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Neonatal hypothyroidism

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					Neonatal hypothyroidism
              Defination
Neonatal hypothyroidism is decreased
thyroid hormone production in a newborn.
If the baby was born with the condition, it
is called congenital hypothyroidism. If it
develops soon after birth, it is referred to
as hypothyroidism acquired in the
newborn period.
                  Causes
Hypothyroidism in the newborn may be caused
by:
– A missing or abnormally developed thyroid gland
– Pituitary gland's failure to stimulate the thyroid
– Defective or abnormal formation of thyroid hormones
End organ resistance to thyroxine
Endemic goiter (iodine deficiency)
Trans-placental suppression of thyroid by drugs,
antibodies, etc
                       Symptoms
Symptoms may include:
–   Puffy-appearing face
–   Dull look
–   Thick, protruding tongue
–   Dry, brittle hair
–   Coarse Dry skin
–   Low hairline
–   Hoarse cry
–   Jaundice
–   Poor feeding
–   Hypotonia
–   Choking episodes
–   Lack of muscle tone (floppy infant)
–   Umblical hernia
–   Constipation
–   Sleepiness
–   Sluggishness
–   Short stature
              Diagnosis
Blood tests will be done to check thyroid
function. Other tests that may be done
include:
– Thyroid scan
– X-ray of the long bones
               Treatment
Early diagnosis is very important. Most of the
effects of hypothyroidism are easily reversible.
Replacement therapy with thyroxine is the
standard treatment of hypothyroidism. Once
medication starts, thyroid blood tests are
regularly done to make sure levels are within a
normal range.
Thyroxine is given as a single daily oral dose.
Dose is 10 – 15 μg/kg/day in neonates, and 4
μg/kg/day in children.
As the child grows, the dosage is adjusted to
maintain the serum T4 in the high-normal range.

				
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posted:9/3/2011
language:English
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