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One Nation, Two States
East Asia
A “shrimp between two whales”
describes Korea’s physical
situation in East Asia.
              Early Korean History
► Artifacts date back 500,000 years
► Three Kingdoms (ca. 100 BCE – 668 CE) –all were
  military kingdoms and divided into strict classes
    Koguryô: north of Yalu River
    Paekche: bitter enemy of Koguryô
    Silla: Last to develop; south of Peninsula; had “bone
     rank” system of stratified society; conquers first two
► Unified   Silla (668-935 CE)
    Unified all Korea, but lost a lot of Koguryô territory; a
     bitter opponent of Japan
Korea: (ca. 100 BCE – 668 CE)
             Middle Korean History
►   Koryô Dynasty
     Durable institutions like yongbon or “twin ranks” or “twin orders”
      by feng shui
     Rulers adopted Confucian ideals, but the people remained loyal to
     (Chinese) civil service exams
     Capital moved from Kyôngju to Kaesông
►   Mongol Invasions
     Golden Horde Empire (13th century) stretches from the Danube to
      Baghdad to near Japan
     Tripikata (Buddhist library) Koreana Canon; Buddhism appeared in
      372 CE)
►   Chosun Dynasty: 1392-1910
►   Imjin Invasions (2): 1592-1598; Japanese conquest of Asia
►   Hermit Kingdom?
     19th century xenophobia; placed stones around the country stating
      “don’t trust foreigners” (specifically Japanese and Chinese)
             Chosôn Dynasty
                          ►   The period began in 1392
                              and ended in 1910. The
                              Chosôn Dynasty is
                              commonly regarded as the
                              last 'traditional' kingdom
                              before the onslaught of
                              'modern' culture in the
                              'land of the morning calm.'
                          ►   King Sejong developed a
                              simple and effective
                              system of writing called

King Sejong (1397-1450)
               Korean Woodblock

The world’s first movable print. Koreans also invented “turtle ships”, Celadon
  pottery, and the concept of filial piety (even to teachers and students).
       Modern Korean History
► 1876-1953:   marked by imperialism and civil
► Treaty of Kanghwa (1876); Japan forces
  Korea to open three ports for trade rights
► “Eastern values, Western science”
► Sino-Japanese War: one-year war
  orchestrated by the Japanese; an uprising in
  Korea was the spark and Korea becomes
  “independent”; Treaty of Shimonoseki
Japanese Dominance in East Asia
  Japanese Dominance in Korea
► Russo-Japanese  War (1904-05)
► In 1910, Japan ended the Chosôn Dynasty,
  annexed Korea, and began a harsh 35-year rule
  over the peninsula.
► By 1937 the Japanese had:
     Forced mobilization of the Koreans
     Instituted slave labor
     Forbidden Korean language; only Japanese
     Mandated Shinto worship
     Employed ”comfort women”
     Forced Koreans to adopt Japanese names; “lost names”
                 The    38th   Parallel

    3 million died;                       Korea was divided
55,000 Americans died                        by America
Korean War: 1950-53
Korean War Memorial,
  Washington, D.C.
The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
Divided Korea
               South Korea
► “Miracle of the Han River”
► Ranked 13th in overall GDP
► 64% of South Koreans use cell phones
► 8th highest cell subscriber base in the world
► Ranks 5th in Internet connectivity
► Ranked 4th (in 2001) in sales in the global
  chip-making industry
           Night Lights

Where’s North Korea?


                           South Korea’s population is
                           twice as large as that of
                           North Korea, has a 20 to 1
                           larger economy, and a 98%
                           literacy rate.
Yongbyon, North Korea

               Nuclear Reactor
               North Korea
► Has  “freedom” of religion, but is essentially
  atheist; Juche philosophy was created by
  Kim Il Sung (a.k.a. Kim Il Sungism); a
  Stalinist state
► Has a million man army
► Is now nuclear
► America fears not a North Korean missile,
  but nuclear material getting into the hands
  of terrorists (e.g. al-Qaeda), and six party
  talks have broken down under the Bush
One Nation, Two States

PowerPoint authored by
    Keith M. Bell

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