The Abyssopelagic Zone
By: Jefferly Toussaint
Factors of the Abyssopelagic Layer of
• There are two factors that all levels of the
• The abiotic factors are: • The biotic factors are:
– Magnesium – The Angler fish
– Gold – Giant Squid
– Diamonds – Medusa(Giant Jellyfish)
– Nodules – Dragonfish
– Pressure – Hatchetfish
– Temperature – Oarfish
– Salinity – Viperfish
– Oxygen – Tubeworm
• Dissolved gases
The Abyssopalegic Zone
• The Abyssopalegic (abyssal) zone is 4,000-
6,000 meters (13,000-20,000 feet) below sea
• This region is dominated by:
– Complete darkness
– Extremely high pressures
– An average temperature of 2-3 degrees Celsius (35
Farther than they thought
• Originally, the scientists thought that the
Abyssal Zone was only 20,000ft deep, but the
reality of it is that the Abyssal Zone extends
past the oceanic trenches- so therefore the
Abyssal Zone, also known as the Last Frontier,
can extend past 30,000ft.
– **Scientist are still researching and calculating.
Organisms found in the Abyssal Zone
• Although there are very few organisms found
in the Abyssopelagic zone, the organisms that
are down there are very well-adapted to the
• The fishes are well-adapted by:
• Their large eyes
• Most fish have light extracted from their body-
• They also have protection from predators; their forms
of protection vary from spikes to their poisonous touch
How do the organisms receive heat
• Since there are volcanic islands underwater,
some of the magma is extracted, or seeped
through the exterior and releases heat that
the underwater organisms utilize as their heat
• No light
• Chemosynthesis- the basis of life in the deep
• Scientists were baffled when there were organisms
present past the sunlit zone.
» The basis of all living things come from the sun, so it was
a scientific breakthrough that life past the sunlit zone is
The Angler Fish
• The Angler fish, or the Melanocetus johnsoni,
is THE most bizzare-looking fish in the sea.
• The light that dangles from its head is known
as a photophore.
– Its body resembles a basketball
– It has a very large mouth with sharp, fang-like
– Known to remain COMPLETELY motionless and
wait for the prey to come to them.
– “Common Black Devil”
The Giant Squid
• The Giant Squid is still a mystery to scientists
• All they know is that:
– The giant squid is the largest invertebrate on
• The largest ever found measured 59 feet (18 meters) in
length and weighed nearly a ton (900 kilograms).
– **Scientists are coming closer to studying them
because, in 2004, Japanese scientists took their
first real picture of these elusive giants.
• Medusa, or the giant jellyfish, is very lethal.
One touch to a human and death arises upon
• The medusa, like any other jellyfish, is an
• All jellyfish can eventually become a medusa
– It is the last stage of life for a jellyfish.
• The dragonfish is bioluminescent.
– Its wavelengths are nearly invisible to the human
• Its bioluminscence gives it a HUGE advantage
over its prey.
– It is able to “turn on” its bioluminescence when it
• **related to the viperfish
• The hatchetfish gets its name from its body,
which is laterally compressed in the form of a
• The hatchefish has a photophore, its form of
• It also uses counterillumination to get away
from its predators.
• There are two specific kinds of hatchetfish:
– The freshwater hatchetfish
– The marine hatchetfish
• The oarfish gets its name from being long and
flat; vaguely resembling an oar.
– The fish are heard to “row” themselves across the
• The oarfish is the basis of the sea serpent tales
because when they are close to death, they
linger on the surface.
• The viperfish has long, needle-like teeth and a
• The viperfish also has a photophore, located
at the end of its dorsal spine.
– He uses it like a fishing rod.
• The tube worm lives on the base of the ocean.
• It resides on top of the hydrothermal vents.
That is where it also receives its energy.
OF THE OCEAN
• Though the abyssal zone is the Last Frontier,
global warming also effects it.
– In 1992, the TOPEX/Poseidon was launched
underwater to measure the theory that water
warms primarily at the surface.
• If global warming effects the abyssal zone, it will
COMPLETELY alter the pattern that allows nutrient-rich
waters from the bottom to mingle with the top.
Human Activity in the Abyssal Zone
• Oil, as we all know, can destroy organisms if it
isn’t taken care of.
• This does not only happen at the surface.
– Although oil floats, it has the capacity to seep into
the Abyssal Zone and destroy life as they know it.
• If the Abyssal Zone organisms become extinct, then the
whole food chain will be thrown off, because of the
plankton that abide there.
Pollution in the Abyssal Zone
• The oil from the oil drums can and will cause
pollution in the abyss.
– They rust and release harmful toxins.