining
                 form cephal/o and add the suffix –ic, we construct the term macrocephalic, defined as
                 pertaining to a large head.


                 Substituting the prefix micro– for macro–, we can build the terms microcephalus, abnormally
                 small head, and microcephalic, pertaining to microcephalus.



Glossary Terms   macro-, micro-, cephal/o, macrocephalic, microcephalus, microcephalic

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                      http://www.coursew                             Macrocephaly,
                      areobjects.com/obj                             microcephaly
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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Screen Number        7.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.7 Conditions of the Brain

On Screen Text   In previous modules, you encountered the combining form encephal/o, meaning brain. Any
                 abnormal condition of the brain may be referred to as encephalopathy. If the condition
                 involves inflammation, it is more likely to be termed encephalitis.
                 Recall that a machine to record the electrical activity of the brain is called an
                 electroencephalograph. Electroencephalography is sometimes used to determine whether
                 there is brain function following the somatic death of an individual who is being maintained on
                 artificial life support. When this test confirms a lack of brain activity, the individual may be said
                 to be ―brain dead.‖ Brain death is the cessation and irreversibility of all brain function, including
                 the brain stem.



Glossary Terms   encephal/o, encephalopathy, encephalitis, electroencephalograph,
                 Electroencephalography

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                      http://www.coursew                             Encephalitis
                      areobjects.com/obj
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Screen Number        8.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.8 Development

On Screen Text   In Module 4 you learned that the suffix –plasia means development. The following terms that
                 use this suffix are applicable to the development of almost any part of the body.


                 Aplasia contains the prefix a–, meaning without, to form this term that means without
                 development; it refers to the failure of development that results in the absence of an organ or
                 tissue. Anotia, congenital absence of the external ear, is an example of aplasia. Dysplasia
                 means abnormal development.


                 The prefix ana– may mean up, apart, or backward. In the term anaplasia, ana– means
                 backward. Anaplasia is a change in the degree of differentiation of cells into a more primitive
                 form, which is characteristic of malignancy.


                 Hypoplasia and hyperplasia refer, respectively, to underdevelopment and overdevelopment.
                 Both of these terms refer to abnormal size of a structure related to the number of cells in the
                 tissue or organ; that is, hypoplasia indicates an abnormally diminished number of cells, while
                 hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in the number of cells.


                 When the size of a tissue or organ is abnormally increased due to enlargement of the cells,
                 rather than an increase in their number, this condition is called hypertrophy, which literally
                 means excessive nutrition. Although they have distinctly different meanings, the terms
                 hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often used interchangeably.




Glossary Terms   –plasia, Aplasia, Anotia, Dysplasia, ana–, anaplasia, Hypoplasia, hyperplasia,
                 hypertrophy




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                      http://www.coursew                             Hyperplasia
                      areobjects.com/obj
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MMTO                                      122 of 163
Screen Number        9.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.9 Conditions of the Skin

On Screen Text   You will recall that dermat/o and derm/o are combining forms that mean skin. The entire outer
                 surface of the body is covered with skin. The abbreviation for body surface area is BSA.


                 If we join the combining for dermat/o with the suffix –osis, meaning condition, we form the term
                 dermatosis, which refers to any disease of the skin, particularly one not involving inflammation.


                 If the skin condition involves inflammation, it is more properly called dermatitis, because –itis is
                 the suffix that means inflammation.


                 By combining this term with acr/o, we form acrodermatitis, which is inflammation of the skin of
                 the extremities.


                 The term for skin graft is dermoplasty, which literally means procedure to repair the skin.



Glossary Terms   dermat/o, derm/o, –osis, dermatosis, dermatitis, –itis, acrodermatitis, dermoplasty

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                      http://www.coursew                             Acrodermatitis
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
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Screen Number        10.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.10 Hernias

On Screen Text   You learned in an earlier module that –cele is the suffix that indicates a hernia, a protrusion of
                 a portion of the digestive tract through a weakness in the muscle of a cavity wall. There are
                 several types of hernia, depending on the location of the herniation.


                 You will recall from Module 4 that omphalocele is the term for an umbilical hernia.


                 A hiatal hernia is a protrusion of a portion of the stomach through the diaphragm into the
                 thoracic cavity.


                 Men may suffer from inguinal hernias that occur in the area of the groin where the spermatic
                 cord passes through the abdominal wall. This passage is termed the inguinal canal.


                 Femoral hernias occur in the femoral canal in the inguinal region and may occur in either men
                 or women.


                 An incisional hernia is one in which there is protrusion through the abdominal wall at the site of
                 a surgical incision.


                 The term for surgical repair of a hernia is hernioplasty.



Glossary Terms   –cele, hernia, omphalocele, hiatal hernia, inguinal hernias, Femoral hernias, incisional
                 hernia, hernioplasty




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                             Source                    Description      Alternate Text

                      http://coursewareob                            Hernias
                      jects.elsevier.com/o
                      bjects/lafleur7e_v1/
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Screen Number        11.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.11 Wounds

On Screen Text   A wound is any physical injury to body tissue. This term refers to accidental injuries as well as
                 to those that occur in the process of surgical intervention.


                 When wounds are deep or are subject to movement, as when near a joint, they must be closed
                 with sutures or other means so that the tissue is held together until it heals.


                 Dehiscence is the term for the opening of a wound when a suture parts or a rupture occurs
                 after the wound has closed. This term is commonly applied to the opening of an abdominal
                 incision, which can occur as a result of infection or unusual stress on the abdominal muscles,
                 such as a fall or a severe cough.


                 When there is protrusion of internal organs through a wound or a dehiscence, the term for this
                 condition is evisceration.



Glossary Terms   Wound, Dehiscence, evisceration

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                      http://coursewareob                            Dehisced wound
                      jects.elsevier.com/o
                      bjects/elr/Potter/fun
                      damentals7e/IC/jpg/
                      Chapter48/048022A.
                      jpg

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Screen Number        12.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.12 Infectious Disease

On Screen Text   In Module 4 you learned about pathogens, microorganisms capable of causing disease.
                 Conditions caused by the invasion of pathogens may be localized or may affect the body as a
                 whole. Influenza, for example, can produce symptoms in all parts of the body.


                 Drugs classed as antiinfectives are used to fight infections. When this term is analyzed, we
                 see that the word parts signify pertaining to being against infection.


                 Various antiinfectives act against a variety of bacteria, viruses, parasitic worms, and other
                 pathogens. They are often referred to as antibiotics, because the combining form for life is
                 bi/o, and these drugs act against living organisms.



Glossary Terms   Pathogens, microorganisms, antiinfectives, antibiotics, bi/o

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                      http://www.coursew                             Anti-infectives
                      areobjects.com/obj
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MMTO                                      130 of 163
Screen Number        13.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.13 Inflammation

On Screen Text   You will recall from Module 4 that inflammation is the body’s response to disease and injury.
                 The classic signs of inflammation are redness, swelling, warmth and pain. The term
                 inflammatory means pertaining to or characterized by inflammation.


                 The antiinflammatory drugs, as the name suggests, are used to counteract or reduce
                 inflammation. Steroid drugs are among those that have this property. Nonsteroidal
                 antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are available in prescription strength and in smaller dosages
                 without prescription.



Glossary Terms   Inflammation, inflammatory, antiinflammatory

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                      http://www.coursew                             Anti-inflammatories
                      areobjects.com/obj
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MMTO                                      132 of 163
Screen Number        14.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title     Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title     4.14 Fever

On Screen Text   Infections and their associated inflammations often cause an elevation in body temperature. In
                 Module 4 you learned that the combining form pyr/o means fire and the related combining form,
                 pyrex/o, means fever, an abnormally high body temperature. Terms that mean fever include
                 pyrexia, the condition of fever, and hyperthermia, excessive heat.


                 A substance or agent that tends to produce fever is usually referred to as a pyrogen, but may
                 also be called a pyretogen, a pyretic, or a pyrectic.


                 A term that means pertaining to a fever is febrile. When prefixes are added, these terms take
                 on new meanings. For example, afebrile means without fever.


                 The terms antifebrile and antipyretic refer to agents that reduce or alleviate fever.


                 Many of the antiinflammatory drugs also have an antipyretic effect, that is, they are capable of
                 reducing fever. Readily recognized drugs within these categories are aspirin, ibuprofen, and
                 acetaminophen.



Glossary Terms   pyr/o, pyrex/o, pyrexia, hyperthermia, pyrogen, febrile, afebrile, antipyretic

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                      http://www.coursew                             Vital signs
                      areobjects.com/obj
                      ects/leonard6e_v1/
                      mod06/images/06s0
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Engineering Notes    Developer: Use only upper left portion of image.




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Screen Number                15.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title            4.15 Activity: Memory Match

On Screen Text          Let's review the material we've covered in this lesson by completing the activities that follow.

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                               Memory Match

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0611.htm



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                   16.
Number

Screen         Activity
Type

Module
               Module 6: Organization of the Body
Title

Section
               Section I: Organization of the Body
Title

Lesson
               Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole
Title

Screen
               4.16 Activity: Word Shop
Title

On Screen
Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                              Word Shop

 Pickup Source
                    http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0612.htm



Engineerin     Developer: Two changes are needed in this activity. Word 6 should be dermoplasty and Word 8
g Notes        should be dysplasia.

                                                       Word Parts                              Definition

                Word 1                       acr/o, dermat/o, -itis       inflammation of the skin of the extremities
                                                                          (3)
                                             acrodermatitis

                Word 2                       somat/o, -genic              originating within the body (2)
                                             somatogenic

                Word 3                       dactyl/o, -spasm             writer’s cramp (2)
                                             dactylospasm

                Word 4                       macro-, cephal/o, -ic        pertaining to enlargement of the head (3)
                                             macrocephalic

                Word 5                       a-, -plasia                  lacking development (2)
                                             aplasia

MMTO                                      136 of 163
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           16.
Number

         Word 6           derm/o, -plasty              skin graft (2)
                          dermoplasty

         Word 7           hyper-, troph/o, -y          tissue enlargement due to enlargement of t
                                                       cells (3)
                          hypertrophy

         Word 8           dys-, -plasia                abnormal development (3)
                          dysplasia

         Word 9           acr/o, cyan/o, -osis         Raynaud’s sign; blue coloration of the
                                                       extremities (3)
                          acrocyanosis

         Word 10          psych/o, somat/o, -ic        pertaining to a condition of the body caused
                                                       or influenced by mental or emotional
                          psychosomatic
                                                       processes (3)

         Distracters      -iatrist                chir/o                    hypo-

                          micro-                  pod/o                     -gram




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Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title            4.17 Activity: Matching

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                                Matching

 Pickup Source
                    http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s01l0613.htm



Engineering Notes       Editor: For some reason the 2 highlighted questions were left out (from original activity).
                        If there is a good reason, fine. If not, please include the entire exercise.



                          encephalitis            inflammation of the brain

                          dactylography           analysis of fingerprints for identification




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Screen Number                18.

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Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title            4.18 Activity: Sound It Out

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                              Sound It Out

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MMTO                                       139 of 163
Screen Number                19.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section I: Organization of the Body

Lesson Title            Lesson 4: Body Extremities, Terms Related to the Body as a Whole

Screen Title            4.19 Activity: Fill-In

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                  Fill-In (Drag & Drop) - {fill out the engine template below}

 Instructions     Click and drag the correct term to complete each statement.

                  Bold correct answer(s) in each question           Media Link

 Question 1       A patient who has a normal body temperature
                  might be described as afebrile.

 Question 2       An agent that tends to produce a fever is
                  called a(n) pyrogen.

 Question 3       Diseases that originate from causes outside
                  the body are classified as exogenous.

 Question 4       The medical term for inflammation of one or
                  more digits is dactylitis.

 Question 5       When a wound that has been closed splits
                  open again, the term for this occurrence is
                  dehiscence.

 Question 6       Protrusion of a portion of the digestive tract
                  through the muscle wall surrounding a cavity
                  is termed a(n) hernia.

 Question 7       In the condition called hiatal hernia, there is
                  protrusion of the stomach through the
                  diaphragm.

 Question 8       When there is protrusion of internal organs
                  through a wound, the term for this condition is
                  evisceration.

 Question 9       The general medical term for ay disease
                  affecting the brain is encephalopathy.


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Screen Number             19.

 Question 10    The medical term for hernia repair is
                hernioplasty.

 Distracters    febrile                  antipyretic

                encephalitis

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            Objective Summary:

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            Asset Summary:


            Images
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       Animations
                Supination and Pronation of the Hand .......................................... 71


       Audio
                Error! No table of contents entries found.
       Videos
                Error! No table of contents entries found.
       Slideshows

MMTO                                    143 of 163
                 Error! No table of contents entries found.
       Engines
             Matching ........................................................................................... 17
             Listen & Spell ................................................................................... 26
             Write It, Find It .................................................................................. 27
             Matching ........................................................................................... 57
             Write It, Find It .................................................................................. 72
             Matching ........................................................................................... 73
             Memory Match.................................................................................. 74
             Word Shop ........................................................................................ 75
             Matching ........................................................................................... 76
             Write It, Find It .................................................................................. 91
             Write It, Find It ................................................................................ 104
             Write It, Find It ................................................................................ 105
             Listen and Spell ............................................................................. 106
             Memory Match................................................................................ 135
             Word Shop ...................................................................................... 136
             Matching ......................................................................................... 138
             Sound It Out ................................................................................... 139
             Fill-In (Drag & Drop) ...................................................................... 140




MMTO                                       144 of 163
Screen Number        1.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title    Section II: Building Your Word Bank

Lesson Title

Screen Title     Word Parts

On Screen Text   If you've studied the combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes in your text, you're now ready for
                 the additional practice you'll receive with word parts in this module. Check your glossary for
                 definitions of all the word parts used in the following exercises. To review construction of
                 medical terms using prefixes, combining forms, and suffixes, return to Module 1. Click Next to
                 continue.



Glossary Terms

Popup

                  Link in Onscreen
                  Text

                  Pop-Up Title

                  Pop-Up Content




External Site
Popup
                  Link in Onscreen
                  Text

                  External Site URL



                  Link in Onscreen
                  Text

                  External Site URL




MMTO                                  145 of 163
On Screen Image

                             Source                  Description   Alternate Text




Animation/Slidesho
w/Audio/Video
                     {Insert media popup types here}



Engineering Notes




MMTO                                    146 of 163
Screen Number                2.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section II: Building Your Word Bank

Lesson Title

Screen Title            Activity: Fill-In

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                                   Fill-In

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s02l0102.htm




Engineering Notes




MMTO                                        147 of 163
Screen Number                3.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section II: Building Your Word Bank

Lesson Title

Screen Title            Activity: Fill-In

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                                   Fill-In

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s02l0103.htm



Engineering Notes




MMTO                                        148 of 163
Screen Number                4.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section II: Building Your Word Bank

Lesson Title

Screen Title            Activity: Part Puzzler

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                                 Part Puzzler

 Pickup Source      http://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/06s02l0104.htm




Engineering Notes




MMTO                                       149 of 163
Screen Number                  5.

Screen Type                Activity

Module Title               Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title              Section II: Building Your Word Bank

Lesson Title

Screen Title               Activity: Matching

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                           Matching - {fill out the engine template below}

 Instructions       Match the correct abbreviation to each definition.

 Questions                    Terms                  Clues                   Media Link

                    RUQ                     portion of the
                                            abdominopelvic area
                                            that contains the liver
                                            and gallbladder

                    abd.                    portion of the body
                                            between the diaphragm
                                            and the pelvis

                    AP                      the direction from the
                                            front to the back

                    RLQ                     portion of the
                                            abdominopelvic area
                                            that contains the
                                            appendix

                    BSA                     skin surface area of the
                                            body

                    PA                      the direction from the
                                            back to the front

                    LLQ                     potion of the
                                            abdominopelvic area
                                            that contains the left
                                            ureter and a portion of
                                            the intestinal tract

                    lat.                    side


MMTO                                          150 of 163
Screen Number             5.

                    DNA        protein substance that
                               makes up genetic
                               material in the cell
                               nucleus

                    LUQ        portion of the
                               abdominopelvic area
                               that contains the spleen




 Distracters        SSA

                    ECG

 Engineering
 Notes



Engineering Notes




MMTO                            151 of 163
Screen Number                 6.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section II: Building Your Word Bank

Lesson Title

Screen Title            Activity: Matching

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                           Matching - {fill out the engine template below}

 Instructions       Click and drag the terms and abbreviations to their definitions.

 Questions                   Terms                   Clues                   Media Link

                    tissue                  a group of similar cells
                                            that work together to
                                            perform a specific
                                            function

                    organ                   a group of tissues that
                                            perform a complex
                                            function

                    system                  a group of organs that
                                            work together to
                                            perform a set of related
                                            functions

                    cell                    the basic building block
                                            of all living organisms

                    organelle               a structure within a cell

                    nucleus                 portion of a cell that
                                            contains the genetic
                                            material

                    atom                    the smallest particle of
                                            any substance that
                                            contains all the
                                            characteristics of that
                                            substance

                    dactylitis              inflammation of the


MMTO                                          152 of 163
Screen Number               6.
                                       digits

                    encephalopathy     general term for
                                       disease of the brain

                    antibiotic         class of drugs that acts
                                       against living
                                       organisms




 Distracters        antiinflammatory   microcephalus

                    abdomen

 Engineering
 Notes



Engineering Notes




MMTO                                     153 of 163
Screen Number                 7.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section II: Building Your Word Bank

Lesson Title

Screen Title            Activity: Listen and Spell

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                       Listen & Spell - {fill out the engine template below}

 Instructions       Click the PLAY button to hear the word; then type it in the space.

                                             Word                               Audio File

 Word 1             chromosome

 Word 2             dehiscence

 Word 3             dorsolateral

 Word 4             abdominopelvic

 Word 5             peritoneal

 Word 6             inguinal

 Word 7             hypochondriac

 Word 8             antifebrile

 Word 9             ascites

 Word 10            anotia

 Engineering
 Notes



Engineering Notes




MMTO                                        154 of 163
Screen Number                8.

Screen Type             Activity

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section II: Building Your Word Bank

Lesson Title

Screen Title            Activity: Identification

On Screen Text

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                   Identification - {fill out the engine template below}

 Instructions       Click on the labels and drag them to the correct abdominal regions.

 Image file         http://www.coursewareobjects.com/objects/leonard6e_v1/mod06/images/06s01l0510.jpg
 location

 Questions                        Label Choices                                Correct Positions
                                                                         (Paste or reference an image}

                    Right hypochondriac region

                    Umbilical region

                    Left iliac region

                    Right lumbar region

                    Left lumbar region

                    Hypogastric region

                    Right iliac region

                    Epigastric region

                    Left hypochondriac region

                    Right hypochondriac region




MMTO                                           155 of 163
Screen Number       8.



 Engineering
 Notes




Engineering Notes




MMTO                     156 of 163
Screen Number              1.

Screen Type            Case Study

Module Title           Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title          Section III: Applications

Lesson Title

Screen Title           Case Study 1

On Screen Text         Erma, 75 years of age, is being seen in x-ray following her report of having slipped and fallen on
                       an area rug, with subsequent pain in the right iliac region. Erma has experienced arthritic
                       inflammation in the area and believes previous x-rays revealed evidence of worn cartilage in the
                       left hip joint. Several radiographic images of the injured area were taken, including AP and
                       lateral projections.




On Screen Image

                                Source                    Description       Alternate Text

                       http://www.coursew                                Erma
                       areobjects.com/obj
                       ects/leonard6e_v1/e
                       ngines/graphics/06s
                       03l0101.jpg

                                         Write It, Find It

                    Type the correct answers into each blank.

 Questions

 Erma experienced arthritic inflammation. The characteristics of inflammation are heat,
 redness, pain, and <blank word="swelling" />.

 The AP radiograph was taken with the x-ray beam passing through the area from <blank
 word="front" /> to <blank word="back" />.

 The lateral projection is a <blank word="side" /> view.




Engineering Notes



MMTO                                         157 of 163
MMTO   158 of 163
Screen Number                2.

Screen Type             Case Study

Module Title            Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title           Section III: Applications

Lesson Title

Screen Title            Case Study 2

On Screen Text          Sean, a 25-year-old male, is seen by his company's physician with a complaint of abdominal
                        pain. Physical assessment is conducted with inspection and percussion of the abdominal area.
                        Inspection revealed an old surgical scar in the area to the right of the hypogastric region and
                        slight protrusion of the navel. Sean complained of tenderness with palpation of the area
                        between the right and left hypochondriac regions. Auscultation revealed normal bowel sounds.
                        Blood series ordered; results waited to check enzyme levels.



On Screen Image

                                  Source                    Description       Alternate Text

                          http://www.coursew                              Sean
                          areobjects.com/obj
                          ects/leonard6e_v1/e
                          ngines/graphics/06s
                          03l0102.jpg

{Insert Activities below this text}

                                           Write It, Find It

                    Type the correct answers into each blank.

 Questions

 From the scenarios description, Seans surgical scar is located in the <blank word="iliac"
 /> region.

 A slight protrusion was observed in the <blank word="umbilical" /> region.

 The area between the left and right hypochondriac regions is called the <blank
 word="epigastric" /> region.



Engineering Notes




MMTO                                           159 of 163
Screen Number           1.

Screen Type         Learning Links

Module Title        Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title

Lesson Title

Screen Title        Learning Links

On Screen Text      For additional information about human anatomy and body structure, visit the following sites:


                    MEDtropolis—Virtual Body




                     Link in Onscreen Text            MEDtropolis—Virtual
                                                      Body

                     External Site URL                www.med.harvard.edu




Engineering Notes




MMTO                                     160 of 163
Screen Number        1.

Screen Type      Content

Module Title     Module 6: Organization of the Body

Section Title

Lesson Title

Screen Title     Conclusion

On Screen Text   You have completed all of the lessons and activities in Module 6. If you are still uncertain about
                 any of the information presented in this module, you should go back and review the content of
                 the module again.
                 When you feel ready, return to the module folder to take the final exam.




Glossary Terms

Popup

                  Link in Onscreen
                  Text

                  Pop-Up Title

                  Pop-Up Content




External Site
Popup
                  Link in Onscreen
                  Text

                  External Site URL



                  Link in Onscreen
                  Text

                  External Site URL




MMTO                                  161 of 163
On Screen Image

                             Source                  Description   Alternate Text




Animation/Slidesho
w/Audio/Video
                     {Insert media popup types here}



Engineering Notes




MMTO                                    162 of 163
MMTO   163 of 163

				
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