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EML 17 Hybrid Golf Cart

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					Progress Energy Symposium
   Design a vehicle conversion kit to turn an existing
    gasoline powered vehicle into a hybrid vehicle.
     Primary motive is to increase fuel economy to reduce
      dependence on nonrenewable resources
   Limitations
     Space, cost, safety, weight, etc
   Goals to be accomplished
     Increased fuel economy, onboard energy
      management, bolt-on design, no loss of performance
   Key components
       Battery Energy Source
       AC Motor (Induction)
       Blended Controller
       Gas Pedal and Electric Throttle Integration
       Parallel Drivetrain
                        Parallel Drivetrain: Engine and motor
                        propel vehicle




                        Series Drivetrain: Motor propels
                        vehicle, while engine drives a generator
                        to run motor




Images from www.wikipedia.org
Bracket




 Axle
          ½” Bolts
   Both the gasoline
    engine and the
    electric motor work
    to propel the golf
    cart.
   The motor is
    connected to the
    existing CVT by a
    chain and sprocket
    system.
   The golf cart works
    by simply pressing
    on the accelerator,
    just like before any
    modifications were
    made.
   This activates both
    the gasoline engine
    and electric motor.
Rear Axle   Motor
                                     Bracket




 Engine

                                   Sprockets




                                 Extended
                    CVT Pulley     Shaft
   Fuel Efficiency Testing
     City Driving
       Accelerate to 10 MPH and then stop. Repeat.
     Highway Driving
       Drive at top speed
   Electrical current draw testing
   Acceleration testing
   Top speed testing
           City                    Highway
    Old             New      Old             New
15.408            20.272    21.408       35.712
15.848              22.96   22.464       36.304
19.152            22.384    22.184       35.954


          Average                  Average
16.803            21.872    21.936       36.008

   Percentage Increase in Fuel Economy
         30.17% City
         64.15% Highway
                                          Electrical Current Draw from Batteries
                              350
                                            295
                              300
                                                                                         245
Maximum Current Draw (Amps)




                              250

                              200

                              150

                              100                          80

                               50

                                0
                                                                         -12
                               -50                                                                       -27

                              -100
                                     Accelerating (full   15 mph   Coasting from 15    19.6 mph   Coasting from 19.6
                                         throttle)                       mph                             mph

                                                                   Driving Condition
   The acceleration increased over the unmodified
    golf cart by 51.35%
                                 Cart Acceleration

        After Modification
                                                                     1.979
             (hybrid)




       Before Modification
                                                 1.307
         (gasoline only)



                             0    0.5        1            1.5                2   2.5
                                        Peak Acceleration (ft/s^2)
   Using cyclometers, the cart’s top speed was
    measured before and after modification.
     The tests were conducted with 3 people aboard the cart
     29.8% increase in top speed
                              Top Speed of Golf Cart

             After Modification
                                                             19.6
                  (hybrid)



            Before Modification
                                                 15.1
              (gasoline only)


                                  0   5    10           15          20   25
                                          Top Speed (mph)
Requirement             Goal                 Actual
Increase Highway MPG    50% (0.1% minimum)   64.15%
Increase Top Speed      > 15.1 mph           19.6 mph (29.8% increase)
Increase Acceleration   > 1.307 ft/s2        1.979 ft/s2 (51.35% increase)

   The design maintains a bolt-on design while
    utilizing multiple sources of energy
    Cost   Date                                                            Description
                     Electric Motor Sport: AC induction motor with Curtis 1236 controller. White Rogers 48 V Contactor and Curtis Throttle
2,591.77   1/26/2009
                     unit.
 231.45     2/4/2009 Walmart: 3, 12-V Deep cycle Marine Batteries
  61.57    11/8/2008 Advance Auto Parts: 2 spark plugs; 1 fuel pump; 1 measuring funnel; 1, 1 gallon fuel tank
                       Home Depot: 4 cans black spray paint; painters plastic; 3, 15 Amp light switches; 1 light switch faceplate; 1 roll
  18.86    1/24/2009
                       painters tape;
                     Home Depot: 4, 3/8" hex nuts; 8, 1/2" hex nuts; 2 cans of black spray paint; 2 packs of 4 gauge wire connectors; 3
  27.97    2/11/2009
                     threaded rods (3 ft each); 1 hollow rod (3 ft)
  34.95    2/12/2009 Electric Motorsport: 7/8" - 3/16 key shaft #50 sprocket
  19.94    2/13/2009 Walmart: 3, 4-gauge cables with battery terminal connectors attached
                                                                                                                                                Total     3,444.02
  12.60    2/14/2009 Lowes: 1 package of 2- 4 gauge wire terminals; wire connectors; 18-22 gauge quick disconnect terminals
                                                                                                                                                Budget    3,600.00
  80.00    2/26/2009 Electric Motorsport: Chain, Size 530                                                                                       Remaining   155.98
  34.95     3/4/2009 Electric Motorsport: 7/8" - 3/16 key shaft #50 sprocket
  37.36     3/4/2009 McMaster Carr: 6"X7/8" keyed shaft
                       Home Depot: 1/2" drill bit; 1/4" drill bit; 8oz can WD-40; tube of Liquid Nails; 3/8" Chuck Key; 2 cans of Black Spray
  61.10     3/6/2009
                       Paint; 2 packages of 3 wire rope clamps; 4 eye bolts; Husky socket set; 4 feet of wire rope
   5.00    3/12/2009 Ace Hardware: Pipe Insulation, 2: 1-1/4" keys, 2: 1-3/4" keys
                       Home Depot: 4, 1/2" hex lock nuts; 16, 1/2" Cut Washers; 4 lock washers; 4, 1/2"X8" Hex Bolts; 1 Stair Angle; 4,
  20.86    3/12/2009
                       1/4"X11/2" Hex Bolts; 4, 1/4" Hex Nuts

 172.81    3/25/2009 Walmart: 3, 12-Volt Battery Chargers; 1, 12 Volt Battery; 1 pack 3/8" 4-gauge cable connectors

   5.02    3/27/2009 Home Depot: 1, 1/4" Threaded Rod; 2, 1/4" set screws; 16, 1/4" hex nuts; 12, 1/4" washers

  27.81     4/3/2009 Home Depot: 2, Door Handles; 1, 2"X4"X8' Stud; 1, 4'X8' Sheet of Particle Board; 6 square feet of carpet
   Cost
     Adding a kit to make a car into a hybrid may not be
      financially viable
       Motor & controller cost ~$4300 for light vehicles
       Battery pack & hardware cost is at least $700
   Manufacturing
     Almost all parts in our bolt on kit can be easily obtained
       L-bracket is the only machined part in the kit
   Safety
     If wiring instructions are followed, the kit is safe for use
     The modified vehicle is just as safe as the original
   Assembly
     Assembly of the kit takes less than 8 hours, easily fitting
      within a single day’s work
   Maintainability
     Because the kit uses widely available components,
      replacements are easy to come by and relatively cheap
     AC induction motors are very durable and are unlikely to
      need maintenance
     Very little periodic maintenance is needed
       Lubricate chain, check battery acid levels, etc
   Just as the kit is easy to assemble, disassembly is
    also a simple task
   Wood, screws, motor, bolts, nuts, wires, etc. can all
    be disposed of easily or recycled
   The batteries in the bolt on kit need to be disposed
    of properly
   Scott Haynie – Mechanical Parts Integrator
   Thomas Silvers – FEM Analysis and Modeling
   Chris Dunlap – Electrical System Integrator
   Cliff Roberts – Project Leader and Research
   David Van Aulen – Modeling and Documentation

				
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