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Infancy Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction.ppt

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Infancy Social and Emotional Development Truth or Fiction.ppt Powered By Docstoc
					      Chapter 7

        Infancy –
Socioemotional Development
 Attachment

Bonds That Endure
               What Is Meant by Attachment?


• Enduring emotional tie between one animal/person and another
  specific individual (Ainsworth, 1989)

• Separation anxiety
   – Experienced by infant when contact can not be maintained with
     caregiver


• Attachment is assessed by Strange Situation (Ainsworth)
             The Strange Situation




Figure 7.1
                    Patterns of Attachment
• Secure attachment
   – Mildly protest mother’s departure, seek interaction upon her return
     and are easily comforted by her


• Avoidant attachment
   – Least distressed by mothers’ departure, ignore mother upon her
     return


• Ambivalent/resistant attachment
   – Show severe distress when mother leaves and ambivalence upon
     her return, clinging and pushing away their mother


• Disorganized/disoriented attachment
   – Dazed, confused, or disoriented
                   Secure Attachment


• Securely attached infants and toddlers

   – Happier, more sociable, more cooperative
   – Use mother as secure base for exploration
   – Have longer attention spans, are less impulsive, and
     better problem solvers
   – At 5 and 6, are better liked, more competent, less
     aggressive and have fewer behavioral problems
                     Roles of the Parents
                in the Formation Attachment

• High-quality care contributes to security

• Intergenerational transmission of attachment

• Parental support services may contribute to secure attachment

• Siblings develop similar attachment relationships with their
  mother

• Infant’s temperament and caregivers’ behavior both contribute to
  attachment
                   Roles of the Parents
              in the Formation Attachment

• What determines an infants’ attachment to their father?

   – Quality of the time the father spends with the baby
   – Amount of affectionate interaction between father and
     infant
                 Stability of Attachment


• When caregiving remains constant – attachment persists

• When caregiving changes – attachment can change

• Early attachment patterns tend to endure even into
  adulthood
                     Theories of Attachment


• Cognitive View of Attachment
   – Infant must develop object permanence prior to forming attachment


• Behavioral View of Attachment
   – Caregiver becomes a conditioned reinforcer


• Psychoanalytic Views of Attachment
   – Caregiver satisfies infant’s needs (food – trust)


• Harlows’ View of Attachment
   – Contact comfort is key to attachment
How Do Different Theorists Emphasize Nature or Nurture
in Their Explanation of the Development of Attachment?

• Ethological View of Attachment
   – Attachment is an inborn fixed action pattern (FAP) which occurs
     during a critical period in response to releasing stimulus.
      • In humans, baby’s smile in response to human voice or face
           – 2-3-month emergence of social smile
      • In non-humans, FAP occurs during critical period: imprinting
• Critical period for attachment in humans is extended months or
  years - Ainsworth and Bowlby (1991)
   – Attachment is related to quality of caregiver-infant relationship
             Imprinting




Figure 7.4
When Attachment Fails
 What Are the Findings of the Harlows’ Studies on the
    Effects of Social Deprivation with Monkeys?

• Monkeys reared in isolation
   – Later avoided contact with other monkeys
   – Did not attempt to fend off attacks by other monkeys
   – Females who later bore children ignored or abused them
• Attempts to overcome effects of deprivation
   – Deprived monkeys are placed with younger monkeys
   – Eventually expand contacts with other monkeys
   – Children socially withdrawn and placed with younger playmates
     make gains in social and emotional development
            What Do We Know About the Effects
             of Social Deprivation on Humans?

• Institutionalized children with little social stimulation encounter
  developmental problems
    – May become withdrawn and depressed
• Infants require sensory stimulation and social interference
• Separation from primary caregivers may be detrimental to child
• Infants have much capacity to recover from deprivation
The Development of Adopted Children Separated
        from Temporary Foster Parents




Figure 7.6
  What Is the Incidence of Child Abuse and Neglect?


• Nearly 3 million American children are neglected or abused each
  year
   – 1 in 6 experiences serious injury
   – More than 150,000 of the 3 million are sexually abused
• Researchers believe 50- 60% of abuse and neglect go
  unreported
             Types of Maltreatment of Children


•   Physical abuse
•   Sexual abuse
•   Emotional abuse
•   Physical neglect
•   Emotional neglect
•   Educational neglect
A Closer Look – Real Life

 Prevention of Sexual Abuse of
           Children
   What Are the Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect?


• Abused children show high incidence of personal, social
  problems, and psychological disorders
   – Less securely attached to parents
   – Less intimate with peers
   – More aggressive, angry and noncompliant with other children
A Closer Look – Real Life

  How Child Abuse May Set the
Stage for Psychological Disorders
           in Adulthood
                    Causes of Child Abuse


• Situational stress
• Attachment failure
• Child abuse may run in families
   – Parents are role models, even abusive ones
   – Exposure to violence may lead to violence as a norm
   – Rationalization of hurting children
                    Dealing with Child Abuse


• Reporting child abuse
   – Many states require suspicions to be reported
• Preventing child abuse
   –   Strengthening parenting skills
   –   Home visits to high risk groups
   –   Providing support, such as child abuse hotline
   –   Increase public awareness
Autism Spectrum Disorders
          What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders?


• Characterized by impairment in communication skills, social
  interactions, and repetitive stereotyped behavior
   – Becomes evident by age 3
• Forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)
   – Asperger’s disorder – social deficits and stereotyped behavior
   – Rett’s disorder – physical, behavioral, motor and cognitive
     abnormalities, begins a few months after normal development
   – Childhood disintegrative disorder – loss of previously acquired
     skills, begins 2 years after normal development
                        What Is Autism?


• Four to five times more common among boys than girls
• Features of autism
   –   aloneness
   –   communication problems
   –   intolerance of change
   –   stereotypical behaviors
   –   mutism
   –   echolalia
   –   self-mutilation
  What Are the Origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder?


• Biological factors
   – Evidenced by genetic studies
   – Focus on neurological involvement
      • Abnormal brain wave patterns or seizures
      • Sensitivity to specific neurotransmitters
      • Unusual brain activity
      • Immune systems disorders
• Appears vulnerability to autism may be inherited the conditions
  needed to interact to produce autistic behaviors are unknown.
           What Can Be Done to Help Children
           with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

• Behavior modification
• Drug therapies are under study
   – Use of SSRIs and major tranquilizers
Day Care
Does Day Care Affect Children’s Bonds of Attachment?
  Does It Affect Social and Cognitive Development?

• Most infants (in day care or not) are securely attached
• Social development of children in day care
   – More independent, self confident, outgoing, affectionate and more
     cooperative
   – Day care may be stressful for the child
• Cognitive development of children in quality day care
   – Outperform children who remain at home
• Children in day care show more aggression
   – Aggression may indicate independence
A Closer Look – Research

  The Latest Shoe to Drop on
   Day Care from the NICHD
A Closer Look – Real Life

    Finding Child Care You
 (and Your Child) Can Live With
Emotional Development
                      What Are Emotions?


• A state of feeling that has physiological, situational, and cognitive
  components
    – Physiological – body reaction
    – Situational – environmental presence
    – Cognitive – ideas and thoughts
   Lessons in Observation: Emotional Development


• How is this infant’s “emotional life” developing?


• Are our major emotions present and differentiated at birth, even if
  they are not all shown at once?
   Lessons in Observation: Emotional Development


• Did we, as newborns, experience but one emotion – diffuse
  excitement, from which other emotions differentiate over time?


• What is the relationship between cognitive development and
  emotional development?
                 How Do Emotions Develop?


• Bridges’ and Stroufe’s Theory of Emotion
   – Born with one emotion – diffused excitement
   – Other emotions differentiate over time
   – Cognitive development is necessary for differentiation of emotions
• Izard’s Theory of Emotion
   – Born with several emotional states
   – Identify emotions using facial movement scoring system
   – Appearance of those emotions is linked to cognitive development
     and social experiences
Illustrations from Izard’s Maximally Discriminative
          Facial Movement Scoring System




Figure 7.7
                Is Fear of Strangers Normal?


• Fear of strangers – stranger anxiety is normal
   – Appears at about 6 to 9 months
• Development of stranger anxiety
   – 4 – 5 months – smile more at mother than strangers
   – Fear peaks at 9 to 12 months and decline in 2nd year, or
   – Second peak at 18 to 24 months and decline in 3rd year
• Show less distress when mothers are present
• Closer to stranger, more distressed
        When Does Social Referencing Develop?


• Social referencing – seeking another’s perception of a situation
  to help form our own view
• Development of social referencing
   – Appears as early as 6 months
   – Use caregiver’s facial expression and tone of voice to provide clues
               What Is Emotional Regulation?


• Refers to ways young children control their own emotions
• Caregivers help infants learn to regulate emotions
   – Interplay between caregiver and infant
   – Secure mothers = children more able to positively regulate emotions
Personality Development
                      What Is Self-Concept?


• The sense of self
   – Emerges gradually during infancy
• Development of self-concept
   – Mirror technique – 18 months - infants demonstrate self concept
   – 24 months – can point to their own picture and use I in refer to self
• Presence of self-awareness allows
   – Sharing and cooperation
   – “Self-conscious” emotions
          Psychoanalytic Views of Self-Concept


• Separation-individuation
   – Necessary for self-concept (5 months through 3 years)
   – Erikson – task is to develop autonomy
   – Freud - task is to develop independence and control but focuses on
     child’s bodily functions
• Demonstration of autonomy and independence
   – Noncompliance with parental requests
     What Is Meant by the Temperament of a Child?


• Characteristic way of relating and adapting to the world; present
  very early in life
   – Basic core of personality
   – Has a genetic component
• Research establishes characteristics of temperament
   What Types of Temperament Do We Find Among
                    Children?

• Thomas and Chess (1989) three types of temperament
   – Easy (40% of sample)
      • regular schedule, adapts easily, generally cheerful
   – Difficult (10% of sample)
      • irregular schedule, slow at accept and adapt to change,
          responds negatively
   – Slow to warm up (15% of sample)
      • somewhat irregular schedule, respond negatively to new
          experiences, but adapt slowly after repeated exposure
                         Goodness of Fit


• Good fit
   – Parents modify expectations, attitudes and behaviors to assist child
     In developing a more positive temperament
• Poor fit
   – Discrepancy between child’s behavior style and parent’s
     expectations
How Do Girls and Boys Differ in Their Social, Emotional
               and Other Behaviors?

• Infant behaviors
   – Girls sit, crawl and walk earlier than boys
   – By 12 to 18 months – difference in toy preference
      • girls prefer dolls, doll furniture, dishes and toy animals
      • boys prefer transportation toys, tools, and sports equipment
• Adult behaviors
   – Adults respond differently to boys and girls
• Parent behaviors
   – More rough and tumble play with sons
   – Talk to and smile at daughters more
   – Favorable reactions when child plays with “appropriate” gender toys
             Lessons in Observation: Gender


• Describe how parental expectations and gifts can influence
  gender-typed behavior in children.


• How might parents try to raise their children in a more “gender-
  free” environment?
             Lessons in Observation: Gender


• Do you think a child raised in a relatively gender-free
  environment will develop differently from other children?

				
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