Core 1 discussion forum 2006 by suchenfz

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 63

									View All
Below are all of the messages posted to the Core 1 PDHPE Discussion forum.



Sender:     Blake Hardy
Subject:    core 1-health promotion
Date:       31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
            How do you compare the impact of the 'individual
Message:    lifestyle' and 'new public health' approaches to health
            promotion in addressing Australia's health priorities?


Sender:     Michelle Maher
Subject:    Re: core 1-health promotion
Date:       01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
            >How do you compare the impact of the 'individual
            >lifestyle' and 'new public health' approaches to
            health
            >promotion in addressing Australia's health priorities?
            Dear Blake,

            It's important to read the other questions that relate
            to ILA and NPHA to health promotion to get an overview
            of the three approaches (including curative or
            biomedical)

            To visualise the impact of the two, draw up a Venn
Message:
            diagram or T-chart to compare and contrast the
            approaches. Then ask yourself who may not be reached by
            this approach? Are there some people who miss out
            because they can't read or don't have time or just
            don't understand the materials provided? (ILA) What
            does the NPHA do differently and why have we adopted
            this one as the preferred model of choice?

            Last years HSC featured a question that addressed this
            question - go to the BOS website and look up the
            marking criteria for that question to distinguish what
            students were expected to know and demonstrate in an
           excellent response.

           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Brooke denehy
Subject:   health priorites
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           how can we reduce our chances of being affected by a
Message:
           national health priority?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: health priorites
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >how can we reduce our chances of being affected by a
           >national health priority?

           Dear Brooke,
           It is very important that you familiarise yourself with
           the major risk factors for each of the 6 NHPA's you
           have been asked to study. I suggest you draw up a chart
           that lists the risk factors for each NHPA and include a
           column that lists preventive strategies for each one.
           For example, family history of colon cancer may be a
           risk factor but I may prevent dying from the disease if
           I have ensure I eat a balanced and healthy diet that
Message:   limits saturated fats AND make sure I have regular
           screenings to ensure if I do the develop the disease,
           it will be detected early and thus be treatable.

           It's also important to note that some members of our
           population have more barriers in their path to
           achieving and maintaining good health e.g. ATSI and
           socioeconomically disadvantaged (see prioirty
           population groups) and for them, accessible
           information/education about being able to identify the
           risk factors for lifestyle diseases and being able to
           access preventative strategies is of paramount
           importance if we want to improve the overall health
           status of Australians.

           Hope this is some help to you. Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    melanie arnold
Subject:   responsibility for health care
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What is the Commonwealth Government responsibility for
Message:
           health care?


Sender:    stephen draper
Subject:   Re: responsibility for health care
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What is the Commonwealth Government responsibility for
           >health care?

           they provide funding to the health care systems most
Message:
           money is put forward to public hospitals and research
           for a better health status. with out the funding from
           the commonwealth govt. the aust. health system would
           greatly suffer from inadequate financial sources


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: responsibility for health care
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What is the Commonwealth Government responsibility for
           >health care?

           Dear Melanie,
Message:   The Commonwealth Government is principally concerned
           with formulating National Health Policies and
           controlling the health system financing through the
           collection of taxes.
           The Commonwealth Government allocates funding for health
           to State and Territory Governments and influences their
           health policies and delivery.

           The Commonwealth Government is also responsible for
           community service programs and services for war veterans
           and Aboriginal Communities.

           Hope this is a little clearer for you. Good luck with
           your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    melanie arnold
Subject:   risk factors of cancer
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           In our text book it lists a high fat diet as a risk
Message:   factor for breast and prostrate cancer. How is it a
           risk factor.


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: risk factors of cancer
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >In our text book it lists a high fat diet as a risk
           >factor for breast and prostrate cancer. How is it a
           >risk factor.

           Dear Melanie

           I have spent a bit oftime researching this one and the
           findings follow:
Message:
           Breast cancer
           Major risk factors - getting older, family history and
           being previously diagnosed with breast cancer
           Additional risk factors include starting mentruation
           early or menopause late, not having children or delaying
           childbearing until 30yrs or older, not breastfeeding,
           taking hormone replacement therapy after menopause,
           putting on a lotof weight in adulthood especially after
           menopause, drinking more than 2 standard drinks a day
           and having a previous diagnosis with lobula carcinoma in
           insitu.

           I can't find a direct link between high fat diet and
           breast cancer - there is definelty a link between excess
           weight and breast cancer and with this in mind, a high
           fat diet will contribute to overweight. Being overweight
           puts a woman at higher risk of developing the disease
           and the risk rises in line with the level of excess
           weight carried.
           www.breasthealth.com.au is a good site to visit for
           additional information

           Prostate cancer - risk factors include 55 and older,
           family history, a diet high in staurated fat, exposure
           to heavy metals, a sedentary lifestyle and smoking.
           In line with the diet high in saturated fats,
           epidemiological data supports the fact through evidence
           that countries where meat and dairy products are staples
           in the diet register markedly higher rates of prostate
           cancer. There's also some suggestion that a high fat
           diet may have some effect on testosterone levels which
           control the growth and function of the prostate, but the
           research is so far inconclusive.

           Hope this helps piece the bigger picture together. Send
           in anything else you find out about these links!

           Good luck with ot all
           Michelle


Sender:    leigh
Subject:   health promotion - lifestyle shift to new public health appr...
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           The lifestyle approach emphasised the importance of
           medicine in health promotion whereas the new public
           health approach recognised the importance of
Message:   intersectoral action, with medicine as one of MANY
           contributing professions. what are the advantages of
           the shift away from medicine as the central focus of
           attempts at health promotion?
Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: health promotion - lifestyle shift to new public health ...
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >The lifestyle approach emphasised the importance of
           >medicine in health promotion whereas the new public
           >health approach recognised the importance of
           >intersectoral action, with medicine as one of MANY
           >contributing professions. what are the advantages of
           >the shift away from medicine as the central focus of
           >attempts at health promotion?

           Dear Leigh,
           You need to read the other questions that pertain to
           the various approaches to health promotion in this
           forum. This area has been very popular!

           I'm not sure if we have really shifted away from the
           medical fraternity as a focus, but rather encouraged a
           different view of treatment.

           People are still getting sick and are still dying of
           preventable causes. There is still a need for
Message:   treatment, but Doctors are now embracing the idea that
           educating their patients in preventive startegies may
           save these people from developing life-threatening
           conditions that must be approached in a curative
           manner. They are also promoting pre-screening services
           and encouraging patients to develop the skills that
           will allow them to seek help early, thus preventing
           more serious and ultimately costly treatment.

           Prevention is better than cure, but it takes a long
           time for the results of the preventative message to
           have an impact on a disease. Hopefully we will see a
           marked reduction in skin cancer as a more sun smart
           population grows up.

           So in answer to your question, it is only a shift in
           our approach or the way we look at problems. The
           medical profession is an essential part of any
           intersectoral collaboration involved in a health
           promotion initiative.
           Hope this helps - good luck
           Michelle


Sender:    leigh
Subject:   australians born overseas
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Diet is a major contributing factor with the health
Message:   differences among groups of Australians born overseas.
           What are some other contributing factors?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: australians born overseas
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Diet is a major contributing factor with the health
           >differences among groups of Australians born
           overseas.
           >What are some other contributing factors?

           Dear Leigh
           When Overseas-born Australians seek entry into
           Australia, they must be in good health or are unlikely
           to be granted access. With this in mind, this
           population registers good health status for the first
           few years of occupancy. The longer the occupancy, the
           more likely they are to adopt unhealthy nutritional
Message:   practices and thus experience health problems related
           to diet.

           Other problems faced are to do with language and
           communication barriers, lack of trust in local
           practitioners, particularly if they are not culturally
           sensitive. In some cases employment opportunities may
           be limited as a result of qualifications not being
           recognised in Australia and alternate, lower paid work
           must be sought. This may also lead to problems
           associated with poor housing conditins or the need to
           live in isolated areas that feature reduced access to
           public transport. Language is probably the biggest
           barrier that prevents access to treatment or medical
           assistance.

           NPHA addresses such inequity by acknowledging the
           social determinants of a population such as this and
           working with health professionals and governments to
           improve access through accessible written materials and
           interpreters.

           There'smuch more you can talk about in regard to this
           population group - this is just a brief overview and I
           hope it is some help to your study
           Michelle


Sender:    leigh
Subject:   mental health
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           In the past, mental health disorders such as depression
           and dementia were ignored and often hidden from the
Message:   media. Today however, mental health is identified as a
           National Health Priority Area. Discuss the reasons for
           this change in attitude and understanding.


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: mental health
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >In the past, mental health disorders such as depression
           >and dementia were ignored and often hidden from the
           >media. Today however, mental health is identified as a
           >National Health Priority Area. Discuss the reasons for
           >this change in attitude and understanding.

Message:   Dear Leigh
           I believe you have already sorted out the answer to this
           question.Mental health issues have gained for more
           acceptance by the public through increased awareness and
           support for sufferers and their carers.As it was
           identified as a NHPA, more funding has been allocated to
           improving services for sufferers.
           You can identify why it was actually identifed as a NHPA
           by addressing each of the Criteria assigned to
           Identifying NHPA (last learn about in Critical Question
           1) as this was the turning point in the way we looked at
           and responded to mental health issues.

           Good luck
           Michelle


Sender:    leigh
Subject:   life expectanacy questions
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           1. Researchers state that improved life expectanacy
           relies on lifestyle changes. What types of changes are
           required and are they achievable for all Australians?
           Is it realistic to suggest that improved health is
           achievable for all, simply through behaviour
Message:   modification?

           2. There have been a number of medical predictions made
           in which support the idea of continued life
           expectancy. outline these predictions and discuss how
           these advancements would eliminate health inequities.


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: life expectanacy questions
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >1. Researchers state that improved life expectanacy
           >relies on lifestyle changes. What types of changes are
           >required and are they achievable for all Australians?
           >Is it realistic to suggest that improved health is
           >achievable for all, simply through behaviour
Message:   >modification?

           Dear Leigh, How can we improve health outcomes if we
           don't change behaviours? The most prominant causes of
           mortality and morbidity in Australia are lifestyle
           diseases and these diseases can be prevented through
behaviour
modification.

We need to equip people with knowledge and provide
opportunities to develop the skills needed to facilitate
behaviour change. We also need to support them by
providing safe environments, both physically and
emotionally to make these modifications. Financial
support may also be needed to help some members of our
population to overcome barriers to change and at times
the government will have to legislate to reduce the
chance of harm.

Surely it is our responsibility through the NPHA to
provide opportunities for all Australians to realise
better health outcomes, to empower them to take
responsibility for their health choices and make the
appropriate behaviour changes.
>
>2. There have been a number of medical predictions made
>in which support the idea of continued life
>expectancy. outline these predictions and discuss how
>these advancements would eliminate health inequities.

Obviously the population is aging and will our life
expectancy will continue to rise as a result of food
supply, medical advancements, environment/sanitation to
name a few.
I'm not really sure exactly what medical predctions you
are actually referring to, but advances in medical
technology and treatment have already bought with them
considerable costs to the Australian population and are
not all accessible to the whole population as a direct
result of the cost.

I'm not sure how these 'advancements' eliminate health
inequities because we can only do that through
concentrating resources into formulating health
promotion strategies that target those groups suffering
from inequities. Write back with another question if you
can make this question any clearer

Good luck with your study
Michelle
Sender:    K Hogan
Subject:   Ottawa Charter
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           How would you best differentiate
           between "strengthening
Message:   community action" and "creating supportive
           environments" especially when looking at specific
           examples.


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Ottawa Charter
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >How would you best differentiate
           >between "strengthening
           >community action" and "creating supportive
           >environments" especially when looking at specific
           >examples.

           Strengthening community action and creating supportive
           environments are very similiar and this is a very
           common question!

           Simply, when we look at creating a supportive
           environment we look at the actual environment the
           individual lives in - both physically and emotionally.
           We can create supportive environments by investing in
Message:
           and building dual lane highways in order to reduce road
           injuries or put legislation in place to ban CFC's or
           erect sunshelters at public pools in an attempt to
           decrease the incidence of skin cancer. Supportive
           environments can also be constructed by providing
           counselling services for sufferers of depression or
           other support groups for sufferers of other conditions.

           Likewise - strengthening community action is about
           empowering the community to take control over their
           health. Encouraging people to take part in health
           promotion initiatives including fundraisers, rallying
           politicians for improved access in isolated areas or
           improved recreational facilities in order to promote
           physical activity are some examples that could be used
           to illustrate the intent of this action area.

           Hope ths makes it all a bit clearer. Remember the OC is
           a tool used in health promotion to produce effective
           initiatives that have an impact on the condition they
           are focusing on.

           Good luck in your HSC!
           Michelle


Sender:    K Hogan
Subject:   Measuring Health status!
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Knowing that it is important to focus on the patterns &
           trends with leading causes. I just wanted to check
Message:
           whether Cancer shows an increasing trend in incidence
           as well as Asthma?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Measuring Health status!
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Knowing that it is important to focus on the patterns
           & trends with leading causes. I just wanted to check
           >whether Cancer shows an increasing trend in incidence
           >as well as Asthma?

           You are right, it is far more important to be able to
           relate the trends of patterns of incidence or
           prevalence of a disease than to be able to recite
Message:   facts and figures!

           According to the most recent stats from the AIHW,
           cancer has recorded a decrease of some 14% in death
           rates between 1986 and 2004. This is quite low when
           compared to other western countries. Despite this,
           cancer is still the leading cause of death in the 45-
           64 age group and causes more premature deaths and
           overall disease burden than CVD - AIHW media report on
           most recent research.

           As people become informed or aware of preventive
           strategies such as screenings, self checks, more cases
           will be registered, but a greater number of these
           cases are likely to be cured due to early intervention.

           With asthma, Australian figures are quite high by
           international standards with around 15% children and
           10% of adults suffering from the disease. Like cancer,
           increasing awareness of the condition and campaigns
           targeting both children and their parents will see
           more registered cases, but hopefully less burden on
           the health system in years to come as a result of
           better preventive care.

           I suggest you visit the AIHW website - www.aihw.gov.au
           for the latest information on all of the NHPA's.

           Good luck with it all!
           Michelle


Sender:    K Hogan
Subject:   Current health topics!
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           There are so many health problems and current issues
           in our society and in the media at the moment. What
Message:   current health topics would you suggest that the
           students focus on with their additional reading of
           newspapers and television?


Sender:    tracy schmitzer
Subject:   Re: Current health topics!
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >There are so many health problems and current issues
           >in our society and in the media at the moment. What
Message:   >current health topics would you suggest that the
           >students focus on with their additional reading of
           >newspapers and television?
Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Current health topics!
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >There are so many health problems and current issues
           >in our society and in the media at the moment. What
           >current health topics would you suggest that the
           >students focus on with their additional reading of
           >newspapers and television?

           Being aware of health in a general sense allows
           students to develop a real picture of health. I
           would suggest you reflect on the content of any news
           story you read, hear or see and try to make a
           connection with what you have learnt in Core 1 over
           the past year.

           Certainly reports focusing on any of the NHPAs,
Message:   priority population groups, epidemiology, health
           promotion initiatives, health care, health insurance
           should be tagged as important items.

           Use the news to make the content you have studied
           relevant and Core 1 will fall into place for you!

           A good website that allows you to access current
           health issues posted by the media can be found at
           www.abc.net.au/health You can sign up to receive free
           and secure email news from a service called "health
           updates" every 2 weeks.

           Good luck!
           Michelle


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Great response so far to the forums
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Hi, My name is Janice Atkin and I am the Senior
Message:
           Curriculum Adviser for PDHPE in NSW. I will be
           available to answer any questions you might have on
           Core 1 and exam tips over the next week. We have had a
           great response so far to the forums and are busily
           posting responses to all of the questions that came in
           yesterday.

           It is important to remember that this is a moderated
           forum which means that your questions won't
           automatically appear on the site. Be sure to check back
           later in the day or the following day to see the
           answers to your questions.

           A great way to test your knowledge and understanding is
           to answer some of the questions that have been posted.
           We will provide you with advice on whether your answer
           is on the right track and what other information you
           might include to strengthen your answer.

           I look forward to answering your questions and reading
           some of your replies.

           Good luck with your studies in PDHPE

           Janice


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Hi! I'm waiting to answer your questions on Core 1
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Hi! My name is Michelle Maher. I am an experienced
           PDHPE teacher at Hunter School of Performing Arts
           in Newcastle and am currently teaching my sixth
           Year 12 group under the new PDHPE syllabus. My
           experience, knowledge and interest in the senior
           syllabus, particularly Core 1, allows me to work
           outside of my own school in the areas of Yr 12 Study
Message:
           Days and HSC Marking. I hope this interest and
           enthusiasm for the Core 1 concepts will enhance
           your understanding of this area.

           One piece of wisdom for Core 1: health issues are
           all around us, so don't confine yourself to using texts
           or class notes. Read magazines, newspapers,
           watch television, listen to news broadcasts and
           make use of the internet. You can then evaluate the
           worth of the health information presented. Make
           sense of what you learn by looking at "real" life
           examples and Core 1 won't seem as big a
           challenge!

           Good luck in your exams!

           Michelle


Sender:    Millie Heslop
Subject:   History of Medicare and Private health Insurance.
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Over the last 20 years Medicare and private health
           insurance have changed, taxation breaks and changes to
           the private medical insurance system have resulted in
Message:
           fluctuating membership. Can someone outline all of
           these changes and promotions that have increased or
           decreased membership in Australia.


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: History of Medicare and Private health Insurance.
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Over the last 20 years Medicare and private health
           >insurance have changed, taxation breaks and changes to
           >the private medical insurance system have resulted in
           >fluctuating membership. Can someone outline all of
           >these changes and promotions that have increased or
           >decreased membership in Australia.
           Dear Millie
Message:
           In a nutshell, the last 20 years can be depicted as:
           Medicare is introduced in 1984. The introduction of
           this system sees a corresponding drop in private health
           insurance membership and thus an increased strain on
           the public health system.

           The strain on the public system becomes critical,
           membership in private health insurance is very low and
           the government realises it must offer an incentive to
           attract people back to private heath insurance. They
           offer a 30% rebate - you can have that % taken off your
           monthly repayments or collect it as part of your tax
           rebate at the end of the financial year.

           There is a slight increase in membership to private
           health insurance BUT not to the extent anticipated by
           the government SO they add an additional or surplus
           medicare level to those individuals and families
           earning higher incomes and chosing not to take out
           private health insurance. They pay an additional 1% of
           their taxable income in the form of medicare levy.
           (thats on top of the existing 1 1/2% meicare levy
           already charged)

           That still wasn't attracting enough people to private
           health insurance so the government implemented LIFETIME
           COVER - if you took out private insurance before July 1
           2000 you were guaranteed lower lifetime premiums. Now
           you must join before the age of 30 to enjoy these
           premiums or otherwise pay more for your private health
           insurance. While this strategy was probably the most
           successful of the three and contributed to growth of
           people who are privately insured, it isn't enough to
           make a substantial dent in the burden placed on the
           public system.

           With an increasingly aging population, the demand on
           the public system is bound to become more stressed and
           new solutions will need to be implemented.

           I hope this makes it a little clearer. Good luck in
           your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Millie Heslop
Subject:   Similarities and differences of Ottawa Charter and the Jakar...
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Having trouble understanding the finer points of their
Message:
           uses and focus for health promotion. Some Aussie
           examples of how they apply to the local health system
           would be good.


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Similarities and differences of Ottawa Charter and the J...
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Having trouble understanding the finer points of their
           >uses and focus for health promotion. Some Aussie
           >examples of how they apply to the local health system
           >would be good.
           Dear Millie,
           First part of the question first - similarities and
           differences of the OC and JD

           Similarities - boths are tools or guidelines used by
           health professionals to guide the development of
           effective health promotion initiatives; both reflect
           the 3 basic proncipples of the NPHA; both were created
           and endorsed by WHO

           Differences: The OC was the earlier model developed to
           address the need to provide a common structure or set
           of guidelines to ensure effective health promotion. The
           JD came later reaffirming and complimenting the
Message:
           existing guidelines (OC)

           I suggest you look at the JD and link the action areas
           to the appropriate areas of the Charter. You will see a
           connection or development in each one.

           As for examples there have been many examples included
           in other questions pertaining to the Ottawa Charter and
           Jakarta Declaration.

           My students find it useful to gain a better
           understanding of the JD by investiagating ways in which
           the JD action areas may add value to current
           initiatives or overall health promotion startegies that
           can be applied to a NHPA - they will have researched
           the link to OC action areas and then extend to include
           the application to the JD.
           Hope this is some help
           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: Similarities and differences of Ottawa Charter and th...
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Having trouble understanding the finer points of their
           >uses and focus for health promotion. Some Aussie
           >examples of how they apply to the local health system
           >would be good.

           Hi Millie

           The Jakarta Declaration (JD) is basically a
           re-endorsement and clarification of the
           strategies outlined in the Ottawa Charter (OC). The
           OC consists of 5 key principles:

           1. Build healthy public policy
           This refers to health promotion strategies that go
           beyond health care and may include legislation,
           welfare services, taxation and organizational change.

Message:   2. Create supportive environments
           This refers to creating living and working conditions
           that are safe, stimulating, satisfying and enjoyable.

           3. Strengthen community action
           Health promotion is not meant to be done 'to' or 'on'
           people, but is most effective when it is devised and
           implemented with the support and involvement of the
           community.

           4. Develop personal skills
           This refers to strategies aimed at developing
           personal and social development through education
           for health enhancing life skills so that people can
           exercise more control over their own health and their
           environments.

           5. Reorient health services
This principle refers to making the health sector
more involved in health promotion direction.

The publication of the JD in 1997 recognised there
was a lack of clarity over how to put the five OC
principles into practice. The JD provides extra detail
on how this may be achieved. The JD is most
remembered for highlighting 'social responsibility'
for health (rather than individual responsibility) and
promoting a 'settings approach' to health promotion
as an effective and practical way to implement the
OC.

Specifically, the JD set 5 broad 'priorities for health
promotion in the 21st century':

1. Promote social responsibility for health

The key aspect of acknowledging social
responsibility is that collectively we all have a duty
to
ensure equitable treatment of people in need, by:

* minimising environmental risks to health (ie, by
addressing unsafe workplaces or polluted
evironments)

* providing free access to essential health services
(so that access is not determined by ability or
inability to pay)

* addressing prejudice in the community against
marginalised groups and facilitating their
integration into everyday social life.

2. Increase investments for health development

While this priority refers generally to the need to
provide adequate funding for health care, it also
implies that the most disadvantaged groups should
be prioritised in terms of addressing health needs,
in particular groups such as children, older people,
indigenous populations, and those in poverty.

3. Consolidate and expand partnerships for health
           This priority mostly refers to intersectoral
           collaboration and continuity of care among different
           levels of government, non-govt. and private sector
           agencies responsible for health issues. It calls for
           effective strategies to ensure that knowledge,
           expertise and resources can be shared to deliver
           optimal health care.

           4. Increase community capacity and empower the
           individual

           Any form of health promotion should be conducted in
           consultation and participation with those people it is
           meant to benefit. This involves a move away from
           a paternalistic, or 'expert/we know best' approach, to
           one that facilitates individual and community
           participation in decision-making and implementation
           processes. Thus, health promotion is done 'with'
           people rather that 'to' them.

           5. Secure an infrastructure for health promotion

           This priority mostly refers to the 'settings for
           health' approach which basically represents the
           organizational locations for health promotion
           strategies. It calls for a focus on practical, everyday
           initiatives in 'settings' such as the school, the
           workplace etc.

           Cheers

           Janice


Sender:    katie
Subject:   Major health promotion initiatives
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What sort of questions could be asked in the hsc in
           relation to the dot
           point:
Message:
           - Major health promotion
           initiatives:
           Government responses (major reports)
           Community responses(state and local level health
           promotion initiatives).

           What are the major reports that we should know? Are
           there any in particular or should we just choose a few
           to focus on? Thankyou


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: Major health promotion initiatives
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What sort of questions could be asked in the hsc in
           >relation to the dot
           point:
           >Major health promotion
           initiaitives

           >What are the major reports that we should know? Are
           >there any in particular or should we just choose a few
           >to focus on? Thankyou

           Dear Katie

           The questions that you are likely to get in the HSC in
           regards to this dot point will probably ask you to
           analyse practical examples of how the principles of the
           new public health approach have been affirmed and
Message:
           developed into a health promotion framework. Reports
           and government responses that you should have a
           knowledge of include the Ottawa Charter and Jakarta
           Declaration as well as the Australia's Health reports.

           More importantly, you need to be able to provide
           examples of community based health promotion
           initiatives that reflect the principles of each of
           these reports.

           To help get you started with some practical examples
           linked to the Ottawa Charter I have given you an
           outline of some examples below but it would be most
           useful for you to develop a chart that highlights
           examples of each action area for all of the NHPA's.
           Developing personal skills - health education in
           schools, Quit smoking programs
           Creating Supportive Environments - eliminating
           CFC's; dual lane highways; Worksafe programs
           Strengthening Community Action - Support groups
           such as Alcoholics Anonymous; Reviver Stations
           Reorienting Health Services - doctors promoting sun
           safe behaviours/free, Checks for skin cancers/ free
           immunisation programs
           Building Healthy Public Policy - Compulsory seat
           belts; smoke free workplaces; decreased taxation on
           low alcohol beer.

           Remember the Ottawa Charter is a plan for the
           successful implementation of health promotion
           initiatives. Make sure you have a sound
           understanding of each action area and can describe
           examples for each NHPA. I suggest you read
           the earlier questions on the forum relating to this
           area to get a few more hints!

           Good luck with your study!

           Janice


Sender:    katie
Subject:   Jakarta Declaration
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           I was just wondering many of the texts cover the
           sections on the Jakarta Declaration such as 'Promoting
           social responsibility for health' do we have to be able
Message:   to know these 5 areas? And second if we do, do we have
           to be able to apply these to a health promotion
           initiative similar to the way we do with the Ottawa
           Charter? Thankyou


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Jakarta Declaration
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >I was just wondering many of the texts cover the
           >sections on the Jakarta Declaration such as 'Promoting
           >social responsibility for health' do we have to be
           able
           >to know these 5 areas? And second if we do, do we have
           >to be able to apply these to a health promotion
           >initiative similar to the way we do with the Ottawa
           >Charter? Thankyou

           Dear Katie,
           The first piece of advice is to view both the Ottawa
           Charter and Jakarta Declaration as tools or
           vehicles/blueprints for health promotion initiatives.
           They are a set of guidelines to follow or address if
           you wish to create an effective health promotion
           strategy.

           The Jakarta Declaration came into being as a result of
           WHO delegates reflecting on the success of the OC.The
           delegates all agreed that the OC had made a difference
           to the quality of health promotion initiatives
           globally, but there was still room for improvement. SO,
           they constructed the JD, that added to or enhanced the
Message:
           direction of the OC. Each of the action areas adds
           value or direction to the existing OC action areas.

           Its important to establish an understanding of how each
           action area of the JD fits in with or complements the
           OC. Read other forum responses that reflect the JD to
           further your understanding of these guidelines.

           I would suggest you construct a chart similiar to one
           you may have prepared to demonstrate how the action
           areas of the OC can be applied to a range of health
           promotion initiatives. This works really well for my
           students as it allows them to see how the JD allows
           further support to be provided to the campaigns.

           You do need to have an understanding of the JD and so
           yes, you need to know what the 5 areas are and it would
           be wise to have an example that demonstrates your
           understanding of the area. As for applying them to
           health promotion initiatives, the syllabus directly
           asks you to apply the action areas of the Charter but
           does not specifically ask you to apply the Declaration.
           Doing the exercise above will deepen you understanding
           of the whole process and is worth a go.

           Good luck with it all!
           Michelle Maher


Sender:    Reynold Sianipar
Subject:   Core 1-The Health Status of AUS
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Could you please explain Q:Other than the socioeconomic
           factors, what other reasons for health inequities
           experience by Aboriginol Torres Straight Iskanders and
Message:
           overseas-born persons?

           thnx..


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Core 1-The Health Status of AUS
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Could you please explain Q:Other than the
           socioeconomic
           >factors, what other reasons for health inequities
           >experience by Aboriginol Torres Straight Iskanders and
           >overseas-born persons?
           >
           >thnx..
           Dear Reynold,
           ATSI and overseas born Australians also may lie in
           cultural differences. It is well documented that both
Message:   groups are less likely to seek medical assistance if
           they aren't comfortable seeking help in mainstream
           medical practices. This may also be linked to language
           barriers.

           ATSI populations may also be affected by geographical
           proximity to medical services, with many living in
           remote areas which are noted for reduced access to
           services when compared to city areas.

           Education and access to health information that is
           delivered in a culturally relevant or significant and
           SENSITIVE way is also a contributing factor.

           Think about it logically, ask yourself what problems
           could exist for each population group - you should be
           able to work out the basic issues - then refer to your
           text or notes and see what other details you need to
           include.

           Hope this helps!Good luck with your exams!
           Michelle


Sender:    jenna bricknell
Subject:   morbidity
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
Message:   describe the meaning of morbidity


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: morbidity
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >describe the meaning of morbidity

           Dear Jenna

Message:   Morbidity refers to sickness, illness or injury whereas
           mortality is related to death.

           Good luck with your exams!
           Michelle


Sender:    Peta Martin
Subject:   Alternative Health Care
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What kinds of people will benefit from alternative
Message:
           health care? Why is it becoming so popular?
Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: Alternative Health Care
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What kinds of people will benefit from alternative
           >health care? Why is it becoming so popular?

           Hi Peta

           All kinds of people can benefit from the use of
           alternative health care practices, as long as they are
           reputable practitioners who they access. Alternative
           health care can be used as both a curative and
           preventative treatment.

           There are several skills patients need to apply when
           deciding to access alternative health products or
           services include:

           Research skills - qualifications and registration
           details of the service provider; written material on
Message:
           the provider and the procedure/ side effects or risks
           (consider reliability and validity of written sources
           of information); costs involved; duration of treatment;
           recovery time; recommendations from clients

           Decision making - consider a range of options and make
           a decision based on the best outcome.

           Questioning /communicating skills - in order to ask
           questions of the provider to ascertain their
           qualifications.

           I hope this makes things a little clearer

           Good luck with your studies

           Janice


Sender:    kara sutton
Subject:   NPHA
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           what are the characteristics of the new public health
Message:
           approach?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: NPHA
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >what are the characteristics of the new public health
           >approach?
           Dear Kara,
           The New Public Health Approach is characterised by:

           Empowerment of the individual - through education
           providing knowledge and skills with which to make more
           informed choices about health behaviour.

           Community Participation - the acknowledgement that
           health promotion is more likely to succeed and healthy
           behaviours continue beyond the duration of a hp
           initiative if the community is actively involved in its
           development and implementation - ownership!
Message:
           Acknowledgement of the social determinants - taking
           into consideration that positive health choices may be
           more difficult for some members of the population as a
           result of their geographic location, level of
           education, socioeconomic status, culture, occupation
           etc ...AS a result HP startegies now consider these
           factors when designing and implementing initaitives to
           brng about a greater chance of success within the
           target population.

           Good luck with your exams! I hope this response was
           helpful
           Michelle


Sender:    vanessa hallgath
Subject:   Alternative Health Care
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           How can patients make informed choices between orthodox
           medicine and alternative health care? Is there a way of
Message:
           determining whether an alternative health care practise
           is a 'quack'?


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: Alternative Health Care
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >How can patients make informed choices between
           orthodox medicine and alternative health care? Is there
           a way of determining whether an alternative health care
           practise is a 'quack'?

           Dear Vanessa

           Some of the skills patients need to apply when
           deciding to access alternative health products or
           services include:

           Research skills - qualifications and registration
           details of the service provider; written material on
           the provider and the procedure/ side effects or risks
           (consider reliability and validity of written sources
           of information); costs involved; duration of treatment;
Message:   recovery time; recommendations from clients

           Decision making - consider a range of options and make
           a decision based on the best outcome.

           Questioning /communicating skills - in order to ask
           questions of the provider to ascertain their
           qualifications.

           It is important to ensure that the alternative
           practitioner that you access is qualified. Ask to see
           their qualifications. Most alternative practitioners
           would have "learnt" their skills at a recognised
           College of Alternative Therapies, either here or
           overseas. It is a good idea to sight these before
           undertaking any treatment. It is also helpful if you
           can get a positive referral from a previous patient of
           the practitioner.

           I hope this makes things a little clearer

           Good luck with your studies

           Janice


Sender:    melanie arnold
Subject:   Aboriginal health
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           explain the factors that have contributed to health
Message:
           inequalities of ATSI


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Aboriginal health
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >explain the factors that have contributed to health
           >inequalities of ATSI

           Dear Melanie,

           Many factors contribute to the extremey low level of
           health experienced by many of our ATSI population. The
           increasing gap between indigenous and non-indigenous
           populations is clearly stated as a cause of concern in
           recent ATSI media releases.
Message:
           Factors contributing to health inequalities of ATSI
           include:
           geographical location and corresponding lack of access
           to health services and information ( considerably more
           ATSI live in remote or isolated areas)
           limited access to culturally sensitive health
           professionals
           socioeconomic status ( many ATSI fit into this
           category)
           health risk behaviours (drugs, alcohol use)
           other health risks (poor housing, exposure to
           violence..)
           Poor or limited education

           Another important point to mention that I discovered
           on the AIHW site- indigenous Australians link is that
           a lack of control over aspects of ones life
           (irrespective if they are real or imagined) can
           contribute to poor health.

           This list is only a starting point. I'd advise you to
           visit the AIHW website at www.aihw.gov.au and link to
           indigenous Australians.

           Hope this is some help to you. Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    daniel rediger
Subject:   core 1
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           what is the difference between the new public health
Message:
           approach and the old public health approach


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: core 1
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >what is the difference between the new public health
           >approach and the old public health approach

           Dear Daniel
           This question has been raised a number of times in the
           forum. Check through the other related responses,
           particulary those highlighting NPHA or the Individual
Message:
           Lifestyle Approach.

           The only additional material that could be included is
           that prior to both approaches in western society,
           health issues were always approached in a curative
           manner. There was little attempt to link cause and
           effect, symptoms were treated and that was the job of
           medicine and its practioners.

           Happy reading. Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Bonnie Duyker
Subject:   Ottawa Charter Vs Mental Health.
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           How does the health priority area Mental Health relate
Message:   to the Ottawa Charter policy "Reorienting Health
           Services"?


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: Ottawa Charter Vs Mental Health.
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >How does the health priority area Mental Health relate
           >to the Ottawa Charter policy "Reorienting Health
           >Services"?

           The key to this action area is that it focuses on
           health professionals (and those involved in health
           issues including teachers) moving their focus from a
           curative to preventative approach. Examples in the area
           of mental health include:
           GPs undertaking training to recognise the impact of
           poor mental health on other health behaviours and
           conditions, teachers implementing education programs in
Message:
           schools that promote positive mental health,
           counsellors being made available in sexual health
           clinics and youth health services to provide support
           and advice for patients beyond the curative actions
           needed to treat the patient.

           Some examples you could also use for other NHPA
           include: increased funding for research or skin health
           promotions;increased funding to services and facilities
           in rural areas; free screening or immunisation
           services; mobile screening vans; providing preventative
           care information in a variety of languages;
           complimentary/alternative health care being recognised
           by health funds; counselling for the offenders of drink
           driving accidents; Quit smoking courses; GPs providing
           lifestyle plans to individuals at risk of disease; GPs
           providing preventative care alternatives when treating
           patients (this may also include alternative therapies
           such as accupuncture)

           Hope this sorts things out for you
           Good luck in your exams


Sender:    Rhiannon Farlow
Subject:   strategies in health promotion
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           what is the difference between individual lifestyle
Message:
           approach and the new public health approach?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: strategies in health promotion
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >what is the difference between individual lifestyle
           >approach and the new public health approach?

           Dear Rhiannon
           This has been a very popular question and a similiar
Message:
           response has already been posted to Vannessa Halgaths
           question. See the response I have given her in answer to
           your question
           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    cody wratten
Subject:   prevention Vs cure
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
Message:   discuss the statement " prevention is better than
           cure. "


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: prevention Vs cure
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >discuss the statement " prevention is better than
           >cure. "

           Dear Cody

           The idea of prevention affirms the NPHA to health
           promotion as being valid, a model that will reduce the
           burden on the health system of Australia. We know that
           if we can educate people in preventive strategies, the
           opportunities to decrease the mortality rate of
           Australias major diseases will be decreased and we
           will enjoy imroved health status.

           The downside to the story is that this message takes
           years to come to fruition. People are sick and dying
           and they need to be cured. Curative treatments are
Message:
           costly, both in terms of the procedures,
           pharmaceuticals and labour. We must invest money in
           curative approaches - politicians wouldn't last a day
           if they cut the budget for these services and placed
           equal ammounts in the health promotion budget, no
           matter what the eventual outcome.

           Ideally, more money will be invested in hp, and as a
           result less people will actually endure expensive
           curative procedures and long hospital stays..but
           remember, in the real world sick people must be cured!

           Hope this sheds some light on the question. Good luck
           in your exams

           Michelle


Sender:    Reynold Sianipar
Subject:   Core 1
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           May you please explain :
Message:   1.how might epidemiology assist the identification of
           health prority areas?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Core 1
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >May you please explain :
           >1.how might epidemiology assist the identification of
           >health prority areas?

           Dear Reynold
           This is an important point in the Core 1 syllabus.
           Epidemiology is the study of disease in the population.

           A disease that records disproportional morbidity or
           mortality figures certainly flags itself as a problem
           that requires attention by health professionals and
           governments.

Message:   Also diseases that are flagged because there is
           disproportionate representation amongst population
           groups (including ATSI, aged, gender based, remote
           residents etc.) also need attention

           Prevelance of condition and priority population groups
           are 2 of the 6 indicators used to determine NHPAs.
           These diseases are chosen because of the burden they
           cause the Australian population and epidemiology gives
           us the statistics to make the distinction between what
           diseases should receive support by the government.

           Hope this helps. Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Jessica Thorne
Subject:   heart failure
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           How is each of the heart conditions(eg.
Message:   arthersclerosis) linked to what may become 'heart
           failure'? How is heart failure defined?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: heart failure
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >How is each of the heart conditions(eg.
           >arthersclerosis) linked to what may become 'heart
           >failure'? How is heart failure defined?

           Dear Vanessa
           Heart failure is defined as any problem associated with
           the heart that may impair its function. It doesn't mean
           the heart stops beating completely but factors such as
           high blood pressure, athersclerosis, defective heart
           valves or infections of the heart tissue may cause part
           of the heart to stop working as effectively.

           Failure in the left side of the heart is most often the
           result of a heart attack while failure in the right
           side of the heart causes pressure to build up in the
           Right atrium so the blood can't return to the body in
           the usual way and often results in fluid buildup in
Message:
           body tissues.Failure on ones side is likely to result
           in failure to a similar degree on the other side.

           Athersclerosisis the build up of fatty and fibrous
           material on the walls of the arteries whilst
           arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries is is a
           further development of this condition and leads the
           arteries become less elastic.These conditions impact on
           the ability of the heart to deliver oxygen effectively
           to all parts of the body, limiting the blood flow and
           increasing blood pressure. It also increases the chance
           of blockage occuring in the arteries and resulting in a
           heart attack.

           The above mentioned conditions are directly related to
           heart failure where a sufferer may incur symptoms of
           increased venous pressure in the neck and legs; oedema
           (fluid retention); weakness; confusion; reduced
           capacity to exercise; difficulty in breathing due to
           increased pressure and in the long-term an enlarged
           heart.

           Further assistance may be found at the heart foundation
           website.

           Hope this helps clarify your thoughts on heart failure.
           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    kara sutton
Subject:   health care
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           what role do health care facilities and services play
Message:
           in achieving better health for all Australians?


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: health care
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >what role do health care facilities and services play
           >in achieving better health for all Australians?

           Hi

           The nature of health care is a broad area that includes
           the roles of health care professionals, the tpes of
           services and facilities, access to these facilities and
           responsibilities for health care. So, very briefly (an
Message:
           overview - it would be wise to add to this basic
           framework as you study for your exams)

           Roles and responsibilities: curative and preventative
           (the shift to include preventative care occured with
           the rise of the new public health approach that focuses
           on empowering individuals, involving them in the
           process of health promotion at a community level and
           acknowledging social factors do impact on a persons
ability to make good health choices)

Range of services: institutional (hospitals, pschiatric
institutions, nursing homes and ambulance services) and
non-institutional ( GPS dentist, pathologists,
specialists, physiotherapists...)

Access: Medicare allows ALL Australians access to
medical and basic hospital services; socioeconomically
disadvantaged groups and those experiencing extended
medicinal costs through chronic or life threatening
illness may also be given further financial aid through
the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and the
Medicare Safety Net. Health Concessions Cards are also
available for low income earners and pensioners.
Also consider how some groups have limited access due
to geographic isolation, cultural or language barriers
or poor literacy skills

Responsibilities for health care: Governments -
Commonwealth, State and Local and Individual.

Commonwealth - provides funds to State/Territory Gvts;
reponsible for Veterans Health, Department of Health
and Aged Care; Worksafe Australia and Epidemiological
data

State - Public health services including hospitals,
mental health services, womens health, aboriginal
health services, health education and promotion, dental
health sevices and public health

Local - home and community health care and child,
adolescent and family health; Community health services
Private health services (including non-institutional
care examples) offer treatment and preventative care
options at a price to the consumer

Individual - health promotion initaitives are aimed at
empowering the individual to make positive health care
choices. With that some responsibility must rest with
the individual to maintain their level of health or
seek help and support to improve it.

Hope this helps!
           Janice


Sender:    vanessa hallgath
Subject:   Funding of Health Care in Australia
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Please explain the 30%rebate of Medicare, and what is
Message:
           its importance in funding of health care?


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: Funding of Health Care in Australia
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Please explain the 30%rebate of Medicare, and what is
           >its importance in funding of health care?
           ________________________________________________________

           The 30% rebate was introduced by the Commonweatlth
           Government as an incentive to lure people back to
           private health care and thus relieve some of the burden
           placed on the public system. People who took out
           private health insurance would receive a 30% rebate on
           their premiums, either deducted from their payments or
           claimed in full as part of their taxation claim at the
           end of the finacial year. This rebate is still in
           existance.
           Additional incentives include Lifetime Cover and an
Message:
           additional Medicare levy being payable by people
           earning above $50,000 per year if they choose not to
           take out private health insurance.The latter may better
           be described as a disincentive!

           Remember that when Medicare was introduced it provided
           basic hospital and medical services to people free or
           at a low rate. This made health care accessible to all
           Australians regardless of their socioeconomic status
           and certainly improved health outcomes for many
           Australians. Over time the numbers taking out private
           health care dwindled, probably due to costs associated
           with insurance, lack of gap payments and the quality of
           service provided by the public health care system. This
           placed a higher burden on public health care and the
           government had to look at ways of funding the
           increasing health expenditure bill.

           It would be useful to look at Lifetime Cover and the
           increased Medicare Levy.

           Good luck in your exams

           Janice


Sender:    melanie arnold
Subject:   individual lifestyle approach
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           how does the individual lifestyle approach use
Message:
           epidmiological data to support its theories


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: individual lifestyle approach
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >how does the individual lifestyle approach use
           >epidmiological data to support its theories

           Dear Melanie,

           Any health promotion initiative is founded on the
           populations needs. Those needs are highlighted by
           higher incidence or prevalence of a disease or
           condition in a sub-group or population. The most valid
Message:   forms of information pertaining to disease are derived
           from epidemiological data.

           The individual lifestyle approach focused on the
           individual as being solely responsible for their own
           health. If information could be provided about
           conditions and how to avoid them then everyone would be
           healthier. It didn't take into account the social
           determinants that act on people and affect their
           ability to make positive health choices.
           In that sense, epidemiological data isused by ILA to
           support the approaches belief that knowledge may cure
           all.

           The most important thing to realise is that this model
           was only successful with highly motivated people, who
           could read and/or understand the materials on offer.
           The NPHA is a much better and more inclusive model for
           hp that works to make positive health choices the
           domain of all Australians.

           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Peta Martin
Subject:   Jakarta Declaration and Ottawa Charter
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           We remember the Ottawa Charter (OC) by the acronym
Message:   DRHSC. Is there an acronym to remember the Jakarta
           Declaration (JD)?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Jakarta Declaration and Ottawa Charter
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >We remember the Ottawa Charter (OC) by the acronym
           >DRHSC. Is there an acronym to remember the Jakarta
           >Declaration (JD)?
           Dear Peta
           I have seen many different acronyms for the OC. The
           best acronyms are those you create yourself. I suggest
Message:   you write out each action area of the JD and single out
           one word to be the lead for your acronym. You will have
           to develop an understanding of what each one means
           first! Another useful tool may be to design a symbol to
           represent each action area.
           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle
Sender:    Rhiannon Farlow
Subject:   nature of health care in australia
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What is the difference between institutional and non-
Message:
           institutional?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: nature of health care in australia
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What is the difference between institutional and non-
           >institutional?
           Dear Rhiannon,
           Institutional care - hospitals(public and private),
           nusing homes, psychiatric hospitals

           Non-institutional care - medical services (e.g. GPs,
           specialists, radiologists, psychiatrists), health
Message:   related services (dentist, occupational therapist,
           pharmacist)and Pharmaceuticals (supplied through
           hospitals and over the counter)

           Look at the nature of the service provider, including
           the size of the organisation or service to discern the
           differences.
           Good luck with your study
           Michelle


Sender:    Brooke denehy
Subject:   ...?
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           How can different social determinants influence
Message:
           Australia's health system?
Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: ...?
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >How can different social determinants influence
           >Australia's health system?
           Dear Brooke
           When we talk about the social determinants of health we
           are talking about the associated factors that influence
           our likelihood of contracting a disease.

           Many things can influence your likelihood of
           experiencing poor health. Your socioeconomic status,
           geographic location, level of education and critical
           literacy skills, gender, culture or religion,
           occupation, housing, physical environment, attitudes
           and beliefs to name a few.
Message:
           I would suggest you think about what barriers there are
           to you achieving good health or making healthy choices.
           Positive health choices are more difficult for some
           members of our population to make than others and are
           directly related to the social determinants.

           People who are socioeconomically disadvantaged and live
           in rural or remote settings have reduced access to
           services and health information thus affecting the
           level of health they experience.

           Hope this makes it a little clearer. Good luck in your
           exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Bonnie Duyker
Subject:   Rebate Scheme Vs Health Care Services
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Can you describe the effectiveness of the 30%
Message:   Governmant Rebate Scheme in relieving the burden of
           costs in providing health care services?
Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Rebate Scheme Vs Health Care Services
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Can you describe the effectiveness of the 30%
           >Governmant Rebate Scheme in relieving the burden of
           >costs in providing health care services?
           Dear Bonnie,

           When Medicare was introduced it provided basic hospital
           and medical services to people at no or low cost. This
           made health care accessible to all Australians
           regardless of socioeconomic status and certainly
           improved health outcomes for many Australians. Over
           time the numbers of people taking out private health
           insurance dwindled, probably due to rising premiums,
           lack of gap payments and the quality of services
           provided by the public health care system. This placed
           a higher burden on the public system and the government
           had to look at ways of funding the increasing health
           expenditure bill.

           The 30% rebate scheme was introduced by the
           Commonwealth Government as an incentive to lure people
Message:
           back into private health insuranc and thus relieve some
           of the burden placed on the public system. People who
           took out private health insurance would receive a 30%
           rebate on their premiums, either deducted from their
           payments or claimed in full as part of their taxation
           claim at the end of the financial year.

           While the rebate did attract more members back to
           private health insurance, and thus ease some of the
           burden on the public system, it didn't do enough and
           the Government went on to introduce Lifetime Cover and
           an additional Medicare Levy. This increased levy of 1%
           applied to individuals and families earning higher
           incomes ($50,000 yr for individuals) and not having any
           private health insurance. The addition levy is rather a
           disincetive!

           So.. in answer to your question, the incentive was
           successful in stemming the tide of people out of
           private insurance BUT it really wasn't enough of an
           incentive for most of the population to consider the
           option. That is the reason why Lifetime Cover and the
           Medicare Levy Surcharge were introduced. More still
           needs to be done to ease the burden on the public
           health system.

           Hope this helps!
           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Bonnie Duyker
Subject:   Re: Rebate Scheme Vs Health Care Services
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >>Can you describe the effectiveness of the 30%
           >>Governmant Rebate Scheme in relieving the burden of
           >>costs in providing health care services?
           >Dear Bonnie,
           >
           >When Medicare was introduced it provided basic
           hospital
           >and medical services to people at no or low cost. This
           >made health care accessible to all Australians
           >regardless of socioeconomic status and certainly
           >improved health outcomes for many Australians. Over
           >time the numbers of people taking out private health
           >insurance dwindled, probably due to rising premiums,
           >lack of gap payments and the quality of services
Message:   >provided by the public health care system. This placed
           >a higher burden on the public system and the
           government
           >had to look at ways of funding the increasing health
           >expenditure bill.
           >
           >The 30% rebate scheme was introduced by the
           >Commonwealth Government as an incentive to lure people
           >back into private health insuranc and thus relieve
           some
           >of the burden placed on the public system. People who
           >took out private health insurance would receive a 30%
           >rebate on their premiums, either deducted from their
           >payments or claimed in full as part of their taxation
           >claim at the end of the financial year.
           >
           >While the rebate did attract more members back to
           >private health insurance, and thus ease some of the
           >burden on the public system, it didn't do enough and
           >the Government went on to introduce Lifetime Cover and
           >an additional Medicare Levy. This increased levy of 1%
           >applied to individuals and families earning higher
           >incomes ($50,000 yr for individuals) and not having
           any
           >private health insurance. The addition levy is rather
           a
           >disincetive!
           >
           >So.. in answer to your question, the incentive was
           >successful in stemming the tide of people out of
           >private insurance BUT it really wasn't enough of an
           >incentive for most of the population to consider the
           >option. That is the reason why Lifetime Cover and the
           >Medicare Levy Surcharge were introduced. More still
           >needs to be done to ease the burden on the public
           >health system.
           >
           >Hope this helps!
           >Good luck in your exams
           >Michelle

           Thankyou very much Michelle. It certainly shed some
           light on the issue of Medicare. Hopefully they ask a
           question surrounding such in the HSC exam, as I now
           feel a whole lot more confident in answering anything
           concerning it.


Sender:    vanessa hallgath
Subject:   Nature of Health Care in Australia
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What is the difference in Institutional and Non-
Message:   institutional services, and what are their roles in
           achieving better health for all Australians?


Sender:    Samantha Swanson
Subject:   Re: Nature of Health Care in Australia
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What is the difference in Institutional and Non-
           >institutional services, and what are their roles in
           >achieving better health for all Australians?

           Hi Vanessa

           This is a summary that my teacher gave to us. I hope
           its useful for you:

           institutional healthcare refers to services offered by
           general hospitals or ACUTE care hospitals.examples
           include public or private hospitals, psychatric
Message:
           hospitals, nursing homes and hostels.

           non institutional care include medical (services
           provided by doctors for paitents) these include gp
           attendance, pathology, radiology and optometry. non-
           institutinal also includes to other health related
           services e.g. pharmeceuticals, dental services and
           phisotherapy chiropractic and podiatry

           Good luck

           Sam


Sender:    Leisa Ramage
Subject:   new public health approach
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           what is the connection between the new public health
Message:
           approach and the jakarta declaration


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: new public health approach
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >what is the connection between the new public health
Message:
           >approach and the jakarta declaration
Hi Leisa

The Jakarta Declaration was developed to re-affirm the
principles around the new public health approach that
were contained in the Ottawa Charter. In re-affirming
the OC the Jakarta Declaration confirmed that the
action areas were still relevant and
contemporary in the design, implementation and
maintenance of health promotion initiatives moving
into the 21st century.

* As with the Ottawa Charter its underpinning is the
foundation characteristics of the new public health
approach ie: empowering individuals, community
participation and recognition of the social
determinants of health.

* It recognised poverty as a significant determinant
of health status. If you analyse poverty it is the
culmination of disadvantage in relation to several of
the social determinants of health eg Socio
-economic disadvantage, poor living conditions,
access to and level of education, discrimination.

* Its five principles are:
1. Increase community capacity & empower the
individual (similar to the Ottawa Charter),
2. Increase investment for health development,
3.Promote Social Responsibility,
4. Consolidate and expand partnerships for health,
5. Secure an infra-structure for health promotion.


You can develop an acronym for your self to help you
remember these 5 principles and trigger your
memory of more detail about the Jakarta
Declaration.

We can take Jump Rope for Heart (JRFH) as an
example:
1. It involves school communities and individuals in
developing awareness of the impact of CVD on the
community as part of the JRFH program
2. JRFH raises funds to continue important research
into CVD
           3. JRFH promotes social responsibility in
           contributing to efforts to reduce the prevalence of
           CVD
           4. JRFH consolidates partnerships between
           education sectors, National Heart Foundation and
           the Australian Council for Health, Physical Education
           and Recreation
           5. JRFH has a stong infra-structure to support its
           sustainability. It has been going for 21 years.

           Hope this helps,

           Janice


Sender:    kara sutton
Subject:   health status in AUS
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           extrapolate the difference between the health status of
Message:
           men and women in Australia


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: health status in AUS
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >extrapolate the difference between the health status
           of men and women in Australia

           Hi

           The differences between men and women do appear
           superficial - as only men have prostates and testicles
           and women breasts but they are significant causes for
Message:
           concern when considering epidemiological data. It may
           help you to consider the social determinants associated
           with these inequities. What social factors impact on
           morbidity and mortality rates? Certainly the reluctance
           of many men to consult general practioners must impact
           on mortality rates, especially in the case of
           testicular cancer. Men do suffer higher rates of CVD,
           injury(including suicide) and lung cancer. What social
           factors impact on these figures? It is interesting to
           note that the gender gap for many of these conditions
           is narrowing as a result of changing lifestyles and
           gender expectations.

           The social determinants are vitally important when
           considering why any population group suffers health
           inequities. Otherwise it is all facts and figures, and
           the crux of the NPHA rests firmly in the fact that
           social factors do impact on the level or quality of
           health we experience.

           Good luck in your exams

           Janice


Sender:    cody wratten
Subject:   medicare
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
Message:   what is the medicare levy surcharge?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: medicare
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >what is the medicare levy surcharge?
           Dear Cody
           Most Australians pay 1.5% of their taxable income in
           the form of the medicare levy. Low income earners are
           exempt from this levy.

           The medicare levy surcharge applies to individuals or
Message:
           families on higher incomes who do not have private
           hospital insurance.These individuals or families pay an
           ADDITIONAL 1% of their taxable income in the form of
           the Medicare Levy Surcharge.

           Good luck with your exams
           Michelle
Sender:    vanessa hallgath
Subject:   Community Sectors
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Can you please explain the difference in the roles of
Message:   the Commonwealth Government and the Sate Government in
           relation to health responsibilities?


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: Community Sectors
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Can you please explain the difference in the roles of
           >the Commonwealth Government and the Sate Government in
           >relation to health responsibilities?

           Hi Vanessa

           There are various levels of government that have roles
           and responsibilities for health care in Australia.
           These include:

           Commonwealth - provides funds to State/Territory Gvts;
           reponsible for Veterans Health, Department of Health
           and Aged Care; Worksafe Australia and Epidemiological
           data
Message:
           State - Public health services including hospitals,
           mental health services, womens health, aboriginal
           health services, health education and promotion, dental
           health sevices and public health

           Local - home and community health care and child,
           adolescent and family health; Community health services
           Private health services (including non-institutional
           care examples) offer treatment and preventative care
           options at a price to the consumer.

           I hope this helps
           Janice


Sender:    ange bennett
Subject:   private health insurance
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
Message:   what are the benefits of private health insurance??


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: private health insurance
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >what are the benefits of private health insurance??
           Dear Ange
           The benefits of private health insurance include:
           Choice of doctor, choice of hospital, shorter waiting
           times for treatment, private room in a public hospital,
Message:   ancillary benefits including dental cover, some
           companies pay the'gap', insurance cover while overseas
           and security through peace of mind that if you do
           become ill you will be covered.
           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Brooke denehy
Subject:   hi! question of interest
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           How do alternate services and facilities help to
Message:   decrease Australia's health burden?
           Thank you.


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: hi! question of interest
Date:      01-SEP-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >How do alternate services and facilities help to
           >decrease Australia's health burden?
           >Thank you.
           Dear Brooke,
           I'm not sure if alternative services actually do a lot
           to ease Australia's health burden, but are rather an
           increasingly popular option for people as they aim to
           take more control over their own health.

           Many people are disatisfied with traditional medicine
           and want a more personal, wholistic approach to their
           problems. Many GP's encourage patients to consider
           alternative approaches in conjunction with traditional
           medicine , with an increasing number of doctors
           offering accupuncture and relaxation methods to relieve
           stress.
Message:
           The increasing dominant message of preventive care will
           have an eventual effect on decreasing Australia's
           health burden but it is more of an associated effect
           rather than a direct one.

           It is more important to acknowledge that traditional
           medicine is now increasingly open to alternative
           therapies. We do need to be careful when using
           alternative therapies as such practices and
           treatments/medicines are not monitored by a Regulatory
           Body such as Drs (AMA) and Pharmaceuticals are. This is
           why the skills
           of informed consumer choice are most important today.

           Hope this helps - good luck!
           Michelle


Sender:    vanessa hallgath
Subject:   Change in Health Promotion
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What was the need for the change from the individual
Message:
           lifestyle approach to the new health approach?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: Change in Health Promotion
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What was the need for the change from the individual
           >lifestyle approach to the new health approach?

           The Individaul Lifestyle Approach (ILA) took the stance
           that if you give people information they will be
           equiped to change their ways. This wasn't successful
           with all people because it failed to take into account
           that not everyone has the same ability to change their
           lifestyle.

           The ILA failed to acknowledge that social determinants
           such as low socioeconomic status or living in remote
           areas would have an impact on your ability to adopt and
           maintain positive health behaviours.

           The ILA also focused on the individual being the centre
           of the problem and that through information and
           increased awareness that anyone is able and willing to
           change their health behaviours. The NPHA acknowledged
Message:   that success is more likely through the involvement of
           community members, where support and ownership may
           guarantee continued success of hp initiatives.

           The ILA looked at empowerment through information -
           which is great if you have the skills to digest the
           knowledge and then know what to do with it - what
           happens to those who can't actually access the
           knowledge OR chose not to?

           An approach to hp that embraces the individual and
           community aand addresses the social determinants that
           may make it difficult for members of our population to
           make positive changes to their health behaviour will
           always be more successful than one that places the
           responsibility for change soley on the individual.

           Hope this helps!
           Good luck in your exams
           Michelle


Sender:    Jessica Thorne
Subject:   JD and the OC
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What is the link between the Jakarta Declaration and
Message:
           the Ottawa Charter?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: JD and the OC
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What is the link between the Jakarta Declaration and
           >the Ottawa Charter?
           Dear Jessica
           Both the OC and the JD were established as tools to
           guide or faciliate effective health promotion
           initiatives. The Ottawa Charter helped establish the
           implementation of effective health promotion initiaives
Message:   in its member countries. The WHO delegation praised the
           process, but as is the case with all things, evaluation
           saw that further development was possible, leading to
           the establishment of the JD. The JD is a complimentary
           set of guidelines that are meant to enhance the
           delivery of hp intiatives.
           Hope this makes it a little clearer
           Michelle


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: JD and the OC
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What is the link between the Jakarta Declaration and
           >the Ottawa Charter?

           Hi
Message:
           Check out my response to Millie Heslop to answer this
           question

           Cheers
           Janice


Sender:    Peta Martin
Subject:   NHPAs - trends
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           I studied CVD, cancer, mental health and asthma in
           detail for my NHPAs, but when doing multiple choice in
           my trails I realised that there are still questions
Message:
           relating to other HPAs that I may not have studied. So
           can anyone give me any pointers on diabetes and
           injury and the trends related to them ...?


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: NHPAs - trends
Date:      31-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >I studied CVD, cancer, mental health and asthma in
           >detail for my NHPAs, but when doing multiple choice in
           >my trails I realised that there are still questions
           >relating to other HPAs that I may not have studied. So
           >can anyone give me any pointers on diabetes and
           >injury and the trends related to them ...?

           Dear Peta,
           You are required to demonstareate an understanding of 6
           NHPAs but are required to study cancer & CVD + 2 of the
           remaining 4 in detail. Remember all may be addressed in
Message:   multiple choice, so don't discount the ones's you
           aren't studying in detail - refer to your syllabus for
           what you need to know and be able to do...

           As for diabetes and injury

           Diabetes is the fastest growing disease or condition in
           Australia. Incidence increases with age and it is a
           major cause or early mortality. Incidence has increased
           over the past 20 years with groups at greatest risk
           being the aged, ATSI and socioeconomically
           disadvantaged populations. There is increased concern
           over increasing childhood obesity rates and the
           implications this has for increased cases of the
           condition.

           Injury is most prominant in the 1-44 yrs age group.
           There si a decreased mortality rate in Motor Vehicles
           due to improved environmental conditions and
           legislation.Young people are more likely to be involved
           in MV accidents, suicide, violence, workplace injury
           and posionings. The elderly are more likley to suffer
           falls, rural dwellers workplace injury and children,
           poisonings, road accidents , falls and drownings.

           Suicide had eclipsed MV accidensta s the major cause of
           mortality (through injury) for males.

           Hope this sheds some light on theprobelem! Good luck in
           your study
           Michelle


Sender:    jenna bricknell
Subject:   the jakarta dec and oc
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Outline the difference between the Jakarta Declaration
Message:
           and the ottawa charter


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: the jakarta dec and oc
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >Outline the difference between the Jakarta Declaration
           >and the ottawa charter

           Hi Jenna
Message:
           To help you with this question, check out my response
           to Millie Heslop. It outlines the major differences
           between the Ottawa Charter adn the Jakarta Declaration.

           Good luck with your exams
           Janice


Sender:    kara sutton
Subject:   NPHA and the JD
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What are the difference between the new public health
Message:
           approach and the Jakarta declaration


Sender:    Michelle Maher
Subject:   Re: NPHA and the JD
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What are the difference between the new public health
           >approach and the Jakarta declaration

           Dear Kara
           The new public health approach looks at empowering the
           individual, involving the community and acknowledging
           the social determinants of health. You need to look at
           some earlier replies that focused on NPHA to get a
           better picture of this approach.
Message:
           The JD is simply a tool used by those involved in
           health promotion to structure successful campaigns or
           initiatives. It reflects the the NPHA through each of
           the 5 action areas. In this, it is not different but
           merely a part of this approach.

           Hope this makes it a little clearer
           Michelle


Sender:    Leisa Ramage
Subject:   social justice principles
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
Message:   can you please define and explain what the
           socialjustice principal are when looking at the
           national health priority areas


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: social justice principles
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           Can you please define and explain what the
           social justice principles are when looking at the
           national health priority areas
           --------------------------------------------------------
           Social justice refers to what needs to be done to make
           health(or any other social issue)an equal playing field
           for the entire population. We can do this by providing
           supportive environments (emotionally and physically)
           and by promoting diversity within our community. Social
           justice principles aim to give all members of our
           society the same opportunities to achieve and maintain
           good health.

           As you know, there are many population groups within
           Australia who experience poorer levels of health. The
           groups who face great hardship and have less
           opportunities to improve their health are ATSI and
           socioeconomically disadvantaged groups.
Message:
           The principles that relate to social justice include:
           participation (involving the community in planning and
           making decisions about health issues); equity (making
           sure resources and funding are distibuted fairly,
           without discrimination); access (making sure everyone
           can make use of a range of health services); rights
           (all community members should receive equal opportunity
           to achieve good health)

           Medicare is an excellent example of the social justice
           principle in action. It provides all members of the
           population with the opportunity to access basic medical
           services and hospital care, regardless of socioeconomic
           status, race or gender.

           This principle should be applied to all initiatives
           aimed at providing equity in health.
           Hope this helps. Good luck in your exams.

           Janice


Sender:    kara sutton
Subject:   social justice principles
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           How do i apply social justice principles to health care
Message:
           in Australia?


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: social justice principles
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >How do i apply social justice principles to health
           care in Australia?

           Hi

           Social justice refers to what needs to be done to make
           health(or any other social issue)an equal playing field
           for the entire population. We can do this by providing
           supportive environments (emotionally and physically)
           and by promoting diversity within our community. Social
           justice principles aim to give all members of our
           society the same opportunities to achieve and maintain
Message:
           good health.

           As you know, there are many population groups within
           Australia who experience poorer levels of health. The
           groups who face great hardship and have less
           opportunities to improve their health are ATSI and
           socioeconomically disadvantaged groups.

           The principles that relate to social justice include:
           participation (involving the community in planning and
           making decisions about health issues); equity (making
           sure resources and funding are distibuted fairly,
           without discrimination); access (making sure everyone
           can make use of a range of health services); rights
           (all community members should receive equal opportunity
           to achieve good health)

           Medicare is an excellent example of the social justice
           principle in action. It provides all members of the
           population with the opportunity to access basic medical
           services and hospital care, regardless of socioeconomic
           status, race or gender.

           This principle should be applied to all initiatives
           aimed at providing equity in health.


           Hope this helps. Good luck in your exams.

           Janice


Sender:    vanessa hallgath
Subject:   Government Expenditure
Date:      29-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           What is Goverment expenditure, and how does it relate
Message:
           to Core 1?


Sender:    Janice Atkin
Subject:   Re: Government Expenditure
Date:      30-AUG-2006
Attachment: N/A
           >What is Goverment expenditure, and how does it relate
           >to Core 1?

           Hi

Message:   The syllabus learn about information
           centres on health insurance, costs of health care to
           the consumer and health care expenditure vs. health
           promotion expenditure.

           The most important information for you lies in the
accompanying teacher note to this area of the
syllabus: deal with in broad terms. The emphasis
should be on the analysis of the prevention vs. cure
debate, rather than the detail of budget figures.

I would advise you develop an understanding of the
following points:
* there has been an increase in health expenditure
over the years, & is expected to continue, as a result
of the increasing costs associated with
technological advances in medical research and
treatment; the fact that more people visit doctors and
other health professionals (this trend is closely
associated with the introduction of Medicare in the
80's) and the impact of our aging population (who
are more reliant on health services)
* the majority of funding for health expenditure
comes from the Commonwealth Government.
State/Local governments and the non-government
sector contribute the rest. It would be interesting to
examine why non-government sectors are becoming
increasingly important in the contribution of funds for
health!
* The biggest stakeholders in the health expenditure
budget are institutional and non-institutional health
care, pharmaceuticals and dental services. Most of
the health budget is devoted to health care
institutions such as public and private acute care
hospitals ; psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes
a proportion of the total budget that has slowly
declined in recent years as a result of shorter
hospital stays and many procedures now
taking place outside hospital settings); the next
biggest slice of funding goes to non-institutional
services - medical and health related services
(this has increased since 1980's - can you guess
why?); and then pharmaceuticals and dental
services feature. Health promotion and research
receive a very small proportion of the funding. This
could be for many reasons but it is often linked back
to the fact that the products of hp take a long time to
be seen and treatment brings a quick result! We
know prevention is better than cure but we also need
to treat those with the condition. These procedures
can be costly and labour intensive and thus
demand more capital. I suggest you list the
               advantages of more money being spent on
               prevention and back it up with examples of
               successful health promotion initiatives e.g.
               decreased incidence of lung cancer/CVD with
               introduction of the QUIT campaign or decreased mv
               accidents as a result of legislation concerning blood
               alcohol levels and compulsory seat belts.

               Always refer back to your syllabus to identify what you
               need to know. Textbooks are designed to support
               the syllabus - so use them, along with your class
               notes, as a resource. There are many great
               websites out there to support you as well - try the
               Australian Institute of Health and Welfare for
               up to date statistics and trends
               http://www.aihw.gov.au

               Hope this helps! Good luck in your exams

               Cheers

               Janice



[ Finished ]

								
To top