The Enlightenment

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					               Sir Isaac Newton
 b.1642 – d.1727

 most influential scientist ever born,
  laid foundations for modern science
  through studies of mathematics,
  physics, optics

 born in England, entered Cambridge
  University 1661,

 paid way through college by waiting
  tables and cleaning rooms of faculty
                                          Godfrey Kneller's 1689
  and wealthier students                  portrait of Isaac Newton
               Newton, cont’d
 1664, elected as a professor,
  guaranteeing him 4 years of financial
   but university closed when the Black
    Death reached Cambridge, so had to

 singled out 1665-1666 as “most
  creative years”, where he developed
  principles that would be later
  published in Principia
                    Still Newton…
 first major public scientific invention was
  reflective telescope (1670s)
       great advance in technology, elected to
       Royal Society

 later in 1670s, became interested in
    believed that Church had departed from
     original teachings of Christ

 felt unable to accept beliefs of Church of
    King Charles II issued royal decree
     excusing Newton from having to take
     royal orders
 1696, presented with a scientific problem about the
  gravitational pull of the planets, and came up with a proof

 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica
  (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) –
  Principia published 1687
                End of Newton
 because of Principia, became a
  public figure, knighted by
  Queen Anne

 1696, moved to London as
  Master of Royal Mint

 dies 1727, buried in Westminster
  Abbey (first scientist to be given
  this honour)
               Newton’s Legacy
 invented calculus

 Gravity – apple legend, cannon theory

 Newton found science to be a set of isolated laws and theories
  capable of describing some phenomena but predicting very few
   by defining universal laws of motion and theory of gravity, left
    science with a set of unified laws that can be used to make precise

 Alexander Pope, 18th cent.:
   “Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night:
    God said, Let Newton be! and all was light.”
  Political Philosophy - Origins
 Reformation challenged the authority of the Papacy & the
  Catholic Church

 Scientific Revolution was also challenging authority,
  specifically political authority

 Claiming to rule by divine right (absolute monarchs) was
  losing legitimacy
               Thomas Hobbes
 b.1588 – d.1679
 father of modern political philosophy
 born in London, educated at Oxford
  University, studied classics
 during studies, traveled around Europe
  meeting other scientists and examining
  other governments
 began to question why and how people
  allowed themselves to be governed
   wanted to know what best form of
    government would be for England
                Hobbes, cont’d
 later tutored son of Cavendishes, opportunity to mingle
  with powerful political figures

 would later tutor future king Charles II

 spent 1640-51 in exile in France, because of civil wars in
  England, met other Enlightenment figures (Descartes,

 during time in France, wrote Leviathan, 1651
   (same year as execution of English king)
 believed that men were naturally evil
  and self-serving, therefore could not
  be trusted to govern

 argued that government should be in
  form of absolute monarchy
   countries need ruler with authority to
    provide direction and leadership
 democracy would never work because people only self-
  serving and wanting to promote their own interests
   "All mankind [is in] a perpetual and restless desire for
    power... that [stops] only in death.”

 called for reform of philosophy which would lead to
  greater and more understandable truths

 also believed that civil war resulted from disagreements in
  political philosophy
   therefore, reformed philosophy to create a unified system
    would end terror of war as well!
        ‘State of Nature’ & Social
            Contract Theories
 introduced concept of state of nature
   “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish & short”
   in nature absence of rights and contracts made for no

 social contract – individuals come together and give up
  some of their rights in order to find peace
   would lead to establishment of society, but now nation-
    states compete
      Hobbes, post-Leviathan
 after Restoration, looked down upon in English society as
  immoral and an atheist

 1666, House of Commons issued a bill banning atheism,
  and specifically banning Leviathan
   prevented Hobbes from even printing anything regarding
    human conduct in England again

 died December 1679 at house of Cavendish family
                   John Locke
 b.1632-d.1704

 English moral and political

 father fought on side of
  Parliamentarians during English Civil

 1652, entered into Christ’s Church,
  Oxford, studying philosophy &
                                          Portrait of John Locke by Sir
                                          Godfrey Kneller, 1697
                    Locke, cont’d
 1662, met Earl of Shaftesbury at Oxford,
  became good friends
    Shaftesbury invited Locke to London to be his
     personal physician

 while with Shaftesbury, at centre of political
  world in England, would influence his later
  political philosophy

 1679, Shaftesbury had become head of
  parliamentary opposition to reigning Stuarts
    Shaftesbury tried for treason, 1681, but
     acquitted and fled England
     Locke to the Netherlands
 1683, Locke feared persecution and fled England for

 James II succeeded Charles II, defeated rebellion against
  him, declared Locke a traitor
   demanded he be returned to England by Dutch monarch,
    who made no serious effort to comply

 while in Holland, worked on political treatises, especially
  Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and also was
  involved in politics
Locke and the Glorious Revolution
 advising William of Orange, at centre of plot to put him on English
     Fall 1688, William made English king
     1689, Locke returned to England escorting princess of Orange, later
      would become Queen Mary

 1689, Two Treatises of Government published
 1690, Essay Concerning Human Understanding published
 new government offered him a position as ambassador to either
  Berlin or Vienna, but Locke turned it down
   health steadily failed him, and died 1704
       during later years, wrote series of commentaries on epistles of St.
        Paul, and edited previous works
       Two Treatises of Government
 published anonymously by Locke, 1689

 intended to justify William of Orange being placed on English throne

 argues that no government can be justified through divine right of
  kings theories

 State of Nature  governed by “Reason”
    “no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or
    Transgressions to this principle are to be punished

 citizens should be able to overthrow the government when those in
  power have violated the citizens’ trust
    i.e. governments must rule with the consent of the people
         Essay Concerning Human
          Understanding (1690)
 Locke’s only work on epistemology and
 tabula rasa – argued that at birth, mind is a
  ‘blank slate’ which is filled through one’s
 attacks established philosophies (Cartesian,
  Aristotelian, new skepticism), and attempts
  to pave new ground in philosophy
 differentiates between “primary qualities”
  (shape, motion, bodies, arrangement of
  particles) and “secondary qualities” (sounds,
  colours, etc.)

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