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The Abyssopelagic Zone

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					The Abyssopelagic Zone

    By: Jefferly Toussaint
     William Quintero
 Factors of the Abyssopelagic Layer of
               the Ocean
• There are two factors that all levels of the
  ocean face:
  – Abiotic

  – Biotic
                            Factors
• The abiotic factors are:      • The biotic factors are:
   –   Magnesium                   –   The Angler fish
   –   Gold                        –   Giant Squid
   –   Diamonds                    –   Medusa(Giant Jellyfish)
   –   Nodules                     –   Dragonfish
   –   Pressure                    –   Hatchetfish
   –   Temperature                 –   Oarfish
   –   Salinity                    –   Viperfish
   –   Oxygen                      –   Tubeworm
        • Dissolved gases
       The Abyssopalegic Zone
• The Abyssopalegic (abyssal) zone is 4,000-
  6,000 meters (13,000-20,000 feet) below sea
  level.
• This region is dominated by:
  – Complete darkness
  – Extremely high pressures
  – An average temperature of 2-3 degrees Celsius (35
    degrees Fahrenheit)
      Farther than they thought
• Originally, the scientists thought that the
  Abyssal Zone was only 20,000ft deep, but the
  reality of it is that the Abyssal Zone extends
  past the oceanic trenches- so therefore the
  Abyssal Zone, also known as the Last Frontier,
  can extend past 30,000ft.
  – **Scientist are still researching and calculating.
 Organisms found in the Abyssal Zone
• Although there are very few organisms found
  in the Abyssopelagic zone, the organisms that
  are down there are very well-adapted to the
  darkness.
• The fishes are well-adapted by:
     • Their large eyes
     • Most fish have light extracted from their body-
       bioluminescence
     • They also have protection from predators; their forms
       of protection vary from spikes to their poisonous touch
  How do the organisms receive heat
            and energy?
• Since there are volcanic islands underwater,
  some of the magma is extracted, or seeped
  through the exterior and releases heat that
  the underwater organisms utilize as their heat
  and pressure.
     • No light
               Chemosynthesis
• Chemosynthesis- the basis of life in the deep
  sea.
     • Scientists were baffled when there were organisms
       present past the sunlit zone.
            » The basis of all living things come from the sun, so it was
              a scientific breakthrough that life past the sunlit zone is
              evident
Creatures
              The Angler Fish
• The Angler fish, or the Melanocetus johnsoni,
  is THE most bizzare-looking fish in the sea.
• The light that dangles from its head is known
  as a photophore.
  – Its body resembles a basketball
  – It has a very large mouth with sharp, fang-like
    teeth.
  – Known to remain COMPLETELY motionless and
    wait for the prey to come to them.
  – “Common Black Devil”
               The Giant Squid
• The Giant Squid is still a mystery to scientists
  today.
• All they know is that:
  – The giant squid is the largest invertebrate on
    earth.
     • The largest ever found measured 59 feet (18 meters) in
       length and weighed nearly a ton (900 kilograms).
  – **Scientists are coming closer to studying them
    because, in 2004, Japanese scientists took their
    first real picture of these elusive giants.
                       Medusa
• Medusa, or the giant jellyfish, is very lethal.
  One touch to a human and death arises upon
  them.
• The medusa, like any other jellyfish, is an
  invertebrae.
• All jellyfish can eventually become a medusa
  jellyfish.
  – It is the last stage of life for a jellyfish.
                    Dragonfish
• The dragonfish is bioluminescent.
  – Its wavelengths are nearly invisible to the human
    eye.
• Its bioluminscence gives it a HUGE advantage
  over its prey.
  – It is able to “turn on” its bioluminescence when it
    needs it.
     • **related to the viperfish
                Hatchetfish
• The hatchetfish gets its name from its body,
  which is laterally compressed in the form of a
  hatchet.
• The hatchefish has a photophore, its form of
  bioluminescense.
• It also uses counterillumination to get away
  from its predators.
• There are two specific kinds of hatchetfish:
  – The freshwater hatchetfish
  – The marine hatchetfish
                    Oarfish
• The oarfish gets its name from being long and
  flat; vaguely resembling an oar.
  – The fish are heard to “row” themselves across the
    water.
• The oarfish is the basis of the sea serpent tales
  because when they are close to death, they
  linger on the surface.
                     Viperfish
• The viperfish has long, needle-like teeth and a
  hinged jaw.
• The viperfish also has a photophore, located
  at the end of its dorsal spine.
  – He uses it like a fishing rod.
                Tube worm
• The tube worm lives on the base of the ocean.
• It resides on top of the hydrothermal vents.
       That is where it also receives its energy.
 EFFECTS OF
     OUR
MALTREATING
OF THE OCEAN
               Global warming
• Though the abyssal zone is the Last Frontier,
  global warming also effects it.
  – In 1992, the TOPEX/Poseidon was launched
    underwater to measure the theory that water
    warms primarily at the surface.
     • If global warming effects the abyssal zone, it will
       COMPLETELY alter the pattern that allows nutrient-rich
       waters from the bottom to mingle with the top.
  Human Activity in the Abyssal Zone
• Oil, as we all know, can destroy organisms if it
  isn’t taken care of.
• This does not only happen at the surface.
  – Although oil floats, it has the capacity to seep into
    the Abyssal Zone and destroy life as they know it.
     • If the Abyssal Zone organisms become extinct, then the
       whole food chain will be thrown off, because of the
       plankton that abide there.
    Pollution in the Abyssal Zone
• The oil from the oil drums can and will cause
  pollution in the abyss.
  – They rust and release harmful toxins.

				
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posted:9/2/2011
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