The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire

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                 . HISTORY
                              O. THE

             DECLINE AND FALL

                              O.   Tn



                     ., ...., ...,............
                IN TWELVE VOLUMES.

                          VOL. X .
                     .. .... .... ....... .........

paiNTED poa w • .u.LA101I; B. WHITaOW AN» 00.; O.OHAPPLE;
    .. HILL; e. HEBERT; W. HARall; T.II&801l; .. 8OHOLEY;


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                TENTH                VOLUME.

                               CHAP. LIt.

 A.D.-                                                            ~A.GB.
       668-616 The limita of the ArabiaD conquests                       1
              }<'int siege of Constantinople by the Arabi                2
       6'1'1 Peace aDd tribute                                           «I
       716-718 Second siege ofConltaDtiDOple -                           8
             Failure aDd retreat of the Saraceni -                      13
             Invention aDd Ule of the Greek fire -                      14
       721 Invasion of FraDce by the Arabi                              18
       731 Expedition aDd victoriel of Abderame -                       21
      732 Defeat orthe Saracens by Charles Martel                       1M
      •      They retreat before the Frankl         -                   27
       746-760 Elevation of the Abbusidea           -                   28
      760 Fall of the Ommiadel                                          32
      765 Revolt of Spain -               -                             33
            Triple divil10n of the Caliphate          _                 34
      760-960 Magnificence of the calipbl           -     -             36
             Ita consequences on private aDd publio happiness           39
      7M, &C. 813, &C. Introduction of learning among
                the ArabiaDs -                                          41
             Their real progresa in the sciences -                      44
            WaDt of erudition, wte, and freedom.                        60
      781-805 Wani of Haran aI Rubid apinst the Romans                  02

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A.                                                           PA4e.
  823 The Arabs subdue the isle of Crete •                     66'
  8",,~,,78 And of SieH"                                        69
  84£0 "nTuiue of Ri}mEi by    "aracueii.
  849 Victory and reign of Leo IV
  852   ~h:n~i~:~~:! the ~~~:i::nc~Leuehiius   uild' Mi!~
           taHEm                           "
 841-870 Disorders of the Turkish guards - '                   71
 8(j().~51 ~se aud of the Carmathianl                74
 DiEi i heIr             ijnjilOiti
 9"II -1'hey ~jiElage'                -
 800-936 ROTolt of the pfOmcIIII                               78
       The inde"endent dynastiel                               79
 8"ii,,~,,41 The Aglahi0iii!
 829·907 The EdrisiEes
 813·872 The Taherites                                         ib.
 8"h~902 The Soffm;"e!                                         m.
 84.'£-999 The Sameili"el
 868-906 The Toulonidel                                        83
 934-968 The Ikshidites                                        lb.
 89'2- ,001         HamehaniteE
 9II,,-s065         Bomri41           -
 936 Fallen state of tbe caliphs of Bagdad
 900 Enterprises oftbe Greeks -              -                 86
        :¥'Eedue1'un of Ellil}to
             TbEi East4f.e 4onq.'£il}bi of      P1l0CaEji
           and John Zimisce.          -
        Conqii4d of CiUcia
       1nvasiee of Sy1'e
       Recovery of AntJocb
        Passage of U!e Eupbrates •                             91
        DanDe! ef Ba,,1'ed

                        CHAP. LIIL

A.D.                                                         PA04.
        Their imperfetltiOflI   -          -                   96
                   of LieE"Eand
        bihe bihemes,      pro~~ of      ....iw-ei aDd ibi
           limits in every a g e '                            100

                             CGH'I'IMTI.                           y

A.. D.                                                        PAGI!.
      General wealth and pop1l1onlnell         -                103
      State of Pelojlonnelwu Sclavonians                        106
      Freemen of Laconia            -      ,                    106
      Cities an revenue of Pelopcmnesua -                       107
      MlIDIlfacturea-espeeiaUy of IiIk                          108
      T_ported frouI Greeee to Sicily,,"                        110
      Revenue of the Greek empire                               112
      Pomp and luxury of the emperors                           113
      The t»alace of Constantinople                             114
      FurnIture and attendants -                                117
     'Hono1U1l and titles oithe imperial family       -         119
      OtIices of the palaces, the state, and the army           121
      Adoration or the emperor -                                124
      Reeeptioa of ambuaadOl'l -                                125
      Procellionl and acclamationl                              126
      Marriap of the CIeIIId with foreign natio...               J28
      Imaginary law of Constantine             •                129
 m The first exception              •'                          130
 941 The lecond          -                                       ib.
 N3 The third                                                    ib.
 972 Otho of Germany                                            132
 888 Wolodomir of Ruuia                                         133
     Despotio power -                                           1M
     Coronation oath "                                           ib.
     Military force of the Greeks, the Saraceni, and the
        Franka           ..                                     1'36
     Navy of the Greeks            -          •                  ib.
     Tactiol and character or the Greeks                        140
     Character and tactiee of the Saraceni                      144
     The Frankl or Latini                                       147
     Their character and tactics                                149
     ObHvioD of the Latin language            -     ,"          142,
     The Greek emperors and their sabjeeta retain aDd
        assert the aame or Roman.             ,-                156
     Period of ignorance       •                                 ib.
     Revival of Greek learnin                                   167
     Decay of taste and geniua •                                161
     Waot of national emulation                                 lo.'f

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                                  CONT!!NT ••


 ~;f2a:p:'::'t:;Jtt!~ i;A~~:i~~',fc~~A!:;::'::±~ i!:
     TnraCtl.-PropaglZtion in 'Ae Welt.-Tn. ,eedl, cluzraeter, and
     4XIm±7AdtIhc±7t', if (Itt 'l't'%"t'>'tult;;,t";'_

     D.                                                         PAtttt.
       f2upine superstition of the Greek cy,urcb
  660 Origin of the Paulicians, or disciples of St. Paul           167
       A'heb' hible                               --
      Ibe s!mplic!ty of thei~ b~lief and worship .                 170
      ',Z,hey ndd t;;e t~o pru,;:;Jpkt of        MOf2lant tnd
          Manichillans                                 '
      The establishment of the Paulicians in Armenia
      Persecution of the Greek emperors                           ' 174
             Iitvolk tf tht Paulidant
      They fortify Tepbrice
      And            Asia Minor                                    178
      Their transplantation from Armenia to Thrace -                ib.
      ib'hcir 2otrohuctio'z' in b) Italy und 'Fganc'z'
 1200 Persecution of the Albigeoil                                187
      Charo)ter ;tild cougequuuces of the reformation -           186

                               CH,AP. AV

A,                                                              PAOZL,
 680 Emigration of the Bulgarians                                 194
 £}OO ;L~goatg or SoY uvougons   Dalmatia                         197
      ,((&7 h'irst F2ugdw,m of the Bu¥gari"ttS
 884 Emigration of the Turks or Hungarians
     'r(eir rennse orih2n                                         24?'h
 900 Tactics and manners of the Hungarians and Bul-
 ti89                anf2 inroZt,.E1I of&Le 'z''z'"eu'Att",n.    214#
 9,'W VictorJ" of Henry the Fowler                               214
 A56 ~~"""" nf O&ho thn Grnzt% -                                 2E14
 839 Origin of the Russian monarchy                              218
     ALe V manginns Coof£tantinnple                              llOO
                            CONTBNTW.                             TR
~n                                                              hGL
  960 Geop-apby and trade oC Runia       - .                     222
        Naval expeditiou oC the RuaiaDl agaiDlt Co...
   .      ltantinople                                            ~
  886 The ant                                                    228
  904 The lecond                                                  ib.
  941 The third                                                  2'19
 1043 The Courth         •                                       230
       Negotiationl an" prophecy -                                ib.
  965-973 Reign oC Swatoaiaul                                    232
  97().973. His deCeat by John ZimilCel                          234:
  864 Connmon oC Rullia           -                              236
  966 Baptilm ar Olga -                                          237
  988            of Wolodomir                                    239
  800-1100 Christianity oCthe North                              2(0

                          CHAP. LVI.
fie &nrcwu, .FnIMI, _      GruM, ill l"'.-Firll """ure6 ..."
 ..,,...,.,. tf 1M    Nur-...-C/umu:I.,. cmd ~ J RoIJnt
 ~ tliIU of ApIAlic.-lhliNraft uf Sit:i/i by ~ ,"DlAno
 ~.-Viclo~ ~ ~ IIH!' Ilw ~. uf Ilw But "'"'
 Wal.-~• • ~ '!f Sia/y,_ ill1Hllle.Africll cmd Grnw.-7Yw
 ""Pmii' M_I co--u.- W.,.. tU flwlJrwU cmd Nur-...:"
 E:rIiRClion '!f'''' Nur-...
A.D.                                                           PAOL
 840-1017 Conftict ur the SaraceDI, Latina, and Greeka,
       in l t a l y - '                                         244
 871 Conquest of Ban -          .-                              246
 890 N.w province oC the Greeks 'in Italy                       247
 988 DeCeat oCOtho   m.                                         249
      Anecdotel                                                 250
1016 Origin oCthe Normanl in Italy                              2M
1020 Foundation of Avena          -                             267
1038 The Normanl lO"e in Sicily!                                268
l0t0-l043 TheirconquOIt of Apulia                               260
     Character oC the Normanl -                                 261
1046 Opprellion oC Apulia        -          -       -           262
1049-1064 League oCth. pope alld the two empires                264
1053 Expedition oC pope Leo IX. against the Normaol             266
     His deCeat and captivity -            -        -           266
     Origin oftbe papal investitures to tbe Normans             2fI1
1020-1086 Birth and cbaracter of Robert Guiseard                268
1064-1080 His IUDbitioD and IUCCOU                              272
1060 Duke of Apulia -                                           273
     Hil"ltalian oonquesta                                      27'
    -Sohool oC Salemo                                           278

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A.D.                                                                       PAO ••

 108£ lililiobertiooorlosthe
           Siege of DurlW.lW                                      '-         28l
           The army and ml&l'ch of the emperor AlexiUII                      28E
           lililiottle of lililimrazzo
 l08lin lililiorazzo liolinon
           lililir:turn                aDlin octions 3Efohemonr        f
 1081 'I'he ellIperor Henry III.. invited by tb.. Greeks ..                  ~
 1081-1084 Besieges Rome                                                     200
           lililiHes befuf"u lililiobert                           -
 llinlin'l linocond f"opf"rriition          '%frrbeit intu lililireece
           t-iis dealiP                                                      804:
 1101-1164 Reign and ambition of Roger, great count
                 of Sicily                                                   305
  ::~~ix~3ix¥:eF~~f"ixrr~~ of-SilililiEi
  1122-1152 His conquests in Africa                                          309
 1146 Hi. invasion of Greece                                       ""        31~
           Hill admiral delivus Louis VII. of FraJlce                        313
 llPir lilili49 Tkurr empcror k&f:aDlICIl                  thrr '%for-
               mans                                                           lb.
 11M He reduces Apulia and-Calabria                     -          -         316
 1155-1174 His desire of acquiring Italy ud the Wes-
           proilure        desig±rrr
 1156 Peace with the Normaus                            -                    321
 1185 Last war of the Greeksand Normans -                                     ib.
 1154-1166 William I. the Bad.king of Sicily                                 322
 llE~linr~ £ "R89 WhERi±rm II. tPe f3:00d               -
           Lamenta!li:::r: of the h£:rkmian FoTIrro±'%f1l8
 11 04 Conquest of tho kingdom of Sicily by the emperor
               Henry VI.        -          -            -          -         326
 1204 Final extinction of the Normans                                        329

                                 CHAP. LVII.
TAe TurAl tif tlu! lunutJ      tf SeTjtrlc.-TAeIr    ret10lt agaifllt MahmuJ,
   ~rrixllr~tifix~ru3:r±ma:'i ;ixirf:;}":t;frrr/:e;,.ni m:r±f"±±!:1:;ixirrixr
   by Alp Ar,lan.-Power and.magnijieenee tif Malek SIaaIa.-Con-
   quut Of Ana MiJlOr and Syria..::-.swe aru/ OJ'P'"e,non qf Jtrusa-
   lem.-Pilgrinutge, to the AOIy IeplfkAn.
      "h"rrE TUoo5                                                           330
   "-1028 Mamud, the Gaznevide                                               331
      His twelve expeditions into Hindo.tan                                  3..12

                                                                    , '-3V
                        eOITaITI.                             iK
~~                                                          ~~
      Hi. chlU'lUlter                                        336
 980-1~    Mannen and emigrations of the Turks, or
       'I'orkmanl                                            337
1008 They dereat the Gazne.ides, and lubdue PeDia            341
1008·1162 Dynuthy of the Seljukian.        -                 ib.
1038-1063 Reign and char:actar of Togrul Beg                 342
1066 He deli.en the caliph of Bagdad                         344
     Hi. in.eltitare -           -                           346
1063 And death                                               347
1060 The Turks invade the Roman empire                       348
1063-1072 Reign of Alp Aralan -                              349
1065-1069 Conquest of ArmeDia aDd Georgia                    ib.
1068-1071 The emperor Romous Diogenes                        361
1071 DeCeat of the Roman.                                    363
     Capti.ity and deliverance of the emperor                356
1072 Death of Alp AraiaD         -         -                 3M
1072-1092 Reign and proaperityofMaiek Shah                   360
1092 His death         -         -         -                 364
     Division or tho Seljukian empire      -                 366
1074-1084 <,:oDqueat of Alia Minor by the Turks              367
     The Seljukian kingdom of Roum                           372
 638-1899 State and pilgrimage of Jerusalem                  318
 969-1076 UDder the Fatimite caliphs                         376
1009 Sacrilege of Hakcm                                      378
1~ IDcrease of pilgrimages       -         •.                37U
lCWl-108G CODqueat of ,Jerusalem b,. the Turk.               aso

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                      OJ' THE

   DECLINE               AND         FALL
                     OJ' THE

        ROMA.N EMPIRE.

                  CHAP. LII.
Tire two sieges of Constantinople II!} tire A.ralls-
  Tlleir invasion of France, and defeat 1Jy Clrarle,
  Ma·"tel-Civil war of tAe Omniades and.Ab-
  lIassides-Learning of tAe Arabs-L'UX'Uf"!J of
  tile Caliplls- Naval enterprises on Crete, Sicil!J,
  and Ro'I7ie- Deco!} and division of 'Ae empire
  of tile CalipA,-Dyeat, and Victorie, qf tA,
  Greek emperor,.

WHEN the Arabs first issued from the de- . CHAP
sert, they must have been ~urprised at the ease LII.··
and rapidity of their own success. But when ;:~;~~:i:
they adva~ced in the career o~ victory to the t:b~an
banks of the- Indus and the summit of the Py- CODlJneata.
renees; when they bad repeatedJy tried the
edge of their scymetars and the energy of their
faith, they might be equally astonished that
any nation could resist their invincibJe arms,
   YOLo x.             B

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2                           THE DECLINE AND FALL
 CHAP.        that any boundary should confine the dominion
. LII.        of the successor of tbe prophet. The conti-
 .......,.... dence of soldiers find fanatics'may indeed be
              excused, since tbe calm, historian of the present
              hour, who strives to· follow the rapid course ot
              the Saracen~ must. study to ElxpJain by what
              means the cburch and state were saved from
              this impending, and~ as if should seem; from
              tbis inevitable danger. The deserts of Scythia
              and Sannatia might be guarded by their ex-
              tent, their climate, their poverty, and the cou-
              rage of tbe northern shepherds; China was re-
              mote and inaccessible; but the greatest part of
              the temperate zOQe ",as .subject to the mahome.
              tan conquerors, the Greeks were exhausted by
              the 'Calamities' of war· and the loss of their fair-
              est provin.ces, and the barbarians of Europe
             might justly tremble at the precipitate fall of
              the Gothic monaI:chy. In this enquiry I shall
             unfold the events that rescued our ancestors of
              Britain, and out neighbours of Gaul, from the
    and religious yoke of the koran; that pro-
             tected the majesty of Rome,. and delayed the
             servitude of Constantinople; that invigorated
             the defence of the christians, andscatt.ered
             among their enemies the see~s of division and
Fint lie,e       Forty-six ye_r.s after the· flight of ~abomet
.tantinv-                  . IS· ISClp                '
             Iirom M ecca, h' d' ' Ies appe~red In arms un-
~:at!. the der the walls of Constantinople.· They were ani-
             mated by a genuine or fjctitious saying of the
           • Throphauci places the stem years of the 8il!,e of Constantinople
         in the year of
                      ftr christian Era 673 (of the AltlEandrian 66IS, Sept. I),
         a.d the peace of the Saracenl,lf1!JI' yeirS afterwards i ~ Ilariq iDeo....

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                    OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                            3
 prophet, that,. to th'e liNt army which besieged· CHAP.
 the city of the Cmsars, their sins'were forgh-en : .....~.I!~. .                   #

 the long series ot Roman triumphs would be- A; D.
 tneritorio~sly transferred to the conquerors of 668·611.
 newi Rome; and the wealth of nations was de-
 posited in this well-chosen seat of royalty and'
 commerce•. No sooner ,had-: the caliph,· Moa-
  wiyah, spppreyed'his .rivals· and est~b)j.$he.d his
 tIlrone, tba~ he aspired to expiate. the guilt of
 civil, blood, by the success; and: gJory of his.
 holy. expedition;b his. preparation!! by sea· and
 land were adequate to- .the ·jmportanc~ of the
 obJect; his standard wa. e~trllste4 tQ8.ophian,
 aJveteran warrior, hut the troopa ;W~J·e·eneou-
 raged bv the example and· .nte~hpe o.f Ye~i~,
 tb~ son and presuDlptiye:h.eir of the P9qlmand-
  er .of· the faithful. The Greeks·· had liUle to
 Jw,~, nor h~d their enemies any reas~ns orfear,
  fro.lD the courage and vigilance Qf the reigning
  a.nperqr, who disgr~ced the name of Constan-
  tin~f and imitated only the inglorious years of
 hi' grandfather Heraclius.: WittlOut delay or
 .()RPo~itiQn, the naval.- fotceli pC the Saracens
  passed thropgh the ungJlard~ channel of the
. J,I~I~PQnt, which ~veqno.w, und~r tJIe feeble
 aistency! which PetaYina, Goar,and Pagi (Critica, tom. iY, p. 61, 64),
 lIaye.strnlgled to remove. Of the. Arabian., tbe begira:6~(A. D. 611,
 Janqary.8), il _COed Ity. Elm.em, the year 48(04. D.668, Feb.'20)
 by Abulfeda, whoie testimony l esteem the most convenient and cre-
 ditable.       .
  . • I"or thls fint liere of Con.tantino.,le, aee Nicepboru., (8reviar.-p.
 21,22) 'fbeophanes (Chronograph • .,. 294); Cedrenus (ColDpl'lJd.
 p. 4S7); Zonaraa (Hilt. tom. ii, I. xiv,. p. 89); Elmacin (Hilt. Sara.
 cen, p. 66, 67); Abulfeda, (Annal. MOllt'm. p. 107,10~, verso Rei~kt-) J
 d'Herbelot (Bibliot. Orient. Constantiaah} , Ockle,'. Hiltory of the
 SaracC!IIa, yo!. ii, p. 127, 128.                 iii

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4                           THE DECLIN:t. AND FALL
 CHAP    and disorderly government of tne Turks, is
                      as the natural bulwark of the ca-
....,<#",.,.. maintained
         pita1. The Arabian tleet cast anchor, and the

         troop~ were disembarked near the palace of
         Hebdomon, seven miles from the city. During
         many days, from the dawn of light to the even-
         ing, the line of assault was extended from the
         golden gate to the eastern promontory, and the
         foremost warriors were impelled by the weight
         and effort of the succeeding colu,mns. Butthe
         besiegers had formed an insufficient estimate of
         the strength and resoutces of Constantinople.
         The· solid and lofty walls were' guarded .by
         numbers and discipline:' the spirit of the Ro,;.-
         mans was rekindled by the last danger of their
         religion and empire: the fugitives from the
         conquered provinces more successfully renew-
         ed the defence of Damascus and Alexandria;
         and the Saracens were dismayed by the strange
         and prodigious effects of artificial nre. This
         firm and effectual resistance diverted their arms
         to the more easy attempts of plundering the
         European and Asiatic coasts ofthe Propontis;
         and, after keeping the sea from the month· 'of
         April to that of September, on the approach of
         winter they retreated fourscore miles from the
         capital, to the isle of Cyzicus, in which' they,
         had established their magazine of spoil and
           • The state and. defence of the Dardanel1el is expoled ia the M••
         moirel of the Baron .de Tott (tom. iii, p, S9097), who    wu
                                                                 leat to (orti.
         fy them against the Russians, F'rom a principal aelor, I mould hay.
         expected more accurate detaill; hut he seem. to write (or the amule-
         ment, rather than the in.truction, o(hia reader. Perhaps, on the ap-
         proach o(the enemy, the mini.ter of Constantin. was occnpied, like
         that of MDltapha, in fiadiD' two Canary bird., who should .11lI pre-
         cisely the lamc Dote.

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                 OJ! THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

provisions. So patient was their perseverance, cn~p·
or so languid were their operations, that they _,._:,...
repeated, in the six following summers, the
same attack and retreat, with a gradual abat.e-
ment of hope and vigour, till the mischances of
shipwreck and disease, of the -sword and -of
 fire,-compelled> them to relillquisb the fruitless
 entt rprise. They might bewail the loss, or
 commemorate the martyrdom of thirty tbou..
sand Moslems, who fell in the sieg~ of Con-
stantinople; and the solemn funeral of Abu
 Ayub, or Job, excited tIl\:; curiosity of the
 christians thefDselves. That venerable Arab,
one of the last of the companions of Mahomet,
was u~mbered among the amars, or auxiliaries,
 of Medina, who sheltered the head of the fly.
ing prophet. In his youth he fought,at Beder
 and Obud, under the holy standard: in his
 mature age he was _ friend and follower of
 Ali: and the last remnant of his strength and
 life was consumed in a distant and dangerous
war against the enemies of the koran. His me..
mory was revered; but the place -of his burial
was neglected and unknown, during a period
orseven hundred and eighty years, till the con-
quest of Constantinople by Mahomet the s~
condo A seasonable vision (for such are the
manufacture of every religion) revealed the holy
spot at the foot of the walls and the bottoll} of
the harbour; and the moscb of Ayub has been
deservedly chosen for the simple and martial
inauguration of the Turkish sultans."
 • Demetrio Cantemil-'s Hiit.ofthc Othman Empire, p. 105,106.-

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6                                 THE DECLINE AND FALL .
    CHAP.          The event of the siege revived, b.oth .in the
.....~..~~... _ East aud.West, the reputation of the Rom~
Peace an. arms, and cast a . momentary sbade over tb~
~~~~':1f. glories 'of the. Saracens. Th.e GFeeJt ambasaa..
                dor was ·favourabl,.. l;ecei,ve.d at ;DqIn.$.scmi;' iq
                a general council. of t~e emirs .Qr . koreish; a.
                peace,. or tiuce; o.f :tliirty .year$, was' ratified,be~
                tween .the. two, empites; .and the ~tip.ulation of
                an ann~al.tribute-, ,nfty ;horses of a noble breed.
                fifty.slaves, and ,t'bree lhousandpieces of gold,
                degraded the;m~jeny:of the. comman:d,er of the
                {aitbful.- 'Tlie aged, caliph ,waS- oesirods o{
                possessing his ·dominions, arld .ending bi!!! dB,s
                in trariq'uillity !ari~ :,r,epose:; ,vhile the Moor~
                and Indians. trembled at J:ris name; his palfU!~
                and city 'of :Dal'bascus 'wa~ insulfed ~ ·the MaJ:-
                daites, or; :of Mount Libanu&, the
                firmest harrier, of tt}e empite~till :they ~ere ~
                armed aild traasplanted .by:the suspicious po ..
                Hcy of the Greeks/, ,After tbe;r.evolt of Ara:bia
                and Per.sia, ,the:nou$t::o,f Ommiyah' W$S re-
                 duced fo the -ki~d6m8 of Syria. aud Egypt;
            :,   1·       '...               .   l :   ,;'!    :.:.. \             :'          ,

            RY,cant's St~teof ~e OttqOl~jJ.~irljt I!' ~p~ 1~. Vo~age. de 'The~
            renot, part~ l,p. 180. The chr,lShansl who 8upp~.e ·th&:t the marty.
            Abu Ayub is vulgarly con'fonbiJed willb:l!IH: pUlfilirch'Job, betray their
            9wn ign~Dce rather ~n ,h~~ of~ ,ru~ka.:,., .. '.                                           I>,
               • .Theopbanes. tbolll.h a 6r~elt, des,er;ves credit for these tribute.
            (Chrone&rilpb. II. 2IIt;,2~; 'SCI'f), ~bb :at~ collfinned, with . . .
            " ..r.ial5on,·by tilt Arabic ~W(jryof ;AbuJvha,rIWJius ,(Dynut. p. US,
            vera. Pocock).        •                            .
               . The censure 'ot 'l'hei1phatie. ~. Ju~ Ibd 'poibt~d~", p.,~,j, M ..
             ~ ..,.,..,.,."".", • • • • • ..;,~,.... . &t&ICt& .....016.. • 'P"f"!"":;'''-' ...&ft' Aft!.~
            f4')(J1'I'IIM (Chronograph. p. S02, 303)~ Tbe .erie. 4fth"le eventa may
            be trailed in tlie Annals or Theo'pbancs, and in the :A'bridgemeot of the
             Patriarch Nicepborua, p. 22, sa.                                       .
                I 1'hes8 dome.tic revolutions are related in a clear and natural
            ..,Ie, in the aecoDd ~IWDe of Oc ..ley'. Hialory of tile Saraceni. p•

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                     OF Tim ROMAN UlPIlt&                                              ".
their disti'es's and fear enforced tbeircolnpliunce CHAP.
with the ,pressing demands of the christians; .._~!;                               . ,.
arid the tribute was increased to a slave, an
horse, and . a thousand pieces of gold, for
each of the three hundred and sixty-five days
of the solar year. Bt,lt as soon as the empire
was again uriited by the arms and 'policy of
Abdalmale'k, 'he disclaimed a badge of servi~
tude not less injurious to his conscience than
to his pride'; he discontin'ued the payment of
the tribute; and the resentment of the Greeks
was disabled from action by th~ mad tyranny
of the second Justinian, the just rebellion of
his subjects, and the frequent change of his an-
tagonists and successors. Till the reign of
Abdalmal~k, the Saracens had been content
with the free' possession of the Perf4ian and
Roman treasures ;n the coin of Chosroes and
Cresar. By the command of that caliph, ana-
tiona} mint, was established, both of silver and
gold, and the inscription of t~ dinar, though
it might be censured by 80me timorous casuists,
proclaimed the unity of the God of Mahomet. 1I
.                                                          '

2&1·370. Besidea our priated authors, hi drawa hil materiala lrc!..
tile Arabic MSS. o('Oxford, w~t'h;he w01l1dhllve more deeply ..arch-
ed, had hebeen ~Dfitled. to. the Bod.eiaa libranr ialtead of the cilJ
jail; a fiate how, unwOri4y of :the man aDd of l1i~ country!
   .. Elmacio, ,,.,ho diltes the firat coinace A. H. 16, A. D. fJ9&, five or
six ye:U8 bter than the Greek historianl, baa compared the weight of
the beat 01' COIlUDOD golddiaar, to the dracJm:a or dirhem of Egypt, p.
Tf), which to two .PeIlDiea (48 graiDl) of our TrOJ
weight (Hooper'. Inquiry int" Ancil!nt.Meuu"ea, p. 24-36), and equi.
-.alent to eight Uii11iDg' of.aur, Iterlilll money. From the same Elma.
cin and the Arabian phySicians, lOme din.ra. al high as two dirhem"
.. low as half a dir,hem,.IQIIJ ;l1e deducc:d. The pi~ce of ailverwas
tile dirhem, both in nlue and weight; but an old, thQugh fair coia,
'truck at Weset, A. H. 88, and preaened in the Bodleiaa library,

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8                               THE DECLINE .AND ·FALL

 CHAP.   Under tbe reign of the Caliph Waled, the Greeit:
.._~~.)anguage and characters were excluded from·
         the accounts of the public revenue.' If this
         change was productive of the invention or fa-
         miliar use of our present numerals, the Arabic
         or Indian cyphers, as they are commonly styled,
         a regulation' of office has promoted the most
         important discoveries of arithmetic, algebra,
         and the mathematical sciences'"
Second      Whilst the caliph Waled sat idle on the
.i~r~ of
Conatan. throne of Damascus, while his lieutenants
   4. D- achieved the conquest of Transoxiana and.
rIO-fl8. Spain, a third army of Saracens oversprea~
         the provinces of Asia Minor, and approached
         tbe borders of the Byzantine capital. But the.
         attempt and disgrace of the second siege was
         reserved for his brother Soliman, whose ambi.
         tion appears to have been quickened by a more
         active and martial spiritl In the revolutions
         of the Greek empire, after the tyrant Justinian
         had been pUll:ished and avenged, an humble se-
         cretary, Anastasius or Artemius, was promoted

         wanta fonr miOI of tile Cairo ltaadard (See tile Modera Vniw. JDa.
         tory, tom. i, p.648, of the French traIIIIatiOD).
           I It&I ....).un         "e.. b.A.t,~ "I/C ........,
                             ",... .                             .,.,   ,..".e..,.- •.,,~,   .u
         ApaB'lIf IIIIT. . . .~'""'" " . " , .... .,....." I1mh .-.... '" _ _ ",..,,.
         ,..-J., • Iuah, • ..   ,,,,a., •
                                    fa,.. UfMIIU • "fI& ",..."..,. Thcophaa. Chro-
         Dograph. p. 114. Tbia def~ct, if it really existed, mllll han .'imo.
         hted the incenolty of tile Arabi to iannt or borrow.
            I< According to a Dew, thongh probable notion, maintained by M. de
         ViUGi.IDu (Asiecdo~ Gneca, tom. ii, p. 1611-167), oorcypbera are Dot
          of (oatan or Arabie muntioo. Tbey were uled by the Grnk a.d
          Lado ari,hmatecianl loog before the age of Boethi"l. After the n.
          tinction of Ideuce io the Welt, they were adopted by the Arabie yer-
         .ionl from the oriCinal MSS. aDd "IIore4 to·the LatiDi about the ele-
         ••ntb ~entul7.

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                   Of TIm ROMAH DlPIRE. -.                                         •
by chance or olerit to the vacant purple. He . CHAP.
was alarmed by the sound of war; and his am- .w~!:_.
bassador returned from Damascus with the
tremendoos news, that the Saracens were pre-
paring an armament by sea and land, such as
would transcend the experience of the past,
or the "belief of the present age. The precau-
tions of Anastasius were not unworthy of his
station, or of the impending danger. He is-
sued a peremptory mandate, that all persons.
who were not provided with the means of'sub-
sistence for 'a three years siege, should evacuate
the city; the pubJic granaries and arsenals
were abundantly replenished; the walls were
restored and strengthened; and the engines for
casting stones, or darts, or fire, were stationed
along the ramparts, or in the brigantines of
war, of whi~h an additional number was hasti-
ly constructed. To prevent, is safer, as well
as more honourable, than to repel an attack;
and a design was meditated, above the usual
spirit of the Greeks; of burning the naval stores.
ofthe enemy, the cypress timber that had been'
hewn in mount ·Libanus, and 'was piled along-
the sea shore of Phoonicia. for the service of
the Egyptian fleet. This generous enterprise.
was defeated by the cowardice or treachery of
the troops, who, in the new langoage of the
empire, were styled of the ubsequiafl tketn.e.1- .

  I I. the dlyiliOD of the tllIfIIt., or pronne" deecribed by Constan-
tine Porpbyrog1!nitu. de (Tbe1llatibnl, I. i, p. 9, 10), the obatqaitlm, a
Latill appeUation of the arlllY and palace, WII the fourth in the pllblic
order. Nice WII the metropolis, and its jnri.diction extended fro..
ahe Helle.pont over the adjal'ent parts of Bitbynia and Pbyrgia (_
tIae two lliapa prefixed "1 Dellale t. the Imperium Orientale of Baa.

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10                   THE DECLnfE AND FALL,
 CHAP.   They murdered,their chief, deSerted their stand.'
  LII.   8Td in the isle of Rhodes, dispersed themselves
.""""''- over the adjacent continent, and deserved par-
         don or reward by investing with the purple a
         simple officer of the revenue. The name'of
         Theodosius might recoJDllleIid bimto the senate
         and people; but, after some months, he,ftunk
         into a cloyster, and resigned, to the firmer haud
         of Leo~ the Isauri~n,. the. urgerlt defence oftbe
         capital arid: empir~. :Them9st fonnidableof
         the Saracens, :Maslerilah,.the brother 'Of theca-
         liph, was advancing at the head of one'hundred
         and twenty 'thousand Arabs and Persians, the
         greater part mounted on hones or camels; and
         the succf'ssful sieges of Tyans, AmoriulD,and
         Pergamus, were of :sufficient duration to exer.
         ciNe their skill, and to elevate ,tl}eir 'hopes. At
         the well-known passage of Abydes, on the He~
         lespont, the mahometan arms were transported~
         for the first time, from Asia to Europe. From
         thence, wheeling round the Thracian cities of
       , the Propontis, Moslemah in'vested COltStanti-
         nople on the land side, surrounded his camp
        with a ditch and rampart, prepared and' plant.
        edhis engines of assault, and declared, by words
        and actions, a patient'resolution of expecting
        the return of seed.time and harvest, should the
         obstinacy of :the ,besieged prove equal tohia
        own. The Greeks '\\'Ould gladly ransOJD-
        ed their religiQn and empire, by a, fine or as-
        sessment of a piece ot gold on the head of each
        inhabitant of the city; but the liberal offer was
        rejected with disllain, and the p,resumption of
        Moslemah was exalted by the $peedy approach
         aud invincible force of the n,avil's of Egypt and

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                    OF TilE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                      11 .
  Syria. They are said to ·hav~ 'amounted to' en,\ 1>
    .                       IpS:' thenttmber betrays ___•••• '
  elgh teen h Ull dre d'' Ah"                            . LII.
  their Inconsiderable' size: and of the twenty
  stout and .capacious ,vessels, whOse magnitude
  impeded their progress, each was lnanned with
  no more than one bundred heavy armed sol- .
  diers. . This huge armaaa 'proceeded on a
. smooth sea and with a gentle gale, towards the
  mouth of the Bosphoru8; the surface of the
  streight was oversoo.newed, in the language qf
   the Greeks, with a mO\ling forest, and the same
  fatal night. had·been fixed by the Saracen chief
   for a general assau.!t :by sea and land. To al-
   lure tbe confidence of the enemy, the emperor
   had thrown aside the 'chain that usually guard-
  ed the entranceOf' the harbour; but while they
   hesitated whether they ~hould seize the oppor-
   innit" ·or. "ppr~heBd. the mare, the ministers
   'of destruction were at hand. The fire-ship8:of
  'th,e ,Greeks were Jauncbed against them; the
   Am"s, their'annat, and vessels, were involved
  in: the '.~me Bames.; the disorderly fugitives
   ;were, d_oed agamst ~,dt,other"or overwnelm-
  ed ,in Ole wavetl; 1Ulfl ;1 Jlp ~n~ find 'a vestige
  'of the Beet, that lIad threatened·to extirpate the
  'Rmn~ name.' A ~~~l mor.e Jatalllml lI'?"epBra.,
  hIe 1088.wu that of: the ealiplt ,Soliulan, 'who
  died ef.;an indigesti.onm :inJ~s,eii'np ..,eai'K:iil..
   nisrin, or'Cbalcis, in: Syria:, 'a$' hewae ~repal'*
   ID The eallph had emptied two bllikets or ('gra and of figs, whi~h he

 .waDowed altenately, and the repastwai concJu~d with marrow and
 lugar. In one of his pilgrimages to Mecca, Soliman ate, at a single
 meal, seventy pomogranatel, a kid, .fx. fowls, aDd a hllge qualltity or
 the grapes of Tayef. If the bill of fare beecirrect, we must ad-
 mire fbe al'pptite rather than the luxury tif the sovereigD of A.i.
 (Abuh'ed •• AUDItI. AI "sll'm. ». 1l/6).                              '/

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12                         THE DECUNE AND FAU
 CHAP. iog to le~d against Constantinople the remaIn·
#~~~~' ~ ing forces of the East. . The brother of Mosle-

         mah was succeeded by a kinsman and an ene-
         my ; and the throne of an active and able prince
         was degraded by the useless and pernicious
         virtues of a bigot. While he started and satis-
         fied the scruples of a blind conscience, the
         sIege was continued through the winter by the
         neglect rather than by the resolution of the ca-
          liph Omar.- The winter proved uncommonly
         rigorous: above an hundred days the ground
          was covered with deep snow, and the natives
       . of the sultry climes of Egypt ana Arabia lay
          torpid and almost lifeless in their frozen camp.
         They revived on the return of spring; a.second
          effort had been made in" their favour; and thel,
          distress was relieved by the arrival of two nu:
          merous fleets, laden with corn, and arms, and
          soldiers;' the first from Alexandria, of four
          hundred transports and gallies; the second of
          three hundred and sixty ve~els from the ports
          of Africa. But the Greek fires w.ere again kind:'
          led, and if the destruction was less complete,
          it was owing to the experience which had taught
          the Moslems to remain at a safe distance, or
          to the perfidy of the Egyptian mariners, who
          deserted with their ships to the emperor of the
          christians. . The trade and navigation of the
          capjtal were restored; and the produce of the
              • See the article of Omar Ben Abdaluiz. in the Bibliotheque Orien-
          tale (p. 689, 690), prafereDI, laYI Elmacin (p. 91), religionem 6uam
          l't'bnl lui. mUDdanil~ He wallO desirous of bring with God, tbat be
          would not have anointed his ear (his own sarin,) to obtain a perfrct
          cure of hia last malady. The caliph had ooly ooe ahirt. and in an acc
          ofluxury hi. aonual txpence WBI no mOl'e thao two drachml (Abu.-
          pharadiuI, p. 131). Haud diu Iraviaul fO pl'incipe fuit orbil Meele.-
          DI'I. Cl\blllftda, p. 121').

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                     OF THE ROM4N EMI'IRK.                                          13
fisheries supplied tbe wants, and €YeD the 1ux- CHAP.
ur~'. of the inhabitants. But" the calamities of ._~I;....
famine and disease were soon felt by the troops
of l\loslemah; and as the formerwa$ miserably
assuaged, so the latter was dreadfully propa-
gatejl, by the pernicious nutriment which hun-
ger" compelled them to extract from the most
unclean or unnatural food. ..The spirit of con-
quest, and even of enth\l.siasm, was extinct: .
the Saracens could no longer straggle beyond
their lines, either single or in small parties,
without exposing themselves to the merciless
retaliation of the Thracian peasants. An ar-
my of Bulgarians was attracted from the Da-
nube by the gift"s and promises of Leo; and
the"se savage auxiliaries made some "atonement
for the evils which they had iriflicted on the
empire, by the defeat and slaughter of twenty-
two thousAnd Asiatics. A report was dexter-
ously scattered, that the Franks, the unknown
nations of the Latin world, were arming by sea
and "land, in the defence of the christian cause,
and their formidable aid was expected with far"
different sensations in the camp and city. At Failare
length, after a siege of thirteen months: MosIe- aDd re-
lllah received from the caliph the welcome per- :=~:~
mission of retreat. The march of the Arabian Cf....
cavalry over the Hellespont, and through th"
provinces of Asia, 'was exe<!uted" without delay
   • Both NiccphoruR and Theophane8 agree that the liege of Go.ltao-
tinople was raised the 15th of August (A. D" 718); bat as the former,
our be8t witn"u, afti,"ms that it continued thirteen montbs, the latter
mu.t be lDi.taken iu lupposinf[ that it began on tbe saJlle day of the
precedin, year. I do Dot find tbail Palli bas t"emarked this iDconaiatent'),.

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:4                               THE DECt.INE AND FALL'
CtfAP       or.molestation; but an army of their brethren
._~!.'; ~iadbeell.cut in pieces o.n the'side of Bithynia,
            and the remains of the fleet was so repeatedly
            d~aged by temp~st and fire, that only five
            gallies entered the port of Alexandria to relate
            the :tale of. their various and almost incredible
Innntion . In the two sieges, the deliverance ofCoustan..
~I~: G::~~r tinople may be chlefiy ascribed to the novelty,
6ft.        the terrors, 'and th~ real efficacy of the Greek
           jh",q The important secret of compounding
            and directing this artificial flame was imparted
            by Callinicus, a native of HeliopoIis in Syria,
            who deserted from the service of the caliph to
            that of tbe emperor.r . The skill of a chymist
            and. engineer was equivalent to the succour of
            fleets.ana .armies; and this discovery or im-
            p~G,ement of the military art was' fortunately
            reserved· for the distressful.pei'iod,. when the
            degenel'8te Romans of the East were incapable
            of contending with the warlike enthusiasm and
            youtbful vigour of the Saracens. The histo*
            rian: whl) presumes to analyze this extraordi-
                " ~ the lecoDd lie          Clln~'A"tinople, I hue followed Nieeph,ol'lll
            '(Bre•• p.33-S6); Thtopbanel (Chronograph. p. 324.314); Cedrenus
             (,CompeDd. p. 449.452); Zouaral, (tom. ii, p. 9t1·102; ElmadD (Hilt.
            ·SIt~cen. p. 88) I Abulfeda (ADnal. MOlltm. p. 126); aDd Abulphara-
             gilll (Dyn..t. p. ISO), the most latiafadory of tbe Arab••
               'oj Ollr .ure and indefatigable guide iD the middle agel and BYRD-
             t,De binory. Cha...e•. du Frelae du Canlt', hal treated iD leveral placa
             ot the Greek fire, aDd hi. collection. leave few ,leaniDga behind. See
             particularly G1olsar. Med. et ID6m. Gnecitat. p. 1215, lilt. voce nu,
             leu......., "')'Po,. Glossar. Med. et In6m. Latinitat. Ignll. Grllrcu,. Ob-
             I""alions Illr VillehardolliD, p. 305, 300. Observations lur Join-
             Yillea, p. 71, 12.
                r'l'beophJ.Des ,.,Iel bim ..,,,.....,,..'" (p. 295). Cedrenus (p. 437),
             brings this artilt from (the ruiDs of) HeJiopolis in Egypt; aod ellt'mi..
            tr,    wu indted the pfculiar IdfDee of the Egyptians••

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                             OY-nlE,R()MAN;alWPIRl'_                                                        Ifj·Y cOplpoSitim,r; should suspect: :hi.s own ig.;.                                                  C~UP.
      ..                                  ."d
  norance,'and t-.w.t ,0f h' B yzantlDe.gul eSt )~o' _ LlI.
                      L .... ' IS                       ......                                             u ..

  pl'one to: tlia, manellouB,' sp careless. and, in            .
  thi's instance, so jealous 'of the' truth.; From
  their .obscure, arid:perhaps 'fallacious'hints, it
  should,s~in 'that 'the, principal. ingredient of
  tbe:.Greekifire· was tbe:naptAa;" : or liquid bitu-
  raen, a: li~h £; 't:eoa.cious, and. inflammable oil,t
  which. springs-from .the earth,. and catches fire.
  a:800n as jt oo'mes. in contact witb the .air.~
  TWe naptha was mingled, I know not by w.bat
  m.ethods.orin wh~t proportio.ns, with sulphur:
  and, with the pitch that 'is extracted from ever-
  green fi~.~ Fr.oIfl this mixture, which pro-
    : ,,'Tile .a~a, t~. o'eum luceacUarium or the ~tol')' of Jel'08lllem
   (Gest. Dei per Franco.~ p. 1167). the OrieDtal rouRtain of James de
  'Vhry (I. iii, c•.84), Is Intreduced on sUght evidence and atrong prob..
  biJ_ty., CiWlIIMI\ (I. vi, p. 161;), calla the, Greek fire '"'t MIIJ_; ...~.
  tJJ,~ nap~ha is known to .abound between the Tigris and the Calpiall
  Ilea. 'According to Pliny (Hi.t. Natnr. ii, (09) It WlII .nbaenient to
  tbe.reMeq.e ,JOf Medea, and in either etJi1DOlogJ the IAIur
  1I.,.l"~ .(,proc~p.l. JJftU, , Gothic. L iv, c.lI) may rairly .lpilJ thia
                                                                                        11._       or'

   flqui!i'bitumen. . , '
    • t Go the' dilffrt'nt eort, of .ilB and bl~81en., see Dr. "'aboll', (the
   pre~nt bi.abop, of LI~n~aft".) Chemical Euaya, vol. ii, e.say I, a cl....
  I.ic booif., the best adapted to infuse the taste and knowledge or che-
  miatrJi ; 'Phe 1ees parfeet ideal 01 the ancients may be found InStra-
  bo!'1eo. . .h; I. xvi, p. lO~8), and Pliny (Bilt. Nator. ii, 108, (09).-
  Huic (Naptlam) macna cognatio est igniom, tranailiuntque protinoa ill
  earll undecunqlle visara. Of our travellers I am be.t pleased with Ot-
  ter ito.... i, p. jlall6tJ).                                                                       '
       ~ AlI~a ComBena has partly drawn aside the cnrtain. An 'I'IIr
  ~.~r, '..., ..U.., '1""'" '1'0,11'1'''' .r)por,.., ....".."......, I ...,,,,, .........,.
  T ...,. ~4I •••    .,.,.s.,..-   .,..s..-urr.u .'" .U).Itur ...,..." " " ...............'1'. . ...,.
  ." ••'lOl"l'OC 1ut.{1,.. ...., crunX" """'1"'1'" (AleJdad. I. xiii, p.8S8). Else-
  where (1.' xi, p. 336) she mentions the propertJ of burning, ....... on
. .., X., It" i .......,... Leo, in the xixtb chapter or hi, Tactic8(Opera
  ~el1r8ii, tom. vi, p. 848, edit. Lami. F1orent.1745), .peaks .r the DeW
  iuvention or ""'r p.rr. SelY'l'llc .... " ..II. Theae are genuine alld Impe-
  rial teadmonJea.                                                                 '

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16                  THE DECLINE A.ND FALL' .

 CHAP. duced a thick smoke and a loud explosion,
•••~~... proceeded a fierce and obstinate flame, which
         not ,only rose in perpendicular ascent, but like-
         wise burnt with equal vehemence in descent or
         lateral progress; inlteadofbeing extinguisned,
         it was nourished and quickened, by the .ele-
         ment of water; and sand, urine, or vinegar,
         were tbe only remedies tbat could damp the
         fury of this ·powerful agent, which was justly .
         denominated by the Greeks, the liquid, or the
         maritime fire. .' For the annoyance of the elle-
         my, it was employed with equal effect, by sea
         and land, ill .battle~ or in sieges~ It w~s either
         poured from the .ramparts in large boilers, or
         launched in red-hot balls of stone and iron, or
         darted in arrows and javelins, twisted round
         with flax and tow, which had deeply imbibed
         the inflammable oil: sometimes it was deposit-
         ed in fire-ships, the victims and instruments of
         a more ample revenge, and was most common-
         ly blown through long tubes of copper, which
         were. planted on the prow of a galley, and fan-
         cifully shaped into the mouths of savage mon-
         sters, that seemed to vomit a stream of liquid
         and consuming fire. This important art was
         preserved at Constantinople; as the palladium
         of the state; the gallies and artillery might oc-
         casionally be lent to the allies of Rome; but.
         the composition of the Greek fire was conceal-
         ed with the most jealous scruple, and the ter-
         rol' of the enemies was en creased and prolonged
         by their ignorance and surprise. In the trea-
         tise of the administration of the empire, the

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                 OF TIm KOMA.N BMPIltB.                                      17
royal author" suggests the answers and ex- CHAP.
cuses that might best elude the indiscreet cu- .._~ ...
ri08ity and impor~unate demands of the barba-
rians. They should be told that toe mystery
of the Greek fire had been revealed by an angel
to the first and greatest of the Constantines,
with a sacred injunction, that this gift of hea-':
ven, this peculiar blessing of the Romans,
ihould never be communicated to any foreign
nation: that the prince and subject were alike
bound to religiou!!! silence, under the temporal
and spiritual penalties of treason and sacri-
1ege; and that the impious attempt would pro-
voke the Budden and supernatural vengeance
 of the God of the christians. By these precau-
 tions, the secret was confined, above four hun-
 dred years, to the Romans of the East; and,
 at the end of the eleventh century, the Pisans,
 to whom every sea and every art were familiar,
 suffered the effects, without understanding the
,composition, of the Greek fire. 1t was at
 length either discovered or stolen by the ma-
'hometans; and, in the holy wars of Syria and
 Egypt, they retorted an invention, contrived
 abaim;t themselves, on the heads of the chris-
 tians. A knight, who despised the swords and
lances of the Saracens, relates, with heartfelt
 sincerity, his own fears, and those of his com-
 panions, at the sight and sound of the mischie-
 vous engine that discharged a terrent of the
  • Constantin. Porpbyrogenil. de Administrat. Imperli,-1!. xiii". M,
      VOL X                       c

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18                          THE DECLINE AMD FALL
 CHAP.     Greek fire, the feu Gregeoil, as it is styled by
_~!!;._ the more early of the :French writers. It came
           fiying thpo.ugh. the air, a~y~ JQirnille , lilte '"
           wing~d; Iong~ tailed dragon,' about *he thicJtnes.
           of-a hogs~ead, with the report (If thunder, ;;l~d
           the velocity of lightning; an<l ~he' dar~ness of
           the night was di$peU~d by this. "<leadly illumi-
          .nation. The ~se of the Gre:e~J or, a$ it mJght
           now be called, of ~he Saracen fire, was conti-
           nued to the middle of thefoufteenth. c~ntury,'
           when the $cientific or ca,lmf\l compound of
           nitre~ sulphur,· and charcoal, e(fect~d a new
           revolution in the art of war, "nd the hist~ry of
           mankind ..
!f~-:!::e     Constantinople ~nd the Greek fire might ex:"
~ t:e      elude the Arabs from the eastern entrance of
A. !.'121. Europe; but in the West, on the side of the
            1 Histoire de St. Loui., p. 39.. Paril,I668, p. 4.4. Pam de rIm-
         primerie Royale, 1T61. The former of the.e editionB ia precioa for
         the ObaUUtiODI of Ducan,e; the latter for the pDre and original teat
         of Join ville. We ma.t han recourse to that text to disconr, that the
         fen Gre,eoil wu Ihot with a pIJe or janlin, from au engiDe that act.
         ed like a IIiD,.
            S The unity, or envy, of eha).ing the eatabllshed property of Fame,

         II.. tempted lome moderna to cury guDpowder above tbe'xivth (lee
         Sir William Temple, DuteD., .!rc.) ud the Greek fire above the viill!
         century (see the Salaste du President des Brolses, tom. ii, p. 381).;
         but their evideDce, which precedes tbe vulgar Illra oftbe iDveDtioD, II
         leldom clear or latilfactory, and lublelluent writers may be Inspected
         of fraud or credulity. In the earliel' siegel, lome combustibles of oil
         and sulphur'have been uled, and the Greek fire bas _      affinities with
         gunpowder both in nature aDd eW,cta: for the antiquity of the fint, a .
         p.... oI·Procopina (de B~\l\ Go,h. I. iv, •• 11); for that of the Ie-
         cond, lome facta in tbe Arabic history of Spain (A. D. 1249, 1312,
         1111, Bibliot. Arab. Hisp. tom. ii, p. 6, 7, 8), are the mOlt difficult to
            a That extraordinary maD; Friar 'Bacon, reveab two of the ·iDrre-
         4ieDta,'saltpetre and .ulphur, aDd conceal, the tbird in a lentence of
         .YlteriOUI gibberilb, .. If he dreaded the cODsequencel of hil ow. en..
         conry (Biopaphia 'BritaDnica, voL i, p,.4IO, Dew editioa:)          .

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                    OF THE ROMAN EMP.IRE.                                         19
 Pyr.enees, the provinces of Gaul weJ'e th.reat. ~HAP.
 ene~ and invaded by the conq uerors of Spain.. b u.~.~.,.
 The ~ecIine of the French monarchy invite<J '
 the "attack of *hese insatiate fanatics. The de-
 scendants of Clovis had Jo~t the inheritance of
"AlS martial and ferocious spirit; and their mis·
 fo.rtuo.e    0,delllerit has aJli.x~d· th~ epitIWt of
 la~!I' ~o t4e last kings of the Merovingj~ :race.c
 They~s~ended the throne without power, and
 s~~ into the grave without.a n~e. A coun-
 try palace, in the neighJ:>oprh.ood of Compiegne·.
 was allotted for their residence or' prison ;' bu,t
 each year, in the mont,h c>fMarch or May, they
 were conducted in a waggOJ). 91$.wn by oxen

     • For the invasion of FraDce, and ~e ~eat of. the Arabi by Charls, lee the Bistoria Arabum (c. 11, 1-2, 13, 14) of Roderic Xi me·
 nes, archbishop of Toledo, who had before him the chriltian chronicle
  Of Isidore PaceDsil, and the mahllmetaD hi8iQr~. ofN.ovalri. ne
  Moslem. are silent or concise in the acco,nt .of their Jossea, bitt l\f,
  Cardonne (10m. i, p. 129, ISO, UI) has given a pure and simple ac-
  count of all that he cOllld collcct from Ibo H..Iikan, HidJazi, and aa
  1l0(lIIymolls writer, The texts of the chronicil!s of Fmce, and Ii,,"
  of saints, are inserted. in tbe collection of Bouquet (tom. Hi.) alld tbe
  Annala of Pagi, who (tom. iii, under the proper yeaI'll) has restored
  the,chronolo~y, whicb.i. anticipak'd lix yeara ib 'tbe Ann~1 of Barn-
  nills, The Dktionary of Bayle (Abderaflle and MIIIIII%G) h.. more merit
  fox .lively reBectioD than original relearch.
     c ~iljhart•. de Vita ,CaroU Magni, c. ii, p. 13-18, edit. Schmink,
. Utrecht, 1711, Some modem critics accu.e the minister of Charle-
  magne of l'xaggerating the weaknell of the Merovingianl; but the ge-
 .neral outline ill just, and the French reader will for ner repeat the
  beallliflllliue8 of Boileau's Lutrin.
     d Mammacc. on the OYle, between Compiegne and NOYClIl, which
  Eginhart calli perparvi reditils "illam (see the Botes, and the map of
  ancient France for Dom. a,ouquet'. Collection). Compendium, or
   Compi<'gue, was a palace of more dignity (Hadrian Vale.ii Notitia
   Galliarum, p. 1(2), and that lallghing philosopher, ~he Abbe Galliani
  (Dialognes slIr Ie' Commerce des BIeda) may IfIIly affirm, that it wu
   the reaideucc of tbe roil trii. Chretien. et_ bit cheve1iil. "

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10                       THE    DECLINE AND FALL

CHAP. to the assembly of the Franks, to give audience
m~~:" to foreign ~mbassadors, and to ratify the act.
      of the mayor of the pala~e. That domestic
      officer was b~come the minister of the nation,
      and the master of the prince. A public em-
      ployment was converted in to the patrimony of
      a private family: the elder Pepin left a king
      of mature years under the guardianship of his
      own widow and her child; and tLese feeble re-
      gents were forcibly dispossessed by the most
      active of his bastards. A government, ha]fsa-
      vage and half corrupt, was almost dissolved;
      and the tributary dukes; the provincial counts,
      and the territorial lords, .were tempted to des-
      pise the weakness of the monarch, and to imi-
      tate the ambition of the mayor. Among these
      independent chiefs, one of the boldest and
      most successful was Eudes, duke of Aquitain,
      who, in the southern provinces of Gaul, usurp-
      ed the authority and even the title of king.-..
      The Goths, the Gascons, and the Franks, as-
      sembled Ul)der the standard of this christian
     ·hero: he repelled the first invasion of the Sa-
      racens; and Zama, lieutenant of the caliph,
      lost his army and his life under the walls of
      Thoulouse. The ambition of his successors
      was stimulated by revenge; they repassed the
      Pyrenees with the means and the resolution of
      conquest. The advantageous situation which
      had recommended N arbonnee as the first Ro-
          e EYeD before tbat eoloDY, A. U. C. 6S0 (Velleiu. Patercul. i, 15),
        ID the time of Polybiu8 (Hilt. I. iii, p. 265, edit. GroDOY.), NarbGDDe
        ..u a Celtic town of the fint emiDeDcc, aud ODe of the mo.t Dortbent

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                  OF TilE ROMAN'EMPIRE.                                       21
  man colony, was again chosen by the Moslems; CHAP.
  they claimed the province of Septemania or ••=~;_~
  Languedoc as a just dependence of the Spanish
  monarchy; the vineyards of Gascony and the
  city of Bourdeaux were possessed by the sove-
  reign of Damascus and Samarcand; and the
, south of France, from the mouth of the Ga-
  ronne to that of the Rhone, assumed the man-
  ners and religion of Arabia.
     But these narrow limits were scorned by the ElIp~dl­
  spirit of Abdalrahman, or Abderame, who had !~:~~!~
  been restored' by the caliph Hashem to the
  wishes of the soldiers and people of Spain.- A. D.'TlI.
  That 'Veterau and daring commander adjudged
  to the obedience of the propbet whatever yet
  remained of France or of Europe, and prepared
  to execute tbe sentellce, at tbe head of a for-
  midable'bost, in the full confidence of sur-
  mounting all opposition either of nature or of
  man. His first care was to suppress a domes..
  tic rebel, who commanded the most important
  passes in the Pyrenees; Munuza, a Moorish
   chief, had accepted the alli8:11ce of the duke of
   Aquitain,; and the Eudes, ,from a motive of
   private or public interest, devoted bis beau-'
  teous daugbter to the embraces of the African
  misbeliever.. But the strongest fortresses of
                                                                               .   '

   Cerdagne were invested by a superior force;
   the rebel was overtaken and slain in the moun-
   tains; and bis widow was sent a captive to Da-
   mascus, to gratify, the desires, or more proba-
 ,Iacel or, the known world, d'ADYiUe, Notice de l'ADcicDDe Qaulr, p.

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22                   THE DECLINE AND FALL
 CHAP. bly the vanity, of the commander of tire faith·
  LII.                               •
.".,.,... ful. From the Pyrenees, A bderame proceed.,
          ed without delay to the passage of the Rhone
          and the siege of ArIes. An army of christians
          attempted the relief of the city: the tombs of
          their lead-ers were yet visible ill the't.hirteenth
          century; and many thGusands of their' dead
          bodies wete carried down' the rapid s~ream in-
          to ,the Mediterranean.sea. The' ar~ of Ab-
           derame were nt» IelJs 8uece~ful on the side of
          the ocean. He pas!iled withoo.toppositiQu the
          Garonne and Dordogne, which unite their wi-
          ters in the gulf of Bourdeaux.; but he found,,.
          beyond those rivers, the camp of the intrepid
          Eudes, who bad formed a second armYt ~I¥i
          sustained a second defeat~ so fatal t~ the chris-
          tian's, that, accotdingto their sad confessioll,
          God alone could reckon the. nu.mbe.r of the
          slain. The victorious Saracen ollenan the pro·,
          vinces of Aquitain,· whose Gallic Qames are, dis·
         guised, rather th. lost, in the. m~derl!l appel-
         lations of Perigord, SaintogBe, and Poitou: hia
          s~andards were plaDt~ on the waUs-; or at least
         before the gates~ of Tours and of Sens-; and his
         detachments overspread tOO kil!lgdom. of Bur-
         gundy as far as the we),l·kaowll' cities of LyOJHJ
         and Besan'ton. The memory &f thc,~ deva8ta.
         tions, for Abderame did nO'ts:pare the eOlJ:ntry
         or the people, was long preserved by tr~iti~IJ' ;
         and the invasion of France by the MOOl~8f. Or
         Mahometans, affords the of those
         fables, which have been so wildly disfigured in
         the I'omances of chivalry, and ro elegantly
         adorned by the Italian muse .._In the decline

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                    OF TIlE ROMAN '.I!MPIR&' '                                 !3
 of soCiety and art, the deserted cities could CHAP.
 supply a,slenderbooty t.o tbe Saracens; their LII.
 richeSt spoil wali found in the churches and ",....,,,.
monasteries, which t,hey stripped of their or-
naments and delivered to the 1Iames : ' and the
tutelar saints, both Hilary of Poi tiers and Mar-
tin of 'To urs, forgot their miraculous powers in
the' defence of their own sepulchres.' A vic~
toriou8 line of mart!h bad b~en, prolonged above
athousand iniles from the rock of Gibraltar to
the banks of the Loire; the' repetition of an
equal space would have carried the Saracens to
the cdriftnes of 'Polanti. and the highlands of
Scotl,and: the Rhine is not 1D0re impassable
than 'the Nile ot-Euphrates; and the Arabian
1Ieet might have 'sailed' without a ilav~ combat
into the mouth of the .Thames., Perhaps the
interpretation of the koran would now be taught
in the schools of Oxfdrd, and, ber pulpits might
demonstrate to a circumcised people the' sanc-
tity and truth of the revelation of Mahomet.'
   From such calamities was clil·istendom deli-
l'ered by ihegenius and fortune of one man.--
,, f  With reprd to the laDctaat'y0'     St. MartiD or Tolin, Roderic Xi
meoea accw. the SaraceDl of the dMd. TUroDis ciyitatem, eccltlilUll
tit palatia Ye.t.tiOll~ ei iDceDdio liJilllidiruit ~t co•••mpsh. The co..
tiDuator of Fred.Prius ilDpntea to them DO more thaD the iaIfaCWtt.
Ad domnm beatia.imi MartiDi enrteDdam cieltiaaat. At Carolu., ""c.
The French aubaliat wal more ji!8lolls or the honour or the 8aiot. ' '
  , • Yet I .iDeetel, dOJlbt wbether the,Osrord moicla wonld lIaye pro-
duced a "lome o{ coutro,er.y 10 elegant aDd iDgeDl... u the .u-
mODI lately preacbed ,by Mr. White, the Atabie professor, .t Mr.
Bampton's lecture. HI. obstrvatioul on the clluacter IUId reli,ioD of
lIIahomet, are alway. adapted to hi. argument, aDd geaerally rouDd-
ed io truth and reuon. He .~lItaiDs tbe part of a linly aDd elCICJocut
adyocate, and lollietilbc'l ruea to the merit or lUI hiltoriu aDd pin-

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t4                         THE DECLINE AND PALL;
 CHAP.       Cbarles~   the illegitimate Ion of the elder Peplli,
.. u~#I.I:.. # was content with the titles of mayor or duke of
Drrr.t of the Franks, but he deserved to become the fa-
::.S:;--     ther of a line of kings. In a laborious admi-
~~~~         nistration of twenty-four years. he restored and
A ••• 7IJ.   supported the dignity of the throne, and the
             rebels of Germany and Gaul ~ere succesl§ive-
             Iy crushed by the activity of a warrior, who,
             in the same campaign, could display his ban-
             ner on the Elbe, the Rhone, and the ShOrE!1 of
             the ocean. In the public danger, he was sum-
             moned by the voice of his country; and his
             rival, the duke of Aquitain, was reduced to ap-
             pear among tbe fugitives and suppliants.-
             " Alas I" exclaimed the I'ranks, " what a mis-           0

             " fortune I what an indignity! We have long
             "heard of the name and conquests of the
             " Arabs: we were apprehensive of their attack
             "from the East; they have now conquered
             "Spain, and invade our country, on the side
             " of the West.. Yet their numbers, and (since
             "Othey have no buckler) their arms, are inferior
             " to our own." "If you follow my advice," re-
             plied the prudent mayor of the palace, " you
             " will not interrupt their march, nor precipi.

             " tate your attack. They are like a torrent,
             "which it is dangerous to stem in its career.
             " The thirst of riches, and the consciommess of
             " success, redouble their valour, and valour is
             " of more avail than arms or numbers. Be pa-
             "tient till they bave loaded themselves with
             " the incumbrance of wealth. The possession
             " of wealth will divide their counsels, and 8S-
             ., sure your victory:~ This subtle policy is

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                  or THE ROHA.N EMPIltB.                                    16
perbaps' a refinement of the Arabian writers; CHAP.
and the situation of Charles will suggest a more ,_~••
narrow and selfish motive of procrastination;
the secret desire of humbling the pride, and
wasting the provinces, of the rebel duke of
Aquitain. Ifis yet more probable, that the de-
lays of Charles were inevitable and reI uctant.
A standing army was unknown under the first
and second race: more than half the kingdom
was' now in the hands of the Sarac~ns: accord-
ing to their respective situation, the Franks of
Neustria and Austrasia were too conscious or
too careless of the impending danger; and the
voluntary aids of the Gepidce and Germans
were separated by a long interval from ~he
standard of the christian general. No sooner
had he conected his forces, than he sought. and
found the enemy in the centre of France, be-
tween Tours and Poitiers. His well-conduct-
ed march was covered by a range of hills, and
~bderame appears to have been surprised by
his unexpected presence. The nations of Asia,
Africa, and E~rope, advanced with equal ar';
dour, to an encounter which would change the
history of the world. In the six first days 'of
desultory combat, the horsemen and archers of
the East maintained their ad'tantage: but in
the closer onset of the seventh day, the orien-
tals were oppressed by the strength and sta-
ture of the Germans, who, with stout hearts
and i,·on hands," asserted the' civil and religious
  II Gena AUltria IIlftllbrurum pre.emlDentil nlida, et gena Gennane.
eorde et corpore pnutantipima, quail in iett occuU mant ferrel ..
,ectore arduo Arabtl utinxerunt (Bod.ric. Toletan. c. &iY.)

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26                          THE DECLINE AND PALL
 CHAP.    freedom of th eir posterity.                   The epithet of
~_~~~·., •.lJfartel, the Hammer, which has been added to
            the name of Charles, is expre.ssive. of his weigh·
            ty and irre.sistible strokes: the valour of Eudes
            was excited by resentm~nt and emulation.; and
            their compa.nions, in the .eye of hisior),",are th~
            trUe peers and pal~ins of
            After a. bloody field,. in which Abderalne W~~
            slain,. the Saracen s, in the close of th~ .ev.ening;
            retired to. their camp. In. the disorder and de-:
           .pair. of the tiight; the various tribes. of Yemel;l
            and DaIIiaScu8, of Africa and Spain, were pro-
           voked to. turn their arms against each other:
           the tElmains of their, host were suddenly dis-
            solved; and each e,nir .consulted his safety. by
           an hasty and. separate retreat. At the'dawl,l,of
         , day, the stillnesso( an bostile camp was sus-
           pected by the christ.ians: 0.11 the re-
           port of tlieir spies, .they ventur~d to explore
           the riches of the vaca;nt tents; but, if we ex-
         , cept some celebrated. relics, a SlDall portion of
           the spoil was the in'Docent and. law'.
           fbI oWl.lers•. The joyful tidings wete, soon dif-
           fused over tlie catHolic. world, . and. the monks.
           of Italy could affirw. and believe. that three
           hUIldred aildJifty, Dr three hundred and seven~
           ty-five thousand of the. Mahoinetanll bad been
           crushed by the hammer. Of Charles;1 while nQ .
                                        . j

           I  TheIl' number. a~ alated .by Paul Warnefrid, the deacon of Aqui.
         It·ia (de Geitis Langobard, I. Yi~p. afl,' edit. Grot~) 'and Aba.ta.iuI;
         tbe librarian o(tbe MinDa ell.reh (Iii Vito Gfegotli II,) ."ho tella a
         miraculous .tory of three cODsecrated spungn, which rendered inyul·
         nerable the French soldierl amon. whom tbey, had been .hared. It
         alaould seelD, tbat in hilletten to the pope, Eudra usurped the hODoar
         of the .~ctory, for whleh he W8I chastised by the French aDnall.tI.
         wlao, witb equal falaebood, accu.e him of iDYitin~ tbe Saracelllo

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                     OF 1rHE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                         27
  rome {han fifteen bundred christians were slain CHAP-
  in the field af Tours. But this incredible tale ~ ..~~l~;,..
  is sufficiently. disproved by the caution of the
  Fr'ench general, .apprehended the snares
  and accidents of a pursuit, and dismissed' his
  German allies to their D~tiye forests. ' The in-
  actiYity of a. conqueror betrays, the 108s of
  strength and blood, and the most cruel execu-
  tion'is inflicted, not jn the ranki of battle, but
  on tlu~' backs at a -flying enemy. Yet the vic- 'rhf'Y re-
  tor.1 of, the- Franks ;vas complete aDd final- forf' lb.
                                                       treat be-
  Aquitaid was recovered by thf' arms of Eudes; FlUb
  the Arab~ never resumed tbe conquest of Gaul",
  and tbey were SOOD driven beyond the Pyrenees
  by Charles Martel aDd his YaJiantrace)' It
  might baTe been expected that the ~aviour Of
  Christendom would have been C8nonised, or.lit
  least applauded, by the gratitude of the clergy,
  who are indebted to his sword for their present
  exiiteuce-~ But in the public: .distress, the lliay-
, or of. the palace bad been tompelled to apply
  the richeSt or at least -the jeteO'De8, of the hi..
  shops lind abbots.. to th~ relief bf.the state and
  the' la1vard of the.oldiers. His merits were
  forgotten, his sacrilege, aloDe :\v'as i:emembered.
  and, in' an epistle to. Carlovingian prince, a
  GaUjc synod presumes to declare that his an-
  cestor was damned; that on the opening of his
  tomb, the spectators were aB'righted by a smell
 , II Narbonn~. and the re.t of S~ptimaJIia. wa. r~co\'er~d by P~pjD,
 the lOll of Claarlel Martel, A. D. 71111 (Pagi Critica, tom. iii. p. 100.)-
 Tbirty-aeveD years afterwards it was piUaged by a auddeD inroad of
 tbe Arabs, who l'mployed tbe captive. in tJle cODstruction of the
 Ulosch of Cordo"a (de Guignea. Hiat. de. Hun•• tom. i, p. 1114).

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                              THE DECLINE AND FALL
  CHAP.      of fire and the aspect of an horrid dragon; and
.....   ~~:u that a saint of the times was indulged with a
             pleasant vision of the soul and body of Charles
             Martel, burning to all eternity, in the abyss of
             hen.'                                                        . -
.Elnatioll      The loss of an army, or a provlDce, in the
b~id!~ Western world, was less painful to the court of
 1tci.:io.   Damascus, than tbe rise and progress of a do-
             mestic competitor. Except among the Sy-
             rians, the caliphs of the house of Ommiyah had
             never been the objects of the public favour.-
             The life of Mahomet recorded their perseve-
             rance in idolatry and rebellion; their conver-
             sion had been reluctant, their elevation irregue>
             lar and factious, and their tbrone was cement.
             ed with the most holy and noble blood of Ara'
             bia. The best of their race, the pious Omar,
             was dissatisfied with his own title: their per-
             sonal virtues were insufficient to justify a de-
             parture .from the order of succession; and. the
             eyes and wishes of the faithful were turned to-
             wards the line of Hashem and the kindred of
             the apostle of God.' Of these the Fatimites
             were either rash or pusill.animous; but the de-
             scendants 'of Abbas cherished, with courage
             and discretion, the hopes of their rising for-
             tunes. From an obscure residence in Syria,
             . 1 Tbil  putoralletter. addreued to Lewia tbe Gemwtic. tile gnmd-
             100  of Cbarlemape. aDd most probably compoaed by tbe pen of tbe
             artlul Hincmar, it dated in tbe year 8li8. and signed by tbe bishop. of
             tllC provinces of RheilDl and Routn (BaronitIR. Annal. A. D.
             7.... Fleury, Hist. Ecclel. tom. lI. p. 614.616.) Yet Baroniul him_
             .elf, and the French critic., rt'ject witb contempt thi. epiacol'a1 fi~

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                    or TilE ROMAN        EMPIRE.                               29
they'8ecretly despatched their agents and mis- (:FI'.\P•
  .    .                                       .
SlOnarles,. w h0 preachd' t he eastern provlll- __-. __
                        e lD                       Llf.
ces their hereditary indefea.sible right: aud Mo-
hammed, the son of Ali, the son of Abdallah,
the son of Abbas, the uncle of the prophet,
gave audience to the deputies of Chorasan, and
accepted their free gift (}f' four hundred th.ou-
sand pieces of gold. After the death of Mo-
hammed, the oath of allegiance was administer-
ed in the name of his son Ibrahim to a uu'me-
rous band 'of votaries, who expected only a sig~
nal and a leader; and tire governor of Chora-
sao <:ontinued to deplore his 'fruitless admoni-'
tions and the deadly slumber of the caliphs of
Damascus, till he himself, with all his adhe-
rents, was driven from the city and palace of
Meru, by the rebellious arms of Abu Moslem.-            •
That maker of kings, the author, as he is nam-
ed, of the call of the Abbassides, was at length
rewarded for his presumption of merit with the
usual gratitude of courts. A mean, perhaps a
foreign, extraction, <:ould not repress the as-
piring energy of Abu Moslem .. Jealousof his
wives, liberal of his wealth, prodigal of his own
bl~od and of that of others, he COlI td boast with
pleasure, and possibly with truth, that he had
destroyed six hundred thousand of his enemies;
and such was the intrepid gravity of his mind
and countenance, that he was never seen to

    .. The .teed aad the .addle which had carried any of'hi, wivea were
 iastutly killed or burnt, lest they should be afterwards mounted by.
 male. Twelve hundrtd males or camel. were rtquired for his kitcheD
 f'urniture; and the daily consumption amo\lnted to three thousand, aD hundred sheep, besides oxen, peultry, Ire. (Abulp~angius,
.JIiat. Dyaa.t. p. 140)

                                                           Digitized by   Google
30                    TID DE.CLINK AND F4LL.
 CHAP.   smileexeept on· a day of battle.         1n the visible
.,,~!:~.~. separation of parties the grf!ft. was cotlsecra:ted
         to the Fatimites; the Oml'niadei were distin.
         guished by the wAite; and :the black, as the
         most adverse, were naturally adopted by the
         Abbassides. Theil' turbans and garment.s
         were stained with that gloomy colour: two
         black standards, on ,pike-.Stavesnine cubit.
         long, were borne aloft in the van of Abu Mo~
         lem; and their allegorical names of the nigAI
         and the skadow, obscurely represented the in-
         dissoluble union and perpetual succession of
         the line of Hashem. From the Indus to the
         Euphrates, the East was convulsed by the
         quarrel of the white and th.e black factions;
         the· AbbJ'-ssides were most frequently victo·
         rious; but their public success was clouded
         by the personal misfortune of their chief. The
         court' of Damascus, awakening from a IOllg
         slumber, resolved to prevent the: pilgrimage of
         Mecca, 'which Ibrahim had undertaken with a
         splendid retinue, to recommend himself at once
         to the favour of the prophet and of the people.
         A detachment of cavalry inter.cepted his march
         and arrested his person; and the unhappy
         Ibrahim, ,snatched away trom the promise of
         untasted royalty, expired in iron fetters in the
         duilgeolls of Haran. His two younger brothers,
         SaWah and. Almansor; eludedthe search of.'the
         tyra~t, and lay concealed at Cufa, till the zeal
         of the' people and th~' approach of his eastern
         fi'iends allowed .them to expose their persons
         to the impatient public. On Friday, ill the
         dress of a caliph, in the colour~ of the sec I;,
         Satfah proceeded with religious and military .

                                           Digitized by   Google
                   OF THE KOMAN .BMPIRE.. ·                                  3l
pomp to the mosch: ascendir.g the pulpit, he', CH.(P
pray<,d and preached as the lawful successor ..}:!......
of Mahomet; and, after his departure, his kins.
men bound a willing people by an of fide-
lity. But it was on the. banks of the·Zab, and'
not in the mosch of Cufa, that this important
controversy was determined. Every advantage
appeared io be on the side of the white faction:
the autbority of established -government; an
army hundred and twenty thousand sol.
diers, against a sixth part of that number; and'
the presence and merit of the caliph Mervan~'
the fourteenth and last of the houseofOmmjyah.
Before his accession to the throne, he had de.
  . ned, by his Georgian warfare, the honour..
  Ie epithet of the ass of Mesopotamia ;D an~ h~
might have been ranked among the greates*
prinees, hadnot, says Abulfeda, the eternal
order decreed that moment for the ruill of h"
family; a decree against which all hum!1n pru-
dence and fortitude must struggle i~ vain.--
The orders of M~rvari w6IIe mistaken or disQ-
beyed: the return of his horse, from which he
bad dismounted on a necessary occasion, im-
pre'ss~d th,e belief of his death'; and the enthu-
siasm of the black squadrons was ably COD-
ducted by Abdallah, the uncle of hiscompeti-
tor. After an defeat, the caliph
escaped to Mosul; but the colours of the Ab.- .
  • ..4, HemaJI.  He had been governor of Mesopotamia,' and tbe Ara-
~ic  proverb pral8e~ the courage of that warlike breed of asses who ne-
nr 6y from an enemy. The surname of Mervan may justify the com.
parison of Homer (Iliad,}" 667, &;1:.), and both wHI silence the mo-
dems, who consider the ass as a stupid and iguoble emblem, (d~Herbe.
let, Bibliot. Orient. p. 568).

                                                         Digitized by   Coogle
32-                           ,THE DECLINE AND FALL'
 Cftt·      bassides were displayed from the rampart; he
.,.*u:u, suddenly repassed the Tigris, cast a melancho-
           ly look on his palace of Haran, crossed the
           Euphrates, abandoned the fortifications of Da-
           mascus, and, without halting in Palestine,
           pitched his last arid fatal camp at Busir on the
Fall ~ftbe banks of the Nile.· His speed was urged by
Ommladel      . •           • •                           •
A. D.760. the Incessant dlhgence of Abdallah, who JD
                          I pursUl acqUIred strength an
Feb. 10. every step 0 f tIe '       't     .                                      d'

           reputation: the remains of the white faction
           were finally' vanquished in Egypt; and the
           lance, which ,terminated. the life and anxiety of
           Mervan, was not less welcome perhaps to the
           unfortunate than to the victorious chief. The
           merciless inquisition of the conqueror eradicat-
          ed the most distant branches of the hostil
          race: their bones were scattered, their memory ,
          was accursed, and the martyrdom of Hossein
          was abundantly revenged on the posterity of
          his tyrants. Fourscore of the Ommiades, who
          had yielded to the faith Qr clemency of their
          foes, were invited to a banquet at Damascu8.

            • Four Itnral placel, all iD Egypt, bore the name of Bolir, or Ba-
          eiril, 10 famoul in Greek fable. The fint, where Me"an wu alaiD.
         wu    to the welt of the Nile, in tbe province of l''iam, or AruDoe; tbe
         Mcon iu the Delta, in the SebeDnytic Dome; the third, Dear the py-
         nmidl; the fourtb, which wal j1eltroyed by Dioeleaiao <lee abov.
         1'01. i, p. 41.), iD tIle Tbebail. I Ihall here, trao.cribc a note of the
         learned aDd orthodox Michaelia I VideDtur in plaribUl JEgypti IIDpe-
         riom. urbibos BUliri Coptoque arma lumplilli Chri.tiaBi, libertatem-
          ...e de relicione leDtieDdi defendine, Icd auceubuiaae qoo iD bello
         Coptus ct BUliriDl IIOD rrbellaHe dictDri, sed caunam Cbriatianon.
         IIllcrptllri (Not. 211, p; 100). For the geography of tbe four Buai....
         lee Abllifeda (Ilelcript. lEgypt. p.9, vera. Midiarlil, GottinKIe, 1776,
         in 4to),, Not. 122.127, p.68.liS). and d'AUYill~ (Memoire
         lor l'Egypte. p. 81i, 147,200).

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                     OJ' '.l'HE ROMAN EMPIRE. .                                     33
  The laws of hospitality were violated by a pro- CHAP.
 miscllouS massacre: the board was. spread m~!!;'"
 ,over their faJlen bodies; and· the festivity of
 ,their glles~s was enlivened by the music of their
 'dying groans. By the event of the civil war
 -the dynasty of the Abbassides was firmly esta-
  blished; but the christians only could triumph
  in the mutual hatred and common loss of the
'disciples of Mahomet.p
    Yet the thousands who were swept away by Hn.olt of
 the sword of war might have been speedily re- !~:~'II.
 trieved in the succeeding generation, if the con-
 sequences of the revolution had not t-ended to
 dissol ve the power and unity of the empire of
 the Saracens. In the proscription of the Om-
 miades, a.royal youth of the name of Abdal-
 rahman alone es.caped the rage of· his en~mies,
 who hunted the wandering exile fl'omthe banks          ..
 of the Euphrates to the valleys of mount Atlas.
 His presence in the neighbourhood of Spain
 revived the zeal of the white faction. The
 name and cause of the Abbasllides had been
 first vindicated by the Persians; the West had
  been pure from civil arms; and the servants of
 the abdicated family still held, by a precarious
 tenore, the inheritance of their lands and the

   • 8M Abulfeda (Aaaal. MOllem. p. 136-146); Eotychioi (Annal.
'to... ii, p. m,·nn. Pocock) Elmac!ia {Hilt. Saracen. p. 109-121h
 Abtllpharagins (Hilt. Dynast. p, 134.140) I Roderic. of Toledo. (Hilt.
 Arabum, c. 18, p. 33); Tbeophanrl (Chronograph. p. 346, 357, who
 ,pub of the Abbaslides onder tbe names flf X-f""."....., and MA.,,,""')'
 and the Bibliotlll~qlle of d'Herbelot, in the article6 of Oll:"'ill"~., ....
 '-Me•. Me"""", lbnllaiIR, fjuffah, Ab" MOIltlll,
    '·OL. X.                          D                 •

                                                                 Digitized by   Google
3-1:                       THB DECLINE AND FALL
 CHAP.        offices of government. .Stronglyprompted by
.... ~,~~: •. gratitude, indignation, arid fear, they invited
              the g~andson of the caliph Hashem to ascend
              the throne of his ancestors; and, in his despe-
              rate condition, the extremes of rashness and
              prudence were almost the same. The accla-
              mations of the people saluted his landing on the
              coast of Andalusia; and, after a succesl$ful
                                             .             .
              struggle, Abdalraham established the throne of
              Cordovo, and was the father of the Ommiades
              of Spain, who reigned above two hundred- and
              fifty years from the Atlantic to the Pyrenees.q
              He slew in battle a ljeutenant of the Abbassides,
              who had invaded his dominions with a :fleet
              and army: the head of Ala, in salt and ca,m-
              ph ire, was suspended by a .daring messenget"
              before the palace of, Mecca; and the caliph
              Almansor rejoiced in his safety, that he was
              removed by seas' and lands from such a for-
              midable adversary. Their mutual designs or
              declarations of offensive war evaporated with-
              out effect: but instead of opening a door to
              the conquest of Europe, S.pain was dissevered
              from the trunk of the mon'archy, engaged in
              perpetual hostility with the East, and inclined
              to peace and friendship with the christian so-
              vereigns of Constantinople and France. The
Triple of exampI e 0 f t he 0 mmlades was . '
~I.ioo die                                      ImItate d by t he
~:~i. real Qr fictitious progeny of Ali, the Edrissites
              of Mauritania, and the more powerful Fatimites
           • For tbe revolutioo of Spain, conlnlt Roderic of Toledo (c. x.lii,
         p. 34, &te.); tbe &ibliotbeea Arabico Hispana (tom. ii, p. ao, 198);
         and Cardoooe (Hist. de l'Afrique et de rEapagoe, tom. i, p. 180.1W,
         106, 212, 323, &tc.)

                                                   Digitized by   Google
                    0'" THE ROHAN EMl'IRE.                                          35
f,)( Africa and Egypt.                 In' the tenth         century,           CHAl'.
the chair of Mahomet was                     ·disput~       by     tJl1~e ".~.~I••_
'Culiphs 'or commanders of the faithful"                             who
.reigned at Bagdad, Cairuan, and Cordovo;                               ex-
communicated each other, and agreed only!                                 in
a principle-.of di.~cord, that a Rectar.y is'n~ore
:odious and ·criminal than an unbelievei'~r .
  - .Mecca . was the patrimony of the line of~:rei:i'
 Hashem, yet the Abbassides were never teanpt- t~ehc"
            'd    ·th .                       h lip 8, •.
'ed to·' resl e. el er ID' t he b' h IRce or teA. D
                                 lrt -p '
~Uy     of the prophet.            DamaScus. was disgtaned '160-000.
By·the  cboice, and poll~ted, witbthehlood,: of
 tlie Ommiades; and aftersoJDe-heeitatWn,' AI-
.inansoj: the brother and,s~sor) of,:Sai'ab,
-mid the foundatj&ns- (if. ~tI~~ the, impe6ill
;seat'of his ·posterity·durillg.!3{ctign ofdivii~h~-
-dred ·years.& The· ctlOsenspot is 'on the:eastem
-bank of the Tigris,' iabout .fifteen ,toiles above
-the'roins of Modain : the double waH wasbfa

    r I Ihall not stop to refute the litrange error. and fandel of Sir Wil.
 liam Temple (his Works, vol. iii; p. 811·nll, octavo edition) and Vol.
 taile (Miltoiie Generalri c. xxviii, tORi.iI, p. 124,125, edition de Lao-
 ~D.), .eopcre,rpi'}g t,~e divi.lort of t~e Sara~~~ empire. l'he mistakes
0'    Voltaire proceeded from the want of knowledJre or reSection j but
 Sir William was deceived by a Spaniah impostor, who hal framed an
 apo('ryphal bistory of tbe conquest of Spain by the Arab••
._. • The geograp~er d'bville (I'Euphr,:,te ~t .Ia Tigre, p. 121-123),
 a,ad the Orientalist d'Herbelot (B~bliotheCjue,. p. 161, 168), may suffice
 for tbe knowledge of Bagdad. Our trllnlkra, PiellO della VaUe
-,tom. i, p. ,688-698)'; Tavernier (tom. i. p. 280.238) j 1'bevt'not (part
 ii, p. 209.212) j Otter (tom. i, p. 162-168); and Niebnbr (Voyage ~n
 Arabie, tom. ii, p. 239-271), have seen only Jts decay; and the Nubian
 geographer (p. 204), and the travelling JC'w, Benjamin of Tndela (IIi-
  nerarllRl, p. 112.128, Il Const. l'Emperrur, aplld Elzcvir, 1633), are
  the only writers of my acquaintance, who have known Bagdad under
 the reign of the Abbassidn.
     t The foundations of Bagdad were laid A. H. 145, A. D. 762, Mo~­
 talem, the last of the Abbassidel, was taken and Jlllt to death hy Ihe
  Tartan, A. H. 666, A. D. 125f1, Ihe 20th of February.

                                                               Digitized by   Google
36 .                      THE DECLINE AND FALL'
  CHAP. circular fO'rm;     .and such was the rapid increase
   Lli.         f     . I
".,.,.,.,..,. 0' a capita,  nO'w d WID dl ed to' a prO'VIDClaI
                                    .         .         . .
         town, that the funeral O'f a pO'pular saint might
         be attended by eight hundred thO'usand men
         and sixty thO'usand wO'men O'f Bagdad and the
         adjacent villages. In this city of peace, amidst             U

          the riches O'f the East, -the Abbassides sO'O'n
          disdained the abstinence and frugality O'f the
          firstcaliphs, and -aspired to emulate the mag-
          nificence O'f tliePersian kings. . After his wars
          and buildings, AlmansO'r left behind him in gold
         and silver about thirty milliO'ns sterling;& and
         this treasure was exhausted in a few years by
          the vices' or virtues' of his children. His son
          Mahadi, in a single pilgrimage to Mecca, ex-
          pended six millions O'f dinars of gO'ld. A piO'US
          ~nd charitable mO'tive may sanctify the fO'unda-
        . tiO'n O'f cisterns and caravanseras, which he dis-
          tributed alO'ng a measured rO'ad of seven hun-
          dred miles; but his train O'f camels, laden with
          snO'w, CO'uld O'nly serve to' astO'nish the natives
       - O'f Arabia, and to' refresh the fruits and liquO'rs
          of the royal banquet.' The cO'urtiers WO'uid

           • Medinat aI Salem, Dar aI Salem. Urbl pacis, or, al il more neat-
         ly compounded by th e Byzantine writen, I!'C".....).., (IrenopoUI).-
         There i~ lome dispnte conr.eming the etymology of Bagdad; bnt the
         6r.t .yllable is allowed to lignify a garden in the Penian tonpe; the
         ,arden of Dad, a christian hermit, whose cell had been the only habi-
         tation on the apot.
           S Reliqult In Erario aexcentiel millies mille ltatert'~, et qnater et

         viciu millies mille anreoa anr,.o.. Elmacin, (Hist. S.racen. p. 126).
         I ban reckoned the gold pieces at eight shillings, and the proportion
         to the .ilver aa twelve to oue. But I will nner answer for the nu ....
         ben of Erpeuills; aud the Latin. are Icarcely above the .avagea In
         the lauguage of arithmetic.
           , L'Uerbelot, p. 630. Abulfeda, p. lU. .iSivem Meccam apporte-
         .i.. rem ibi ant nnmquam allt _ rariSlime "ia.....                 .'

                                                     Digitized by   Google
                  OF Tim ROMAN EMPIRE. "                                   37.,
surely praise the liberality of his grandson CHAP.
                                            .      LII
Almamon, who gave away four-fifths of the in- ""'~'~".
come of a provin(!e, a sum of two millions fotfl-
hundred thousaud gold dinars. before he drew
his foot from the stirrup. At the nuptials of,                                    •
the, same prince, a thousand pearls of the.
largest size were showered on the head of the
bride: and a Jottery of lands and hO,uses dis-,
played the capricious bounty of fortune. The
glories of the court were brightened rather than
impaired in the decline of the empire; and a
Greek ambassador might admire or pity the
magQificence of the feeble Moctader. "The
"caliph's whole army," says the historian
Abulfeda, "both horse and foot, was under
IC arms, which together made a body of one

n hundred and sixty thousand men.        His state
" officers, the favourite slaves, stood near him
" in splendid apparel, their belts glittering with
'~ gold and gems. Near them were seven thou-
'~ sand eunuchs, four thousand of them white,
" the remainder black. The porters or door-
" keepers were in numher seven hundred.-
" Barges and boats, with the most superb de-
" corations, were seen swimming upon tile Ti-
"gris. Nor was the palace itself less splen-
IC did, in which were hung up thirty:::eight
u thou~and pieces of tapestry, twelve thousand

 . • Abalreda, p~ 1M, 189, desedbe, the .pleadonr ad liberality of
AImamcm. Milton hu il.llBded to thil Oriental cUltom :
     - - - Or wbere the gorgeool Eut, with richest hand,
     Showen on her kings Barbaric pearls and gold.
I han Died the modern wordloltery, to expre.. the miIJUia or the R.·
mao emperors, which entitled to 80me prize, the penon who caujEbt
them, al they were tbrown amllDa the crowd.

                                                        Digitized by   Google
38                        THE DECLINE AND FALL
 CHAP••, five hundred of which were of silk embmi
.,,:~(;._'" deredwith gold.   The carpets on the floor
       "were twenty-two thousand. An hundred
       " lions were brought out, with a keeper to each
       "lion.- Amotig· the ·other spectacles- of rare -
       " and stupendous- luxury, -was -a tree of gold·
       "and silver sPreadin~ -intO' e~h~een IB:Fge
       " branches, -on which, and on-the leSser boughs,
       " sat a variety of birds made of'lhe same pr~
       " clous metals, as well as the leaves'of-the tree"
      "While the machinery affected: 'spbntarieQus-
       " motions, the several birds warbled -thew rift-
      " tural h~rmony. -Through this scene of mag-
      " nificence, the Gr~ek ambassador was led bY'
      " the vizier to the. foot of the caliph's throne.'"
      In the West, the Ommiades of Spain support
      ed, with equal pomp, the title of commarid~r
      of the faithful. Three ~iles from Cordova, ~n
      honour of his favourite sultana, the third add
      greatest of the Abdalral)mans co!,!structed the
      city, palace, and gardens of Zebra. _ Twen~y­
      five years, and above. three millions sterlin~,
      were employed by tJ:!e founder; his liber,aJ
      taste invited the artists of Constantinople, the
      most skilful sculptors and architects of the
      age; and the buildings were sustained or a-dorn-
      ed by twelve hundred coluplns of Spanish and
      African. of Greek and Italian marble. The
        • When Bel"oft'Antermny (Tranll, Tol. i, p. 119) ·acqoID'lUlittf the
      Russian ambal.ador to the a.. wence of the nnfortunate Shah Huaseha
      of Persia, lIDO liona were introduced, to denote the power of' tbtl lillg
      over the fiercest animal••
        • Abulfeda, p; 2ST, d'Herbelot, p.69O. Thil embauywu rrccited'
      at Bagdad, A. H. 305. A. D. 917'. In the pauage of Abulfl'da, I bave
      uled, widl lome variations, the Engli.h tranllation of the learned anll
      amiable Mr. Harri. of Sali8bury (Philolo(ical IDquiriel, p. 363, 3(4)

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                    0', THE ROMAN'DIPIRR.                                       38
ball -€Yf audienee ;WRS encrusted witb gold and- CHAP.
~earI~, ami a great ,basin in the centre wal!! 8ur- "....~!;,..
lTouddect with the 'curious and costly figures of            ,. ,
binds; aridt quadrupeds~ In a lofty pavilion of
the· ga~ns" one ofthese basins and fountains,
So delightful in a sultry dimate, was replenish-
ed, not with water, but wi,th the pur6:$t quick-
silver. The seraglio of.Abdalrahman~ hil$ wiv~s;
conerlbines, and black ,eunnchs, .alt1o'un~d,to
six thousand three hundJ:ed perJlons; ,and he
was. attended to the field by. guard of twelve
tbous8ndhorse, whose belts and scymetars
were studded with gold.c
 , In a private condition, our desires are Its conse-
tua11 y l'epressed by poverty an d SU'uord" .
                                          matlOn; quencel
                                                    ou privatf
Imt the lives and labours of ,millions 'are de- h::~:~!r
voted to the service ofa despotic'prince, whose
Jaws are blindly 'obeyed, 'and whose wishes are
instantly gratified. Our imagination is dazzled
by the splendid picture; a~d'whatever maybe
the cool dictates of r~ason, there are fewalJ;lODg
us who would o~stinate~y refuse a trial of the
cGmforts and the cares of .royalty. It may
therefore be of some use to: borrow ~he expe-
rience' of the satneAbdalrahman, whose nlag-
nificencehas perhaP.s exci*ed oor admiration
and envy, and to transcribe an authentic me-
fuorial which was found in the closet of the de-
ceased caliph. "i have now reigned above
cc fifty years in victory or peace; b~loved by
 ~. my subjects, dreaded by my enemies, and re-

  .. Cardonne, Hiltoire de l'Afrique et de I'Bspague, tom. i, p. alO-l38.
A jalt idea of the taste and architecture olthe Arabianl of Spain, ma,.
Pol cooceiud from the de8criptiun aud platea of the,Alha.bra of Ore.
uada (Swinburoe', Travell, p. 171.188).

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40                       THE-DECLINE.AKD'I'AU.,
CHAP:   "spected by ,my allies.              Riches and- bOnours,
m~':   .. " power and pleasure, have waited on my call.
        " nor does any earthly bJessing appear to have
        "  been wanting to my felicity. In this situa-
        '.'tion I have diligently numbered. the days of
        "  pure and genuine happiness which have fal .. '
        ~'-Ien to my lot:- they amount to fourteen :-0
        " man! place not thy confidence in' this pre-
        U sent world !".    The luxury of the ca.liphs, so
        useless to their private happiness, relaxed the
        nerves, and terminated the progress, 'ofthe-Ara-
        bian empire. Temporal and spiritual conquest
        had been the sole occupation of the first suc-
        cessors of Mahomet; and after supplying
        themselves with the necessarip.s of life, the
        whole revenue was scrupulously devoted ttr
        that salutary work. The Abbassides were im.
        poverished by the multitude of their wants, and
        their contempt of economy. _ Instead of pur-
        Buing the great object of ambition, their lei..
        sure, their afi'ections, the powers of their mind
        were diverted by pomp and pleasure; the re-
        wards of valour were embezzled by women and
        eunuchs, and the royal camp was encumbered
        by the luxury of the palace. A similar temper
        was diffused among the subjects of the caliph.
          • CardODH. tom. i. , .. lit, 130. Thil cunfasion, the complain" 01
        Solomon 01 the yanity of tbis world (read Prior's nrbolC bat eloquent
        poem). ad the Iaa,py teo.claya of the emperor Seahed (Rambller, :Me.
        104.106), wiD be trium,hantly quoted by the,detracton of buman life.
        Their expectatioDs are commonly immoderate; their estimates are lei·
        dom impartial. If I may. Ipeak of my.elf (tile only pCFson of .holla
        I can speak with certainty), ..y happy honrs have far exceedcd. and
        far exceed, the scanty numbers of the caliph of Spain; and 1 shall
        DOt acraple to add, that many. of them are doc to the ,lelliDI labour
        of tile pl'Cleat comp.olitioDo

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                    01' :'tBE ROMAN DIPlBB. .                                      41
Their siern enthusiasm was t10ftened by time: CHAP
 an d prosperI Y : th ey sough t ,. h e~ 10 t he OC- ' m " . ,••.
              't                  rIC                   LU.

 ctlpations of industry, fame in the pursuits of
literature, and happiness inthe tranquillity of
 domestic life.· .War was no longer the passion
of the Saracens; and the increase of pay, the
repetition of donatives, were insufficient to al-
lure the posterity of those voluntary champions
who had· crowded to thestalidard of Abubeker
and Omar for the hopes of spoil and of para
 . Under the reign of the Ommiades, the studies IDtroduc-'
of. tbe MosJems were confined to the interpre- =n~!r
tation of the. kora~, and the eloquence and ~-:::~~b.
poetry of theIr native tongue. A people con..:. A. D. 1~
":inual1y exposed to the. dangers of the field':~: 811;
must esteem the healing powers of medicine,
or rather of surgery; but the starving physi~
cians of Arabia murmured a complaint, that
exercise and temperance deprived thtlm of the
greatest· part .of· .their practice: After theil'l
civil and domestic war8, 'the subjectlt of the Ab-
bassides, awa.kening from this. mental lethargy,.
found leisure, arid'felt curiosity for the acq~}..
sition of profane science. This spirit was first
encouraged by.the caliph Almansor, who, ba.-
sides his knowJedge. of the mahometan' law,
had applied himself with success t~ the study
of astronomy. But when the sceptre devolved
    • The GuJiatan (po 2119) relatel the conyersation of Mahomet and
a phyaiciaD (Epiatol. Renaudot. in Fabricilll, Bibliot. Gnec. tOD1. i, P.
814). The prophet himself was skilled in the art of medicine; aDd
Gagnier (Vie de Mahomet, tom. iiI,·p. 894-405), ha ghen an otraet
IiIf tile aphorisms which are extant under hI. aame.

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42                          TIlE DECLl5E AND lI!4LL:)
C'l.:t-    to Almamon, tbe~event~ o~'tbeAbbaHides, be'
'''''m"   completed the desIgns of hIS grandfather, . and.
          invited'the Muses from their. anCient Heats.-:""'I
          Dis ambassadors at ConstantinOple, his 'agents:
          in Armenia, Syria, and Egypt, colleot~, th4
          volumes of Greeian;sci.mce: at:hi8'emnm~~
          ther were' transhited 'bf the :Drosf'S··
          preters into the A-ra'bic .language:, his. sub;e~tS'
          were exhorted aBsid:Q:OG~ly to;p8ntSeltheRe' .ifl..r'
          stmoti've ~ifiditg$-; and tire ~ndtessC>rfof Mab~~
          met as~isted with pleasure and modesty at tlie
          a~sEml'blieS artddisputatibns of'the ~~rne.d;­
          £, lle \\ri':s nbtign'Ol"ant,", saYa Abult»ha\ragiu~
          '~' that 'tAet! )lpetlte elect of God, hSs best ~ll.d
          "'most usefutsenants, whose, are devoted
          " to the improvement oftheir ratiotta;l fac'Ulti~.
          ',e The mean ambition of the ·Cbii,,;ese or the
          "Turks may glory in the industry of their
          " hands, or the indulgence of tlieir brlltal ,sp.,
          "petites. Y etthese dextet:ous artists ,must
          " view, with hopeless emulation, ,the hexagons
          "aud pyramids of the cells" of a bee-hive:'
          " these fortitudinous heroes' are awed by the
          " superior fierceness of the lions ,and tigers;
          " and in their amorous enjoyments, they are
          ce'much inferior to the vigour of 'the grosses~
          " and most sordid quadrupeds.. The teachers
             , See their corioo. arehiteotore in Reamor (Hiat. del Inlectes, tom
          Y.  Memoire viii.) Theae bengon. arec10aed lit • pyramid; tbe
          angles of the three aides of a aimilar pyramid, socb .. woold aceom- _
          pliah the JiYen Imd *ith tile amallqt qoantity. pOllible of material.,
          were determined by a matbematiciau, at 109 degrees 26 minules for
          the larger, 10 degrees U miuutea for the smaller. The actual mea·
          lUre i. 109 degrees 28 minotes, 70 degree. 12 miDutes. Yet this per_
          fect harmony raiaes the work at tbe expence of the arti.t j tbe bee.
          lire not _atera of transcendant ,cometry.

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                   OF THE ROMAN tBMPIRE. !                                    48
" of wjsdoln are the 1rue.lnininaries and .legi.. CHAP.
" lators of a world, which,; without· tbeir .~ ...,~?~....
" would again. sink. in ignorance. and, bar·bal'-          .
"jsm."~ The zeal. and curiosity.. of Almamon
were imitated 'by succeediug princes of the .line
of Abbas: their rivals, the Fatimites of Africa
and the Ommiades of Spain, weJ'e. the patr.ou·
of the learne~, ,as ~en' as the commanders qf
the faithful:· the .aaie~ ro,al Pl'eJ!ogative was.
claimed by 'their. iudependent :emits· of the. pJ'O!o
vinces; and tbej.r.em~latiM, diffased the .ta,,(e:
and .the: ,ew8fd~:·df ~e. fOOm .SamarCllIJd
and Boohara-to. ,Fez alld. Coidoft.:· The;v~
of a--.ltaD. c~orat6d' a 8um ioLtwo; IalHldred
pieces of gold. to ,tbe!fo'uudatidn:of.a college:.t;
Bagdad, which he endowed w\th 'an abu~al:Nlf.
venne of fifteen thou,and dinars. TbJ! frui~;
of instruction were communicatet1,peth.aps· ~t"
different thDe~ to· six thou sud .disci~le$ ot·
every degree, from. the son of the nobl'e t~ th~t
ef the mechanic: .a sufficient .allowance 1Va~
provided for the indigent scbolars; and tJIe
merit or. industry of the professors;was rep~id
with adequate stipends. 1n ~very: ~ity. th~
productions o( Arabic liter~t1Jre·",er.e ~opie~
and collected by. the curiosi.ty of. the .studiou$,
and th~ vanity'ofthe r~ch.· A,prlvate doct9r,
refused the invitation of the sultan of Bochara,
because the c~rria~e ~f ~i~ books would have
. • Saed Elm Ahmed, cadhi of Toledo, who died A. H. 402, A. D.
1009, haa familhed Abalpbaragial (Dynast. p. 160) witb thie cari01l.
p •• lage, al well aa "'fih the text of Pocock'e Specimtn .Bi.torie An.
bam. A number of literary anecdotes ofphiloaopherl, JlhYllcianl,
who hue flourished under eath caliph, form the principal merit ofdle
dynaaties of Abulpbaragiaa.

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44                            THE' DECLINE AND FALL
 CHA.P.·   required four hundred camels. The                                royalli~'
.##~.I;.•,- brary of the Fatimites consisted of one hundred
          thousand manuscripts, elegantly transcribed
          and splendidly bound, which were lent, with-·
          out jealousy or avarice, to the students of
          Cairo. Yet this .collection must appear mode-
          rate, if we can believe that the Ommiades of
          Spain had formed a library of .six hundred,
          thousand volumes, forty-four of which were
          employed in tbe mere .catalogue.· Their capi-
          tal, Cordova, with the adjacent towns of Mala-
          ga, Almeria,and Murcia, had given birth to
          l1iore, than tbree hundred writers, aud above
          seventy public libraries: were opened in the. ci..
          ties of the Andalusian kingdom. The age of
          Arabian learning continued about five hundred
          years, till the great irruption of the Moguls,
          and was coeval with the darkest and most.
          slothful period of European annals; but since
          the sun of science has arisen in the West, it
          should seem that the oriental :studies have lau-
          guished arid deelined. h
Their rea ,In the libraries of the Arabians, as in· those
progreu of Europe, the far greater part of the innolDera-
.8 the
          bIe volumes were possessed only of local value
          or imaginary merit.. The shelves were crowd ..'
          cd with orators· and 'poets, whose .style was
              .. TIu!.e literary anecdotel. are borrowed froID the BibJiotheca Ara-
           blco-Hispana (tom. ii, 'p. 18, 7'1; 201, 202), Leo Af'rlcRDnl (de Arab.
           Medici. et PbilOiOphis, in Fabric. Bibliot. Grac. tom. xiii, p. 2li9-2118,
           particnlar!y p. 274). and RedauDot (Hist. Patriarcb. Alex. p. 274,
           175, 236, 237), be.ides tbe chronological remarkl of Abllipbaragill' •
            • I 'rbe Arabic catalugue of tbe Eacurial will give a jllit idea of tbe
           proportion oftbe classel. Iu tbe library of Cairo, tbe MSS. ofaatro-
           nomy and medicine amollntl'd to MOO, witb two fair globel, tbe ODe of
           brass, tbe otber of silver (Bibliot. Ara!). Hisp, tom., i, p. (11)"

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                       OF THE ROMAN DlPIRE.                                      46
      adapted to the taste and manners of their coun'- CHAP•
      trymelJ; With i d partJaI h'
                   . genera· an            .    Istones, ____....

      which each revolving generation supplied with
      a new harvest of persons .and events; with·
      codes and commentaries. of jurisprudence,
      which derived their,authority froin the law·of
      the prophet; with the interpreters of the koran.
      and orthodox. trad~tion; and with the whole
     .theological tribe, polemics, mystics, schol$l-
     .tics, and moralists, the firlt or the last of wri-
      ters, according to the different estimate of seep-
     .tics or believers. The works of speculation.
      or science may be reduced to the (our classes .
     of philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and
    .physic. The sages of Greece were tr~LD8lated
     and illustrated. in the Arabic' language, .and
      some treatises, now lost .in the original, have
    ,been recovered in· the vf'rsioDs of the east,It
    .which possessed and studied the writings of
    .Aristotle and. Plato, of Euclid and A pollonius, '
I    of Ptolemy, Hippocrates, and Galen.! Among
        .. AI for instance, the fifth, aixth, and Inenth books (the eighth'ia
     Itill wantin,) of tbe CODic .ections of Apollonlol PerpoI, which
     were plinted from the Fioreuce MSS. 1661 (Fabric. Bibliot. Gree. -
     tom. ii, p.1l1i9). ,Yet the fif\h book had been prui01laly reatored by
    ,Ihe mathematical di.iaatloD of Vlriaul (aee hia elo,e in Font_lie,
     tom; 1'; p. 6t, "'eo)
          The merit of thele Arable venioDI i. freely diaeaaaed by Reaau-
     dot (Fabric. BibUot. Grac. tom. I, p. 811-818), and pi01llly def'mded
     by Gaaira (BibBo&. Arab. IlJapana, to-. i, p.II8o*). MOIt.of th.
     yenions of Plalo, Ariltode, Bippoeratel, Galen, "'c. are ascribed. to
     Honaio, a physiciaD of the Neatorian seet, who flourished at Bagdad
     in tbe court of the caliphs, and died A. D. 8'1'6. He \'Ial at the bead
     of a Ichool or manufacture of tranalations, and tbe works of bis lonl
     and disciplE's were published under his name. See AbulpbaralJilll
     (Dynast. p. 88, 115,171114, and aplld A8Ieman,'Dibliot. Orient. tom.
     ii, p. 438), d'Herbelot (Bibliot. Orientale, p. 456), Alseman (Bibliot.
     Orient: tom. iii, p. 164), and Casiri (Bibliot. Arab. Hispilla, tom. i,
     p. i38, &ce. 251, 286.290,' 102,104,

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46                            THE I)ECLINE AND FALL
  CHAP~ tbe- idea~ systems, which have varied with tlte
...,~.~.... (ashion or the. times, the A~abians ad.opted the
  ,         philosophy of theStagirite;, alike intelligible ·or
            alike ob.8cure for ;tbe. readers' of ever.y 8ge.~
            Plato wrote' fol' the Atheaiam, .and his allego-
            rical too cloSely;blended with ,tne ian.
            guage and religion· of Greece~ ~fter'tbe faU
            of that religion, the peripet.etics, emerging from
            their obscurity, 'pre:vUiea in,the controversies
            df,the oriental· sects" ud, their' fourider. was
            long afterwardsrestoroo' i)ylthe 'mahometans
            Of'Spain to' the La'tinr schools.mThe ph,ysicl'J,
            both: of ;the acadeUiy, 8fld,the. lyclMIlD, 'as,they
            are built, not oil ohsEirvatiOn, but on argument,
            have retarded the prrigres8 of real, k'nowledge.
            The mataphysies' of' infinite, or' finite, :spirit,
            have too often been enlisted in thet'service at
            ,supers~i~ion. But, tfie 'human faeultiesare (or-
            tifi~ 'by the art and practice of'djatectics; the
            ten; predicaments of :Aristotle; called and me-
            thodise our : ideas," ,aBa'I'his -syllogism is, the
            keenest weapon of dispute. I t was dexterous-
            ly wielded in the school~ .of.the Saracens, but
            as'it is more (or 1he 'detection-of error
            th~ for the in\1estigation',pf tri;tt'b;' jt is' not sur-
            prising that new generations of masters and
            dis,ciples should s:t~ll reVQlV~ in ,thesl;1me circle
            of 'logical 'argument.,' The: mathematics are
            distinguislie'd by a peculHlr priVilege, th'at, in
           .. See Mosheim, lDatitut. Hilt. Eccle•• p. 181, 214, 236, 251, 315,
         118, 3116,438, &c.    .
            .. The mOlt ele,ant commeutary on the Categories or Predicaments
         of Ariatotle mlly be found in tbe Philosophical Arrangements of MI.
         ,1amea Harria (London, 1116, in oetaYo), who laboured to rnive      u...,
         .todie. of GreeiaD literature and pbilo.ophy. . ..

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                   or THE ROHAlf DlI'IRL                                        "7.
 the course of ages, they may. 'always advance, CRAP.
 and can neter r-ecede. But the ancient geome- ._l;!,I:,..,
 try, if I am not,misinfol"Jlled,was reSumed in           '
 lhe satne state by tbe Italians of the 'fifteenth
 eentury; and, whatever 'maY·be the origin or
 the' name; the science ,otalgebl-a i~' ascribed to
,the Grecian: Diophantus' by ·them'odest testi-
 mony of' the Arabs themselves.. They culti.;
 vated' with more success' the science
 ef astronomy; wbich elevates the mind of man
 to'disdain his :diminutive planet a.nd momeD·
 tar; existence. 'the costly instrumenis o{o~
 lIIerv~tion were· supplied by' the caliptl AlDia..
 mon, and'tlie hind ofihe Chaldreans' still afi'ord.l.
 ad the same specious level, the ~ame u~cl~lid~'
 ed horizon. '1ft the plains of Sinaar, and a se-
 CORd tiRl'e in those ot Cufa, his matheinaticians
  accurately measured a degree of the great circle
 Of'the earth, and, determined at twenty-fout
  tllOllsarid miles 'ihe entire circumference of:oui
 glohe.p FTom the 'reign of the Abbassides to
  that of :the grand-children of Tamerlane, tht'
 stars, witbout the aid of glasses, were diligent-
  ly observed; and' the astrollolJ)ical ~ables of
   • Abulpharagius, Dynut. p. 81. 222. Bibliot. Arab. Bilt. tom. i,
Po 370,371.    In quem (laYI, the primate Qfthe Jacobite.) ,lLimmiairet
lie lector, oceanum hoc in "entre (olglhre) ian.t., 'fhetime .f
Diophantul of A lexandria it ,unknown, bot his lix boob are stiD CD
tant. and have been illustrated by the Greek Planudes and tile French.
.an Mesiriac (Fabric. BiblioL Gnec. tom. iv. p. Ill-Ii).' -
   P Abulft'da (Annal'. MOllem. p. 210, 211, vera. Reiske) delcribea this
operation according to Ibn Challerau, and the belt hiatoriana. Thil
degree must accnrately contaiu 200,000 royal or Huhemite cubita,
which Arabia had derived from tbe Bacred and legal practice both of
;Palt'stine and Egypt. This ancient cubit il repeated 400 time. in
each basi. of the gl'eat pyramid. alld seeml to indicate the primitive
and uuiversal measures of the E~st. See the ,Metrolo,ie of      the:
rioul M. Paudon, p; 101.195.

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 «:!HAP.~     Bagdad, Spain; and Samarcand,q correct SODl(t.
.~"" .....    mIDute errors, With out d ' to renounce the
               '.              •         armg                .
             'hypothesis ef Ptolemy, without advancing a
              step towards the discovery of the solar system.
              In the eastern courts, the truths of scienee could
              be recommended only by ignorance and folly,.
              and the astronomer would have been disregard.
              ed, had he not debased his wisdom or honesty
              by the vain predictions of astrology: But ill the
              science of medicine, the Arabians have beelJ.
              deservedly applauded. The 'names of Melua
              and Geber, of Razis and Avicen:na, are ranked
              with the Grecian masters: in the city of Bag-
              dad, eight hundred and sixty physicians were
              licensed to exercise their lucrative profession :'
              in Spain, the life of the catholic princes was
              entrusted to the skill of the Saracens,' and the
              school of Salerno, their legitimate offspring, re-
              vived in Italy and Europe the pr~cepts of the
              healing art.a The success of each professor
              must have been inlluenced by personal and ac-
              cidental causes; but we may, form a less fan-
                • See the Astronomical Tables of U1elb B'lb, with the preface4lof
             Dr. Hyde, in the firat YOlnme of bit SfDtapa DiuertationDDl, Oxon,
               r The truth of astrolol)' was allowed' by Albumazar, and the belt 'ot
             the Anbian astronomen, who drew their mOlt certain pudiclionl, Dot
             mm Veaua aDd Hereury, but from Jupiter and the SUD (Abulphanr.
             DYDuf. p. 181.161). For the atate aDd seieDce of the Peniaa astro-
             Domen, see Cbardiu (Voyaael eD Perle, tom. iii, p. 101.203).
                • B~bliot. Anbieo.Hispana, tom. i, p. 438. 1'he original relatft a
             pleasant tale, of an igllol'8nt but harmlell practitioner.
                • In the year 958, Sancho the fat, king of Leon, was cured by the
             physiCians o( Cordova (MarianI, I. viii, c. 1. tom. i, p. 318).
               • Tbe Ichool of Salerno, and tbe introdnction offbe Arabian scil'ncel
             into Italy, are discna•.,d witb learning and judgment by Mnratori (An-
             tiquitat. Italile Medii _'hi, tom. iii, p. 932.940) aud Giar:none (blum
             CI'Vm di Napoli, tom. ii, p. lll1-1t'7).

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                    0' THE ROMAN DJPIltL                                            40
 dfut 'estimate of their general -knowledge of CHAP
 anatomy," botany,' and chemistry: the three- ....~~;.••
 fold basis of their theory and practice. A su..
 perstitious reverence for the dead confined both
 the Greeks and the Arabians to the dissection
 of apes .a~d quadrupeds; the more solid and
 "fisible parts were known in the time of Galen,
.and the finer scrutiny of the human frame was
 reserved for the microscope and the injections
 of modern artists. Botany is an active science,
 and the discoveries of the torrid zone might en-
 rich the herbal of Dioscorides with' two thou- \
 sand plants. Some traditionary knowledge
 might be secreted in the temples and monaste-
 ries of Egypt; much useful experiE:nce had
 been acquired in tbe practice of arts and ma-
 nufactures; but the ,cience of" chemistry. owes
 its origin and improvement to the industry of
 the Saracens. They first invented -and named
 tbealembic for the purpos~s of distillation,
 analysed the substances of the three kingdoms
          .,ood .
                             ,                                               j.

  ~ See              iew of the procreu -of ..atomy in Wotton (Re.c-
tiona on ancient .nd lIIodem I.e.mine. p. IOtI-lIIiG). _Hil npotatioa
hu been unworthily depreciated by the wita in tb~ controY. .y of
 BOJle' and Bentley.
   T Bibliot. Arab. Hi.pan., tom. i. -   p.  215. Al Beitbar of Malap,
 their greatelt .botani.t, b.d tr..elled into Afric., Penia, and IndiL '
   • Dr. Wataon(Elemenh orelaemiat..,., ,,01. i, p. 17~ &ie.) allowa the
. . . . .' merit of the Arabiana., Yet Il~ quote. the modeat eoDfeuloll
of tile faIIInu •. 6ebe,r of tbe ixth century (d'Herbelot. p: -881), tbat he
bad drawn moat of hia lCience, perbap.' ofthe trUamutation of met....
from the ancient aage.. Whatever mirht be tbe origin or C'Xtent of
tbeir kao,""ledge. the uta of cllem1atry and alchym,- 'appear to have
been kaowD ill Eept at leut three bDDdred yean before Mahomet
(Wotron'. ReRectioUl, p. l~n·lB'., Rechercbe••ar Ita Eu,.
tieU et le.~ Chiaoia, tem. i, p••'6·419).

    VOL • .-X.                     ,,8

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.' 0                        TIm DBLIKE AND FALL.
 CHAP.    or natur~ tried 'the distinotion and afliDities of
_~.., alealis aud a~idl, and cOilyerted thp. poisonous
           minerals into 89ft an~' salutary Inedicines.-
           B~t the most· eag·er eearch.of Arabian chemis-
           try was the transmuta.tion of, metals, and the
          elixir of immoJrtal' health,: the reason and the
          fortunes of tbouaDd.: were: evaporated in the
          crucibles of- alchymy." a~d 'the "consummation
        , of,the gr,eat work ~. promoted by the worthy
          aid of mystery, fable" and,luperstition.
Want of ' But the Masleml.deprhred tbem~elve8 of the
::t~:t=J prill:Cipal, beriefits., of, a familiar, iiltercouJ788 with
freedom. GreeCe and ~me~ thekno1fkdge,o.f~ntiqllity.
          the purity oftait~ and,the freed(ml:C~ftbougbt.
          Confident m,the riches (il: their. ~tive toJ:tgoe.
          the Arabians disdained (the study of. any {oreiga
          idiom. The Greek interpretera' werechosea
          am~ng heir, clutistian. subj~;
          their tn.!lslatiODl f .8ometi~ on. the· origiclal
          text, more frequentl, p~rhaps',on a:Syriac ver-
          sion; and in the:, crowd Q{ astro, and
          physicians, there is no example of a poet, an
          orator, or even an historian, being taught to
          speak the language qf th~,~wac~Ds.· The' my.
          thology of Homer would have provoked the
          abhorrence of. thos~, ster~ fanatics; they po.
         sessed in lazy ign<n;anee, the colonies of the
          Macedonians, and the provinces of Carthage
         and Rome: the heroes, or p,lutarch and Livy
            • Abulpbarqia. (DyDUt. p. til, 148)mentiODI. a s,.w YeniOD 01
         Home.... two poema, by TheophilUi•• cbriatiu maroaite of mOllDt U.
         lNma.. who profeued altronomy at Boha or Edell. towucla tile . . of
         tile yiiith ceatnl')'. Hia work would be • literary cariUlity. Ilia..
         reM IOmewhere, bat I do not beUnt, that Platareb', Utet ....
         aruulatecl iDto Turkilb fer the ue of Mahomet the He. . .•

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                    oP 'tH2' HOMAN        D¥tR~                                 51
 1Nftj bulfied, ill oblil'iou': and' the'history of the CHAP
 world 6efur6 Mahomet' was reduced' to a short ..~!:.
 ~~l o/the patriarohs, the prophets" and'the
 Pe4'sia:n kings~ Out education in the, Greek
 and ~IUjd s6ht)ots may have fixed 'in our minds
 a, standard of exc1uftiYe taste; and I am 'lot,
 furward to' condemn the literature and, judg-
 ments. of nations, of whose language I 81D'lgnOa
 ~, Yet I            _0"
                       that the dassics have much
 .. teach" and ]i' ~tlieve that' the orientals' have
 Dllibh ~ learn:: the:tetnperate dignity of style,
 die: g~eftU proporli'ODs' oiart,' the forms of vi-
 sible and,intellectual beauty, tbeju$t, delinea-
 tion of character and passion, the' rhetoric of
 nari'atiw; and ,argument;, th~ regular fabric of
 epic and dramatic,' poe.cry~'" The influence of
 truth and retion is of a: less am biguous com-
 plexion. The' philo$opb~s of Athens' 'arid
 ROlile- enjoyed' tbe blessings, aad' asSertea the
rights, or civil and religions' fteedum.,. Tb~ir
mom), mwl~ p()lltical wr.ti6gs; migbt-: havE!' gm~
dU'ally.:ritfldcked tbe-' fette"~'of' eaatern'-despo~
tiMn, dilratsed 'a) liberal· $pirit:()f{ enquiry'8.Dd
tdlENation, and' ehconraged"tbeA-rabian sages
tb'S'Uspeet 'that' thew eatipn was a tyrant - and
their prophet animpostor. c The instinct of
superstition was alarmed by the introduction
   • I have pnn,e,d with mnch pleunre, Sir William Jones'l Latin
Commentary on Asiatic PoetrJ (Londoa, 1'174, iD octavo), which wlil
compo.ed in the youth of that wonderful lin guilt. At present, in the
matllrity of his taate and judgmtnt, he would perhap. abate of the fer-
vent, and eYen partial, praise which be hal bestowed Oil die Orientalt.
   C Amung the Arabian philoaophera, Averroes hu been accused of the religion oCthe Jews, the christiaos, and the mahometan.
(leo IIi. article in Bayle'S Dictiunary). Each of thele lectl ivollid
_,ru. that ill two instances out of three, hia cODtempt wu reuoaable.

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62                               .THE DECLINE AND                   PALL

  CHA¥. even of tbe abstract l!lciences; and 'the more
••• ~.~~:•• rigid doctors of the law condemned the rash
            and pernicious curiosity of Almamon.· To the
            thirst of martyrdom, the vision of paradise, and
            the belief of predestination, we must ascribe
            the invincible· enthusiasm of tbe prince and
            people. And the sword of the Saracens be-
            .came less formidable, wben their youth was
             drawn away from the camp to the college,
             when the armies of the faithful presumed to
            read and to reflect. Yet the foolish vanity of
             the Greeks was jealous of their studies, and
             reluctantly imparted the sacred fire to the bar.
             barians of the east.-
Wan of         In the bloody conflict of the Ommiades and
~:::idaI Abbassides, the Greeks had stolen the oppor-
~~..:.~~ tunity of avenging their wrongs, and enlarging
   4. D.     their limits. But a severe retribution was ex-
 181·SOli. acted by Mohadi, the third caliph of the new
            dynasty, who seized in his turn the favourable
            opportunity, while a woman and a child, Irene
            and Constantine, were seated on the Byzantine
            throne. An army of ninety-litre thousand Per~
            sians and Araba was sent from the Tigris to
            the Thracian Bosophorus, under the command
            of Harun,' or Aaron, the second l!Ion of the
          • D'Herbelot. Bibliotheqlle Orientale, p. 54&
          • al.p.J..~ .......... xf... ~'. '"" ............. ",....".1.   '" on PfI,....." )lINe ....,...
        C I
        .....   ."'................   "'' 1" ...1, &e. Cedrenol.
                                                         p. 1548, wbo rela1ft bow
        °manrolly tbe ,.mperor refilled a mathematician to tbe iDitaneei and
        offen of the caliph AlmamoD. This ablnrd .eraple i. expre_d a1-
        mo.t in the lime worell by the continoator ofTheophan~s, (Scriptorea
        POlt TheophaneDl. p. 118;.
           , See the reign and cbaracter of Haron aI Ruhid, in the Bibliothe-
        Ilur Orientalf', p. <AU""SS, onder IIi. propt:r title; and in the relati.e
                                                  °                                            utica.

                                                                     Digitized by   Google
                    0; THE ROMAN EMPIRE.:                 _                      63.
  coiiniiaild"er of tlie 'faithful. His eneampnient CHAP.
  on the opposite heights of Chrysopolis or Scu-' _~~_.
  tari, informed: Irene, in her palace of Constan-
  tinople~ of the loss of her troops and provinces.
  Witli, the consent or connivance of their sove-
  reign, her ministers .subscribed an ignominious
  peace;' and 'the exchange 'Of some royal gifts
  could riot disguise the annual tribute of seven-
  ty ,thousand 'dinars of gold, which was imposed
  On the Roman empire. " The Saracens had too
  rashly advanced into the midst of a distant and
, hostile laud: their 'retreat was solicited by the
  promise, of faithful guides and plentiful mar-
  kets; and Dot a Greek had courage to wbisper,
  ihat their weary forces' might be surrounded
  and destroyed in their necessary" passage be-
  tween a slippery mountain and the river San-
  ganus. Five years after this expedition, Harun
  ascended the throne of his father and his elder
  brother; the most po.wer(ul and vigorous mo-
  narch of his race, illustrious in the West, as
 the aUy of Charleniagne,'and familiar to the
  most childish' readers, as the perpetual hero of
  the Arabian .tales. His title to the name of ~l
  RalAid (the Just) is sullied by the extirpation
  of the generous, perhaps the innocent~ Barm~
  cides ; yet he could listen to the- complaint of
  a poor widow who had been pillaged by his
  troops, and who dared, in a passage of the ko-
  lan, to: threaten the inattentive despot with the
 jUdgment of God and posterity. His court
  wal adorned with luxury and science: but in
articln to which M. d'Uerbt!lot refen. That le.rned collector h..
• hewn much taste in atrippln, the orit!ntal chronicle. of their instruc.
live and amu.iue ant'cdo~••

                                                              Digitized by   Google
64                    TO DECLINE ANP .~
 CHAP.   a reign of three and, twenty YE'ar~, lJ.W'un r=~,
..!:::" peatedly visited his prol'inces from C~~ t~
       Egypt; nine times he perfor~ed tb,e Ptilgrjrp~ge"
       of· Mecca ; eight times b.ei,nv~de4 ,tb.~ ~ri. .
       ries of the Romans; and as .ofMQ .th~ d~~lilJ~.
       the payment of the tribu.te,thi'Y·"~ W.~&\trt.~
       feel -that a month m depr~tjQD ·~_s· ~),A'
       costly than a year of M1b_sai~~.                  '»u*
       the unnatural mother b{' C.~U'~M. 'rR1Ui 'de-
       posed 'and ba.o.i&hed;, ~her W¢«;eMQf lVj~~~.,
       resolved to 1>hliierale; this b~.H~f ,.~jm~
       and'dJsgraee. The ,epistle ,of.,tbe ;ftmp~r4r~' .
       tbecaliph ,.as p,Qinted: ,~h!a.Bl.sjgn ~ ~M'
       g11m~ of ekes,,,, 'whlcll ,had .b:e.cJy ""t~~d fr!)l1)'
       Persia to ~eede.t.;;" T~,queea.(H ,~e, M
     , ., Irene) cOJ¥i~ere8, lY,QU' i¥i;.. 19Q""~~ lJ~r,elf
       " as a pawn•. TJa.t pu.slllanjJ:D,Ol\8 &JlJale ...-qlr
       " mitted to ,pay fl"tribbte.tlteMo~ b~ ,pf "Wc.h
       .. she ougb.tto . .hav~' exacted hom ~ barba..,.
       "nans.; therd'or.e, the fruit, 9f                 ,OJ"
       " injustice; or Rhi.Ge' tbed.e~n~io, .01 t~
         "sword." At thBle      .'w~rd8   lb.e'-*'rnba8lftdors
         cast' ,wOrci. ~efoJoe the tb~t:of tbe
         tiJZ.ob.e. The caliph;JiniJe.d ,at the meJ)a~e, an4
         dJ'awin;g:ms se.y~etar; 'ItdIIUamah, a W~PQP ()f
         his torle. or fabuloUs; renown, Ilte cut asJlnder Jhe
         feeble al'pllJ oftb Greeks, .itb~ut tur~iIJg th~
         edge, or eD4ang~ring the temper, of bi8 bla~~.
         He then di~t.ed .ap epi~tle Df tremendoq. bf~~
         vity: ''''In t~e name of: tho most·memful Gpd.
         " Harun al Ra.shid, 8f the,fnJ.
         " to NicephorD8.t~o RDman dog. . I b.~ reM
         " thy letter. 0 thO~l so~ ~f ~n ~:nbfl,~~ving ~~-, •
         " ther. Thou shalt npt hear, thou $halt bebpl4
         " my reply." , It was writt~n in characters o.

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                    01' TJD ROH4N DlPD8o\                                         56
bl()od and fire' 'On the plains of Phrygia; -and CHAP
the warlike celerity of the Arabs could only "'~~m
be checked by the arts of deceit and the shew
ofrepental1ce. The triumph~nt'calipb retired,
after the fatigues of the campaign, to his favou-
rite palace of Racca on the Euphrates:1 but
the distance of Dve hundred mile., and the in-
 clemency.of :&he.sea80D,encouraged his adver-
sary to violate the peace. Nicephorus was
 astonishe,d by the bold an«l; ma~ch·9fthe
 commander of· the faithful, \!ho repassed, in
 the depth ef wjnter, tbe S~0,!8 of mount Tau-
 rus-:his 8tratagelll~ of. p~~jcy and ~ar were
 exhausted; andth~ peffidio~8 Greek escaped
 :with three WQUllds froQ;i ~ fiel,dof' battle over-
 sptead with fort, tbo~sand!.9r his. aullj.ects.-
 Yet the emperor- was ~sh~ed .of: ,subrpission,
 and the caliph was.reB01~d ~.victory. One
 hundred and t~t1·.iVe. thousand regular sol-
 diers received pay, :and. ~ere in~cribed in the
 military roll; and a}) three. hundred thou-
 saud persons of every den~lDinatiOD marched
 under the black standard .of -the, Abbassides.-
 They swept the 8~tace.Of ~8ia.-~inor rar be·
 YOlld TYlLlJa an~ A,ncYJja, and .invested the
 ~()ntic 'B~r.cle~,· ~e:.a ~l.o~ri~iD' state, now
   I For ae IituatioD ofRecca, the old JIiIicephoriom, eoolultd'AoyU)e'
(rBopllrate et It! 'l'ij're.. ,.:-~). -Th ' ..iliaD Iu,hta> R'preaeDt
BardO aI RUbld u lIImoit . .tie••;,·11i BaWilII4L lie re.plieted dae
ro,.t .eat of the AlIb..tide'. bili at rice. orthe idIuiI4taDl. bad
drlYeD him from t1Jt!r- cit, (.bulf~ •.,A,1IIIIIt. p_ 16")\ .       .
   • M. de Tonruet'ort, iD b~ codatiB, 'yo"/ap frOiD CotiataDtiaople to
Trtblzemd, paiiaed a night- at Heraolta. oio Ere,ri;. Sil. eye· loryeyed
tlae prneat .ttte', hii rtadtb, e4illeeted -tIMI" anti~iti'l, of the oi~
( du LeYailt', tOlIi,-iil,httre :ni, p. U-H). _.We have a..,.
tate hi.tory ot iferaeld hi -the 'f...~ ..t. of.lrieialQIIt, wlrh:b are p....
""ell b,. Pbotiu..

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IX]                                 T:alrn~dtNE' AND FA.LL~
  CHAP. \      apaltry town'; at that 'time ~apable'of suitahi;.'
 .,...." •., 109' III' b er antlq ue, wa11 s a mont h"s siege agalns t
      LII.    .   .           '.                                 .
              the forces of the East. The ruin was COID-
              plete, the spoil was ample; ·but if Barun had
              been conversant with Grecian story, he would
             have regretted the statue of, Hercules,' whose
             attributes~ the club; the bow, the quiver, and
             the Hon's ~ide, were sculpture.. in massy gold.
             The progress of desolation by sea and- land,
             from tbe Euxine to theil5le of Cyprus, compel.;
             led. the emperor' Nicephorus ,to retract his
             haughty defiance. ,In the new tr~aty the ruins
             of -Heraclea were left (or ever as a lesson :and
           ,a trophy;' and the coin o(the 'tribute was mark-
            ed' wit~ ~he'i~age 'and wuperscrip.tion ,of ~arun
             ail~ ·his. thre~ :so~s .. ' ~ et thisp}nratity' lords                ot:
            might contribute to remove t'be dishonour of
             the Roman n4nie: ' After the death: of their, fa-
             thier, ~he ~ei~s of the caliph' '~ere involved' ill
            civil discord" 'and, the' c~nqueror, the liberal
            ~llDamon, :Was" .sufficientlY engaged' in. the                               re-
            storation or:d:onJ~s~ic peacea'nd' the, intr.od~c-
            lion of foreign s~i~nce.'.                ,
The Aralia' .Uhder'th~ reign -of 'Al~amona't ,Bagdad, . of
~"bduelbe Michael 'the 'Staiiimerel' at-Constan6nop'le ·the
~~                               . ',

Cr.. Il',   i'slailds orCretell. and -Sicily were subdued by
.... D.823.

              . I Th, :wan 01 Buon al 'Rullicl a"lut tbe R~ fmplre.                areft~
              e d by Th~phaDfI, (p.,IN, aUt-lUI, 196,         '01,   .os), ~oaaru (tolll. ii,
              I. X", P. 116, lSI). CedreDu.(p. 411, (18), Eut,cbiu. (ADDal. tom~ Ii.
              p." (01), Elmacia (Bi.t. lilancen•. p. 116, 1pl, 161), Abulpbaralina
              (Dyoa.t. p. 14", 161),. U1d Ahulfeda (p. 166.166168).
                 It The authon (rOlli, w,holll I .have learned, the lIIost of the udent alld
              modern Itate ofCrele. are BeioD (Ohaenatioa., Icc. c. S·20. Pari.,
              ,1616), 'l'ournefort (Voya,. du LevBDt, tom. i, lettre ii, et iii), an,t
              ·.eur.ina (Casu, ill hil worb tom. iii, p. 143.i"). AltbOl,&h


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                    OP-THlltOHAN EMPiRa.                                         fYI'
 tlie Atabs~ - Thti former of these 'conquesta' is CHAP.
 disdained by their own writerR, who were ig- .I<~~!;"".
 norant of the fame of j llpiter and Minol, but          '
 it has not been overlooked ·by the Byzantine
 historians, who now begin to' cast a clearer
 light on the affairs' of their own times'! A band
 of Andalusian volunteers, 'discontented with
 the climate or government of Spain, explored
 {he adventures of the sea ; but as they sailed
 in no more than ten or twenty gallies, their war-
 fare lIfust be branded with the name of piracy.
 As the subjects and se'ctaries t;'f the wAite par-
 ty;·they might lawfully invad~ the dominions'
.of the black caliphs. :A .rebellious faction in:"
 troduced thel]) into Alexandria;- they cut in
   iecks both' (riends an~r foes, piJIaged 'the
 ~hurche8 and the moschs, 86ld about six "tliou~
 land christian captives, and maintained their
 itation in, the c'apital of .Egypt, till they were
 oppressed. by . the forces and the presence of
 Almamon himself. From· the mouth of ·the
Crete it It1leil by Bom,r' n.."., bJ Dioayai.l. i,'"',....... .., IIIS_; I,
.-DOt cODceive ~t mO~D~iDou. iallqld to .arp"', ~r ~veD to ,qual,.
iia' fertility the ,reater pan of SpaiD. . "             , , .        ,
  , I TIle 'mOlt' aathemic 'Illd' circumstantial, intelligeDce ia pbtaiDed
frena the foar 'book. of the CODtiaaatiOllof Theopb~De., compiled by
the pe" or tbe cOl!lmaDdof CODltaDtiDe PorpbyrogeDitul, witb the,
Life of hi. fatber Balli the lfacedoDian(Scriptores' poll Theopbauem,
p. 1-:J61,.:FrUlCia.; Paria, l~). The 10.. of Crete aDd
Sicily. i. related, I. ii, p. 4.6-611. To the.e we may add tbe .ecoDdar1
nidence of Josepb GeDnia. (I. ii, p.21. Veneto I1SS); George Ce-
dreDeS (Compelid. p. 5(60508); aDd John Sc:ylitu. Curopalota (apad
Baron. ADDai. Ece!el, A. D. 827, N°.2', &c.) But Ihe modern
Greeks are loeb Dotorloal plagiaries, that I .bould oDly qaote a plu-
rality of D~'.            ,            .
    .. ReDalldot (Hilt. Patriarcb. Alex. p. 151.256, 268-270), bal de.
.c:r1bed tbe ra..,e. of tbe ADdalusio Arabi iD Eaypt, but hal forlwt
to conDect; them 1!ith the c:oDqunt of Crete.

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as                  TID DRCLIH AIm .AUa
 CRAP. Nile to the Hellespont, the islands and' lea·
,_~~~••• coasts both of the Greeks aDd lrf()slems' were
         expo~ed to their depredations; tIley saw, they
         envied, tbey talted, . the fertility of Crete. and.
         soon returned with forty gaUies to a morese-
         rious attack. The AndaJosians-wandered oYer'
         the land fearless and unmolested; but when ,
         they descended with their plunder to the 8ea~
         shore, their ves,els ~ere in. fJam~, ~dthejr
         chief, Abu Caab,-cODfes~ed himself the author
         qf th~' m,schief. Their clamour. accused biB
         m8.dness~r treac:h~ry: "Of wbat do you corn-
         " plain?" replied the crafty emir. "I have
         ~' 1;»rought you to a l~d 'fio.wing with milk am1
         '~. honey. llere is your true country; repose
         II from your toila, and forget ~e barren place

         "of your, nativity." "And our wives and
         " children ?" Y onr beauteous captives will
         " .supply the place o(your wives, ad in , their
         " em braces you will SOOJl .become 1be {atber.
         " ofa new prog~ny." .. The f;UH~~1JitatiOD was.
         their camp, with a ditch and rampart, in the
         bay of Suda; but an'apoetate';lDOIlk')ed them;
         to a more desirable positioni,n t~e ..eastern
         parts: and the name of Candax,.. their fortress
         and colony, bas 'been extenaed:'~o tbe whole
         island, under the corropt aDd inodern appella-
         tion of Candia;'. :The hundred cities of the age
         Qf Minos were' dimin"ished to' thirty; and oe.
         these, only one, most . probable Cydonia, had'
         courage to retain the substance of freedom and
         the profession of christianity. The Saracens
         of Crete soon repaIred the loss of their. navy;
         and the timbers of mount Ida were launched

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                         OF 'TIlE tOMAN, EMPIRE.                                               59
 iato the main. Dur~n~~n hostiie period of one' CHAP.
 hundred and thirty-ejght years, the princes of ... ~~•••
 Cons:tantmople :attacked these Iicentiocs cor-
satrS with fooitlels cu,r,~ a)Jd ineffectual arms.
     The Joss. .of Sicily·. . oe~~oDed by an act .S!l~lof
                .      ; was .
 () f super.stitIous rlgo.or. ,q.'JlaJjDorous youth, A. D.

 who had stolen a 'DUD {rom ~er c}oiste,r, WaM UI'·878.
senteacedbf .theemperortl:> the amputatioD of
ltil tongue. Euphemius;appeal~ to the rea89D
aQd policy of the SaraceM 1)( Afr.~Jl~ find 800n
r.etur~· with :the imperial PQrpte, .a .8eet of
ODe Iluridred ships, Bud. an a.r.Dl)':,of:se)'en h~n-
dred horse and ten dwusaD.d U>f>t.. ' They laD~
eel at Mazara nea~ the rains :of tile all.cieJlt See
HaUS ;' but after some p.uu~l ,i~tAri~, Syra":
eose" ..vat! deJiveM~ by the . Gle~ks, th'~ ap()Jo
tate /Was slain before her wanf, a~ hj~ ~fric~n
frielldswere reduced, to the llee.e!II6i:ty fjf feed. ,
ing oD..the~eah of their 9WJ) :h~m;'$. In t~ir
tura they were .elievecl by • PQw~lflll :rei~
f«cemeBt of their brethren pf 4n4Q.JJl$;"'; tb~
largest and ~estern part O!' thfd~Jpnd "V~IJ gra-
dually reduced, Bnd the e»pitIJodiQlIf$ hi\r~oJJr
of Palenno was chosen Cor the &eAt ~f the JlQ.val
and military power of the SetaeeJ)", . Syracuse
preserved about fiftyyeu8 the faith whit:h $he

  • ....).tU ( . ., . tile CODtiD..tor of 'l'heopbll.". J ii, ,: ~1), ~ ...~
.....r ....... I"" 1!1f..."....,... .,... ~r..•e,''''''rw ~.I ,"~ ~11f"'!" ,)J",...,....,.
1'bi. history of tile 1,,11 of Sicily II DO lonier estlUlt. MlIJ'atori (Au-
lIaii cl"ltIllill, tom. vii, p. f, 19,11, arc.) hal ... dcd.'lI8u"'u~~"
from the Italian chrouicle••
   o T~ .pl,,.tlid aad iDtereatilll t~ged1 pf TOIICt'Ne 1Jonld .d.p~ it- .
~If~p~b. better to tbit epoch, ~'JI 't9 t/le, ~.~ LA; D. 1(11)5) wbit'h
'!l~llire ~ill).elfbas CbOl~D. But I 'flit gently rrprOlicb the pOd,
for inflliinl! into tbe Greek lubjecta tbe .,~rit of mqderD knigbta au.
aacil'ut republic....

                                                                           Digitized by   Google
60                        THE DECLINE AND PALL
  CHAP. had sworn to Chritct"and to Cl2sar. In the last
.... ~~:., and fatal siege, her citizens displayed some
           remnant of the spirit which' had formerly re-
           sisted the powers of Athens and Carthage.~
           They stood above twenty days against the ba~
           tei-iog-rams andcalaptdlte, the mines and tor-
           toises of the besiegers; and ~he place might
           have been relieved, 'if the mariners of the impe-
           rial Heet had not been detained at Coos. anti."
           nople in bUilding a church to the Virgin.Mary.
           The deacon Theodosius, With the bishop and
           clergy, were dragged in chains frOID the altar
           to Palermo, cast into a subterraneous dungeon,
           and exposed to tbe' hourly peril of death· or
           apostacy. His pathetic, and not inelegant: com-
           plaint, may be read as an epitaph of his couo-
           try.' From the Roman conquest to tbis final
           calamity, Syracuse, now dwindled to the pri-
           ini.tive isle of Ortygea, had insensibly declined.
           Yet the relics were still precious; th~. plate of
           the cathedral weigbed five tbousand pounds of
           silver; the entire spoil was computed at one
          million pieces of gold' (about four hundred
          thousand pounds sterling), and th.e captives
          lDust outnumber the seventeen thousand' chris-
          tians ",ho were transported from the sack of
          Tauromenium into African servitude. In Sicily,
          the religion and language of the·Greeks were
          eradicated; and such was the docility of the
          rising generation, that fifteen thousand boys
         , The narratiYe or lamentation of Theodosinl is tranlcribed ud C.
       laltrated by Pallti (Critiea, tom. iii, p. '119, &e.) Conltantine Po...
       phyrogenital (in ViL Balil. e. 110, '10, p. 100-192), lLentioDl tlae 1011 of
       Syracaac and the triumph " the demons.

                                                        Digitized by   Google
                  OF THE .',. EMPIRE.
                      .. ROMAN                                                61
were circumcised and clothed in the same day· CHAP.
  .                       . . 'I· h ,
wIth the son 0 f t h' F abmlte. ca lp. Th e A ra-' .,_,.~~••
                    e                                LU.

bian squadrons issued from the ,harbours of
Palermo, Biserta, and Tunis; an hundred and
fifty towns of Calabria and Campania were at-
tacked and pillaged; nor could the suburbs
of Rome be defended by the name of the Cre-
sars and apostles. Had the, mahometans been
~nited, Italy must have fallen an easy and glo-
rious accession to .the empire of the prophet.-
But the caliphs of Bagdad had lost their autho-
rity in the West; the Agl~bites and Fatimites
usurped the. provinces of Africa; their emirs of         ...
Sicily aspired to 'independence ;.and the deSIgn
of conquest and dominion was degraded to a
repitition of predatory illroads.q
    In the sufferings of prostrate Italy, the name IDftlio.
of Rome awakens a solemn and mournfui re- b~~::e
collection. A fleet of Saracens from the Afri- !~r:~
can coast presumed to enter the mouth of the
Tyber, and to approach a city which even yet,
 in her fallen state, was revered as the metropo-
lis of the christian :world. The gates and ram-
 parts were guarded by ~ trembling people;
but the tombs and tel;Ilples of St. Peter and St.
 Paul were left exposed in the suburbs of the
 Vatican and of the Ostian w,ay. Their invisi~
 ble sanctity had protected them against the
 Goths, the Vandals, and the Lombards; but

   • 'nte extracts (rom the Arabic hiatorie. of Sicily are giveD iu Abul
leda (Annal. Moslem. p. 271-273), aDd in the first ... olome of Morato-
rio. Scriptorel Rerum Italicarum. M. de Goigne. (Hilt. des' HIlD••
tom. i, p. IIGS, 364), bas added lome important (act.

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6~                       TIlE DECLINE AND FALl.
CHAP    tbe Arabs' disdained boih the gospel and: the
_.~.I.~." legend; and their rapa<:iotis s-pirit was approv-
        ed and animated by the precepts- of the karan~
        The christian ido18 were strippeti of their COst!.
        ly offerings; a, silver altar was tortraway from
        the shrine of St. Peter; .arid jf the bodies or
        the~uilding8 ~ere 1eft entire, their-,deliverance
        must be impu-ted to the haste; rather than the
        scruples, of the saracens; In their course
        along the Appian way, they piilaged:Fundi and
        besieged Gayeta ; buttliey had tumed aside {rom
        the walls of Roltle, and~ by their divisions, the
        Capitol was sam from the yoke of tbe pro-
        phet of'Mecca.. The same danger still impend-
       ed on the he1lds" of the Roman-people; and
       their domestic force was unequal to the assault
        of an Atrican emir. They claimed the protec-
        tion of their Latin- sovereigir; but the Carlo-
       vingian:. standard wa&overthrowri by- a detach.
       ment o(.theliarharians~ they-meditated,the re-
       storation of' tbeGte~k· emperors; but the at-
       tempt was. t,eas~l1able,. and'the succour remote
       and precal'io1ls:.rThei'r distress appeared to
       receive some ag'graftti&n ftom the death of
       their spiritual and temporal chief; but, the
       pressing emergency supersedecl the forms- and
       i,ntrigues of an election; and the unanimous

          r ODe of the mOlt emiDeDt ROBlllDl' (GratiIDlI" magllter miRmm et
       Ko_ni palltii ,uperida) WI. Iccn.ed of declariu" Quia Frauci nihil
       Dobi. bODi (aciuDt, aeque adjutorium prabent, .ed mlgi. qu. no.tra
       .unt 'fiolenter tcllJunt. Quare nOD ad,oclmu. Gneco., et cum ei. f..
       lIul paei. eompoueDte., FraucoruDf regem et ,entem de no.teo rep
       ~t dominatloat expellimlls 1 ADastasiu. in LeoDe IV. p. lilt•.

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                  o. , . RoMAK· DlPI...             .                         63,
choice oflpope Leo. !be fOlIrth··. \US the safely CHAP
of the church; and city. This pontiW'Was born .._~..
a Roman; the courage of ~e first ages 'of the. .
republic glowed in· his breast; and, IimidsUhe
ruina of his country, he. stood'erect,.like oaecof
the firm and .lofty column. that .re&l"tbeir heads
abOlte .tIt~ fragments. of the Roman< forum.:....
The first-days of his reign were consecrated to
th8 poritication. and. removal of relics, to pray-
ers aad processioQs, and· to aU the solemn oBi-
oes ef'.nligion, which served at least to heal the.
imagination, and restore. the. hopes,. of the 'mul-
titude. The public defence bad. been long ne-
glected, not fro. the presumption of peace, but
from the distresl' and, pavert,. of tbe times.' A.
far as the scantine.s his means and the short-
nesl of his leisum' would . allow; the ancient
walls were repaired by. the command of Leo;
fit\een· towers, in the most· accessible stations,
were built or' renewed ; two of these comin and..
ed'on either side the Tyber; and'aD,iron cbaiD
~as drawn: across the stream to. impede.the it&t
cent of 8(1' hostile navy. The Romans were Uo!
 8ured of a' short respite by the welcome news.
that'tbe siege of Gayeta had, been: J'aisecf; and
that a, part of the enem.y, with their sacrilegioul
 plunder, had perished in the waves.             .
    But the storm w.hich had'been delayed, soon
 burst u,Jlon them with redoubled violence. The

   • Voltaire (Hilt. Gmente, tom. ii, c. 31'1, p. 124). appean to be n •
.....kabll.track with the cbaracterof Pope I..eo IV. I hue borrow-
.. ilia ,eDent eSl,lrulioD. bat thelicht of tbe foram ... fanalabed me
~ritll • more diatillct ud linb ima,e.

                                                          Digitized by   Google
 CHAP.   Aglabite,t who reigned                In   Africa, had inherited
.,,~":-from his father a treasure and a.n army: a fleet.
Victo7      of Arabs and Moors, after a shortrefresbment·
:f!1::I';. in the harbours of Sardinia, cast anchor before
A. D. 84t. the mouth of the Tyber, sixteen miles from the

            city; ·andtheir discipline and numbers appear-
            ed to threaten, not a transient inroad, but a 1Se-
            rious design of conquest arid dominion. But
            the vigilance of Leo had formed an alliance with
            the vassals of the, Greek empire, the free and
           maritime states of Gayeta, Naples, and Amalfi;
            and in the hour of danger, their gallies appear-'
            ed in the port of Ostia, under the command of
          . Cresarius, the SOI,1 of the Neapolitan duke, a
           noble and valiant youth, who had already van-
           quished the fleets o( the Saracens. With his.
            principal companions, Cmsariul was invited to
            fhe Lateran palace, and .the dexterous pontiff
           a1I'ected to inquire their errand; and to accept
           wIth joy and surprise their providential iUC-
           cour. The city bands, in arms, attended their
           father to Ostia, where be reviewed and bles-
           sed his generous delil'erers. : They kissed
           his .feet, received' the communion with mar-
           tial devotion, and listened to. the .prayer 'of
           Leo', : that the s~me God who', had SUp.pOI·to
           ed St. Peter and St. Paul 00: the .waves of the
           sea, . would ~trengthen the hands of his cham~
           pions against the adversaries of his holy. name~
           After a similar prayer, and witheq.ual resolution,

            De Gniprl, Hiat. GrDrrale de. Hud., tom. i, p. 363, 364. Ca";'
         doone, Hiat. de l'Afrique iet dr l'E3pagDe, 1001 la Domination dd
         Arsbe., tom. ii, p. 14, 25. I oli.ervr; and cannof r~i!ontill''' tbl! diftt'.
         reoce 01 tlaeee writers io the loceC'llliuD of tbe A,labite••

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              OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                           66
  the Moslems advanced to the attack of the CHAP.
  christian gallies, which preserved their ad van- _~!:,_
  tageol1s station along the coast. The victory
 inclined to the side of the allies, when it was
 Jess gloriously decided in their favour by a sud-,
 den tempest, which confounded the skIll and
 cOl1rage of the stoutest mariners. The chris-
 tians were 'sheltered in a-friendly harbour, while
 the Africans were scattered and dashed in pieces
 among the rocks and islands ofan hostile shore.
 Those who escaped froni shipwreck and hun-
 ger, neither found nor deserved mercy at the
 hands of their implacable pursuers. The sword
 and the gibbet reduct'd the dangerous multi-
 tude 'of captives; and the .remainder was more
 useful[yemployed, to' restore the' 'sacred. edi':"
 fices which they had attempted to subvert.· The
 pontiff, at the head of the citizens and allies,
 paid his grat~ful devotion at the 'shrines of the
.apostles; and among the spo,ils of this' naval
 victory, thirteen Arabian bows of pure arid"
 massy silv~r were suspended round the altar of
 the fishermen of Galilee. The reign of Leo the
 fourth was employed in the defence and orna:'
 inent of the Roman state. The churches were
 renewed and embellished; near four thousand
 pounds of silver wen.. consecrated to repair the
 losses of 8t. Peter; and his' sanctuary was de-
 corated with a plate of gold the weight of two
hundred and sixteen pounds; embossed with
 the portraits of the pope and emperor, and en-
circled with a string of pearls. Yet this vain
magnificence'reflects ·less glory on the charac-
ter of Leo, than· the .paternal care ~ith which
he rebuilt the wall of Horta and Ameria; and
   vo~   L              P

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                            THE DECLINE AND FA.LL
   CHAP. transported the wandering inhabitants of Ceo..
 _.~:.. •• tumcellre to his new foundation of Leopolis,
             twelve miles from the sea-shore.s By his libera-
            lity a colony of Corsicans, with their wives and
            children, was planted in the station of Porto at
            the mouth of the Tiber: the falling city was re-
            stored for their use, the fields and viueyards
            were divided among the new settlers; their first
            efforts were assisted by a gift of horses and
            cattle; and the hardy exiles. who breathed re-
            venge against the Saracens, swore to live and
            die· under the standard of St. Peter. The na-
            tioos'of the West and North who visited the
           threshold of the apostles, had :gradually form-
           ed. the large and pop~lous subu,rb .of the Va-
           tican, 'and their various habitations were dis-

           tinguished. in the llAnguage of the times, as the
           8.cMiill of the Greeks an~ Goths, 'of the Lom-
           bards and Saxon~. .But thi~ venerable spot
         . was still op~n to sacrilegious insult: the design
           of inclosing it with walls and towers exhaust-
           edall that authority could command, or cha-
           rity <would supply; and th~ pious labours of
           four years was animated in every 8eason, and
           at every bour, by the presence of. the indefati-
           gablepQotiH: The love of fame, a generous but
           worldly passion, may be detected in the name
~::-::-the of the Leoniu city, which he bestowed on the
!U;~iae Vatican; yet. the pride of the dedication' was
A. D.NI. tempered with christian p~ance and humility.
           The boundary was trod by the bishop and his
           clergy, barefoot, in sackcloth and ashes; the
            • Beretti (Cborographia ltalie Medii lEvi, p. 106, 108) :hu iJIuI.
         trated CeDtumeeUlP., Leopolia. CiriIM LroIriDa, aDd the o*r pae.
       I ef tJu= .Bomaa ducll,..                            -

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                    0'" Tim ROMAN EMPIRE.                                           67
        of triumph were modulated: to psaHllS CHAP.
a'Ad litanieS; the walls were besprinkled with UI.
hoI,' water; and the ceremony was concluded                                    u##".,,..

with a prayer, that under the guatdian care of
the'apostles and the angelic host; hoth laeold
and new Rome might ever be preserved pure,
prbsperous, and iinpregnable.-
                                                  ~be Amo-
  , The emperor Theopbilus, SOD of Miehael the rlan war
Stammerer, was one of the most active and high- between
spirited princes who reigned at Constantinople ~::r!':!:
during tbe middle age: In' otfensive or defen- ~~~. 8IS.
live war, he marched in person five times against
the" Saraeens, formidable in bis attack, esteem-
ed' b'ythe edemy in his losses .and defeats. In
tne'last·of these expeditions: he penetrated into
Sfria,' and besieged the rillscute town of Sozo-
petra; the casual birth·pl&~e Of the caliph Mo.
taRSem, W   hose father Hai'uil was attended ih
petide or war by the most favourite of his wives
and concubines. The revolt of a Persian im-
poStor employed at that moment the arms of
tHe Saracen, and he c'ouldonly intercede in fa-
Tour of a place for which: he felt and acknow-
ledged some degree of filial ;tifectioll. These
solicitations determined the emperor to, wound
hi&. pride ia so sensible a part. Sozopetra was
IeY8lled with the ground, the' Syrian' prisoners
were· marked or mutilated' with' ignominious
c~lty, and a thousand"female'captives were

   JI Tile ~nibi aDd the Greeka are alike lilent concerning tbe in.a.
IloB·of ft ...e by,tbe,Africanl. The Latin chroniclel do not aWold
mncia inltrnction (see tbe Anuals of BarODilli and Pagi). Our an·
tlieRtic and contemporary guide for tbe pops of the 9th centllry i,
.-......illl, librarian ofthe Roman' church. ft_ Life of Leo IV. eon·'
.... ' . ......,.four pagel (p; lfl-U19. edit. IJaris); and if a gre•• part
~t of IUperstitiOns trift.., we DIBIt blame or commend .hil hero,
wbo WII much oftener in a churcb ~ ill" a camp.

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68                              THE DECUNE AND FALL
    alAP.    forced away from the adjacent territory. Among
t ...:~:_ these a matron of the house of Abbas invoked
.            in an agony of despair, the name of Motassem;
            ·and the insults of the Greeks engaged the ho-
             nour of her kinsman to avenge h~8 indignity,
             and to answer her appeal. Under the reign of
             the two elder brothers, the inheritance of the
             youngest had been confined to A natolia, Ar-
             menia, Georgia, and Circassia; this frontier sta-
             tion had .exercised his military talents; and
            among his accidental claims to the name of
             Octoruuy,1 the most meritorious are the eight
            battles which he gained orfoughtagainst theene-
            miesofthekorao. In this personal quarrel, the
            troopsoflrak, Syria, and Egypt, were recruited
            from the tribes of Arabia, and the Turkish hords:
            his cavalry might be numerous, though we ~hould
            deduct some myriads from. the hundred and
            thirty thousand horses of the royal stables;
            and the expence of the armament was comput-
            ed at four millions sterling, or one hundred
            thousand pounds of gold. From Tarsus, the
            place of assembly, the Saracens advanced" in
            three divisions along the high road of Constan-
            tinople: Motassem himselfcommanded the cen-
            tre, and the vanguard was given to his son
            Abbas, who, in the trial of the first adventures,
            might succeed with the more glory, or fail with the
            least reproach. In· the revenge of his injury,
            the caliph prepared to retaliate a similar affront.
            The father of Theopbilus was a native of Amo-
              , The same number W.I applied to the following dreu_lance ia
            the life of Motal5em: he " .. tbe agWia of the Abbauidel;"lae reipetl
            rig'" years, ,igAt monthl, and ",lit da,.; left eiPliOua. -Wilt da....
            ten. til'" tboUiUd llavea, cfllIl millioDi of ,old..

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                    OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                         69
. rium- in Phrygia: the original seat of the im- CHAP.
  perial house had been adorned with privileges :'..~~:....
  and monuments; and whatever might be the
 lDdifference of the people, Constantinople itself
  was scarcely of more value in the eyes of the
 sovereign and his court. The name of .AmoriNm
 was inscribed on the shields of the Saracens;
 and their three armies were again united under
 the walls of the devoted city. It had been pro-
 posed by the wisest counsellors, to evacuate
 Amorium, to remove the inhabitants, and to
 abandon the empty structures to the vain re-
 sentment of the barbarians.' The emperor em-
 braced the more generous resolution of defend-
 ing, in a siege and battle,. the country of his an-
 cestors. When the armies drew near, the front
 of the mahomebill line appeared to a Roman eye
 more closely planted with spears and javelins;
 but the event of the action was not glorious on
 either side to the national troops. The Arabs
 were broken, but it was by the swords of thirty
 thousand Persians, who had obtained service
 and settlement in the Byzantine empire. The
 Greeks were repulsed and vanquished, but it
 was by the arrow's of the Turki~h cavalry; and
had not their bow-strings been damped and re-
laxed by the evening rain, very few of the chris-
tians could have escaped with the emperor from
the field of battle. They breathed. at Dory-
lreum, at the distance of three days; and Theo-
philus,' reviewing his trembling squadrons, for-
  ~ Amorlam u seldom mc:ntioned by the old geographen, and totall,
lorgotteD ia the Roman HiDeraries. After the 6th ceDtury, it beeUlle
au episcopal lee, aad at length the metropolil 01 the new Galatia
(Carol. Seto. Paulo. Geograph. Sacra, p. lIM). Tbe city roae apia
lrom its ruillJ, if we should read A_llria, Dot AIIpI'iG, in the text of
the Nubian geograpber (p. 23.6). .'

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70                           TilE DXCLINE AND 'ALL

CHAP.     gave the co.~mon :flight both of the prince and
•••~,~.", people. After, this discovery of his weakne~8,
          he ~ainly hoped to deprecate. the fate of Ama-
          rium: tbe ine~Qrab)~ caliph rejected with con~
          tempt his prayers and promises; and detai~
          the 1;toman 'ambassadors to be the witnesses of
          hjs great revenge. They had nearly been the
          witnesses of bis sllame. Tbe vigoro~s assaults
          of fifty-five day~ were eocountered Qya faithfql
          governor, a.veteran garrison, and a tlesperat~
          people; and the Saracens must have r~sed .the
          siege if a domestic traitor had not pointed, to
          the weakest part of the wall, a place which was
          decorated with the statues of a lion and a bull.
          The 'Vow of Motassem was accomplished with
          unrelenting rigour: tired, rather than satiated,
          with destruction, he returned to his new palace
          of Samara, in the neighbourhood of Bagdad,
          while the unfortuAate- Theophilus implored the
          tardy and doubt(ul aid of his .Western rival the
          eUlperor of the Franks. Yet in the siege of
          Amorium above seventy thousand Moslems
          had perishe~: their los~ had.been revenged by'
          the slaughter of thirty thousand christians, and
          the su1J'e.rings oran equal' number .of captives,
          who were treated as the most atrocious crimi-
          nals. Mutual necessity cQuld sometimes ex-
          tortJthe exchange or ransom. of prisoners;' but
          • In tile' East be wu Ityled 611f'11X" (Continuator Tbeouban. L iiJ,
        p. ~); bot Inch wu the ignorance of the Weat, that hiI am.a.dOll,
        in .Il,,,l>,ic .\J.ilCo~ mip,t .bol«\1J D~t,e~ de Yictorjil. ,q.... act'",,,,
        ntera bellando gentes ccelltoa faerat usecam. (AunaJiat. BertiDilUl,
        apud Pari, tom. iii, p. 120).                           . . :, .,. ,f.~ •
           b Abulfharagina (Dynut. p. 16'1, 168). relates one of~el'l llap,,!
        tranlaction. on UaCi bridge of ~e riyer Lamo. in Cilicia, the limit 01
        tbe two empire•• and one lIaj'. jo,rney WeatWllrd of TU4ut (d' 4DV~'t'.

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                      OP TIm ROMAN EMPIRE.                                         71-
  ii. th'e naii9nal and religious conflici of the two                           CHAp.
  empires; peace was without confidence, and war LII. .
  without mercy. Quarter was seldom given in .,_..",...
  the field; those who escaped the edge of the
  sword"were condemned to hopeless servitude,
  or exquisite torture; and a catholic' emperor
  relates, with visibJe satisfaction, the: execution
  of the Saracens of Crete. who were flayed alive,
  or plunged into cal~ronR of boiling oil.· To a
  point of honour Motassem had sacrificed a
  flourishing city, two hundred thousand lives,
  and the prop(lrty of millions. The same ca-
  liph descended from his. hOI:Se, and dirtied hi.
  robe t9 relieve the distre~s of a. decrepid old
  man, who, 'with his .la9~n ass, had tumbled into
  a ditch. , On whic1.I o.f these actions did he re-
  flect with the most pleasure, when he was sum·
  moned, by tlie angel o( death ~            .
     With Motasse:m, the eighth of the Abbassides, Disorder.
  the glQry oc' his. fapI,ily and nation expired.1!u'liah
  When the Arabian conquerors,had spread them- r!~:'I.
  selves over the East, and were mingled with 870, ""c.
  the servile crowds of Persia, Syria, and Egypt,
   Geocraphie Anci!mne, tom. ii. p. 91). Four thonland foar Jaundred
  and lixty Moslem., eight hundred women and cbildren, one hundred
  eoafederatea, were exchanged for aD .equal Q\1JIIber of Greeks. The,
  pUled each other in tbe middle of the bridge, aDd wben tbey reaclaed
  1aeir respectiye friends, they Ibouted ""laIt Acw, and K,..w Ew-..
  dany of tbe prisonen of Amorium were probably' amo", them, but iD
  o!be AIDe year (4. B. 2S1), tbe mOlt iIInstrious of them, ·tbe forty.two
  IDlutJn, were beheaded by tbe caliph'. order.
     C CoOllantiD. Porphyrogenltnl, in Vito Buil. c. Ci1, p. 111B.  Th_·
, Baraceaa were indeed treated with peculiar lCyer!ty as 1'II..o.elud No
   '! For Tlaeophlhu, Motauem, and the Amorian war, lee the Conti.
 1IDator ofTheophanel (I. iii, p. 77--84); GeDaius (I. iii, p. M-M);
 Cedreulll (1iJ8-...611); E1maciD, (Hilt. Saracen. p. 180); .Abulpll!lJ1l.
 Ii- (DYUUL p. 1116,166); Abulfeda (ADuaI. MOIIem. p.191); 4l'B_
 1IcJot (Biblot. OrieDtale, p. 619, 640.)

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71                             'rHE DECL~E AND PALL
 CHAP.     they ins~nsibly lost the freeborn and martial
m':!,~:', virtues.of the desert. The courage of the south'
           is the artificial fruit of discipline and prejudice;
          the active power of enthusiasm' had decayed,
          and the mercenary forces of the caliphs were re-
          cruited in those climates of the north, of which
          valour is the hardy and spontaneous produc-
          tio~. Of the Turks: who dwelt beyond the
          Oxus and Jaxartes, the robust youths, either
          taken in war, or purchased in trade, were edu-
          c':lted in the exercises of the field, and the pro-
          fession of the mahometan faith. The Turkish
          guards ~tood in arms round the throne of their
          benefactor, and their chiefs usurped the domi-
          nIon of the palace and t~e pro?inces~ Motas-
          sern, the first author of thIS dangerous example,
          i~troduced into the capital above fifty thousand
          Turks: their licentious conduct provoked the
          public indignation, and the quarrels of the sol-
          diers and people induced the caliph to retire
          from Bagdad, and establish his own residence
          and, the camp of his barbarian favourites at
          Samara on the Tigris, "bout tw,elve leagues
          above the city of Peace.' His son Motawak-
          kel was a jealous and cruel tyrant: odious to
         ,his subjects, he cast himself on the fidelity of

             • M. de Goignes, wbo lometime. leap., and lometimel Itomblel, in
          tbe gulph betweeu Chioeae and mabo1Detau Itory, ~kI he un I~e,
          tbal tbele Turkl are the Hoci·ke, alias the KfJo-tCM, or 1;'-11-""80 111 I
          that they a~c divided into fifteen bords, from China .nd Siberia to tbe
         dominions of the calipbs and Samanides, &c. (Hilt. des BUDI, tom.
         iii, p. 1 83, 124-131).
            f He chang~d the old names of SlImera, or Sum8l'e, into the fancHlll
         title of Str-llkll-rai, tbat wbich givel plealure at firat sigbt (d'Herbelot,
         Bibliotbeqne Orientale, p. 808, d'ADvUle, l'l:ophrate et Ie Tlire, p.

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                    OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                          73
  the -Rtrangers~ and these strangers, ambitious CHAP.
  and apprehensive, were tempted by the rich _ ~.~~".
  promise of a revolution. At the instigation,
  or at least in the cause of his SOil, they burst
  into his apartment at the hour of supper, and
  the caliph was cut into seyen pieces by the
  same swords which he had recently distribut-
  ed among the guards of ~his life and throne.
  To this throne, yet streaming with a father's
  blood, Montasser was triumphantly led; but
  in a -reign of six months, he found only the
  pangs of a guilty conscience. If he wept at
  the sight of an old tapestry "Which represented
  the crime and punishment of the sons of ChoR-
- roes; if his days were abridged by grief and
  remorse, we may allow some pity to a parricide,
  who exclaimed in the bitterness ·of death, that
  he had lost both this world, and the world                             to
  come. After this act of treason, the ensigns
  of royalty, the gannent and walking staff of
  Mahomet, were given and toin away by the
  foreign mercenaries, who in four years created,
  deposed, and murdered three commanders of
  the faithful. As often as the Turks were in-·
  flamed by fear, or rage, or avarice, these ca-
  liphs were dragged by the· feet, exposed naked
  to the scorching sun, beaten with iron clubs,
  and compelled to purchase, by the abdication
  of their dignity, a short reprieve of inevitable
  fate.- At length, however, the fury of the tem-
   • Take a apecimeD, the deatb of the calipb Mot.. : Correptum pedi-
 111. petrabuDt, et ludibu.. probe permulcant, et Ipolianlm laceril vea-
 tibul in lole collocant, pr. cuju., arerrimo IIllt6 pede. a1leruia attole-
 bat et deQlitteb!lt. Adltantillm aliquil miaero colaplaOi contiuuo in-
 Jt'rebat, qUDl ille objcctia manibul avertere atudebat. . , . . , Quo

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'14                        THE DECLINE AND J'ALL
 CHAP pest was spent or diverted: the Abbalsides re-
_ ..~'".. turned to the less turbulent residence of Bag.
           dad; the insolence of. the Turks was curbed
           with a firmer and more skilful hand, and their
           numbers were divided. and destroyed in foreign
         I warfare.    But the nations of the East had been
           taught to tra:mple on the successors of the pr~
           phet; and the blessings o£ domestic peace were
           obtained by the rela:tcation of strength and dis-
          cipline. So unifotni are the mis.chiefs of military
           despotism, that I ~m to repeat the story of
           tbe plretoriaDs of &me.~
:=of          While the. 6,,(I1e of enthusiasm was damped
th~Carma- by the business, tb~ pleasure, and the know·
~ ledge,. of the age, ithurnt with concentrated
til.       heat iu the breasts of the ~hosen few, tht: con·
           genial spirits, who were ambitious of reigning
           either in this wor.d o~ in the next. . How care-
          ful soever the book Qf prophecy l)ad been seal-
          ed by the tq)ostle of Mecca, the wishes, and (if
           ~e may the word) .. even the reason, of
          fanaticil5JD might beli~ve th~t, after the successi ve
          missi.ons of Adam, . Noah, Abraham •. Moses,
          Jesus, and Mflhomet, the same God, in the ful-
          ness of time, would reveal a still ~ore perfect
          and permanent law. In the two hundred and·
          seventy-seventh year of the Hegira, and in the
          neighbourhood ofCufa, an Arabian preacher,
        (aco traditu tortori fnit totoque tridoo cibo pottoque prohibita.. • • •
        Suft'oeatOl, &c. (Abnlfeda, po IPS) •.. Of the caliph. Mohtadi, he ..
        cervicl:I ipai perpetoil ictibUi coutandebaDt, telticolOlqne pedibUi e_
        clllcabant (p. _).                                •
           II ke under the rf.igna of Motauem, Motawakkel. Moutaller, Mo-
        Itain, Motal, Mahtadi, aDd Montalned, iu the Bibliotheque of d'
        belot, and the DOW f'amUiar Annall of ElmaciD, Abnlphara,iRl, aa.

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              OF THE ROMAN EMPDtP.                           75
  of, the name ofCarmatb,.as8umed the lofty altd CHAP.
  incomprehensible style of the guide, d.e dir~c- ...~~:_
  tor, the demonstration, the, word, the holy ghost,
  the camel, the herald of the mes~jah. wh,o had
   conversed with .him in a human shape,.and the re-
   presentative of Mohammed the son of Ali, of
   St. John the baptist, and of the "'ngel,Gabr~el.
   In his mystic volume, the preceptsofth~~orap.
  were refined to a more ,spiritual &eD$e:, he re.
  laxed the duties of ablution, fasting. aDd pil-
  grimage; allowed the i,ndiscriminate. use of wine
  and forbidden fruit; and nonrished the fe1v9ur
  of-his disciples by the daily repetition of fifty
  prayers. The idleness and ferment of the r\18-
  tic crowd awakened the attention of the magis-
, trates of Cufa; a timid persecution,assisted the
  p.·ogress of the new sect; and, the nalDe of the
  prophet became more revered after his person
  had been withdrawn from the world. His
  twel ve apostles dispersed .themselves amongthe
  Bedoweens, "a race of men," lays Abulfed;a,
  " equally devoid ofreason and of religion,;" an.d
  the success of their pr~aching seemed: to threa-
  ten Arabia with a new revolution.. .The Car-
  mathiaos were ripe, for resbellion. sioce they dis~
  claimed the title ofthehoul8 of Abbas, and ab-
  horred the worldly pomp of the caliphs, of Bag-
  dad. Theyweresusaeptible ofdisciplioe since
 they vowed a blind and absolute submillion to
 their, imam, who was called to the prophetic of-
 fice by the voice of God and the people. Instead
 of- the legal tithes, he claimed the fifth of their
 substance and spoil: the most flagitious sinl
 were no more than the type of disobedience;

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    76                   THE DECLINE AND }o'.lLL

     CHAP.    and the brethren were united and concealed by
    ...~~I:... an oath of secrecy.   After a bloody conflict,
    Tbeir.Ui- they prevailed in the province of Bahrein, along
•   taryex
              the Persian gu If : lar .and WI e, t he trl'bes of

    ~e~' 000, tbe desert were subject to the sceptre, or rather
              to the sword, of Abu Said and his son Abu
              Taher; and these rebellious iman'ls could mus-
              ter in the field an hundred ,and seven thousand
              fanatics. The mercenaries of the caliph were
              dismayed at the approach Of an enemy who nei-
              ther asked nor accepted quarter; and the dif-
              ference between them, in fortitude and patience,
              is expressive' of the change 'whis:h three cen-
              turies of prosperity had effected in the charac-
              ter of the Arabians. Such troops were dibcOnl-
              fited in every action; the cities of Racca and
              Baalbec, of Cufa, and Bassora, were taken and
              pillaged; Bagdad was filled with consterna·
              tion; and the caliph trembled behind the veils
              of his palace. In a daring inroad beyond the
              Tigris, Abu Taher advanced to· the gates of
              the capital with no' more than five hundred
              horse. By the spedal order of Moctader, the
              bridges had been broken down, and the person
              or head of the rebel WaR expected every hour
              by the commander of the faithful. His lieu-
              tenant. from a motive of fear or pity, apprised
              Abu Taber of his danger, and recommended
              a speedy escape. "Your master," said the
              intrepid Carmathian to the messenger, "is at
              ., tbe head of thirty thousand soldiers: three
              " such men as these are wanting in his host:"
              at the same instant, turning to three of his com-
              panions, he commanded the first to plunge a

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              OP THE }tOMAN EMPDtE.                                   77
 dagger into his breast, the second to leap into (JHAP.
 the Tigris, and the third to cast himself head- LIl.
 long down a precipice. They obeyed without                  # • •, . " • •

 a :murmur. "Relate," continued the imam,
  " what you have seen:- before the even-
-" ing your general shall be .chained among
 my dogs~"        Before the evening, the camp
 was surprised and' the. menace. was execut-
 ed. The rapine of the' .Carmathians· was
 sanctified by their aversion to the worship of
 Mecca: they robbed a caravan o~ pilgrims, and
 twentythousand devout Moslems were abandon-
 ed on the burning sands to a death of hunger
 and .thirst. A~other year they suft"er"d the pH- ney pil-
grims to proceed without interruption; but, in ~!~e Mee-
 the festival of dt:votion, Abu Taher stormed 4. D. . . .
 the holy city, and trampled on the most vener-
able relics of the mahometan faitb. Thirty
th01~sand citizens and strangers were put to the
sword; the sacred precincts were polluted by
the burial of· three thousand dead bodies; the
well of Zemzem ~ver1lowed' with blood; the
golden spout was forced from its place; the
veil of the Caaba was divided among these im-
pious sectaries; and the black stone, the first
monument of the nation, was borne away in
triumph to their capital. After this deed of
sacrilege and cruelty, they continut:d to infest
the confines of Irak, Syria. and Egypt; but the
vital i>l'inciple of enthusiasm had withered at
the root. Their scruples or their avarice again
opened the pilgrimage of Mecca, and restored
the black stone of the Caaba; and it is need-
less to inql1ire into what factions they weh:

                                        .   Digitized by   Google
78                            'l'H'K'DECLIN'P: AlfD FALIi.

    CHAit   hrok.el'f, or by whose 8worctS' they. were finlly
_   ~~# extirpated. The sect of' -the Carmathians may
    ..   ....

            be considered as the second visIble cause of
Revolt of 'he decline and' fall 'of the empire of the ca-
the pro-
Yincea,     liphs.'             '.                             _
A.. D.890.              •           '       •
vao.           The thIrd and most obVIOUS cause was the
            ",eight and magnitude of the empire itself.
            The caliph AlmalOOD might proudly assert,
            that it was! easier fOil hini to rule the East and
         . ~be "West~ than; teinanagea;chess-board of two
            feef square;k ,et I.-suspect; that in both these
           games he-wa~ guilty·of manY'iat.a:lmistakes; and_
           I pereelre, 'that in' the' di1ttant. provinces the
           autho~ty' of thetirst 'And: most powet:ful' of the
           Abbassides: ~~g·;alread:y. iin,liired.,Tbe ana-
          -logy of despOtism' inv.estS: the.repres(tlltative
           wit'h the fun· majesty 'of· the :prince; the divi-
           m<Hi:'Qnd balance. of })Gwers wight relax the
           habit~ 01 C)bedience, might' encourage the Vas-
           ai~e' subject to ell quire into the origin and ad.-
           tiliBistraiiori 'oi' civil gover.mnent.' ,He' who is
           botn in the purple' is seldom worthy to' reign;
           btit the elevation of a private man, of a peasant
           pt'rhaps~ - or' a slave, aWords, a strong _presump-
           tion of'his courage arid capacity. 'The viceroy
           ot a remote kingdom aspires to: secure the pro-
           perty and inheritance 'of his precarious trust;
           the nations must rejoice the presence of their

             • i_ FOJ the Ret oftbe Carmathianl, consult ElmaClin (Hilt. Saract'D.
            p. ,219, 224, 229, 231, 238, 241, 2(8), Abnlphal'!lginl (DynaaL p. 119-
            182), Ablllfeda (Annal. Mo.lem. p. 218,219, &c. 146,265; .'). and
            d'Ht:rltelot, (Bibliolheque Orientale, p. 256-258, 685). I find lome
            ioeonliltenciea of theology and chronology, which it would not be e"1
            DOr of much importance to reconcilE'•
              .. 8)d., Spataaaaa Diuertat, tom, ii, "'67, ia Hiat. lbabUndii.

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                      OJ' THE ROIUM EMPIRE.                                         79
   sovereign;' and the commalld of armies and CHAPw
   treasures are at once the object and the iostru- LU.
   ment of his ambition. A change was scarcely"'''''''·
   visible as long as the lieutenants of the caJil1h
  were content with their vicarious title; while
  they solicited for themselves or their soos a re-
  newal of the imperial grant, and stiHmaintaio-
  ed on the coin, and in the public prayers, the
  name and prerogative of the commander of the
  faithful. But in the long and hereditary exer-
  C2ise otpower, they assumed the pride and' at-
  tributes of royalty; the alternative of peace or
  war, of reward or punishment, depended solely
  on· their will; and the revenues of the govern-
 ment were r.eserved for local services or private
 magnificence. ,:Instead of a regular supply of
 men and money, the successors of the prophet
 were fiattered With the ostentatious gift of an
 ~lephant,or a calt of hawks, a suit of silk
 Itangings, or some pounds of musk and aUi- The iade-
 ber• 'l   .,                   .                   ~~
     After the revolt of Spain, from the temporal
 and spiritual supremacy of the Abbassides, the
 fi'rst ~,.mptoms of disobedience broke forth in
the province of Africa.· Ibrahim, the SOIl of
Aglab, the lieutenant of the vigilant aod rigid The A lao
Barun, bequeathed to the dynasty of the .Agla- bites, g
'bite, the inheritance of his name and power. ~1~' 800-

    I TIa~ dJD88llea of the A.rabllUl empire may be Itadled in ~he An-
l1li11 of Elmacia, Abnlpharagiua, IUId Abulfeda, nnder the pro,.,. yean;
in the dietionary of d'Herbelot, under tbe I"'oper hamel. Tbe tables
ofM. de Guigm:a '(des Buns, tom. i,) ~hibit a general ehronology of
the Eatt, intenpentd with aome historieallUleedote.; but his attaeh-
mm to natiGaal blood haa aometimes eonfounded the order of ti_
.... place.

                                                            Digitized by   Google
80                          THE DECLINE AND FALL
CHAP.    The indolence or policy of the caliphs dissem-
."~!.~.,,.. bled the injury and,Ioss, aud pursued only with
~'be Edri- poison  the founder of the Etlrilites," who erect,..
 ~~~: 829- ed the kingdom and city of Fez. on the shores
~~ Ta- of the .western ocean.· In the' East, the first
 A. D.81a.
           dynasty was that of toe Taherites·' o · the pos-
812.       terity of the valiant Taher, who, in the ciyil
           wars of the sons of Harun, had served with too
           much zeal and success the cause .of Almamon,
           the younger brother... He 'was sent into honour-
           able exile, to command on the banksoftheOxulI;
           and the independence' of his. suCCes'SOfS, who
           reigned in Choras3ntill the fourth genera-
           tion, was palliate:d by their mo~est and re-
           spt-ctful demeauour~ the happiness of their sub-
           jects, and the security of their fron.tier. They
           were supplanted by one' of those adven-
Tlte SoWa. turers so freq oent in the annals of the East,
:.d:"811- who left his trade of. a brazier (from whence
tIOJ.      the name .of. SoJfal~ides) for the pro,ession of
           a robber. In a nocturnal visit to the trea-
           sures of the prince of Sistan, Jacob the son of •

             ... 1be Aglabite. and Edrilitea are the ,rof.ed .olUed. of M. de
         Cardonn..e (Hi.t. de l'Afriqne et de l'Espaglle 119001a DOOlination de.
         Arabes, tom. ii, p. 1 - 6 3 ) . '                   '..
             • To escape the reproach of error, t 011111 critici.e the inaccnracie.
         of )I. de Onignes. (tom. i, p. 159), conceJllling the Edriaite.. 1. The
         dynaaty and city of Fez could not be founded in the. year of the He-
         gira US, aince the fonnder wu poIIlaUlllOlll child or.a ·de~d"'t or
         Ali, who fled from Mecca in the year 168. 2. Thi. foond«:r, Edria,·the
         .011 of "dril, instead or living to the improbable age of 120 yean.
         11.. 0.313, died A.. Il. 214, in the prime oflilanhood. I. The d,.....,
         fnded A. Il. 301 twenty. three yean .ooner than it i. fixed by the hi..
         toa-ian of the HUD.. See the accurate Annd of Abulfedl, p. 168 lit,
            • Tho. dynastic. of thc Taberite. and SoWaride., with the rise of that
         of the Samanidea, are described in the oricinal lIi,tory and Latill Yd'-
         ,ioll of Mircbond; yet tbe mo.1 interesting facllhad alreadl beea
         d.-ined by tile diiigence of M. cflHerbelot.

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               or .THE IWMAN   E)IPlltE."                               8'
 Leitb"Rtuui.bled over a·lum.p of salt~ ,which,he ,CH.tV.
 l.tnw.arily tasted with his tongue. ' Salt, among ...:".1:...
 the Orientals,.is the symbo1 of hospitality,and
 the pious. robber immediately retired without
 spoil ,or. damage. The, discoyery of' this ho-
-uoui'able behaviour recommended Jacob to par-
 don and trust; he led an army. at first for. his
 benefaetor, at last for himself, subdued Persia, .
 aridthrea.tened the residence of the Abbassides.
 On hiH march 'towards Bagdad, the conqueror
 was a:rrested by a fever.· He gavearidience in
 be1l ·to. the ambassador of the caliph; and be-
 side hiin on a table were ~xposed a naked scy~
 'Petar, a :crust of ,br.own l)read, and a bunch of
 onions. ' "If I die/' said he;, " your master is
  " delivered' from his: fears~, If-I: live, tllis must
  ,e determine between .us.' If I alii vanquished~
  " I can return without reluctimce to' the home-
  " ly fare of my youth." From:the height where
  he stood, the descent would not have been so
  soft or harmless; a timely deatb secured'his
  own repose and that of the caliph, who paid
  with the most lavish concessions the retreat of
  his brother Amrou to the palaces of Shiraz and
  Ispahan. The Abbassides were too (eeble to
  contend, too proud to forgive: they invited the
  powerful dynasty of' the Samanides, who pas,sed                ..
  the Ox~s ,,!ith ten thousand horse, so,' poor, 87~:~
  that theIr stIrrups were of wood ;so'brav'e, that
  they vanquished the Soft'arian army, eight times
  more numerous than their own. The, captiye
  Amrou was sent in chains, a grateful' ofJering
  to, th~ ~PW~ of 13~gdad ; and, ~s ,the, vjqto.r. -was
                                 ,   ~   !
                                             "   .

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8t                       THE DECLINE AND PALl. '
 CHAP.      content with the inheritance '-of Transoxiana
._~~~',._ and Chorasan, the realms of Persia returned
            for a while to the allegiance of the caliphs.-
            The provinces of Syria and Egypt were twice
            dismembered by their Turkish slaves, of the
The Tou- race of Toulun and Ik,/lid! These barbarians,
laD!~': in religion and manners the countrymen of
'l'~i':'bj. Mahomet, emerged from the bloody factions of
dit:"       the palace to a provincial command and an in-
  n~. dependent throne: their names became famous
            and formidable in their time;' but the founde..
            of these two potent dynasties confessed, either
            in words or actions, the vanity of ambition.-
            The first on his death-bed implored the mercy
            of God· to a sinner, ignorant of the limits of hi.
            own power : the second, in the mid.t of four
            hundred thousand soldiers and eight thousand
            slaves, concealed from every human eye the
            chamber where he attempted to sleep. Their
            sons were educated in the vices of kings; and
            both Egypt ~nd Syria were recovered and pos-
            sessed by the A bbassides during an interval of
            thirty years. In the decline of their empire,
            Mesopotamia, with the'important cities of Mo-
            suI and Aleppo, was occupied by the Arabian
The Ha- princes of the tribe of Hamadll.". The poets
            of their court could repeat,without a blush,
A. p.8920 that nature had formed their countenances for
l!IC)l.     beauty, their tongue~ for eloquence, and their
            bands for liberality and valour: but the genuine
            tale of the elevation and reign of the HamaiJo,.
            ";te, exhibits a scene of treacbery, murd6l', and'
           • M. de Guipes (Hiat. dea HnuI, tom. ill, p. 1M-154) b. aIIa••t-
         ed the ToulaDidea aDd Ibbidltel of 8J1pt, ud throWllIOlU lip& •
         the Cumathillla Uld Hamadaaite••

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                   0' TH2 IlOMAN.DIPIKE.                               83
 purSlcide. At the same fatal period, the Per- CHAP•
 •i:t.n kio§dom, was agaio usurp~ by the dyI)'as.. ,}:,I,~,.,
 it: afltbe,Boaoides, by the sword ,of-three ht()- The Do.
 blefs, Wh0, u~d ·
   J..'                                                   I~,.l widee
                       ~r various o ames, were, ety W A. D. 011.:
,HIe 8~pPQrt and columns of the state, ,an:d wh(), 1005.
 frmn the Caspan sea to the               Ocean.
                                              would 6uf.
 fer- DO, -tyrants but theJDselves. ,Under their
 reign, tl~e language and' genius. of-Persia reviVed.
 abdtlte ATabs, three 'h"Ddred' and four years'
.e-       the death of MahOmet, were deprived of
        scep.tre'Of the East..
  ~ :Rahdt, the twent~th·~·the Abbassides, and Fallen
 01.., 6wLdy:nm th 0 f th'
 4.l-.; "-L      •
                            e ltucce~sorIJ 0 f M' hornet, .tate of
                                                 a              the caliphe
 'Was4.lie last·whp deser~(Hhetitle of command.. of~:,ads
«.i1ot; il\e faithful:" thi': lNt:. ('~fJ Abulfeda~ 1136• .kt!.
 liho, ap~1te to ,the., ,eople,t'~i coo!Vt!,r$ed: with
 the ~lea..bed ;' ,the 'alll ~., 9itt~It..~ ~"pen~e -en
  bij'beDtiehold, repr~ented.Jbtt:w~.lth an,d m~g..
  ni6cenee 'of the ancient :eal1pltlJ. :Af~ bim,
  ther lords of ,the· 'EaRtet"B '''0.1'41: 'w~re I'f;id tJoCed
  _~Dio8tabject-lt1i$ery; ,'a-t<H:xp06M,to·t·he
  blo~ and 'insults' of·aserviJ~"dOndjtibIi. ' The
 ...blt of the 'ptOtince.: e.rcu~ed·-tbeil'd~
  iDipiri~8"itliinj the walle ~of, Bagdad; but that
    ,~ .. :~,   . -,        .~..       ";'\          -.
                                                 ~, ......, .... '-,
   .' Hic' elt ultiDl~i chalifah' qui DlUitam' atque .epiui pro condone
M~t, ••• '. Fait etiam ultimua qui otiam cum erllditi. et faeetia
~iDlbli' fallere hilariterq"e qere IOleret., U1tilllaa tandem chalifa.
~ oni"UIA~~:.tipC'Ddia, reditaa. et. theeaari, culine. cetenqlJe om-
nis anlica pllmpa: prillram ebalifarum "d inatar cClDlparatll fueriut.-
'Videbimna eubu panUo pOtt quam iadi,aia et tenilibaa ladibriie nap-
 ~~ quam ad baDlilem fortllaam oItimamqne coatemptllm abjecti file-
 rhit,W ..IJoadam potentie.imi toti.' terrarum Orieatalium orbi. domini.
 Ablllfed •. AlUla!. MOilem. p. 261. I have ,iven thi, palllace .. the
 .-naer 'pd toae of Abulfeda; bat the caet of Latia eloqllence b...
 10D" more properly to Rei,ke. 'rhe Arab;aa hietorian (p. 266, 147,

 161-269,281, .c.) bat .upplied me with the mOlt intereatina factt of

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84                          1'HE DECLINE AND PALL
 CHAP.          capital, still contained an innumerable multi-
:. •• ~.~~:•• tude, vain of their past fortune, disco.. tented,
                with their present state, and oppressed by the
                demands of a treasury which had formerly been
                replenished by the spoil and tri bute of nations.
               ·Their idleness was exercised by faction and
               ·controversy. Under the mask of piety, theri-
               gid followers of Banbal" invaded the pleasures
               of domestic life, burst into the houses of ple-
                beians and princes, spilt the wine, broke the in-
                struments, beat the musicians, and dishonour-
            -, ed,: with infamous suspicions, the associates of
                every handsome youth~ In each 'profession,
               which allowed room for two persons, the one
              'was a votary, the other an antagonist, of Ali;
               and'the Abbassides were awakened by the cla-
               morous grief of the sectaries, who' denied their
           - -title, and cursed their progenitors. A turbu-
               lent people could only be repressed by a mili-
               tary force; but who could satisfy the avarice,
               or assert the discipline ofthe,me.rceoaries thew-
               selves·? The African and the, Turkish guards
               drew their swords against. each other, and 'the
               chief commanders, ' the emirs al Omra,' .impri-
              Iioned or deposed their sQv~t:eigns, and violated
            P Tllleir muter. on a similar occasion, .bewed bims.lf' of' 'a more In-
         'dulgent and lolerating spirit. Abmed Ebn Hanbal. the head of one
         'of the fOllr ortbodox .eeta, wa. born at Bagdad, A. H. 164., and died
         'there,A. H. 241. He fought and loffere!! io tbe di.pnte eoneernm,
         'tbe creation of the koran.
            • The office of Yizir was superseded by tbe'emir II Omra, Imperator
          Imperatorum, a tille first instituted by Radbi, and which mer,ed at
         length in tbe Bowidea and Seljuklde.: veetigalibus, et tributi., et 'ea-
         ril. pcr omnes regiones pnef'eeit, jultitque in omnibus lugge.lil nomi·
         nil' ejus in coneionibul Jilentionem fieri (Abllruharagiui. Dynaal. p
         lilt.) It i. likewise mentioDed by Elmlcin (po 2U, 256). .

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            OF THE ROMAN EMPIO.'                        sa
the sallctuary·ofthe mosch and ·haran. If the CHAP. ...
caliphs escaped to the camp or court of any ....~~:.,..
neighbouring prince, their deliverance. was a
ehange of servitude, till they were promp~ed by.
 despair to: inltite the .Bowides, the sul~ns of
 Persia, who sUenced the ·factions of:Bagdad ·by..
 their irresistible arIDS. The civil and'military
 powers were assumed by· Moezaldowlat,,,the
 second of the three brother" 'and a' stipend of
sixty thousand pounds ~terling; was.assigned
by his generosity for the private' expenceo( .the
 commander ofthe faithful. But 011 the,fortieth
day, at the audience of the auibassad.ors. of
Chorasan, and. in the presence of a trembling
multitude, the caliph was dragged .from his
throne to a dungeon, by the command of 1he
stranger" and the rude hands of his Dilemites.
 His palace was pillaged, his eyes were pnt,out,
and the mean ambition of the J' bassides as-
pired to the vacant staqon of danger and dis-
gracE'. ·In 'the school of adversity, theluxUI;ious
caliphs resumed the grave' and abstemious vir7'"
tues of the primitive times. . Despoiled of their
armour and· silken: robes, they fasted, they
prayed; they studied the koran and the tradi-
tion of the. Sonnites; they nerformed with ,zeal
and knowledge the functions of their ecclesias-
tical character. The respect of, nations still
waited ou'the successors, of the apostle, the
oracles of the law and conlilcience of the faith-
ful; and the weakness or division of their ty-
rants sometimes restored the Abbassidelil, to
the sovereignty of Bagdad. Bl,lt their misfor~
tunes had been embittered by the triumph of

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86                          THE DECLINE AND I'.ALLp
 CHAP.     the Fatimites,: the real or spuriou8 progeny of
._'u'"        •I. 'A'"                         .
           AI' -, nSIng IirOI11 t he extremlty 0' Afinca,
                                                   f     '
           these' 8uccessfnl·'riva18' extinguished in Egypt
           and Syria; both the.' 8pirituar.and temporal au-
           thority .of:the nbbasside&; and the monarch of
           tbe :Nile illsulted: .the humble pontiff on the
           ltankiJ;.of'the Tigl'i1t~; -                     '
EDter.      ':]n, thb decliDiJJgl age 01 the caliphlJ,in ,tke
PriaGelofk ceD1ul1l'lWhiChr81~a.after tbe war of The&-
   e rt'e. phil'       d ..6    '.      L_ L 'I         .
A.D,960.         ~s:·an ~.m.~a~ tUC,IIG8t1 e-transactiOQ
         at lthe two natmns Wer.e, Jcoidined to. some i..
         rOMls ~y.S6a andJand,.tb£iJruits·~of' their,cloM
            :;icinity laod 'indelible hatred: But' when ~bf)
            ~stek-n. worlfl·was ,convulsed.and broken, ·th:O
          , Greek .. were, ;roused from ,1heiy letha~gy by the
            bopes.of conquest and revenge.' The ~y~
            tine empire" since tb.e accesllian,of,tM Basilia»
            raee" b",d reposed' iu peace ...d dignity; and
            they might encounter with their ;entirestrengtil
            the.front of ,~ome ,pettyetnil', whose rear wall
            a.ssaulted: and threatened. by his: national foes
            ef:the .mabometall faith •. , The Io£ty titles of the
            mor-Ding'star, and the,death of ,the SaraceDs,~
Rednction \l,GOO aMt1ied i~ die public acclatnation s to Ni-
of Crete. edpborlls,PhocaBf ,11; prilite ,as renowned in the
            daimp: as he. unpopular. in the city. , In th~
            nhoNlinate: dation' of:gJeat domelltic, or len~
            ;al oEtheEast, be reduced.the island of Crete,
            aoo extirpated the neat of piratellwho had 8e

             ~ LillipraDd, whole choleric temper wuembittered br hi. u~eN1
         .itoalion, IUUelti tbe Damn. of reproach aDd COD tempt more applica-
         ble to NiceohOI'uiI' thaD tbe niD titles of the GreeD, Ecce .eDit ,tella
         matutina, .ur,it Eoo•• reverberat obtut' .ou. radie., paDilla .......
         lIorDIII •
                         NicepholUl tua• •
                         .   I

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                    OF THE KOMAN £II~ .                                             87
 long defied, with impunity, the ~esty of the CHAP.
 empire.- His military genius waulisp)ayed in ._~.I.I;,...
  the conduct, and Sl,1ccess, of the .. enterprise.
  which had sooiten. .failed wUh..,1o.s and disho-
 DOUr. The Sararien.. were. ccpefCMlnded by the.
  IandiDg ofbis tmaps. orl.'saie·and leul bridges,
  'Whieh .he cast from th~'vesseb 'to the shore.-
  Seven. months were .censu~ed in. the siege of
   Candia; the despair of the native Cretans was
  stimulated by the frequent aid of their .brethren
  of Africa and Spain; and,. after the massy wall
   and double djtch had been. .stormed by the
. Greeks,·an hoptt)es~ conBif!:t was still maintain-
   ed in the streets. and houses m the city. The
   whole' island was snbdued in the capital~ and a
   submissive people accepted, without resistance,
. the baptism Qfthe eonqueror.~ Constantinople
   applauded the long-forgotten pomp ofa triumph;
   but the imperial diadem. was the sole reward
   that could repay the services, or satisfy the
   ambition, of Nicepborus.
     After ,the dt!athof the younger Romanul'~ the The na-
   fourth in lineal descent of the Basilian race, his ~=lIe:;­
   widow Theophania successively married Nice- Nic.....

    a NotwitbataDding the iDliDDatioD' of ZODaru, ..," ;"" Irc. (tom.
 ii, I. ui, p. 19'1'), it M au uDdoubted (ur, that Cftte _          completel,.
 aad .fiaally 'Dbdaed by liicephoMil Pbocaa (PI,i, Critia, tom. iii, p.
 111-876. llellrlii., Creta, L iii, e. 7. tom. iii, p. '114, (CII).
    • A Greek life of St. NicoD, the ArmenuD, wu (onDd iD tile S(ona
 library, and tranllated into lAtin by the Jeanit SirmoDd for the DIe of
 cardinal BaroDial. Thia cODtemporary le,end cull a fty oflight OR
  ~rete aud Peleponne.DI in the 10th eeatary. He found the newl,.
 rcconred i.laDd, r.di, deteltaud. Aprenonm .uperatitiom. Yeati.
 ,iii a4hllc plcuam ac refertam •••.• bat the "ittorioa. millionary,
  perhap. with lOme canal lid, ad baptiamam umDei nneqae fidei d. .
 ciplinam pepalit. Eccleaii. per totam i...... adificatia, "c. (A.-
  .... Ecrle•• A. D.961).

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 88                             Tn DECLINE AND 'ALL,
  CHAP.       phorus Pbocas, and his'an&sainJohn ZimisceB,
 ...,:~I;d. the two heroes of .the age. They reigned atl
  Plloea. the guardians and colleagues of her infant SODS;
 Zi!~:~:' aDd the twelve years of their military command
  '~::i.' form ,the inost splendid period of the Byzan-
              tine annals. ',The subjects and confederat~lI~
              'Whom they Jed to war, a;ppeared, at )
              the' eyes or :au enemy; two' hundred 'thousand,
              strong; and of these. about· ,thirty thou8Qd
              were. srilled 'with :euirasses;:)' ~ a' train of ·lotI..-,
              thGus~ndmulel . ;Mtended :th~ii' march;: .a.ndJ
             their evening camp: was regularly fortified with
             an inclosure of it:on. spikes. A series of bloody
             and' unqecisive 'cembats is .nothing 'more th;t.1l
             an antiCipation of what would have been eJfe~t­
             ed in a :rew years ,by the course of nature'; but,
             I shall briefly' prosecute ,the conquests of the
             two emperors from the hills of Cappadocia ~o
             the desert of Bagdad. The sieges ~f Mopsues-
             tia and' Tarsus. in 'Cilicia' first exercised the
             skill and perseverance of their troops, on whom,
             at'this moment. l,shaJI Dot hesitate to bestow
             the Dame of Romans. In the double city of
CfoncqiJ~e~t Mopsuestia, which is divided by the river Sa,:"
o      lela.
             rus, two hundred thousand moslems were pre-
             destiDEld to death opllavery:.a surprising degree' ,
             of popUlation which must at least include the
            'I Elmacin, Hist. Saracell, p. 1178, 279. Liutprand wu dilpo.ed to
         depreciate the Greek power, yet be OWDS that Nicepborn. led a,aiD'~
         Alayria an army. of eigbt, thouland men.
           • Ducenta fore nlillia bominum Dumerabat nrbs (Abulfi!da. ADllal.
        Mo.lem. p. 23J), of Mopsuestia, or Malifa, Mampsysia, Mansista, Ma-
        mi,ta, u it is corruptly, or perhapl more cora-eetly, styled in tbe middle
        allc, (W l'~leliDg. Itinerar. p. 580). Yet I cannot credit tllia e:xtr.em~
        populousne•• a few yeal's after tile testimonr of tbe emperor Leo!
        • Y"I "e}...".~elll "'",'"' ..'" KoA,!. S.".., .., Ir''' (Taetica, c. xviii, in Men,.
        ,ii Oper. tom. vi, p. 817).           .

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              9P'TU2 ROMAN EMPlltE. ' '                 80:
   inhabitants of the dependent districts: They, ellA)·.•
   were surrounded ,and taken ~y 'assault; but _~~~.~

   Tarsus was reduced, by' the slow progress of' '         .
   famine; and no' soo'ner hadtbe Saracens yield-          ,
, ed on honourable terms. than tbey' were morti-'        ...
   1i~d by the distant, and unproitable view Of'the
   naval succoUrs of Egypt. They were, dismissed,
   with a safe conduct to the, confines of SyriBl: '
   a part of the· bid' 'christians 'had quietly li.ed
   under their dominion; and the vacant habit•.
   tions were ~ep~ebislred.bYa new colony. , But;
   the mosch was' converted ,iQto a stable; the
   pulpit was delivered: to' the' flames; many rich'
   crosses of gold and gems;. :the 'spoils of Asiatic
   churches, were imide a, gratMul offering to the
   piety or avarice of the emper&r:;and 'he trans-
   ported the gates' of, Mopsuestia' and Tarsus,
 , which were ,fixed in the wall :ofConstantinople,
   an eternal monument of his viciorY'. After they lay."-
   had {OJ'ced and secured the' narrow passes, ofOfS1ria.
   inount Amanus, 'the two Roman princes re-
   peatedly carried their arms into the heart of
   Syria. Yet, instead of assaulting the walls of
  Antioch, the hum'anity or superstitio~ of Nice-
   phorus appeared to respect the andent metro-
  polis of the East: he contented,· hhnself with
  drawing round -the city a line of 'circum'Valla.-
  tion; left a, stationary army; and instructed
  his lieutenant ~o expect, withootimpatience;
  the'return of spring. But iii the depth of win-
  ter, in- a dark' and rainy night, an adventurous
  subaltern. with three hundred' soldiers, ap-
  proached the rampart, 'applied' hiB scaling-lad-
  ders, occupied two adjacent towers,.stood firm

                                          Digitized by   Google
90                     THE DRCLDfE   A.JQ)   PALL
 CHAP.     against the pre88Ur~ of 'multitudes, and bra'Yely
...,~.~.u maintained his 'post till he relieved by the
         tardy, thoUgit ineffectual, support of his reluc-
Ileconry  tant cltief.' "The fir.t tumult of slaughter and
.'Antiocb·rapine subsided'; dle reign ,of C~sar and of
         Cbrist was restored; aad the efforts of an hun-
         dred thousand .saracens, of the ~rmies of Syria
         and the :fleets. of Arrie, were consumed without
         effect before ,the :wa.ils of Anti()ch. The rf?yal
         city of Aleppo was subjec* to S~ifeddow,lat, of
         the dyn~sty of HamadaD, who clouded hhl past
         glory by the precipitate retreat which abandon-
         ed 'his kiagdom and ,the Roman in-
         vaders. In his stately palace, that stood with-
         out tile walls of Aleppo, they joyfuUy seized a
        well furnished ,magazine of arms, a stable of
         fourteen hundred m.~les, and three hundred
         bags of silver and :gC)ld. ,But the walls of the
         city withstood the. stro,kes of their battering-
         rams; and the besiegers pitched their tentH on
         iIIe neighbouring mountain of Ja~shllD. TJIeir
         retreat .exuperated the qUar,el of the towns.
         iDen and mercenaries; the guard of the gates
         and ramparts was deaerted; and, while they
         furiously charged each .otber in the market-'
         place•. they were surprised and destroyed by
         the sword of a common enemy. The male sex
         was exterminated by the sword; ten tbousand
        youtbs were led into captivity: the weight of
        the precious spoil exceeded the st:rength and
        number of tbe beasts of burden; the super:flu-
        OUI remainder was burnt; and, after 'a licen~
        tious possession of ten days, tbe RomaDs march-

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                        · rB. R01l1AK BMPJlUE..                                   11
 ed away from the, naked 'and' bleeding city.-- . CRAP.                              \
 In their S~rian inroads' they' commanded the                                 ,..:!....
 husbandmen to culti·vate their lauds, that they
 themselves, in the ensuing season, ~ight reap,
 the benetit: more than an hundred cities "Were
 reduced to obedience .; and eighteen pulpits of
 the principal· moschs were committed to the
 :flames, :to expiate the,sa~rilege of the dilcipl~8
 of Mahomet. The cla!l8ic .~ '~f Bierapo-
~lis, Apamea, and ~m~fJ" revivefo,r a moment
 In the list of conquest; the empen>r Zi..-isces
 encamped in the Paradise .of Da~ascus,. ad
 accepted th~ ransom of a submi~s.ive people;
 and the torrent was ~nly stoppe,d by the im-
 pregnable fortress of 'fripoli,· on .1he sea-coast
 of Phreni~ia. Since the d~y8 Qf Hllracli~s, th., ~:'E~ .,
 Euphrates, below the passage of D:lOUot Tau-pbrata.
 rus, had been impeniC)~~, an.~ ,almost iQ.visible,
 to the Greeks. The river .yield~ a free.PMs-
 sage to the victorious Z.iJDi~ces ~ and the bisW-
 rian may imitate the ,peed' wit~ :w-hicll he Q~~'"
 ran the once famou:s cities of $~m.9!p1.ta, .~
 sa, Martyropolis, Aoiid~f~ aDd'N~~il>ifl, the a~
 cient limit the empire ill t~e n~hbourh~.
 of the Tigris. His ardour \,VilS q~cke~d. b,.
 the desire of grasping the virgin. tre~uf;el. ~
 Ecbatana,' a well kllown nalJ1~, u~~erwhiG~
    • TIae text or Leo the deacou, ia the corrupt D  .... of Emeta aDd
 ltIyctariam, reY.... the clti.. or A_ida and Ha..,ropolil (Hiararekill.
 See Abulfeda, Geolrapb. p. 2411, un. Reilke). Of the former; IA.
 o...."e., arb. maDita et iIID1tr1a; of tbe latter, clara _14a. eaDlpicua et pecore, reliqui. eju. prtyiDcii. Drbib.1 atque oppiclit
 loUIe preltam.
   • Vt et EcbataDa perlnet AgareDOrllm4lue relianl enrteret •••• eDi.. arbiulD qua a...... IDDt ac Iota orbu:&iltll;Dtfclicilli8l"

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9~                        THE DECLINE AND BALL
 CHAP~ ) the Byzantine wtiter has concealed the capital
..~I;.~~'.". ofihe Abbassides. ,The consternation        the                of
          fugitivefdlad akeady diffused the; terror of his
          name ;'DlIt! the fancied riches of Bagdad bad·
          alrea8 ybeeri dissipated by the avarice a~d ,t1ro~:
Danger of digalityof domestic :t1raots. ,The ,prayer$; :of:
Bagdad.      "        ' . '.     . .' . '    . , : '. •
          the:people, and, the 'stern demands, of tlte, heu-
          tenabt' ofth~· Bowid~s, requii-ed 'the' caliph: to'
          provide for· the defence of the ciiy.. The, help- '
          less Mothi replied, that his' arms,· his revenues,
          and his provinces, had been torn from bis'hands,
          and' that h~' was' ready to abdicaie dignity                  a
          which he was unable to support. The emir·
          was inexorable; the furniture of the palace was
          sold; and the' paltry price of forty thousand
          pieces of gold was instantly consumed in pri-
          vateluxury.· But the'apprehensions of Bagdad
          were relieved by the retreat of the Greeks:
          thirst and hunger guarded the desert of Meso-'
          potamia; and the emperor, satiated with glOl'y,
          and laden with oriental spoils, return&d to Con-
          stantinople, and displayed, in his triumph, the
          silk, the aromatics, and three hundred myri,ads
        of   gold and silver. Yet the powers of the East
          had been bent, not 'broken, 'by this b'ansient
          ilurri~ne. After the departure orthe Greeks,
          the ftigitive princes returned to,their capitals;'

         ewe auroque dltislimam (LPo DiaeoD. apnd Pagium, tom. iv, p. 14)..-
         'lbia splendid de.eription 11I1t. oDly with Bagdad, and eannot pOllibly
         apply either to. Hamada, the trne Ecbatana (d'Anvitle, G~og. Ancinne,
          tom. ii, p. '17), or 'fan d., which hal commonly bl'en mlltakl'n for that
          dty. TIle name of Ecbatana, in the ~8D1e imlf'finit .. Sf'nAe, i. tl'Ue-
         fcrr.t'd by a more ..lallie authority (eic-f'ro pro uge Manilil, c. 4), to
         tbe royal leat of Mithridatl'l, kine of J!ontuI,

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                   OF 'I1IE ROMAN DlPDt&                                     ..
the subjects disclaimed their involuntary oaths CRAP.'
of allegiance; the moslems again purified their ~._
temples, and overturned the idols of the saints
and martyrs ; the nestorians and jacobites pre-
ferred a Saracen to an orthodox master; and
the numbers and spirit of the melchites were in-
adequate to the support of the church and state.
Of these extensive conquests, Antioch, with
the cities of CiHcia and the isle of Cypr~,s, was
alone restored, a permanent and useful acces-
sion to the Roman empire.c • .
  C Sf'e the Annal. of Elmacin, Ablllphansiul, and Abnlfeda, froa

A. H. 351, to A; H. 361; and the reign. of Nictphornl Phocu and
John Zimicea, in the Cbronicle. of Zonaral! (t!lm. ii, I. ni, p. 199, J.
xvii, 215), and Crdl"ennl (Com pend. p. 6..9-684). Their mallifold d~ .
feet. are partly lupplied by tbe MS. hietory ufLeo the deacon. wllicll
PaCl obtained fronl the bl'uedietines, and bu inserted almolt e.atn In
• Latiu .l'nion (Critica, tom. iii, p. 871, tom. iy, p. 17)..

                                                         Digitized by   Google
                                   CHAP. LIII.
          State "f tAe eastern empire in tAe tenth century.-
            '&tent and divisiO'll.-Wealth and revenue.-
             Palace qfConstantmople.-Titles and c1fices.-..
            'ride and power of tke empe,·ors.-Tactics .'./
             1M Greeks, Arahs, and Ft'ank8~-LoS8 of tA.e
           . Latin tongue.-8,tudiea and solitude of tlte

 CHAP .   .A RAY of historic     light seems to beam from
...~~~~:... the darkness of the tenth century. We open
Mf'morid with curiosity and respect the royal yo}umes
C:r~~k      of Constantine Porphyrogenitus,· which he
empire.     composed at a mature. age for the instruction
            of bis' son, and which promise to unfold tlie
 'Vorb of state of the Eastern empire, both in peace and
t Ine or- war, both at home and abroad.
,?oDlptan-                                   In the first of
phyroPDio thes~ works he minutely describes the pompous
las.        ceremonies of the church and palace of Con-
            stantinople, according to his own practice and
            that of his predecessors." In the second, he
             • The f'pithet of n,ttvcl)lPll'n(, Porphrogenitas, bora.iD tbe parple,
          i. elegAntly defined by C1andian :              '
                    Ardaa priYatot neJeit fortuna Penatel ; ,
                    EI regnum cum luce dedit. Cognata potelta.
                    EXl"epit Tyrio 'fenerabile pignus in oltro
           And Ducange, io hil Gref'k and LatiD Gloasarirs, prod aces many
          "agaagel nprf'uiYe of tbe same idea.
             ~ A .plf'odid MS. OfCoDltaoline, de CanmooHs ,Ao11!! et Et"cleAil!!
          B)ZIIotinlle, wandered from CODltanlinop)e to Bllda. Fraukfort, aod
          l.eipaie, where it wu publiahed in a splendid edition by Leich alld
          Briske (A. D. 1711, in folio), with Inch slawisb pralle u editors neyer
          fall to batow on tile worthy or worth Ie•• object of tIIeir toi I.

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                    OP THE .oMAN EMMIt&.
attempts au accurate survey 01 the prorinces,                                      CRAP.
the themes, as they were then denominated, both                                   ..!:!!!:..
of Europe and Asia.c The ,systlm of' RoiDan                                             '
tactics, the discipline aDd order'~: 1he tt6opB.
and the military operations by laud 'and' sea,
are explained in the,third'6fthesetliCiaCtic'cel..
lections, which may be ascribed, to Constantine
or his father ;Leo.4 tn·the fourth, or-the aclmi-
ilistration of the empire, 'he reve_ls the lecrets
of the Bymntine policy, in friendly or hostile
intercourse with the nations of the earth~ The
litera,ry tab01lrs of ·thE> age, the practical sy...
terns of law, agriculture, :and history, might reo
dound to the benefit, of the subject, and the ho..
Dour of the Matredooian 'princes. The sixty
books of the Basilica,· the cod, and' paudects
of civil jurisprudence,
  I   .
                                  gradually ·framed

   ~ See,iD the .fint y.,loi11e of Daadnri·, Imperiam Orientale, Co _ _
 tinin. de Tbematibal, p.l.!4 de Adllliniitrando IlDperio, p.46-II7,
edit. Veneto Tbe text of the old edilion orlfeunlaall eorrected CMIII
.11118. of the rG,81lip,ary of Pari., lIhiCh I"ae Ca~..bcID had
JJ !lftn (Epiat. ad Polybi!llll, p. 10), and the lenle i, iUaltrated h,.    two
map. of William Dellule,flae prince of geographen, till the appearl.                        /
lauee of t~e treater d' Anville.              .
    ~ The ta('ti~ of Leo and Conltantine are pnbliJbed with the .id oC
.ome nell MS. in, the great e.ditiou of tbe 1I'0rka of Meanlol, by the
It'arned Jobo Lami, (tolll. vi, p••3-1-810,1111.1417, lI'loi"ent. 1741), yet
 the text il Ititl corrupt Bnd mUtilat.d; the ·nni•• iI 'till oblCn,. .DeI
 Canlty. The imperial library of V~tnna would afford lOme "aloable
 materiab to • new editor (Fabric. Bibliot. Gnee. tom. vi, p. lOt,
   C On the lahject of the Bailie" Fabriciu. (BibUot. Grlec. tom.•11,

 p.W-6U), and HelnecciuI, Hilt. Jari. llomaui, p.896-898), nd
 GiaaRoue (latoria Civile de Napoli, tom. i, p. 450.458), u historical
 civilians, may be oleful1y conlulted. ][101 booka oC thu Greek cod.
"aYe beea poblilhed, with a Latin venin, by Charls Annihal Fa-
 brottu (Paria IM'1), ia leyen toms in folio J jy ..ther boob ba••
 alace been diaconrec!, ad are inserted ia Gerard Ifeerma'a', No...

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96                             THE DECLINE AND V,tU
  CHAP)        in the three ni-flt reigns of that prosperous dye
...       .
  !:~~~~ nasty.' The art o{agriculture had amused the
               Ieisur.e, and exercised the pens, of the best and
               W],est:of 'th'e ,anci~nts; and their chosen pre~
               cepts are coDip~iBed in the twenty books ofthe ,
                GllopOBicl' of Con'sta,ntine~ 'At, his command,
               the ,historical examples ,of'vice :and virtue were
               methodized ,in' ftfty:-threE! book,S,' and every ci·

                tizen might applf,to,hi~ oC)Dte~poraries or him.
               self, tlie, .Jesson Qr tbe,' wa;ming of past times.
                From the a'ugust. chara.cter Qf a legislator, the
               80yere.igD. of ,the: ,E,ast· de"c'~Dds. to the ~ore
               humoJeoffice of a. leacher !ind' a scribe; and if
               his success'ors, ~ild subjects were regardless of
               his. patetnal cares, we may inherit and enjoy
               the,6verf,lsting legacy. .          ,
1'heir i.... •    ~A~:Closel' surv~y,wi1l indeed reduce the value
tioa..         of tbe gift, and the gratitude of posterity: in
               'tbe pc,ssession of these imperial treasures we
               may stIll deplore ,our poverty and ignorance;
               and the fading glories of their authors will be
               obliierated by indifference or contempt. The
               Basilics willaink to a broken copy, a partial

              The.aurul Jun. Civ. et Cuon, tom. v. . Of the whole work, the lillt,
              books, Joba Leuncluinl hal printed (Bull 1516) aa eclopl or
              nopais. Tbe C][lIt nonla, or new law., of Leo, may be fouad in lbe
              Corpu. Juris Ci.i1ia.
                f I ha.e uled the Jut and be.t edition of the Geoponics' (by Nicola
              Nidas, Leip.ic 1781, two vola. in octavo.) I read in the preface. tbat
              the ~ame emperor reatored tbe long-forgotten systeml of rbetoric .aDd
              pbilosophy; and hi. two books of HiPlliatriea, or Horle'phyaic, were
              publisbed at Paria, 1680, in folio (Fabric. Bibliot. Grec. tom. vi, p.
              49HOO).                          .                                     ,
                I  Of the.e Lltl ,books, or titla, oDly two haYe Men preaened ~d
              priuted, de Le,atioDibus (by Fuh'iua Urainu •• Antwerp 1582, and ~
              .liel Hafcheliaa, AUlult. Vindel. 1601). and de VirtntibUl et "itiia
               (lly BeDI')' Valaia •• or de ValOil, Paria 1664).

                                                            Digitized by   Google
                     OF TIm ltOMAH DI"Dr£~                                        97
aDd -.nutitated version in the Greek larigt19~ ,CHAP.
'of.'-ftte'laws of Justinian-,· but: the sense of the' L1ll ...                .~,,~

 ~d':-civilia.ns is often superseded- by -the in-
flbetlee;of bigotry ; and the- -absolute· pr.Ohibi~
 tion of divorce, concubinage,. and interest 'for
money, enslaves the freedom oftradeamJ: the
 happiness of -private -life. -In the historieal
book, a subject of Constantine might admire
1he;inimitable·virtuesof Greec&and-Rome: he
 might learn        to
                    what a pitch of -energy and ele.
"ation -the-human character had formerly as-
prred;But a conttary effect must have been
produced by a'new edition of the lives of the
saints, which the great logothete, or chancellor
'of }he empire, was directed to prepare; and
the dark fund of superstition was enriched-by
the fabulous and florid legends of Simon the
Metllphrast.'4 The merits and miracles of the
whole calendar are of less account in the eyes
of a sage, than- the toil of a single husbandman,
who multiplies the gifts of the Cr~ator, and
supplies the food of his brethren. Yet the roy..
al authors olthe Geoponics were more serious-
ly employed in expounding the precepts ofthe
destroying art, which has been taught since the
days of the Xenophon,' as the arts of heroes
   II The life and writlllJl of Simon ....tu are .scribed bJ
H.nkills (de Scriptorihua B1zant. p. 418-((10). 'l'bi. hiogr.pber of'tbe
- .iutl indulged bimself in .loole p.raphra.e of the sense or nonsenle
elmore-ancient .ctl. Hi. Gre.k. rhetoric i. apln p.r.phraled in tile
LatiD ¥cralon of Suries, .Dd Icareely a tbre.d can be DOW visible of
tbe original texture.
   I According to the firat hook of tbe Cyr!lpedia, profe~sora of' taeljc~)
• Imall part of the IdeDce of war. wcre alre.dy ipstituted iD P~nia,
   VOL.     x.                      H

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98                       'l'Jia" ......"J:;.... ~ inlif.·
 .CIIAIt. JlDd kinp. - Bnt~be 7'acljf;ff~ ~ ...4 Cop.
_~;_8taQtine are ·minglQd ;'¥.itb. ~e baser alloypf
          tlte .,~ in: w,biJlb they Ji1u~d~ I U was de,ptute
          of origiJlal. ~ai"H~;th.y jlllp~tly
          the ~ules .04 Ula,xims:.,hidl·)iad )leen confirm-
        ed .by   ,i~tOl'ies~. \ It was. u·~~kiUedin the pro-
        prj~y     Qf, style ~pd JDethod,; :they bliJldly con-
        fOl1Q.1i ;tb~ mQst dilil.~ant aljld di,cordaDti~stitu­
        .(i()Qs, ~he phalanx Qf Sputa ~n.d, that of Mace-
        ~I)," t\i.e legiPJlB oi~to a~ rrajan, of Augu ..
        t\ltJ an,d )'heodo-"uf!j.. Even tbe use, or a~ least
        fAa iinpor~~c~, of these military ruc;limen~8 may
        ~t>e 4.irly.questiQned: their· ge~eral theory is
        ili~tJlM4 :~y ·re:f.~~p; but t~e [Qerit, as well 8S
        p'ijJj.c;ul~y, coos~ts in the applicatiQn. 'Thedis-
        ciplirJe of a ~old~.· is fprm.e4 by exercise Fa-
        .tlt~r :th~n by litl,ldy: the taJents of a comma~d­
        ~.r ,are .~ppr9-prj"~«l to those ca'lm, , tho~gh ra-
       'pid ~jnd8, wJlic~, nature pfoduceFi to decid;f'
        _th~ fate. qf~rqlie:s ,and. nations: the former .~~
         t~ ~~bit of~ a, tife; the latter the glance oC ~
        JD~p1e~t; ~d. ~~' ~attles wo~ by lessons o.f
         iap~Jc8. may' :b~ J;l.9~b.ered wjth the. ~pic poem,S
        ~r~~fld Cr,om ~,ilju.le~ of Hitici~~. . The koolf
        ,()C:~fem<!~ielfi,s ~ _ref~ta'., t~~ious yet imperfect,
         of ~he c;l~spica~l~ pageaptry which bad infect7
         ed the church and state since the gradual dt:-
        ea.,. of the pt~·rjty ;uf the- one, 'and the 'power of
        .the other. ~ ~eview of 'th:et~~ine~ or provin-
         ces might prQmise such -atbentic and useful
                              I,     •    '."':.'.

        by wbicb Greece muet be 11ndentood. "good edition of an tile
        !lcriptore. Tactici would be a ta~k not ui\worthyof a scbolar. HII
        iadultry miJht discover some new MS. and hislearnlnc might illustrate
        the military history of the ancients. But tbis scholar should be like
        wiae a IOldier; ud, ala! Quiut.1 Jciliua is DO more. . '

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                     O~   TBR ••1IUlI1IIIIm...                                   g~

iotorm,*ion,- as the c"ri().jt~:~~ gpVMlIHPt Dn,. CHAP.
Iy' can obtaiJ),,iostead of t.ra4itjQn~r.y f~J>I~~ ~ ",~!!!;,#
the origin (!)f tbe. cities, and:$ILJ~ ~gJ'AlIW·
on: the vices of.their inbabi. . .I' ~~I) .~.r·
mation the Jaiatoriaa w.ould·· bMJa. '~MA-
to 1 record: ;~ nor ihould hi. silene:, ~. ~m~-
ed;;if· the mo~ interelting'objf3Cts, tQe:~la-
liOll- Of tlJe Clapital and· .pro¥ip~" ~'IJ~UA_
ef the-·a.xesaD(l' re'Yeiluea, the numbens Qf ,1Jb-
jJreta '&trailgel'6 who' Hived undtrthe im-
perial standard, have been unnoticed by .Leo
the philoaopher, aai,l··hi,: ton: ConS~lJtiD~.-
His .treatise 'of ·the public achIJinistration i.
ftai_d 'wjth the aa,me hlemiJhee.: ye~ i~ is dis-
crimiliated bJ 'p,ecul~ar merit : the antiqllitie$
 of' the· natiOWl. "lIlay be doubtful or fabwous ;
 but the .geOgraphy and manners of tw,bJlrbaric
'World &.fe·delineated with curious.accJlracy.-:-
 Of ~hese naliqns, the Franlts.alone. wtre' quali-:'~:~
fted to observe in their turn, ·and to describe, praad.
 the luetropolisof the. East. 1'00 'ambusadol·
of the great Ot!lo, a bishop of. Cremoaa, has
 painted the state. of CQll!tantinople'Mont the
middle of the .t~thcentp~·l __ styI.e is glow-
ing,: his narrative lively, hiB qbsepation keen t
   "~~~,r ~s~r'ijl' that ~~ d'lII~ri~ of\he:~pa,doei~1 ro.e·i~ pre
P9rtion to thel,l' rank aad ru~hel, he iaaertl a 1II0r. pOJDted epllflUD,
-It'irb il ...rilled to DeJqodoeua I ,                   .
           ~~.~,,~..yr' '~Iar" ..~ ~l ~ IIA& .""
         H."".", )'."".,...,.,
                             ct,I-'&,", ..clAir.' . .  .
The ating 18' precisely the·I..... with tbe Preacla ep.gralll aplna' Pre.
!'AP: \JJl ac;r~at apo,d., leA Fft~o_EII: ~~ia7 I.e .el,,!ltD.! CD III~
rnt. nut as tbe Paris wit. are leldom read ia the Anthology, I should
 be curiolls to learn througb what chana.1 it was cODvt'yt'd for iht'ir
'Imitation (Conltantin. Porpbyrogen. de Tbtlllat. Brl1nk. Ana-
tret Grlee. tom. ii p. 66. Brod.i Aathot.gia, I. ii, ,.144).

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100                                    TRR DRCLlNJt' AMD FALLI'
    CHAP~ and even the prejudices and passion. Of Liut- '
    LIII,                                'h      ,',
            pran d are s t amped WIt an orlgInaI c haracter
    . . . . . . .#

           offreedom and genius. From thi.'Hcantj fund

           of foreign and domestic materials I shall in-,
           l'estigate the' form: ana substanCe Of the Byzan-
            tine empire; the proviricesand wealth" the:ci-
            vii government and military force, the charac-
            ter' and; literature, ,of tbe, Greeks I in a, period of'
            six hundred years,:from the reign of Heracliua
            to the: successful: invasion :of the Franks or
The            After the final" :division ,between the, sons of
                eo OSIUS, .. t e ,swarms. 0 f . b :1,b"anans· 'firom
theme., or Th 'd' . ' 'h'·
:fl!~~:;' Scythia and Genn,any overspread the provinces,
!ts every and extinguished . ire of ancient Rome.
    limit.                        the,emp' ' ,
'Ie,       ,];he weakness of Constantinople. was conceal·
            ed by extent of dominion: ,h:er ,limits were in·
            violate, or at least entire'; and the kingdom of
           Justinian was enlarged by the splendid acqui.
           sition of Africa and Italy•. B,ut the possession
           of these new conquests was transient and pre-
           carious; and alm~st a moiety of the eastern
           empire was torn away by the arms of the Sara·
           -cens, Syria and Egypt were oppressed by the
           Arabian caliphs'; and,. after. the reduction of
           Africa, their lieutenants invaded and subdued
           the Roman province which had been changed
           Into the Gothic monarchy,of Spain. The islands
           of the Mediterrailt!an were not ''inaccessible to
           iheir naval powers; and it was from their ex-
           treme stations; the harbours of Crete and the
                       ,I The ~,atio Linlprandi Epiacopi Crem01l,ensis ad Nicephona
                     Phocam. is inlerled In Muratoti, Scriptorel Rfrum Italicarua, ...
                     ii. para, i.                                  .

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                    OF'TJD 1t0RAN DRIU. .                                        101-
fortresses of Cilicia,' tbat the faitbful or rebel CHAP.
emirs insulted tbe majesty, of the tbrone and ...:~~~:.­
capital. The :remaining provinces, under the
obedience.ofthe emperors, were cast into a new
mould; and thejurisdic~ion of tbe presidents,
tbe consulars, and the counts, was superseded'
 by tbe institution of the t/aefM8,·'or military go-
-vernments, which prevailed under tbe succes-
 sors of Heraclius, and are described by tbe pen
 of, the royalauthor. Of.tbe tw:enty;'nine'themes"
 twel ve in, EUl'ope and seventeen in Asia;' the'
 origin is obscure,' tbe etymology doubtful or
 capricious: the limits were arbitrary and fluc- ,
 tuating ; but ~ome particular names, tbat Bouild
 the most strangely to~ our ear, were derived from'
 the character and attributes of the troops that
  were maintained attbe expence, and for the
  guard, of the respective div·isiDns. The vanity
  of the Greek princes most eagerly grasped tbe
  &hadow of cpnque~t, and tbe memory of lost
  dominion. A new Mesopotamia ' was created
  on tbe western side of tbe Euphrates: tbe ap-
  pellationandprmtor of Sicily were transferred
  to a narrow slip of Calabria; and a fragment
  of tbe ducby' of Beneventum was promoted to'
  tbe sty1e ~nd, title of tbe ,tbeme' of :Lombardy.
  In tbe decHne of tbe Arabian e~pire, tbe suc-
  cessors, of .Constantine might indulge tbeir
  pride in more solid advantages. The victories
    .. See CODltaDtiae de Thematib"" in Baaduri, tom. i, p. 1-30, who
 owns, tbat a word ia II. . . .).AIA. 8y&& is nled by. Maurice (Stratagem.
 I. ii, c. 2) for a legion, from whence the Dame wal eaaily tranlferred
 to ils post or province (Ducange, Glo... Gnec. tom. i, p. 487.488)_
 Some etymologiea are aUe.pled tor tbe 0plician, Optimatiau, 1'hra·
 ceaian, thema.'                               '                           ,

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                           fHJIUBfJLtl'lV JllQ) nIL .

~~r.' of N~llotrili; ..hJlin.:Zi.ihilJcest ' ;hJH :Ba~iI the'
,....~... ~econd., rat-ived, the :rarne, a.nd enlarged tbe
          bonndarietl of .tbe ,RoJlJ8D name: ,the provfilce
          of Cilicmt:il1e.metropoliff of 4utiocb, the islands
          of Crete anJi. Cy'Pru8f were' restored to the alle-
          glance of.Chrjltand:Casar i one third of ItaJy
          w~ • .mexed': td ,.... tilton. bf COhstatJtinople,:
          tbe kiagdolh oI;,BulgUia .w,as destroyed; and
          the Ja" I.o.vereigus. dftbe lIaceddnian dynasty
          eIteIlded. . theil, away ~ .'toti} the ,lIoarces of the·
          Tj~is. to the neighbourhood o( Rome. In the
          eleventh' cet.tury,. the ptospett. was 8gain cloQd-
          ed by DeW .. enemfn and .new Iilis/ertanes: the'
          relic•. ol:Ull, wer.e ·...ept away by the Norman
          advetlto~er8 ~8ml almost,all the AMalie bran-
          ches w~e, dis8etered ftOm the Roman trunl
          by tire Trlrkish conquerors. After tllege losses,
          tbe emperbrs of.. dIe. Gomneujan, family conti-
          nued tq reign frOID tbe Danube, to Pelopone-
          sua, and, from Belgrade to Nice; Trebizond,
          aod the winding stream of the M~ander. The
 of Thrace, Macedonia, 'and
          Greece, were,obedierJt to theit sceptre: the pos-
          session Of Cypru., .Rhodes, and Crete, _as aco
          nompanied by the tifty islands of the ~gean or
          Holy iea,· and the' remhant of their empire
         • A)IIOC "~.,,,c, .. it is _tried by the modem Greeb. from which the:
      cdrrDI/t Dam... til Atehilfela.o; rArelripel, aDd the Arclrei, han bHn
      trllllitenaed by jjeo,rap1Jen. add ....fa (d·/tDvill- Geogral'bie A            ..
      cieDoe, tom. i, p.1III1. ADalyae de I. Carte de la Glece, p. 60). TIle
      Dumben. of mODb or caloyera in aU the ialanda and the a«\iul'nt
      mOUDtain of AthOl (Oblervatien. de BrloD, foJ. 32, vrrlo). mOllte .ao-
      to, might ju.. ify the eplthl't (jf holy, a).IOC, a sliliiht altrratioD froni the
      original &.,....",  imposed by tlte Dorian., who, in their diafeet. ,&Y0I
      the Bgurati9to ...ine 0' &.".c, or goat., to the boundiug waves (VOUI• .,
      aplld Cellarium, Geo,raph, ADtill' tom. i, p. 821J).

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             or.•• ROJIAlIl' EIIPD&                                             103·
tran~epd.s .the measure of the' largest of the'                               ctIAP.
Eutopean kingdoms.                                   ..~~~~~,...
   Tbe same princes might IlsseJt with dignity ·Genml
and tra.tli, that of all :the DlOnarchs of ChtisteB- :ne:~:pu.
dam tltey possess~d the greateSt: city:. the most Ioulnen.
amplerevedoe, tire: niostfiottrisD.iog. andpopu-
loug state. ·With 'thedeclineand faU of the.
enipire; the cities; af the West ha.d decayed and
fallen; nor could the ruins or Rome, or· the mud.
walls, .wooden bO'Yels, and narrow precincts, of
Paris and London, prepare the Latin stranger
to contemplate the situation and extent ofCon-·
stantinople, her stately palaces and churches,
and the arts and luxury of aD innumerable peo-
ple. Her tr.easu~es might attract, but her vir-
gin strength had repeUed,.and still promised to
repel. the audacious invasion .of the Pe~sian
a:nd Bulgarian, the Arab and the Russian. The
provinces were less fort1JD~te and impregnable;
aDd few districts, few cities, eould be disco-
vered which had not. been violated by some
fierce barbarian, impatient to despoil, because
he was hopeless to possess. From the age of
Justinian the eastern empire was sinking below
its former level.; the powers of destruction were
more active than those of impronment; 'and
the calamities of war were embittered by the
more permanent evils of civil and ecclesiastical
tyranny. The captive who had escaped from
the barbarians was often stripped and iinpri-
soned by t~e ministers of his sovereign; tile
   • AcconliD, &0. the Jewilh traveUer who had vilitrd Europe ad
Alia, Conltantinople wa. equalled' only by BaCclad, tbe creat cit, of
the II.aelite, (Vo1ll,e de BC!nja..illl de'ludele; par Baratie,. tom. I,
c. i, p. CGl

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104                  THE;DECLINE' AND P(&U. '
  CHAP. Gr~el: superstitioorcHaxed the mind by prayer•.
.._~~~~:._ and emaciated the body by fasting; and the
            multitude 'of convents and festivals diverted
            many hands arid maoy days from the temporal
            service of mankind. Yet the subjects of the
            By~antine empire were still the most dexterous
            and diligent of natioos.; their country was
            blestled by nature with every advantage of soil,
            climate, aud situation; 'and, in the support and
            restoration of the arts, their patient and peace-
            ful temper was IDore useful than tbe warlike
            spirit and feudal 'anarchy of Europe. The pro-
           vinces' that still adhered. to tbeempire were re-
            peopled and enriched by the misfortunes of
            those which were irrecoverably lost. From tbe
            y.oke of the caliphs, . the catholics of Syria,
            Egypt,and Africa,' retired to tbe allegiance of
           tbeir prince, to the society of their brethren:
           ·the moveable' wealth~ which eludes the search
           of oppression, accompanied and alleviated their
           exile; and Constantinople received' into her
           bosom the fugitive trade of Alexandria and
          !,Tyre, The chiefs, :of Armenia and Scythia,
           who fled from hostile or religious persec'ulion,
           were hospitably entertained,: their followers
           were encouraged to. build new' cities~ and to
           cultivate waste lands; and many spots, both in
           Europe and Asia, preserved the name, the
         'manners, or at least tbe memory, of tb~se na:-.
           tional'colonies •. Even tbe tribes,ofbarbasian8.
           who bad seated themselves in arms' on the ter..
           ritory of the empire, were gradually re"clai~ed
           to the laws of the church and state; and a.
           long afjl they were separated from the Greek~,
           theIr posterity supplied a race of faithful and

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                        OF .'I'HK ROMAN EMPIRE.                   '                          105
 obedient soldiers. Did we possess Buftkient. CHAl'.
 materials to survey the· twenly-nine themes 'of ...:~~~!:                                    ..
the Byzantine monarchy, .our curiosity might
be satisfied' with a chosen example: it is fortu-
nate' en01;lgh that the cleare~t Jigh,t .should be
thrown On the mo~t interesting provin~e, arid.
 the name of Peloponesus. will· a waken the at-
 tention of the classicreade~•
   .As early aatheeighth century, i~ the troubled ;~:p:~~
reIgn of the Iconoclasts, Greece, and even Pe- ~ Sela-
I oponesus,P b y. some cI avoman YO.IUII.      .
              .were overrun, S
bands· who 'outstripped the royal standard of
Bulgaria. ,The strangers of old, Gadmus~ and
Danaus, and .Pelops, had planted in that fruit~
ful soil the seeds oT policy and learning; but
the savages of the north eradicated what yet'
remained of tbeir sickly and withered roots.-
In this irroption, the cOllntry and thf' inhabi-
tants were transformed; the Grecian blood was
contaminated; and the proudest noblcs of Pe-
lopon~sus were branded with the names of fo-
reignerK and slaves. By the diligence of suc-
ceeding princes, the land was in some measure
purified from the barbarians; and tbe humble
remnant was bound by an 'oath of obedience,
tribute, and military service, .which they often
renew-ed and often violated. The siege of Pa-
tras was formed by a tlingularconcurrence of
 , ~.!rBM'- h II ....... 6x~""",,,,,, s~, '!ly.'ConataDtioe, (The-:
malibu., I. ii, c. 6, p. 25), 'iJi a style .. ba,bal'Ol1' .. : tile idea, .. bieb
he C0ll61'1111, .. u•• al, by a fOQlish epi'fllbl. The epitomizer of StrabO
likewiae oblern., .... m J....... H!I'I'"" .... E».aa.....X.'....... M.."-,,.·
... n.,."";"w;. .%It..... :Z1l1.'.. ..,..,;.,~. (I. Yii; .p. 98, edit. HadRon): !l ~ ,
'&Ie wbi~b leads Dodw~lI a weary d.pee.(GC!o,rapb. Minor. tom., iit.
di"l\ert. .9;, p. 170.191), to e1lnmerate tbe inroad. of tbe Sclavi, and to'
,~ the dale (A; ·D. 980) of thia pett1,eograpber.                               . ,:. .

                              "   .   ~.

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106,             "       THE DECLINE AND FAU,,·.
  CHAP: the Sclavonians of Peloponesus :ai'id the. Sian...;
..,!:!!:;.cens of Airica. IIi their last distress, a pious
         fiction o(t~e approach of tile pnetor of Gorinth~
         revived the' Coura~e of the citizeDt~ Th:eii' sal. ,
         ]y was hoia and ;u~eSlSful;. thestra~r. em-
         barked, the rebels .8ub'lIricted, ad the; 81fWY. of ,
         the day was ascribed·to' a phantoiftbriutlanger_
     , wpo. fought in. the ·rorembsir8frlc8bl'td~,th~.
         character of St. Aiidrew tHe apostle•., T~ .sltJiDe
         which coptained his relics .
         tlie tr'ophif>s ofvictory, and the captive race WH
       . f~r ever devoted to the ·fle.V'Jce- and ~assalage
         ot,the metropolitan church of, Pat.IT~s •. .By the
         revolt of two Sclavonlan trib~ in the, neigh-:-
         bouj'hood of Helos:and Lt(cedremon, tlie pea~e
        of the peninsula was ~fte". distutbed. They
         sometimes insnlted the, w'eakness; and some-
         times resisted the opptession, of the Byzantine
        governmeut, till at leNgth the approach of their
        hostild breHireb extorted a gold-eh bull to de-
        fine the rights and obligaii(1ns of tbe Ezzerites
        and Milengi, "'hose atmnal tribu.te was defined
        at twelve hundred pieces of gold. ,From these
        str~ngers tlIe imperilil geographel' hasRcc nrate-
        Iy distinguished a dotne$iic and perhaps origi-
        llal race, who, in SODle . degree; tnlgllt deriv~
        their blood from the much.injote« :helots. The
:;~= liberality of the Romatis, a~d espeei~lIy of Au-
Dia.   gustus, bad enfranchised the maritime cities
       from the dominion 0'(, Sparta; and the conti-
       nuance ,of the same' benefit eilDobledibem,wilh
       the title of Bleutkero, or (ree Ld.~onjan's." In
       (he time of ,Co~sta:~ti~e ~orphyrogeDitus, they
       had acquired the name o( Mainotes,imder which
            q Strabon. GroEraph. I. viii, p. 66!.. Pall,aniaa.' Gnec. De.criplio.
         l. iii, c. 21. p. 2M. 265. Plio. Hi.t. NIUlir I. iv, c. 8.

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               OF THE 1tOM~~ '£MPIR~ ,.                          107
 they dishonour th~ clalm:of:liberty by the in.. CltAP.
human pilla~e of 'all ttull is ~b;pwrecked on :..,~~~~~.
their rocky shores. Th@it t~titory', barren of
corn, but fruitrul tif olivas; e;bended to the
cape of Malea: they Ut«!epted~ tmief or ptirice
from the Byzantine prretot, . and a light tribtrte '
 offour hund~ed pieces of gold Was the badge'
01 their immunity rather than Of tl1eir depea+- '
dence. ,Thefreeineil of Lacdnia a~sum~d the
character ofROIDans, arid long' adb~ed to tht,~
religion of the Greeks. By the zeal of the em- .
perot Basil, th~y .were b~ptiz~d itt the faith of
Christ: bui the altar~ tyf Venice and Neptune
bad been crowned by these tusiic votarj~s five
hundred yearS after they were proscribed in the'
Roman ""otId. iii, the theme 01 Pelopone'SllS,r Citift aD.
forty cities were still tnilliliel'M; and 1he declir};. P:l~~::.f
109' state of $partir, AfgOs; anfd Coril1tb,. tuaYb«·III.
 Bllspended iii the tenth ce'iitdrt, at an equal
dista:nce, perLaps;betweeti theit antique ~plen'"
dour and theit present deslJl~tiOti. The doty
ot military service, ~iilier 10 pE!tseil ot hy $l1b-
l!Jtitute, was imposed on the lands or bellefices
of the province: a strtD. of fi1e . pi~es     of gold
was assessed eaeh d(the'sul)sfailtial t~.t1t9 ~
and the same capita.tioit was sbated ambwg
several heads of inferior value. Ofi tbe tn'().i
c1amatioil oC an Ifali~n ",aI', tb~ ·Pe'opo1k&ian.
excu$ed theingelves .bY' ~ Toh1D~~f1 dbltti(m of
one hundred pounds 01 gold (four thousand
pounds sterling), arid a thCiUSaI1d horses with
their arms and trappings. "the churches and
tnonasteties furnished their contingent; a sa...

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108                           THE' DECLINE AND FALL
 CflAP.     erilegious profit was extorted from the sale.of,
   LIlI.         eSlasbcaI honours ; an d the lD d'
            eccI "                            . 1gen t b' hopIS
            of Leucadia" was made, responsible for a pen-
            sion orone hundred pieces of gold,'           , ,
lIanufae-     ,Brit the wealth' of. th~province, and thetl:ust
tnrel,e.pc-                         ' d on, ,1he, fi" an d
e.iallyof of the revenue, were .-fpuQ.d~                  ~l~,
ailk,       plentiful produce :of trade 'a~d m!1Duf.actJlre~;
            and some symptoms of liberal -policy: lll~y' .be
            traced in a law which ex~mptS from a\l per-son-
            al taxes the marinel:s of Peloponesus" and the
            workmen in parchment a~d purple., This de-
            nomination may be fairly applied or extended
            to the manufacturers oflinen,woolleD, and more
            especially of silk: the two former of 'which
            had flourished in Greece since the days of Ho-
            mer; and the last was, introduc~d perhaps as
            early as the reign 'of Justinian. These arts
            which were exercised at Corinth" Thebes,. and
            Argos, afforded food and occupation to a nu-
            merous people: the men, women, and children,                                 I

            were distributed according, to their age and
            strength; and if many of, these were domestic
            slaves" their, masters, who directed the work
            and enjoyed the profit, were of a free and ho-
            nourable condition. The gifts which a rich
            and generous matron of Peloponesus presented
             to the emperor Basil, her adopted son, were
            doubtless fabricated. in the Grecian looms.-
            'Danielis bestowed a carpet of                     fine
                                                      wool, of a
             pattern which imitated the spots of    a . peacock's                 ,

                • The roek of Leucate " .. the southern promODtory of hi, island
              and dioee.e. Had he beeD the exelulive guaMian of tbe Lon....
              Leap, 10 well known to the readenot Owid (Eplat. Sappho) and the
              SpectatQJ:, he mi,ht have been tbe riche.t prelate of tile Greek ehureh.
                • Leneatrnlis mihi juravit episcopu., quo lanni, eecleaiam BUIlD de-
              berr Nict'phoro anreo. centum penolveI't', similiter el cdtru plUl mio'
              DUlYe aeeundllw yird .uas (Liutprand in Lt'gat. p. (89).         . .

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                      OF THE ROMA.N ItMPlltE. :                                         109
  tail, -of a magnitude. to oversprea,d th'e floor of CRAP.
                             ·   b'l
 a new ch urc h , erected '10 te trip e name 0 (LIII._
 Christ, of Michael the arch-angel. 'and of the
 prophet Elijah. She gave six hundred pieees
of silk and linen, of various use and denominal-
lion: the silk' was :painted 'with the Tyrian dye~
 and adorned by the labours of the needle; and
 the linen was so exquisitely fine, that an entire
 piece might be rolled in .the hoUow of a cane.a
 In his description of the Greek manufactures,
 an historian of Sicily discriminates their price,
 according to the weight and quality of the silk, .
 the closeness of the texture, the beauty of. the
 colours, and the taste and materials of the em-
 broidery. A single, or even a double or treble
 thread wall thought sufficient for ,ordinary sale;
 but the uniorl of six threads composed a piece
 of stronger and more costly workmanship.-
  Among the colours, he celebrate.., with affecta-
  tion of eloquence, the fiery blaze of the scarlet,
  and the softer lustre of the green ..The embroi-
 dery· was raised either in silk or gold: the more
 simple ornament of stripes or circles was Bur..
. passed· by the nicer imitation of· flowers : the
 vestments that were fabricated for the palace
 or the. altar often glittered with precious stones;
  and the figures were delineated in strings of,
  oriental pearls."       Till the twelfth century,
  11 See Constantine (in Vito Basil. c. 74,76,76, p. 195, 197, in Script.

post Theopbanem), who allows himself to lI.e mallY technical or bar-
barous worda: barbarons, says he, 'r?J ...'" ••I\AM, ."...elf ",,1\., "., ••, .......
_    ......I\...T.". Ducange labonrs on some; but he was not a weaver.
  a The mllPllfactnrrs of Pall"rmo, aA tbey are drscl'ibf'd by Hllgo
Falc3ndul (Hist. SiclIla ill proem. in MlIJ'atori Script. Rerum Italica-
rum, tom.·v, p. 256), is a copy OftlaOI.! ofGreere. Withont transcribe
iD, bit declamatory .~ntenc,e., whicb 1 have lottened in.tbe te~t, I

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                           fJlE'DECLINE ,AND JJALL

  .cL~t~ :~reece a~e, of ,~n the co~ntries or- ~hl'ist(m!
,,_,,4••m dom,':Was pc>ssellsoo of the llliiect who IS taught
           by: nature; and of the. workmen who are m-
           I!Itmcted lby art,      toprepaare this .elegant I'uxury.
           l!lui th-e: secret' had been $10.1 en lby the dextel'iiy
           tm,El diligen'ce of the Atabs:: ::the caliphs dfthe
           East and West scorned 'to borrf)w from' the un
           belie"ers their furniture alld'apparel';. and: two
           cities of Spain, Almeria and Lisbon, were fa,
          ,.neus for themanufaotuie, tbe uSeJ'and perhaps
tran.port. the el'portation, of silk; It w8s'firstiritroduced
                                                    'd h' '.
ed f r o m , S ' 'I y h' .the N ni 8,D8; an t)S emlgra-
Greece to loto ICI          .Y        ,or
 ~taly.    tiOll of ~rade distinguishes the vidorY'of Roger
           fmul the uniform and fruitless ho,stilities of e\'e·
           l'y'age. After the sack ofCorilith;Ath~ns, and
           ;rheb~s, his lieuteDant emba,rked with a cap~
           tive~raiD ofwea-vers Uld artifi.cers.efboth 8,exes~
           a .trppily gJQDious to' their mastel', and di$gI11ce-
           {uito ;th~Greek .emperor.:t The kiag of Sicily
           ;f/J\(f JtQt·iilsessib.le 0( the value of t:he present;
         .aoil~   h.. tb:e reati.llJion of the pti.on~s, he ae·
         ~tqlted     ,QQI, 'thft:lPalel1nd female l1lt\llwl,lcturers
         ...f:rQ~b.e8 f))l,q:~rinlh~ whQ labc:n~r, "ays tbe
         ~zlL~t\ne ,bif~tpr..~, QQ$ler. a                 barbafOU$ lord,
         ,.:.., .
         ~'hall oblerve, ,that in tb,ia f!l~ag,~ the atr.-.,e word tzar..,a,..t. il
         ~ery properly chaDged for e:r.nthmlata by Carisins, the fint editor.-
        ·"lcllnd,,1i lind a~out the year 1190.                                .
            'I Ind'e ad iDter.iora,Graeci.e pl'ocr,a.iJ Cori,n~~m, Thebu. ~theDal.
         IRtiquA DobiIitate celebres, expuRDant; ef, maximA ibidem praedA ~i.
         reptA, opil\oea eli_m, qni lericol paDnol tt'lEere 10ieDt, ob IgnomiDiam
         Imperatoris illiue euique priDcipil gloriam captiyo. deducuDt. QUOI
         nogt'rills, in Palermo Sicilia Dlt'tropoli collocaDI, artem tt'xendi SOOI
        'C'd,ocl'l'e praecrpit; et cxbine pradieta ars ilia, prius a Gnecie taDt lim
         inter cbristianos babita, RODlaDis patere cCltplt ingeniia (Otho Fril,""
        'gen, de Gestis Frederici I, I. i, c II, iD Muratori Script. Ital. tom. yi,
         1" 668). 'I'bis exception allowl tht' biahop to celebrate Li.bon 2nel
         Almt'ria iD eericorum pannorum opificio pranobiliesima (in ChroD,
         apud Haratori, Annali d'ltalia, tom. ix, p. 415). .

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                       Of; 1~1- JlPMAl!f ' ••~lltE.'                                     111
like. tb~ ~lc1 £ret;.rianlS ip tb~,IJ~rvic~ ofD_riQs.~ C;HAP.,
~ stately edip,ce,jp the;pa,laf;~ of P~er~o. W~8 ,_~~:,..
erected for the'u~~ ,Qf thi' ipdru,;trj,@11j ,colQuy :;a   .'.
and .the a.~t :W~~ pr~MJ*g hyt~~f,;c"ilAr~
and .~iw:i,)~,. ,'9. ~~tjsfy tb~~t!M~iJ)lJ ~maD<~
of 'We, 'w,eJ'tru'~,~w~,.ld." rr~ ~~'-9~:tb~ lQo)Jl8
of Sici1YJDg.Y:~i~l'ib~d ,m·t~:trQubl~, 'Qfthtt
island, 'and til, '~()mpetitiOR of~ ]jt~Jjan cities.
]n the :year ,tbirt~n nJllldt" Jltld fOQrteen,
1.At1;cca' alane" .among hetr. sjtltj:!f repllbJic8, en·
jo.yed the ~Qcrative m~nop~ly/' A QOJIlestic
revolution dispersed the man\lfa.cturer,s of Flo-
rence, B61ogBa, Venice, Milan, and even the
countries beYDn4 the Alps '; and thirteen years
after this event, the statutes of Modena enjoin
the, p~anting of mulberry tr.eel!', ,aDd regulate the
duties on raw silk.c The nortbetnclimates are
less propitio~ ~o the edueation of the silk-
worm; but tJle in~ustry of France and Eng.
land· is supplied.and enriched by the produc-
tions of Italy auf! China.
 . I m~st r.epeat the compl~Dt that the vague
  • N.icetas in NaDual, 1•• iI,.~. ,~, -" ~';' H!! dll8eribe,.~ th~.e Greeb
aa .Iulled '"U'"C .8tW"c it..""" Be IC'~ ...,.,...roIX ......., ftfI' If.....'.,." ..'
    • H,u,o Falc.DUS ltv Ie •. the", nolJiles officilla.. Tbe Arab. bad Dot
iutroducl'd iilk, tbough Ibey bad pl~~ted' canes and made tiugar in the
plain .of Palermo•
 . .' $ee tbe ·Lik 'ot' Cattrucrio CaaticlIDi, 80t by lIachiaveJ, ~ut by hi.
more authentic biograplll~r Nichola,"egl'imi: Muratori, wbo hal in-
.erted io the niuth "olume of hi. Scrilltorel, qGotes thIs cnriool pa..
• • ill·bia Italian .hliq.rjtifl (eom. i, .dia'eFl. ~ltV, p. ~8.)
    • From tbe MS. I'atlltt'll, as thE'Y are qnotf'd by Muratori ill hi. Ita-
Jian Aotiquitie. (tom. ii, di"lert. U1(, p. 46-48).
    • The broad silk manufacture was eatabliihrd ill England in tbe
year 1620 (An(lcnoo'. Chrvlllilogical Dedll~tion, vol. ii, p. 4); bllt It
i. to the rnocation of the edict of Naute. that we owe the Spitalfteldl

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112                            THE DECLINE AND FA.LL'
 CHAP;' and          scantymerllorials df the limes                will
                                                                  not- af':
  1:111; ~.l
~"##-#''''•• loru    any Just estImate 0'f t he' ta«es,''.... ~ revenue.
                           "       •
Revt'nue      and' the resourcesoi the Greek empire. .From'
C:r~~t        f!rery' province 01 Europe arid Asia, the rivulets:
.. mpire.     &(.gold and silverid.ischargecf ildo,'the:imperial;
              reservoir a eop-i()ul!I and perfmnlal stream. The,
              f!eparation ofthebtanchesfrom,tbe trunk in-
              creaSed the relative magnitude of, Constantino-
            , pIe; and the maxims of des·potism contracted
              the state to' the capital, :the capital to the pa-
              lace, and the palace to the, royal person. A
              Jewish ,traveller, 'Who visited. the East iu· the
              h~e1fth century;' is lost. in his admiration of the
              Byzantine riches. ." It is here," says Benjamin.
              of Tndel a, " in the queen of cities, that the. tri-
              ~, butes of the Greek empire are allnu~lly de.
              " posited, and the lofty towers. are- filled with
              " precious magazines of silk, purple, and gold.
              ," It is' said that:CoDstantinople pays each day to
              U,her sQvereign twenty thousand pieces of gold;
              " which are levied on .the shops., taverQs, and
              "Ularkets, gn the, merchants of Persia and
              " Egypt, of Russia and Hungary, of Italy and
              " Spain, who frequent,the capital by sea and
              "land.''' In all pecuniary matters~ the autho-
             rity of a Jew is doubtless respectable; but as
              the three hundred and sixty-five days would
              produce a yearly income exceeding seven mil-
              lions sterling, I am tempted to retrench at least
              the numerous festivals of the Greek calendar.
               • Voyage de Benjamin de Tudele, tom. i, e. fI, p. «-fl2. "hl: He-
            brew text h.. been tranllated intu l~rench by that marvrllolls child
            Paratier, who has added a volume of crude- learni,ng. The ~rrors aJld
            fictions of the Jewish rabbi, are not a ,utlieient ground to den)' tbe
            nality of hit tranll.                                          '

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                       OF THE ROMAli' EMl'IR~.                                          113
'The mass of treasure that was saved by -TLerft~ .eHAlr.
dore and Basil the second, will suggest a splen- ... :~~~~...
did, though indefinite, idea of their supplies and
reS(Hu'ees.           mother d Michael, before sbe
retired to c1oi£, attempb.:"ld to srh0:ck or ex.
       theprodig£zJily           engratefel ren, by
   free end faithflrl ec{::eu&:at the             ",mCb
he inherited; one hundred lrnd nine tbrm%%3ftDd
pounds of gold, and three hundred thou rend
of silver, the fruits of ber own economy and
that of her deceased husband,' The avarice of
         Ir net      rfsnownlrd than his valour and
            : his vidor30,",S         W4'zre plrid and
               withemt             into thn 3:narr
 two h,TKkdred themrand p4:)u&'dr of gnld, (aboRi
 eight millions sterling), which hn hTd buried
 in the subterraneous vaults of. the palacn,!(-
 Such accumulation of treasure is rejected by
 the theory and practice of modern policy; and
 ,Sie Trt: more apt hr compute the national riches
 by the urr aod aLnS0) of the pub Ii %:' credit.-
 Yet th,? maximr of antiq                    embraced
 by mnnarch fqzrmid
 republic respectable to            rUins;
 have attained their respective ends,'
 power and domestic tranquillity,
    \Vhatever might be consumed for the Dresent 1""ur0' and
            or                the future use, of the th; ~pe
          the tirrt     mnrt reeret demand was for r0'if0la
  f  See the continuator of Theophanes (I. iv, p. 101), C"drl'0'l01
,",4), 00nd aon00ras        ii, x 00 ;, p •.%57).          .    .
   • Zonaras tom.     J. xvii,    225), '00.t0:0±d o%: pOH"ds, ua'·@ th00 DI00·05
"Rals;'0 appt>ll@doD of laRents, which, in a literal .ense anc) atrict cem.
r"tati@D, ,*ould m00itipl00 .i00ry [[,id t"" to'0'008U,00 om euSE,


                                                                      ,i,..,i   ~rl ~
 114                        THE   ~CL1IU       AND   .F"LL~

    CHAP. the pomp aDd. plea8ureof th~ ~lIJperor; ..d
  ~....~~_his discretion only c.o.uld define the measure of
             his priVate expeilce. Th~ of COll~talh
             tioople were fa.r reUiovedJr~»Jtbe 'SiI~lplicjty of
          . nature; yet,. willI ~e' re:vol.yWg Sea,~oDs, ~y
             we·r~ led ·by. ta~te.or fashj~' ~ withdra'W to a
             purer air, froDl; the ~mob: aJi~l" t:urnult .of t~e
             capital. '. The!Y' :8njoyed. ·~t ·~ff~qt~d to enjoy,
             the rustic feeuyato{ .the i'j,'ta~: th~ir leisure
             was amused by the e"el.'ci~ 'Qf the chac~ and
            'the calmer occupJttio.b of ' fishing, ~n4 in the
             summer heats they were shaded from the SUD,
            and r.efreshed by the cooling b;r~e~es from the
           'sea. The coast~: a;n.d ish.nd$of A~ia and Eu-
            rope were covered with their ~ifi.p.ent vHlas :
            but, instead of the modest ~rtwbich secl'etly
           strives to hide itself and to decorate the scenery
           of nature, .the. ~~rble structure of their gardens.
           served only to expose the riches of the lord,
           and the labours of the architect. The succes,-
           sive casualties of inheritance and forfeiture had
           rendered the sovereign proprietor of many state-
           ly houses in the city and suburbs. of which
           twelve were appropriated to the ministers of
r  he p;- state; but the great palace,· the centre of the
~~:'~aDt1- imperial residence, was fixed during eleven cen-
lIople.    turies to the same position,' between the hippo-
           drome, the cathedral of St. Sophia, and th~
           gardens, which descended by many a terrace
           to the shores of the Propontis. The primitive

           • For a copious and minute description of the imperial palace, aee
         tbe CODltantinop. Christiana (I. ii, c. 4, p. 113.123) of DucaDge, the
        ,Tillemont of the middle agel. Never haa laborions Germanyprodl1ced
         two Antiquarians more laborious an~ accurate tban. thue two uti,g
        of lively FraDce

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                     OF'TIlE ~M~N.IlMPUt~                                           1 t~
  ~iiee' of t~e first C.~~an.ti~e was ... copy or ~~I1~.
 nnlof anCIent Rom~; ~h~ gr~4~al Improve- _,. u . . . .
 ments'oJ his: Sl1C~S&4j)r$. a~pir~d t~ emulate the'
 wOnders &i the nbi world,! Pll4 i~ th~ ~~~4 ~en-
 tu~, .the Byzantine p~J,q~ ~~J!i~c;I .~~ ~rpira-
 iOOn, atle8.$t oftbe L~jpli. by ~p Wlq~s,tiQna·
 ltw'Pre-eminence of IitreN~h,· ~\z~,; ~n4 magni-
 finence.k Jlllttletoihmdtr~~\l~,?fsqm~nyages
 liawprodueed a vaflt ~~fr~gql~~ p~le; each se-
 ~Jtat8 ,ltuildiil§ W~S ~"ke~ wit~. the charac-
 teE of Che tim~$ aQd: of ~~ Counder; and the
 ivut- qf space, mjgbt ~,c1Jse. th~ reigning Illo-
 Jiarob wlt& delnoli~4t 'pe~~ap~ with se~ret s,a-
 tisf8:ctiiOJI, the wm·ks of his p'redece~sors. The
 ec~DQmy of the· T~.o,philu.s allowed a
more free an~ aPJple Sc=QR~ for 4ls dolDestic lux-
 ury and splenclour~ A. favourite ambassador,
 wJ:ap had astonis~ed the~bhassl-de$ themselves
 by his pride aDd li~era1ity, presented on his re-
turn the JIlodeJ of a palac~ w~ich the cali ph of
Bagdad had recently constructed 011 the banks
oCthe 'figri~. The model was instantly copied
.and surpassed: the new buildings of Theophi-
Ills' were accoJDpanied with gardens, anfl with
  I   The Byzantine palace IlIrpallel the Capitol, the palace of Perga-
lpns, the Rufinian wood        ....
                              < ,.. ..,...~..), the t,mp)e of Adrian !,~Cy­
Uou', the. pyr.."icl., the PbaruI, okc. accordin, to the epigram (An-
tholo,. Oneco 1. iv, p. 488, 489. BrodEi, aplld Wechel) 'ascribed to
Julian, ex· prefect of Egypt. Clf hia epi,1'8III1, lODle ,iVe--
J~,   "1'   ~oll('oted- in BFUnck(A.na1ect. Gnec. tom. ii, p. 491·6111); but
this iA ",anlin,.                 .
   It CQ,nAlanihlopolitanlllR Palatiam non pllichritlldine lolam, veOOlll
C;ti#lJII. fprthpljille, omnibul quu lIulluam videram munitionil.oQs prc-
Ilal (Lilltprand, Hist. I. v, e.9, p. 465).
   I See the anonymoul continuator of Theopbanel (p .. 69, 61, 841).
wllmn I !lave followed in the neat and concilj! abltract of Le BeR,
(Diat. de au. Empire, tom. xiv, p. 436, 438).

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116                THE DECLINE   .\lm ·FALL.
"cHAP. five churches, one o( which 'was conspicuous-
 LIlI.       •       b'                      d .I h
~...,_-for sIze and eauty: It was crowne \vIt 1 t ree
       domes, the roof o( gilt brass reposed on co-
       lumns o( Italian marbles, and the walls were in-
       crusted with marble of various colours. In the
       face o( the church, a semicircular portico, of
       the figure and name of the Greek iigma, . was
       supported by fifteen columns of Phrygian mar-
       1»e, and the subterraneous vaults were of a si-
       milar construction. The square before the sig-
       ma was decorated with a fountain, and the.mar-
       gin of." the basin' was lined and' encompassed
       with plates of silver•.. In the beginning of each
       season~ the basin instead of water was replen-
       ished with the most exquisite fruits, which were
       abandoned to the populace for the entertain-
       inent of the prince. He enjoyed this tumultu-
       ous spectacle from a throne resplendent' with
       gold and gems, which was raised by a marble
       stair-case to the height of a lofty terrace. Be-
       low the throne were seated the officers o( hi"
       guards, the magistrates, the chiefs o( the (ae.
       tions of tlie circus; the inferior steps were ·oc..
       cupied by the people, amI the place below was
       covered with troops of dancers, singers, and
       pantomimes. The square was surrounded by •
       the hall of j ustke, the arsenal, and the various
       offices of business and pleasure; and the pur-
       ple chamber was named (rom the annual dis-
       tribution of robes of scarlet and purple by the
       hand of the empress herself. The long series
       of the apartments was adapted to the seasons,
       and decorated with marble and porphyry, with
       painting,. scul pture, and mosaics, with a pro-

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                    OF THE ROMAN EMPIRR,                                          117
tnsion of gold,' silver, and precious stoneF,-' CB"P;
His fanciful magnificence employed the skill "'~~~#'
and patiencE' of such artists as the' times could
alford; but the taste of Athens would have de-
spised their frivolous and costly labours; a
golden tree with its leaves and branches, which
sheltered a multitude of birds, warbling their:
artificial notes, and two lions of massy gold,
and of the natural size, who looked and roared,
like their brethren of the (orest. The succes-
sors of Theophilus, of the Batilian and Cornne-
Dian dynasties, were not less ambitious ofleav-
ing sonie memorial of their residence; and the
portion oCthe palace most splendid and august;

                                                                               :::a =-
was dignified with the title of the golden tricli-
niu'ln,- With becoming modesty, t~e rich and        i
noble Greeks aspired to imitate their sovereign; tend!...
and when they passed through the streets on
horseback, in their robes o( silk and embroi-
dery, they were mistaken by the children (or
kings.- A matron of Peloponesus: who had
cherished the infant fortunes of Basil the Ma-
cedonian, was excited by tenderness Qr vanity
to visit the greatness of her adopted son. In a
journey of. five hundred miles, from Patras to
  .. In aareo trielinio qae p.... tutior eat pan potentiuimDl ('".
..,.".. Roma...) degena caott>ral partel (JUju) diatriboerat (Liatpraud.
Hi.t. I. v, c. 9, p. <169). For tbis IUlignification ciftricliniom (aedifi-
ciam tria vel plura IlAlt':' Icilicet"",. compleeteiJt)" aee DUCBnge
(GlOlI. Grac. et OblCrYahoDi aur Joinville, p.2.&0), and Reiake (atl
ConstantiDum de Ceremooii., p. 7).                                     _
   • In eqai8 vecti (Iayl B~ojamin ofTodela)relCnm filiia vide~tar per-
limilee. I prefertbe Latin ver.ion of Conltanlioe l'Empereor (p. '6),
to tbe Frencb of Baratier, (tom. i, p. 49).
   • Sl!e the account of ber jOllrney, mUDificence, and teatament, i.
tile life of Buil, by hi, craDd&On CODitaDtine (1. 7<1, 76, 76, p, 191-
mL                                                    -

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118                             THE    D~CI.INE    AND FALL

  l~~~          ~~st~1iltinople, l}(~r age or indo~ence decJined
._,.,,, .. 4   tfte.. iM~~ oLan horse or carrIage: the soft
               lit't« PI: be(j <if Danielis waS transported on the
               shbu1deU. of (,en robust. slaves; and as they
               -were. reJjevedat easy distances, a band of three
               h.4redwBtt selected for the purpose of this
               Mrlree.. She was entettained in the Byzantin~
               pfah~e. with mia-I re\'erence, and ,th~ honours
               df.a "q,; Bllli. wbalE>v~r wight be the origlD
               of ~ weall'b, .her gifts wece. not unworthy (l f
               the mgal diglli(,... I have alr.ef4dy des:cribe~
               the Ane "flQ c.ri~us manufactures .of Pelopc-
               ~u~,.ef linen,Ailk, ~nd weoUeD; but the most
               al!ceptabJe ()( b. p.resents consisted ill three
               hundj"oo beautifpt :yout~ of whom' one hun·
                dred w¢re eunuchs;P "for she was not igno-
               " rant," says the historian, "that the air of the
               u palac~ i~ mor~coogeDial to such insects, than

                " a shepherd'fI .diary to the flies of the sum·
               "mer." Durmg her lifetime, she bestowed the
               ,reate~ part of bel' e.sta~es in Peloponesus, and
                hel" t~tament in~tituted Leo. tbe ~on of Basil,
                her universal heb". After the payment of the
               legacies, fourscere viUa~. or farms were added
               to. the imperial domain; and three thousand

                slaves of Danielis were enfranchised by their
                       lord; and transplanted as a colony to the
                Italian coast. From this example of a private
               matron, we may estimate the wealth and mag-

                  . ' C~ <uetlf"bc. D._lIge, GIOII.) Graci YOU_t, amput.-
                tis ..irilibua et ..ire', puerum euaur-bum quOi VerdllDenlea mere.tene
               ob immenium lucrum facere loleut et iD Hi.puium ilucere (Liut.
               ,rand, 1. vi, c. 3, p. 4'10).-The lut abomlDatioa of tbe abomillllitle
               .lave· trade! Yet I am .orl'riled to 'ad in the t~th c:eJltury Iud!
               actin IpeculatiODI 01 commerce iD LorraiDe.

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                   01"78 IU'.AN EJlPIltE;· -                                     1HI
niicmcc! df tbe empel"ors. Yet ODr enjoy- cttAP.
ments are confined' by a narrow circle; and. #I"~~~~~""
wHatsoever may be its value, the luxury oflife .
is possessed with more innocence and safety by
the master of his own, tban by the steward of
the public, fortune.
   In an absolute go:verDloent, which leTeIs the HcinODII
d Istinctions of no bI e an d p I eb' b' th , til e so- \:If tbe illl'
  ' , .'                   .        elan Ir             and title'

vereigI1 is the sole fountain ()f honour; and the ~i~~1 fa.
rank, both in the palace and the empire, de-
peqds on the titles and offices which are be-
stowed and resumed by his arbitral'Y will.-
Above a thousand years, flom Vespasian to·
Alexis Comnen,os,q the Ctesdr was the second
person, or at least the ~cond, degree, after the
supreme title of Augtist., was more freely com-
municated to the SODS and brothers of the reign-
ing monarch. To elude, without viola:ting his
promise to apowerfol associate, the husband
en his sister; and, without giving himself an
equal, to reward the piety of his brother Isaac,
 the' crafty Alexius interposed a 'new and super-
eminent dignity. The happy flexibility of the
 Greek tongue allowed him to compound the
names of Augustus and emperor (sebastos and
 autocrator), and the union produced the sono-
 rous title of sebaitocrat'o,'. ' He was exalted
 above the Cresar on the first step of the throne;
 the' public acclamations repefih~d his name;
 and he was only distinguished from the sove";
  .. See the Alexiad (I. iii, p. 78, 79) uf Alina Comnl'Da, who, except
in filial piety, may be l'ompared to Mademoiselle de MontpeDsier, In
ber awful reverence for titles and forma, abe styles ber father i1l',""
IA".CX~" the inventor of this royal a1'f, the 'fiX" 'fIX'IH, aDd 11r1(llf&.
-C"'If<-' ,

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1!W                         THE DECUIftl AND PALL "
 CL~tr.   reign by some peculiar ornament of the heaa·
......-u and    feet. . The emperor alone could assume
          the purple or red buskins, and the close dia-'
          dem or tiara, which imitated the fashion ,of the
          Persian kings: It was an high pyramidal cap
          of cloth or silk, almost concealed by a. profu- ,
          sion of pearls aildjewels: the crown was form-
          ed by an horizontal circle and two arches of
          gold: at the summit, the point oftheir intersec-
          tion, was placed a globe or cross, and two'
          strings or -lappets of pearl depended on eitber
          cheek. Instead of red, the buskins of the Se-
          bastocrator and Cresar, were green; and on
          their open coronets or crowns, the precious
          gems were more sparingly distributed. Beside
          and below the Cresar the fancy of Alexis creat-
          ed the panhyp,r,eiJaltfJI and the protoseiJaslos, ,:
          whose sound and signification will satisfy a
          Grecian ear; They imply a superiority and a
          priority above the simple name of Augustus;
          and this sacred and primitive title of the Ro-
          man prince was degraded to the kinsman and
          servants of the Byzantine court. The daugh-
          ter of Alexius applauds, with fond complacen-
          cy, this artful gradation of hopes anq honours;
          but .the science of words is accessible to the
          meanest capacity; and this v;,Lin dictionary'
          was easily enriched by the pride of his succes- .
          sotS. To their favourite sons.or'brothers, they                         J

          imparted the more lofty appellation of lord or
             r %7.",,", ~t&''', ~..h,"; lee Reiake, ad Ceremoniale, p. 14, 11,
          Docaage haa ginn a learned di~.eftation on the Cfowns of Conltanti·
          nopLe, Rome, France, &c. (IOf JoiOYille, xxv, p. 289-303) j but ofbia
          tlUl·ty~four modell, Dooe esactly tally with Anne', deacription.

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                or THE ROIIAH EMPJU.                       121
  tiegpot, wJiich was illustrated with1Jew oroa- CH.tP.
  ments an d prerogatives, and I d 'Immed'
                        .        pace           late- •••LlII.
  Iy after the person of the emperor himself.-               .
  The fiTe titles of 1, Despot; 2, Sebastocrator;
  3, ClSsar; 4, PanAypersubastor; and, 6, Proto-
  sebastos; were usually confined to the princes
  of bis blood: they were the emanations of his
  majesty; but as they exercised no regular
  functions, their existence was useless, and their
  authority precarious.
, But in every monarchy the substantial pow- Ofticen oc.
                    .        b' .            d        tbe palace.
  ers 0 f governmentmust e dIvided an exer- tbe Itate,
     .              ..
'elsedb y t he mlDlsters 0 fth e paIace an d trea- .....,.

  sury, the Beet and army. The titles alone ~an
   differ; and in the revolution.of ages, the counts
   and prefects, the pnetor and qUEstor, insensi-
   bly descended, while their 'servants rose above
   their heads to the first honours of the state.-
   1, In a monarchy, which refers every object to
   the person of the prince, the care and ceremo-
   nies of the palace form the most respectable
   department. The cil.ropalata,· 80 illustrious in
   the age of Justinian, was supplanted by the
  protovestiare, whose primitive functions were
   limited to the custody of the wardrobe. FrQm
   thence his jurisdiction was extended over the
   numerous menials of pomp and luxury; and:

    • Para eXltaua cnrie, 1010 diademete dlapar
      Ordine pro rerum l'oc:itatnl Cure PalGti;
  layl tile African Corippul (de Laadibal Jaatini, I. i, lSlI); and in the
  lame century (the .illth), Casliodora. reprelentl him, wbo, l'irgl allrel
  decorat"., inter nameroaa obarqnia primal ante pedel r('gil iacede.
  ret (Variar. l'ii,6). But thil great olicer, anll",,","o, nl'reisinc ne
  (unction "" a• ..0.,.....,
                         was cast dOWD by tile model'll Greek! to tbe .f  •
  ...ath raak (Codiu. c. 6, p. 116).

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Ji2'                             Tn DULIn AND FAW
 CHAP.      be    pt~side:d
                          with his siITet wand at the public
                 ptivate audieD:ce. 2, In the anc~ent system
....~..~I~.... and
            of Constantine, the name of (ogotnete, or ac-
                ntant, was applied ,to the receiv.ers of tile
            finances: the prindpal officers were disting1ti~h­
           ed as the h1gothete!i of the domain, ofth,e.,pnsts.
           the army, the private and pu~'lic. treas8'r~; anti
           the great IDgotkele, the sdllreme·. guardian', &f.
           the laws and rev.enues" iscompar.ed witlr:the
           chancellor of the Latin monarcbies.t His, die-'
           cernillg .6ye pervaded tliecivilad~uisiiatidb ;
           and he was assisted; in due subordination. by,
           the 9parch or prefect of the city~ the fitst se-
           cretary" and tbe Itt!eper~ of the priv, seal, th&'
           archives; dnd.the'red or purple ink:which was
           reserved for the satred signature of the empe.-
           ror alone.- The introductol and interpreter of.
           foreign ambassadors were the great cilia_x and
           the dragomMl,'1 two nanles of Turkish origin,
           and which are still familiar to' the sublime
             .N"aeetai (Ia
             t               Milliael. I. "ii,   c. i),   defioel lalm   tIC' 1oAtr".. .-   Ka)'-
           uAoIf"', .c·a'E,.,.,,"c __ .AeJI'II-. Yet the epitbetof fAI'Y"C.U added
          by, the elder AndrooitDl (Docanre, tOIll. i. p.8lt, 8tS).                 "
              • I'I'ftI Leo I, (A. D. 4"0) 'tlie iJDperiallok, which i. 'till "ilible eo
          lOIIIe origioal a&tI, .u a .iatare of Yennillion and eiooabar, or pu..
          pie. The emperor'l ,aareliaos, who .bared io this preroptive. alWI,.
           JIIarked In green Ink the iDdietiOllt udthe lIIooth. See the Dictio..
           IIIre Diplomatiqoe (telll. i, p. 111-111), a nlaable abrid,emeat••
              • The Sultan .eot a %""ic to Aiealul (ADDa ColDlleDa,I. n, p. 170.
           Docaole ad loc.); aDd PachYlller OfleD lpeakl of the fAI'IAf <rCA' (I.
           "ii,  c. 1. I. ail. c. 10. L aiji. c. ti). The Cbiaouh dl.ha illIOw at the
           head of 700 oflicen (Ryc.ut.. Ottoman Empire, p. "'V, octa"o edi-
              'I  T4I,._     i, the Arabic Dame of an ioterpreter (d'Berbelot, p. SS4,
          SS6). ,,~ T"" 'U''''''''' We l&tmfC ...,...cllrl Jr.""""''''' _YI Cod~UI (c. Y,
          N-. 10, p. 61). See Villeharclooin (N". 116). BOlbetIuiuI (Epist. i,,; p-
           IS8), aDd Ducao,e (ObaenatioDllDr VilIehardouiD, aod GIGlIo Grac-
          .t Latia).

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                     OP :THE ltOMt\Z'{ £ftt~ftt'+,                                 123
Porte. 3,F1'0Dl t~eJtUID~ ~tY.~1 atlq:Jiervic~· CflAP.
of guards, tuu. ~J~ lDtJe.P.iwIJ{ ~~E! t'0,. e .~,.~......
              L_ ~..:.-~.     '.
                                                 +h LIII.
station of generalii.~ the of the
East and West, tbe legioati 0{ Eurol'e "nd Asia,
were often divi~1I till tHe g.reat domestic. w~s
finally invested 1rith the.univers~l.aod absolute
commarld- of the;J.alul rorces. .,ostrtitor,
in his original functions, was the assis~ADt of
the emperor _bed h.moubted. :(m' h61'seback:
he grad~aliy. btlcl.mie tM lieutlenarit of ~he great
domestic in the fielp., ,and .hi. jurisdiction ex-
tended ove!"' thl:! .stab~ . the ca?alry, tad the
royai train of huntin'g and bawking. Tbeslr.
topeddrck ~a$ theg~tjud~eofthe cbmp; the.
protospatltaire cottlinanded the gUJlr.ds; the CO~
stahle,· the great /e~ria~ck, and the aCQlyt"" were
the separate cl1ieN·of tbe Frank~ the barb~
rians, and tPte. Var.iltigi. or English, theme~e-
nary strangers, 'Wbo, in the decay of t~ na-
tional spirit; formedtbe nerve of the Btzantine
armies. 4, The naval powers were under the
great duke; in his absence they obeyed tlte
great dmngair.e of the fleet; and, in Ai, place
the emir, or arimittJl, b. name of Saracen extraco.
tion,' but which has been naturalized in all the
modem labgUuges .of Europe. or· the$e om..
eers, and of Ihany mote whom it would hens&-
less to enumerate, t~e civil and military hier-
arebywas fram~(t Their honours and emolu-
   ;. ItIr~A..)..r, 'or IIm'fc"A""or, a corruption (rom the Latin Comel Itabli.
li, .r. tbe French Colldtable. In a military sense', it was used by the
Greeka in tbe eleventb century, at least as eaJ'ly as in France,
   • It W35 directly borrowl-d from tbe Normans, In tbe twelfth cen·
tury, ofaD none reckoDi the admiral o(Sicily among the ,reat officer••

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    Ii"                            THE DECUNE AND FALI'o .
     CHAP.'     ments, their dress and titles, their,mutual saID-
      LIII.        •      d          .          .          . b
    ."'."''' tatIons an respectIve pre-emmence, were a-
                lanced with more exquisite labour than would
                have fixed the constitution of a free people;
                and the code' was almost perfect when this
                baseless fabric, the monument of pride and
                servitude, was for ,ever buried in the ruins of
                the empire.'
•   :fd::.,:~:     The most ioftytitles, and the .Dlost humble
    peror.      postures,which devotion has applied to the
               supreme Being, have been prostituted by flat-
               tery and fear to creatures of the same nature
                with ourselves. The mode of adoration,C o( faI·
                ling prostrate on tbe ground,: and kissing the
               feet of the emperor, was borrowed by Diode-
               sian from Persian servitude; but it was conti-
               nued and aggravated till the last age of the
               Greek monarchy. Excepting only on Sundays,
               when it was waved, from a motive of religious
               pride, this humiliating reverence was exacted
               from all who entered the royal presence, from
               the princes invested 'with the diadem and pur-
               ple, and from the ambassador!!! who represent-
               ed their independent soverE!igns, 'the caliphs of
               Asia, Egypt, or Spain, the kings of France and
               Italy, and the Latin emperors of ancient Rome.
               In his transaction of business, Liutprand,bishop
                .. Thil sketch of hODourl aDd ofIica i. drawD (rOID George CodiuuI
              Curopalilta. who lurvivf'd tbe takiDC of ConltantiDople b)' the Turu i
              his elaborate though triilinc work (de Officiis Eccleaia et .Aula G•••)
              .... beeD illultrated b)' the Dotel of Goar, aud the three book. of Gret-
              ler. alearDed Jesuit•.
                 • The respectful salutahon of earryinc the haud to the mouth. '"' fl.
              i. the root of the Latin word. a4oro cdorare. See our leuDed Seldep
              (vol. iii, p. 143·14S.H2). in his ~ltJe. of Honour. It lel!lDI. from the
              6"st books of Herodotu., to be of Penian oriCia.

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                   OF THE ROMAN EMPIR& .                                  lt6 .
of Cremona,· as~erted .the free spirit of a Frank CHAP.
and the dignity of his master Otho. Yet his ~~~~:...
sincerity cannot disguise the abasement of the Rrrrptioa
first audience. ,When he approached the ::d~~'"
throne, the birds of the golden tree began to
warble their notes, which were accompanied
by the roarings of the two lions of gold. With
his two companions,Liutprand was· compelled
to bow and to fall prostrate; and thrice he
touched the ground with his forehead. He
arose,. but in the short interval, the throne had
been hoisted by an engine from the floor to tbe
cieling, the imperial figure appeared in new and
more gorgeous apparel, an~ the interview was
concluded in haughty and majestic silence.-
In this honest and curious narrative the bishop
of Cremona represents the ceremonies of the
Byzantine court, which are still practised in
the sublime Porte, and which were preserved in
ihe last age by the dukes of Muscovy or Rus
sia. . After a long journey by the sea and land,
from Venice to Constantinople, the ambassador
halted at the golden gate, till he was conduct-
ed by the 'formal officers to the 'hospitable pa-
lace prepared for his reception; but this pa-
lace was a prison, and his jealous keepers pro-
hibited all social'intercourse either 'with stran-
gers or natives~ . 'At his first audience, he of-
fered the gifts ·of his master, slaves, and golden
vases, and costly armour. The ostentatious
payment of the officers and troops displayed
   • The two emba.aiel of LiutpraDd to CoDltantiDople. AlJ that he
Ia" or .nlFered in the Greek capital, are pleuantly de.cribed by hi_
Ielf(Hiat. L ...i, c. 1'"', p. 461M71. IAlatio ad Nicephorom Phocla,
p.47fM!1V).                                                    .

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128                       TJJ&       PECLINE ANI> PAJ.L
   .CH-\I R• before hi$ ~ye$ ~he riches of t.he empire: he.
"•.",. .••• was eQtert~lfled 1Lt a royaanquet, '. \'V h; h
    LII •                      .                  l b · In           Ie
              the l\lJll>.ai~f1d.or!1l of t}le ~~tiQn~ w~re marshelled.
              1.y th~ est~em qr C()qtelllp't Qfthe. Greelc.s :. from.
              his QWQ ta.~~,~ ~~~ 'emperpr, as the most signal
              favoQr(~~Ilt th~. p.J8:~e~ ~hi.~h q~ had tasted;
              a~ hi~' f~\lou.r~telll· 'wer~ q;~isse«J \Vit~ a, robe
              pf hpnou,,!    'n        ~4e mPlning and evening of
              el\ch· 4f1Y, lJh~ r;iyiJ apd p::1ili~~ry servants attend.-.
              ad th~ir du~y in the Ral~c~; lheir labQ~r 'Yas
              t~p~id by t4e sight, perhaps by the smile, of
              th~ir JQrd; Itj!5 cQIP,man,ds were signifjed by a
              nog Qr ~ ~ign; ~ut all earthly greatn~ss stood
Proc~..       liiJ~nt a,nll submissive iQ his presence. In his
• ionr and
acclama- ... Jar or f-lxtraordipary processions through
              th~' capHA-l, h~ unveiled his person to th~ pub.
              11<: V'j~w : . the ri~es of policy were connected'
              ~i H~! JhQ~e of religion, and his visits to the pri...
              ~iJ1~J 'i!b,.urches were regulated by the festivals
             qf.t~e Orf-lek calendar. On t~e ~ve of these
             pr,oc,essjQns, the gracious or devout inte~tion
             ~f ~h,e IIlpn~rch was proclaimed by the heralds.
             1't\~·~treets were cleared and purifieq; the
             I>fl:verpent was strewed with flowers; the most
             »,recious furniture, the gold and silver plate,
             apd sil~en hangings, were displayed from the
             windows and balconies, and a severe discipline
             .restrained and silenced the tumult o! the popu-
            • Arnone the amulement. olthe leut, a boy balanced, on bl. (ore- .
         head, a pUle, or pole, twenlJ·foar leet lone, wit.. a crop bar of two
         r.ubiA • little below the top. Two bo,.., naked, thollgh dDctllred:
         (eomputrati) toeether, aDd liDeI~, climbed, .tood, played, de.r.ended,
         &c. ita me .tipudum redidit: utrum mirabiliut Ducio (p. 470). At
         aDother r~pa.t ilD homily of Chrysostom OD the Acb of the Apostle.
         wa. read elata voce DOD LatiDe (p. 488).
            f Gala i. not improperly derived from Cala, or Caloat, ia Arabic, a
         robe of h ".ur (a"iak~, Not. iDCerem~ .• tIf)

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                        OP7J'RK 'KaMAN DWlRL                                               121
~e. ,TheiJla~h'.w~s oPtm~q             ,by the nWitary                                   CHAP.
officeJls ~t: the 'qead .of their;.: tbevwere                                  .;;1lI:_
followed lm lpng'mder hy tb~ 'ml\gistrat~ p.nd
ministerS of: the civil· government: the per~OJl
of' tbe ~mperor :wa1l .guarded· .by his eunuch,
and domestics, the church dQQr h~. wa$
solemnly rwived by the 'patrillrch an~ hill
de,gy. .Tj1.etas\c of :applaJJI.e Wl\~ not aban-
dmled to·the llude andspon~n~llS voices of
the crowd. The most ~QIiveniel1t statiOD$ were
o(:Cupied by the bands'of the blue and green
.factions of the cireus; and their furious con~
Bicts, which' had shaken the capital, were in-
sensibly sunk ·to an .emulation of servitude.-
 From either side·thBy echoed. in responsif.e Die-
:Jody tbe praises' of: the emperor; their poets
-and musicians directed the choir, and long lif~
and victory were the burllen of every song.~
 The same acclamations were performed at the
 audience," the .banquet, and the church; and
as an evidence' of boundless sway, they were
-repeated in the Win,· Gothic, Persian, French,
and even English language" .by the mercenaries
 who sustained the real or fictitious character
of those nations.. By the pen of Constantine
Porphyrogenitus, this s.cience of form and flat-
tery has been reduced into a pompous and trif-
 • n.1."Xe"~••, ia uplained        by.~I'"t."     (CodiD. c. 1, Docange, Gloli.
Gnec. tom. i, po 1199.
  .. r,"""tS.T   A.IIC ;,~"",."~ S"'f",.....s",Ttp ftc "¥''''f-S~'om A.,..", H~"',,­
'"Cfc.' ~"1.Toc ''''oc (Ceremon. c. 15, p. 210). The waDt ofthe Latin Y,
obliged tbe Grerks to employ their S; Dor do they regard quaDtity.-
Till he ncollected the true language, thele Itranle lentencel migilt
puzzle a professor.
  • B41C""""   ."T" 'I'll' ""T,"" )'"_",,, .... vor" ,,,IIf.   1",1.",,", ...hxe"'~""
(Codin. p. 90). I wi.h be had prelerved the             WOrdl,   however corrupt,
of their Engliah acclamatioD.

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128                            THE DECLINE AND PALL
 ·'i~tr.·    ling volume,1t which the vanity of succeeding
_.~.,,,..    times might enrich with an ample supplement.
             Yet the calmer. reflection of a prince would
            surely suggest, that the same acclamations were
             applied to every character and every reign;
            and if he had risen from a private rank, he might
             remember, that his own voice had been the
             ll)udest and most eager in applause, at the very
             moment when he envi~d the fortune, or COD-
            spired against the life, of his predecessor!
M.rri.p         The princes of the north'of the natioDs, says
ortbe ee·              .
..... witb Constantme, WIt out
                              .h     fa' h or lame, were am b'
                                       It     ~
~?~ Da· tious of mingling their bl~od with the blood of
            the Cresars, by their marriage with a royal vir-
            gin, or by the nuptials of .tht:ir daughters with
            a Roman prince.- The aged monarcb, in his
            instructions to his son, reveals the secret max-
           'ims of policy and pride,and suggests the most
            decent reasons for refusing these· insolent and
            unreasonable demands. Every animal, says
            the discreet emperor, is prompted by nature to
            seek a mate among the animals of his own spe-
            cies; and the human species is divided into va-
            rious tribel'l, by tbe.distinction oflanguage, re-
            ligion, and manners. A just regard to the pu-
                It For all ItU!'e ctremoDies, lee the proressed work of CODII.otine
             Porphyrorl'nitlll, with the Dotel, o~ ratber dil••rtatioDs, of hi a Gfrm.o
             t'ditor., Lt'ich and Rti&kt. For the raDk of the Ifndiftg courtiers, p.
            ·89, Dot. 23, 62; for tbe adoratioD, on Sunday., p. 95, 240, not.
             131 ; tbe proerlsionl, p. 2, &c. not. p. 3. &c. ; the acrtamalioll, pI&-
            ~itnJ not. 25, &c.; tbt factioD' ar.d hippodrom., p.111.214, DOt. 9. SIS,
             &r.; the Gotbie gamel, p. 121, not. 111 ; yinlac., p.211, 001.1011 J
            IJInrb more informatioD is scattertd enr the work.
               1 Et prinlo Otboni Dllper eadrm dicenli nota adolatlo (Tacit. BilL
               • Tbe thirteentb chapt.r, de AdministratioD# Imperii, may be ex-
             plained and rectified by the Familia B)'ZlntiJlIt of Docange.

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                     01' THE KOHAN BHPIllE,                                      1~
  rity.of descentpreserves the harm~ny of public CHAP.
  an d pnvat e I'e b ~ t t e mixture 0 f '.Iiorelgn ",,,~._••
           .      Ile;         h'                     LIII.
  blood is ,the ft:ui~ful source ~f disorder and dis-         .
  cord. Such, Lad. ever been the opinion and
  practice of the. sage R~mans --: their jurispru-
'dence p'roscribed the marri~ge of a citizen and
·a str~nger: in the days of freedom and virtue,
·a senator would have scorned. to match his
  daughter with a king: the glory of Mark An.
  tony' was sullied by an Eg.yptian wife;" and'
  the emperor. Titus ;was compelled, bJ-t>opular
. censure; to dismiss' with. reluCtance the reluc-
·tant.Berenice.-, This.~perpetual interdict was
 :ratified: bythe'fahu.lbus H8nc\!on of the great
·Constuntiue~ ; Theamli8ss.adois orthe nations,
:more especiallY- oHhe:un,be1ieNihg nations, were
'solemnly, admonished, .that .such strange·alIian-
·ces had been cnndemned: by the. founder of the
  church and city. : The irrevocable law was in-:Imacinar)
· scribed on the altar ofSt~ S&phia; and the iDl- ~;:~•.
  pious prince who should stain the majesty of tine.
  the purple was excluded'fromthe civil and ec-
  clesiastical communion of th~ Romans. If the
· ambassadors were ins-tructed by any £alf;e bre.
  thren in the Byzantine h]sto~y, they might pro.
·duce three memorable examples oCthe viola-
                                                         '      .

       Sequitllrque nelas lEgyptia conjunx (virgil, lEneid yiii, 6SS).~
  Yet tbis Egyptian wife was the daughter of a long line of kiuga.-
  Quid temutavit (~aYI Antouy ill aprivate letter to Augultna) anquud
  reginam iuro? Uxor mea est (Surtou. in Augu.t. c. 69): Yet I much
  '1l1estion (for I cannot Itayto inqnire), whether the triumvir eur dared,
  to celebrate his manillge either witb Roman or Egyptian·rites.
     • Berenicem invitu. iuvitam dimisit (Suetoniul in Tito, c. 1). Hne
  I ciblerud elsewhere, that this Jewisb beanty was at thil time above
  fifty yeara of age? The judicious Racine hu mOlt discreetly luppre..
• .ei- both her .ge .and her country.                              •.
         VOL.X~                      K

                                                               Digitized by   Google
 130TD'DRCLDtE-.t> PAi.L

  CHAP.      tion of this imaginary la.... : the lIDal'ri. iOt
  ...,~:•• Leo, or r&therof his fatb~r (Jonataatine the
            -fourth, with 'the daughter -of the king of the
             Ohozars, the 'nuptials off1te 19ran4-dallgbter l{){
             Romanus with a Bulgarian prince,.and "the
             union of Bertha of:France oriltaly with ye1lDg
             Bomanus, the 'son of COhlll_nti_ Porphyrbge-
             nitu!; himseJf. To these :dbjeotiolls:dlree ,an-
            'sweJ's were prepared, which-solved -the diflicnt.
  The fint ty'aitd established tbe law. I. The :de.ed and
  ~~c:~~::: the gunt {)f Constantine Copronymus were ,ac-
             knowledged. The Iaaurian heretic, who nl·
             lied the 'baptismal -font, and declared war a-
             gainst the haly :images, had indeed embraced,a
             harbarian 'wife. By this impious alliance             he
            'acoomplisbed the m~.1U'e of his crimes, and
             was devoted:to the just tens.e,of the church
  Thuc< 'and,or posterity. II. Romanll8 could not be
 ,::'041.    alleged as a legitimate -emperor; he was a ple-
             beian usnrper,.ignorantofthelaws, and regard-
             less of the honour of the :monar.chy. lIis son
             Oliristdpher,'thefit..ther of t4ebride, 'Was t1~e
             third in rank in the coll~e,of :princes, at ~nce
             the subject and the ac~ompliqe-of a rebelliou;s
             parent. The Bulgarians-were sincere and de-
             vout christians; and the safety of, theempir~,
             with the red'emption of many thousand captives,
             depended on this preposterous alliance. Yet
             no consideration could dispense from the law
             of Constantine : the clergy, the'senate, and the
            people, disapproved the conduct of Romanus ;
            and he was reproached, both in his life and
            death, as the author of the public disgrace.-
'Thr third, III. For the marriage of his own son with the
 A, D.'(I. daughter of Hugo, king of Italy, a more ho-

                                           Digitized by   Google
                      111E4; Jl9~t\N ~}i~r~lt:?
 .~u~able .d~fenc~ is CQntriE4;ed RY ~b~'l¥~~ Jim:, q~'ln.
 ~h¥4:ygeI33tus. Consta-ntme, the ~reat ~Qd holy, . . .J!
 h~t¥~~ itl<=' figeliyy . v<=,h,le d ~he 'F~·'![1~./-"-~"--:·
~~ pj~ prophetic spirit h,eheld ,th~ vj~!~~ij.f.'
 'lhe~t J!ltyr~                     TY4ty <=,Ion<=' ~ef4: ,e~.
-~~~ ,(rpm the general prohjbit~9.n; ~tJ~A'
,~WY Pof                tteS         Ijneal Fes~':4:'~qmlt ,Ol
~qarle~i\g~~ .;q ~~d his da~gh~er ~erth;1 j,n.l,I:e.-
.y~y~ ~~t·.pr~tf4g~~ites           ~[' taW,ily        ~<='tio~.
 ~ ~v~c~ qf ~J:uth anq ,qlalic.e ip~~p,si~ly b~-
              . frYH4        .ern?" P'l tqe IJJ,lpe~i~lcpp~t.
 1Ren1\~rj,ql,~n\~1 ~stfl.t.e         Hugnwat ~~(h~c.e9
{JjfIJ) .       mPP~f!}:ly oy ~rapGfil to ~~e .~impl~
 f.9¥S~ty,       ~hl\¥s; ib9~&yl;1 .~t Wflt          dt:nied.
r.Mtllt, )ilJ ~h~ ~9qf~~io~ of t!t~ t~~E;S, ,h~. h~~
IIIftU.F¥~d ,tl?P Yf4f,~r<='TIgptYof t~rp<=,<=,~c<='4 ~»nm­
fJt~NI,·~~,ki~g.dq,,"qf ,~,liY. ~~~ f~tJ1"r )V as f1
 prinyiie TpY~le~IlfJ if~.<='ttAw'l~Jlt.e4,Ptr;~:m5iJ:t<='
'df-llcWtj th)l~ ~h~ 9~rlo.vj~lnf\P' ~i pt;,.'e~e!r step
 HDf  p.1'1h,ted With rl l1 e44it1mnCN
 _.. ,... " ,            ~\      r~,". Y ~%ce. The,
                                         n! "
                                            ,P"  ,.
                     .-l   ,   ,   •

~gDlw.lll)9~~r .of Hugo was tl,l~ fam<llt f.~ld}'~­
~."h~ (:q~i~:tin~, :tr~tl!a . .                                       ~l~'h,   pf     tp~
 ..,.no·~d T r·th·~·lr· "·hn'·e
t_M.<=' ~·f.Y·Y "144 h-:f                          ... ~ .. 1te.r"
                                                  ,...,....t·.,. t    ,li~''''''ce ~'nd
                                                                     '"","'N'f~ _ 4 .4, '

~~umI; I),¥!p~if\l,~, ,hl\d prp~Q~~r) ~g~iAst ~jm the
                 . ~I.we V"ti~~h.                     ~t Nile
nAlit.tI, ~~e~,t,4e ,gr~ii:t.cB6.r~Pfl, ~ iSHcr,«E)~~jvely
.tAe~f¥~~              coe.~nt .Qf4.~l<='t 81tt1 pf ih~ nUlr~

   ,e<='#±±!.!l~!4E44' 'n$tl.~' 1I1't'" th, 411)41'1l4 44d
na04.,              whom       fe claimed private aD"
                                  a                  pobli\l
French writers (laaac Caaallbon in Declicat. PoI)bii) Ire high!! de •
.±.4f~        "W) h'?A~~··44P~~4l"ts.
   \ "~91l'}I!JWpe lP01,phy~olenit... (de A~millilt~~t. IBIP' c. ~~) eXhibits
~~~~±::f~:~,~[J~o:~~~~.:tPoi:~1,~i·~o~:';e(::;:~~:::: :r~~:1:":;,:
~\I. .,i'iNI!1."o.ri;Mi
                                       the ,~b~~emeDt of B••          MMe, A.,      D;?2~.

                                                                               DI     ,dbv   DC   e
13~                               TID DECLINE ANIJ' FALL
 c~tr.·    quia of Tuscany: France and Italy were BcaD-
           dalized by her gallantries; and,' till the age of
m . . ._ ' .
           thre~score, her lovers, of every degree, were tht::
           zealous servants of her ambition .. The exam-
           ple of maternal incontinence was copied by
           the king of Italy; and the three favourite con-
           cubines of Hugo were decorated with the clas-
           sic names of Venus, Juno, and Semele! The
          'daughter of Venus was granted to the solicita-
           tions of the Byzantine court: her name of .Ber-
           tha was changed to that of Eudoxia; and sbe
           was we'dded, or rather betrothed, to young Ro'-
           manus, the future, heir' of the empire of the
           East. The consummation of this foreign al-
          liance was suspended by the tender age of the
           two' parties; . and, at the end of five years. the
           union was dissolved by the death ~rthe virgin
           spouse. The second wife of the emperor. Ro-
           manus was a maiden of plebeian, but of R;
          man, birth; and their two daughters, Theopha-
           no and Anne, were given in marriage to the
Otho of princes of the earth. The eldest was bestow-
~:::':;l: ed, as the pledge of peace, on the eldest son of
          the great Otho, who had solicited this alliance
          with arms and embassies. It might legally be
          questioned how far a Saxon was entitled to the
          privilege of the French nation; but every scru-
           ple was silenced by the fame and piety of a
          hero who bayestored ,the empire of the West.
                   r After the mention of the three goddl!llle8, Lintprand Yery natually
               :addl, et quoniam non rex lolnl iii abntebatnr, eamm nati es ineertia
               patribul originem dueunt (Hiat. i~, c. G): for the marriage of the ,.....
                ger lIartha, lee Hi.t. I. Y, e. 6; for the incontinence of the elder. d....
                cia exercitio Hymea.l, I. ii, c. 15; for the yirtnel and ~ce. of Hap.
 +.             L iii, c. 6. Yet it 1Il0lt Dot be for,o, that the bishop of Cremo_ ....
                • IoYer of acaadal.                                           .

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                      OF THEROMAN EMPIRE.                                        133
After          ,        of her                                       hus. C£%:U'.
ba£%:h, Theephrmo                          Reme, Itely, rind =~_~~~,..
Germany, during the minority of her son, the
third Otho ;                                hrive draired the
£%:irtiies 1E&f' eS:3.:nprii3.:s,3.:ikho ikacikificc::d b:& a siipe=
rioT duty the remembrance of her country.a-
    the rr&Uptialik trikf                  Amle,                  pi'3.:jU=
diee Wik3.: h:&ikt,                   considnratitr}n of dif;ni=
ty was superseded, by the stronger argument
ofnecik3.:sitv and fe;:'ir. A                               the Nfyfth, £:fOli,jCl-
     ' ilmlf,
W;fHO d···· •t great                            i.¥aSlf, .....•
                                       0f R········· . . • aalHred t 0 mir of
a daughter ofthe Roman purple; and his claim D. fise.
waf eni{)rcfd                  thfea{f                  Wikf,
mifik of C:'OP:BAkerfion, and thi~ offisr of a £%:owerful
                                 ;::                          '"
succour against a domestic rebel. A victim
hef reliiJo&B and                                                prmceff
waf to£:fB frnm the                      -of her fathers, and
condemned to. a savage rejgn and an hopelesl
                    b£%:nkf of {he                                 OAk in
tho neihhb{%urhood of the polar circle, t Yet
the marriage of Anne was fortunate and fruit-
ful           dIH&ghter           her
was recommended by her imperial descent;
and the king of France, Henry I. sought a wife
on          last bOfderf of Em'opo
dom.    a

   • :Licet ilia            G'Hca ,lM et iliil ('iiSlet latil utili, et op.
,iIBie, &C. iI the preamfie o{ aD mimica, ±iriti?!', apaf P±±gi, ,                iv,.
A. D, 988,N°. S: H~rmarriage aDd priDcipal actioDI may be-fouDd
ED MaRton, Pa)i, aDa at. §arc, aader ife p,afer )±?ilfl.
   t CedreDuI, tom. ii, p. 600, ZODOru, tom. ii, p •. 221.          ElmaciD, Hist•.
Sara''''DiCa, k. Hili, 6, Ne,n'ir ak'!Hk Le±?'!'lftUil, tOili?i, ii, p, i &2. fagi,
Critiaa, A: D. 987, N°. 6•• a liDgular CODCOUFlC!, Wolodomir and ~DDe
are iilDkea amoaa thil ,aiD" ,f tiAi? Rili?iiAaD ±AlurCa, y" we ±ADOW
hil vice., aDd areigJioraut of her virtuea.           !
   • Vearli',. piiiiU. 4Riititiiireii fythi'iam,OulI8iAA; filiil±i refi, Je-
134                                     D~ci.ik·i
                                  AkD FALL

 ClfAit     in the Byzdrltide palace the emperor ~a8 ttl~·
n~~~~~ first slave of the ceremonies which' he imposfM,

Delpotic of the rigid totilis which regulated ~aeh 1tord
power.   and gesture besieged him in Hi~ pal;t~~, atid
         violated' the teislir~ bthis rural ~o1itride. :But
               the lives and forWbe~ or miliiohs hung on                                  hi~
              ari>Hrary wil1, ;ihd the Himest Ibinds, ~uperio~
             ·to the, al1ti~~ti1ents ot pomp atid lui-orr, mgy
               be' sedl1eed' by the tnore activ~ t>leasttre or cdm-
               manding !lleit' eq nats. The lrghHaH\te ahd ~i~
               ecutive power ~ere ~ent~ted in the p~~.t)lil dt
               the ilionarcii, 4lid ihe lll~i rettlabi8 of the aiithb4
               riiy bf ilie sehai~ Were finally eradicated ~t
               ~e~ the philosbph~r.k A ietbatgy bt iervitude
               had benumbed the minds of the Gl'~eks: iiI th~
               wildest tumults of tebeiliorl they ~eve}l·ed
               to the idea Of ~ tre'e consiittItiort; and th~ pti'-
               vate character ofihe ptince was tile only soUrce
               and. measure of their public hai>pi"e~$. ,Su-
               perstition rivetted lheh' chains; in the churth
               or St. Sophia be was s'otetnbly ci'owhed by the
               patriarch; at the foot or the ahar, they pledg~
               ed their passIve and uncon'didbnatobediebc~
COroDa-        ~o his g,overn~ent and fum'il~. On h~ $rde he
tiOD oath.     engaged to abs\.ili as lilueh l$ i1o"st'M~,lrom
               the capital punisbments· of death and mll\i''h:-

               l'OiIai. Ali e6i.u.y ofbiabopi WalRDt bite Ito __, efld the '(adler
               iratauter fHIam cum IDaitii dOni, misit. 'IlIiI dfDtlllll'JleIfM in t ...
               year 1041. See the punlel'Of' the ofisi1dll tllrnih to ~~t"
               Hilitoriai!s of Fruc.t .(t8Iii. si, p. 19, '59, MI•. SID, .... , (81). Vb1-
               taire 'mipl 'woDier at thi••Nian'd,; haUte ..1tou14 I18t lidc 'C)Wlled hi.
               irnonU1ft of the j:oan~, relil-' !ce. bl \Jft'lMtu~ tfiuJIe 10 coil·
               -,icnool ia tile Rliuia. 1IDDaJ.~
                   • A co.'titatioD of [.eo the "hilMopIlt!t '(lllXYiii) :Ile _tat.... 'l:CIiIo
               ....rta imrplillllJaat; apeIb the ·. . . . .e 'Of beltetl tiapo4!ilril. If'.....
               ~        .,.9tC, .,.,...__11'1' ' a_,,,, ."'""'1" H' PO"- ....          ,,~
               ,.wr" ,,,, xt"'"   .",.XOfd- ~'"'"

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                        OF TDItOIrlAll DIPIBB.'..                                           ]~6

  non; his orthodox creed was subscribed with CRAI".
  his own hand, and he promised to obey tbe de- ..::~~~: ..
  crees> o( the· s,ven synods, and the canons of
  the holy church." But the aS8Ur~~.of mercy
  'was loose and, iode,nite;. he swore. not to his
  people; but to an invisible j1idge, . and except
  in. 1Jhe inexpiQle. guilt of heresy:, the minister.
  of heave1l were always prepared to preach th~
  indefeas.ible right, and to absolve the venial
   tr.a,nsgressions, of their sovereign. The Greek
   ecclesiastics were themsebes the. subjects of
   the civil magistrate.; at the nod of a tyrant the
   bishops were created, or transferred, or depos..
   e~, or punished with an ignominious death:
    whatever might be their wealth or influence,
   they could never succeed like the Latin clergy
   in the establishment of an independent repub-
   lic; andthe p~triarch of Constantinople con-'
    demned, what he secretly envied, the temporal
   greatness 'of his Roman brother. Yet the ex-
   ercise of boundless despotism is happily check-
    ed' by the laws of nature and necelSSity.~ ,In
    proportion to his wisdom and virtue, the mal!!-
    ter of an empire is confined to the path of bis
• sacred and l~borious duty. In prop.ortion to
    his vice and folly, he drops the sceptre
    too weighty for hi. hand.; and the mo*ionl
    of tht> loyal image are ,"uled by the impu-
    ceptible thread of SGlIle minister or favou-
    rite, who undertakes for. liis priYate interest to
    execute the ta~k of tbe public oppression. I~
    ., ~ (4, o.a.wu., 4\. .,u, p. l~••21). li.~ an hie. of thil oath
  .. "..-, te tb.e  ~"I'{\b II"C'If "'.. ~''f ..~oc .... ~.,.". .l,.... , ..1IA~'...r, I.
   "'~ 19 tlu, ~op).e ~ 4\"'JCfIW~.' ..,..' .... ~~f"'r'N"', ~ ....... ""T~•
  ....... 19 ~'!tT"           .            .

                                                                         Digitized by   Google
 36                        THI!'DECLINE:AKD' PALL"
   eH'\ P. SOme fatal'moment, the most absolute 'monaroo' '
..,~:~~~:" may dread the, reason or the caprice of a nation
            of slaves; and ~xperience has proved, that
            whatever i.B gained' i,n the extent, is lost in the
      ,     safety and SQlidity, of regal power.
Military       WhatevertitJes a: 'despot may assume, what-
force of           I'                         . 'IS
theGreekieVel' calmS'h e may assert, It . on'he sword  t
tile Sara· that be mUGt' 'ultimately depend to I't -
ceos, aud                ..,                           «rnard him,
theFrauk•. against his foreign 'and domestic enemies. From,
            the age of Charlemagne to that of the crusades, ,
            the world (for I oveJllook the remote monarc~y
            of China) was oceu.pied and disputed by' the,
          , three great empires or 'nations of the ,Greeks,
            the Saracens, and the Franks. Their military.
            strength may be ascertained by a comparison
            of their,. their arts and riches, and their,
            obedience to a supreme head, who might call
            into action all the energies of the state. The
            Greeks, far inferior to their rivals iJl the first,
            were sti perior to the Franks, and at Jeast equal
            to the Saracens,' in the second and third of
            these warlike qualifications.
 Havy of       The wealth of the Greeks enabled them to
                                 .                       .
 the Greeks pureh llIe t h e serVIce 0 f t he poorer natIOns, and
            to maintain a naval power for the protection of
            their coasts and the annoyance of their enemies. '
            A commerce of mutual benefit exchanged th}
            gold of Constantinople for the blood of the)
            Sclavonians and Turks, the Bulgarians and,
          S   If we Ii. ten to the threat. of Nicephorul tu the amballador 01
        Olho,   Nt>c est in mari domino tuo clusium numerns. NavipntiUID
        fortitudo milli soli inell, qui cum clusibnl Bggrediar, bello maritim..
        ..jus civitates dl'moliar; et qUill ftulllinibul lunt vil:ioa rt'digam in fa·
        ,'illam. l(Lilltpraod in Legat. ad Nicephorum Phocam, io Honteri
        Scriptores Rerum ltalicarum, tom. ii, para. i, p. 481). He ohaerYei iD
        auether place. qUi c.teri• .PllUlaot enelici .unt et AmaJphitnL

                                                         Digitized by   Google
                   OF.THE ROMA.N EMPIRZ.                                        ]37,
Russians; their valour contributed to, the 'Vic- CHAP."
torles 0 ( N' horus an d Z' .
             leep             'lmlsces; and I'f an ...,,,.,,••.
hostile people pressed too closely on the fron-
tier, they were recalled to the defence ,of their l
country, and the desire of peace~' by the .well- :
managed attack of a more distant tribe.· The,
command of the Mediterranean, from the mouth                                I

olthe Tanais to the columns of Hercules, was'
always claimed, and often possessed, by the
successors of Constantine. ' Their, capital was;
filled with ns'Val stores and dexterous artificers;
the situation of, Greece and Asia, the long
coasts,deep gulph!!, and numerous islands, ac-
customed their subjects to the ~xercise,of na-
vigation; and the trade of Venice and Amalfi,
supplied a nursery of seamen to the imperial
fieet.' Since the time of the Peloponesian and,
Punic wars, the sphere of action had not been
enlarged; and the science of naval architecture
appears to have declined. The art of construct-
ingthose stupendous machines which display-
ed three, or six, or ten, ranges of oars, rising
above, or falling behhid, each .other, w~s un-
known to the ship-builders of Constantinople,
as well as to the mechanicians of modern days.'
  • Nec ipsa capiat eam (the emperor Olbo) in Clul orta. eat paaper'
et pellicea Saxonia: pecunil qul poUemu. omnel DatioDe••aper eum
iDyitabimuI: et qnali Keramienm confriDgemD' (Liatpl'Uld iD Lf'gat~
p. (87). The two booka, de admillutraDdo imperiO. perpetaaUy iae~
'c,te tbe .alDe policy.                             '
   ~ The xixth chapter of tile Tactics of Leo (llean. Opera, tolll •••,
p. 895.8(8), wbich i. giveD more correct/rom a manuscript of Gudiaa.
 by the laboriou. Pabriciul (BibUot. Gnec. tOIll. vi, p.172-179), relates
.. the NClu_Aie or DaYal war.                            .
   • EYeD of· fifteeD Dr sixtHD row. of Dan, i~ tile Da., of Demetn••
Poliocertea Theil! were for ftal use: tile forty row. of Ptolemy Phi.

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138                      THlI   DJlCt,no~' k f i )   PALL.
 t!!lI~P. The ~.:                or light gaBia ·0£ ~e BY2l8D.·
. !~.:._ tiDe empire were· content with two tier. of o~s .;
         each tier was eeo:tp08ed of five and twen'-y
         benches; and two lower, wel;'e seated OOt
         benell, wbo pl.yed the~ oar.s on either side Q(
         the vess.el. To these we must add the cap~j.u.
         OIl' c."enturio, who-, in time of adion, stood erect
         with his am ow-bearer on the poop, two stee~s,­
        men at the belan, anel two Q1ijcera at tb,e pro1t\
        the one te.lDfl"age the ancbOl', tbe other to point
      . and play awaiust the e~my: the tube of li,uid
        fue. The whole c.,~w. as i .. the infancJ of U1.e
        art, performed the· ~Qble seni~e Qi lI\arin,el;"s
        aDd soldiertt·; they were prQvided with def~­
        ane ~ud offensive. .rlnS, with bows a~d al'row~
        whieh they ueed flam the \lppe'r deck, wit"
        long pikes, whi~h they pushed througb the
        port-holes 'of the lowel' tier. Sometimes hldeetl
        the .hips C)f war were ef a larger and more so-
        lid cODatructiQn ~ an~ the labours of COlQ bat
       and navigatioa more regularly divided be-
       tween sowcnty soldiers and two hundred and
       thil'ty marine...a. But for the most part they
       wera of ibe light an«l manageable size; and a~
       the cape of Malea in Peleponesui was still
       clothed with its ancient terrors, an imperial
       :fleet was transported five' miles over land

       Jalelpbat Wftt! .pplieel te a load., palau. wbOM tan. . .; .c~
       to Dr. Arb.tllnM, (Tablel of Ancient COiD, &c. p. 211-_), ia co. .
       pared •• 41 to one. "Ill .. EDfliah 100 pn-ship •.
         • The promonl'l of Leo, Ire. are so clearly de:C,lbed with two ti8r
       of oan, that I mult censure tile nnion of _"niDI and Fabri~
       who penert the aeDIt b1 a bllnd attachmtDt to tlte dUlic appdlatioll
       of 7'rirtmtl. The Dyzatltine bittoriana are Jometiaet piItJ et ....
       aame inaccuracy.

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                    OF THE ROMAN' EMPIRE.                                       139
 d~toss     the i~hmus OfCOriBth.· The principles                             CHAP.
of maritittJe tactics had' Dot undergone any ..,~~~~~....
chahge since the time of Thucydidel; a squa-
dl't1n of gaHies still advanced in a crescent,
charged to the front, and strove to impel their
sharp beaks against the feeble sides of their an-
tagonists. A machine for casting stones and '
darts \'Vas built of strong tmbers iii the midst
of the deck ; and the operation of boarding
was etl'ected by a ctane that hoisted baskets of
armed nlen. Tlie language of signals, so cl~ar
and copious in the n8Tal grammar of the m0-
derns, was imperfectly expressed by the various
positiort9 and colours of a commanding Bag.-
In the datkness of tbe night the same orders to
chase, to attack, to halt, to retreat, to break,
to form, 'Were conveyed by the, lights of the
leading galley. ,By land, the fire-signals were
repeated fi'omane mountain to another; a
chain of eight lItations comwanded a space of
ft~ hundred miles; and Constantinople in a
fe\v hours was apprized of the hostile motions
of 'the Saracentl Of Tarsus.' Some estimate
may be formed o( the power of the Greek em..

 • C CoDItaDtia. Porp1ayrotd. ill Vito BuD. c.lxi, p. 185.   He calmly
pral.e. the ~trat..ftIl a a 1Iwt~." ..... ; bUt die ..iliD, rouud
Pelepoaeill. I. deacrlbe4 by WI tertiled tkaq a a CIimIlnlllrriaatioa
of a thOOlliad IDiIea
   f The coatiaaator of Tbeophaaea (I. iy. It. IU, III) Dlmel the .ac-
ceaaive .tatiOD., the catle of Lalam Dear Tana., moaDt Arpa., II..
mal, .Cilu., the hiU of Kama, Cyriau. Moeilal, thl' hill of Aona-
dOl, the IUD-aia} of the Pltara. of the trell't palace. Be aflirms, tbat
the Dew. were tnDlmitted .. ......,.•• In au lalh idble momeDt of time.
Mi.erable amplificatioD. which, by layin, too milch, e.y. nothlng.-
How much IDore forcible aad iaatructiY8 woulll ban btrD the delloi.
tioa of three,!)r.ix or twelye houn'

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J40                           THE DECLINE AND FALL"
 CHAP..    perors, by t.h~ curious and- minute d'etail of the
  LIIL                    •
~"mul'     armament which was prepared for the reduc-
           tion of Crete. A Beet of one hundred and
           twelve gallies, and seventy-five vessels of the
           Pamphylian style, was equipped in the capi-.
           tal, the islands of the ~gean sea, and the sea-
           ports of Asia, Macedonia, and Greece. It car-
           fled thirty-four thousand mariners, seven thou-
           sand three hundred and forty soldiers, seven,
           hundred Russians, and five thousand and eigh-
           ty.:seven Mardaites, whose fathers had been·
           transplanted from the mountains Of Libanus.-·
           Their pay, most probably of a mo~th, was.
           computed at thirty-four centenarias· of gold,
           about one bundred and thirty. six thousand.
           pounds sterling. Our fancy is bewildered by-
           the endless recapitulation of arms and engines,
           of clothes and linen, of bread (or the men an-d
           forage for the horses, and of stores and ut~nsiJs
           of every description, inadequate to the con-
           quest of a petty island, but amply sufficient
           for the estabHshment of a- Bo~rishing colony.'
Tactia        The invention of the Greek fire did not, like
aDd cha-
racter     that Of gunpowder,. produce a. total re'Volution
of the     in the art of war. To these liquid combusti- .
           bles the city and empire of Constantinople ow;
           ed their deliverance; and they were employed
           in sieges and sea-fights with terrible eWect.--

              I See the Ceremoniale of Con.tantine Porphyrogfoito., I. ii, c. 44.
           p. 116·192. A critical reader will di.ceru some inconsistencie. in dif·
           fennt puta ofthil acconnt; bnt they are not more obscure or more
           .tuLborn than the e.tabli.hmeut and eUectivea, the prelent and fit for
           duty, the rank alid file and the privatl'; of a modern return, which  ,eo
           tair. in rroper banda the kDowled,e of thcae prufitable myateriu••

                                                         Digitized by   Google
                      OF THE .OIt&Il'UPDt"I.                                      '1.11
   :But they were either, less. improved,~or less CHAP.
   8usceptI e 0 f ' Improvements:· t h '               . ..._
                                         e engmed 0 f ".LlII.m
   antiquity, the catapultE, balistE, and batter-
   ing-rams, were, still of most frequent and pow-
   erful use in the attack and defence of fortifica-
  .tions; nor was the decision of battles red ueed
   to the quick and heavy fire of a line of infau-
  'try, ",hom it ·were fruitlel!ls to protect with ar-
   mour against a sjmiJar fire of their enemies._
   Steel and iron were still tne common instru-
   ments of'destruction an'u safety; and the h~l;­
   mits, cuirasses, and shields, of the tenth cen..
. tury did not, either in form or substance, es-
   sentially differ f.'om t.hose which had covered.
    the companions of Alexander or Achilles"-
    But instead of accustoming the modern Greeks,
    like the legionaries of-old, to the constant and
    easy· use of this salutary weight, their all-
    mour was laid· aside. in light chariots, which
    followed the march, till on the apprqach of an
    enemy they resumed with .haste; and reluctance
    the· unusual encumbrance. Their .offensive
   'weapons cPJlsisted of swords, battle-axes, and
 . spears; but the Macedonian pike' was shorten-
    ed a fourth of its length; and reduced to the
    more convenient measure· of, twelve cubits or
    feet. The sharpness of the Scythian and Ara- ,
    bian arrows' had been severely felt; and the
    emperors lament the decay of archery as a cause
    of the public·misfortunes, and recommend, as

     • lee the fifth, .illth, aDd .neath cbapters, tnt'''''''', ..,. tnwIIIfCt
   ad InC' )N""""~; in the Tactic. of Leo, with the correlpoadiD, palo
   .api ia those of Coa.taatme.

                                                               Digitized by   Google
          1tQialhice,' end          a oomm6Rd' .  Ilhattbeulitar... J
...., ..._ ... ·'outh,~iU the age of-fortr, &heuld assid\lously
              ·practise the eKeI'CtsE: fif· the bowl' TJle ban.,
           . 'Ol" regiments, wele usually thl'-ee ·lMHtdr.e4
              ·strong; and, 'atl a. medium ·between thee3K:-
              Jtr.emes of Cowand siKteeD, the foot soldiers of
              -Leo and Coostautine,wer.e rfOl'med-eigbt fleep~
              -but die caval..,- dlat"ged in ·to1M' rank-s, from
              -the rea8ona!J~ .c_sideratieu, that the .weight
               'Of the front ~ld ootlbe·iDCl"eased by·aBy.pres-
              ...."e·of tbe>hin~1I!Ie8t horses. :l{ the ranks .fJf
              -the infamry and cav.alry :were ~imes ,dou-
              -bled, ~dMs~eautio.os '8I\1ay ;betrayed a secret .dis-
              tpult,of the. cOllAge ~,the .troops, Wlh(ijJe num-
              fieJ:8 :.lnigbt. s.well dIe .appear.aDce of :the! line,
               ~8t:af . wh&m .001y a .oho.sen hand .would tlaw
              ~.enooooter the IJpear.s and Slworde.of.the~
              -bBriaH.1J'4e order. of. battle ,mast hPe Val_
               accolJding·to·tbeJgI'.pund, the Obj~t, Blld.he
              achersa-ry ; :but Cheir 6lr.dinar.y .di&poRtWn, .m
              iwo: liDes land. a resern,'presented a.8U€cessro.
              :f)f ,hopes and l"esource8 most .agreeaiJle lto :the
              temper as ·well as-the judgmeot ,ofltbe~epbf
              In caae·of·a repulse, the fil!st ,line fellbae·k·intG
              the i.ntervlWls ·of the Me,ond ; ,and: tbe'regerue,
              brea:king iuto two divisioDS, ,wheeI8d,~o~d: ..he
             &nks to impllov~ the :9ictOl!Y or .00$81 the.r.e-
              tl~eat. 'Whatel:er authQil'ity could .enaot "was

            I T,bfy,.oblfrl!8ftJtr,"'c.t1f1Ulf ,..~~.,"r          ••••. P'I'fKJ'IIH4.~
          Hlr ........~1.. "" ...... ~..".,...&..      Leo, Tactic. p. 681. Coni tan-
          tin. p. 1216. Yet Illch were Dot the maxima of the GI'I~eka aDd Ro. •
          ...." -!ll'lIo,-dl!llpjHd.akdctOlF.aed diltllntpr.etiRC Qf.""~lttlf'.
            ,I< Com'.... the. ,au.lila of tile ll'utie'J p. _   and 121"aaci tile xiidl
          with the llYiiith cha~ter

                                                           Digitized by   Google
accompiished,lBt ie.t.!in·Chef1FY., ~ilhe k:aatpsCDB.
and marches, the exercisesanG aolllbOlis the .LIll.
                                           ., .                                     ..,~

edicts andbGoks, ·f)f the lB~aanti1le·liJmraroh~1
Wlbatereor ,art could tpt&duce :ir.91R tJ.e forge,
tile loom, or the laboratory, ",as llblHldantiv
supplied by the riches of the prince, larld t~
iDclm¢ry of his numerous workmet:a. .BD~:n.e~
ther ...Utiaority nor ut could frame ~:1IMi!It
illlpo.rtaDt machine, the soldier himself; 11Bd if
the .ce,..,.,.ies of Constantine alway,s lSuppOM
the safe and triumphal renon of.tbe .emperor~'"
his wetic, seldom ..oar above the 'means _. of
escaping a defeat, and procrastinating the .'ur-
NotwitbstandiDg 'Bome transient success, the
Greeks ,were :sunk in 'their 01lneateern and
  hat of their neighbours. A cold hand and, a
toq uacious tongue was the vulgar .description,
ef the nation:' the author'oftbe tactic. was. be-
-sieged -in his capital; and the last'" the Sara·
cens or Franks, couldpr.oudly uhibitrthe tilt-
.ials of.goldand silver which tbey :had ~xtDDt­
ed *om the feeltle so.creigo of'C:onstantinGfilt.
'What spirit their ,govemment ~ana chanaar

    Ilip tkprefaee to tali tractia. !Leo)YeI7 ,fieel, !4Iep"'";tbe . . • t
  diaoipJiDe and the'Clalamitie. of the. tim". and repeaq" withoOhCl'JQlie
  (Pr~m. p. liST), the reproachel 'of .,...)..... "Mt'.~ ..,.~,..,_,., ....".....
, &c. nor doea it appear that the same ceDlOrH were leu daened iD the
  Dellt leoeratioo by the iiKiple. of COD.tantiDe.                          .
     • See in 'hc Ceremonial (I. ii. c. 19"p, '161), tbe' form ot'dle fDlpe.
  ror'. trampliog on tbe DeClka of tbe captive' while dluin,en
  chanted i. ,ho~ hast made my eDemit. my (001lt0611"' ind the 'p"ople
  .boDted'forty times the kyrie elei.on.
     • Leo (Tactic. p. 668) that a fillr1lpell battle apilllt any
  Dation wbatsoever, il IW'wta).1If and ........,.,1 the 'Word. areatr.eIlJ.'lud
  the remark II troe; yet if IDch bad been tbe opillion of -the old 'oRo.
  lDau, Leo had Defer reiped •• die ahorH
                                                    0' the Tbraciu :Boapbo.

                                                                  Digitized by   Google
'4.                         'I'D-DECLINE AND FALL
.CRAP.      denied, might have been inspired iII some de-
~~gree by the influence'of religion; but the reli·
            gion of the Greeks could only teach them to
            suffer and·to yield. The emperor Nicephorus,
            who restored for a moment the discipline and
            glory of the Roman name, was desirous ·of be-
            stowing the honours of martyrdom 'on the
            christians.; who lost their lives .in' an holy war
            against the infidels .. But this political law· was
            defeated .by the opposition of the patriarch,
            the bishops,' and the prinCipal' senators; :and
            they strenuously:urged the canons of St. Basil,
            that all who were polluted by the bloody trade
            of a soldier, should be separated, during
            three years, :f.'om -the communion of the faith-
CIIaraeter     These scruples· of the Greeks have beeD
and tactic.
• ftheS ... compare
                                                        .. .
                      d ' h t'h e tears 0 f the primitive
raeeDI      moslems when they 'were held .back from bat-
           -tIe; and this contrast of base superstition,
            and high-spirited enthusiasm, unfolds· to a
           .philosophic eye the history of the rival
           .nations. The subjects of· the Jast caliphs'
            had undoubtedly degenerated from the zeal
            and faith, of the· companions of the pro--
            phet.· Yet their martial creed still represented

         •.• Zonar. (tom. ii,l. xvi, p. 202, 203) and Cedreoul (CompeucL po
         e68>, who relate the de.igo of Nicepborul, most IInfortun.tely apply
         t.e epithet of".".....c to the 'opposition of tbe patriarch•
           •' 1'he :uiii tb chapter of the tacties of the different natious, i. the
         mOlt historical and uaeful of the whole collectioll of Leo. Themaa-
         ners and arms of the Saral:ens (Tactic. p. 809-811, and a fragment
         (rom the Mediceau MS. iu the pn·face of the 6tb volome of I\leul'liu.)
         the Reman emperor wal too fregullotl), call"d upon to .tody.

                                                       Digitized by   Google
                       0 .. THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                                  145
the deity as the author of war: the vital though. CHAP.

latent spark of fanaticism still glowed in the ,.~~~~: ....
heart of their religion, and among the Saracens
who dwelt on the christian borders, it was fre-
quently rekindled to a lively and active flame.
Their regular force was formed of the valiant
slaves who had been educated to guard the per-
son, and ~ccompany the standard of their lord;
but the muss ulman people of Syria and Cilicia,
of Africa and Spain, was awakened by the
trumpet which proclaimed an holy war against
the infidels. The rich were ambitious of death
or victory in the cause of God: the poor were /
allured by the hopes of plunder; and the old,
the infirm, and the women, assumed their share
of meritorious service, by sendiug their substi-
tntes, with arms and borses,into the field.
These offensive and defensive arms were simi-
lar in strength and temper to. those of the Ro-
mans, w hom they far excelled' in the manage..
ment of the horse and the bow; 'the massy sil-:-
ver oftheir belts, their bridles, and their swords,
displayed the magnificence of a' prosperous na~
tion, and except some black archers of the
South, the Arahs disdained the'naked bravery
of their ancestors. Instead of waggons, they
were attended by a long train of camels, mules,
and asses; the multitude of these animals,
whom they bedecked with flags and streamers,
appeared to swell 'the pomp and magnitude of
their host; and the horseS' of the enemy were
  • name •• "...      IIA". .",. .....  91" "''1'''' u.n ....&....1&., .".        'WolllpAIC
,,"'fI"   II.,..... ..." 91" .,.., "-IIOf"~""""
Leon. Tactic. p. 809.
                                                  .Sn ..... ,'I'IIr   "olly.t¥t   ,.J.Ift...
   VOL. X.                                 L

                                                                             Digitized by   Google
t 46                           THE DECLINE AND "'ALL

 OHAP.        often disordered by the uncouth figure and
              odious sIDell of the camels of the l<:a8t. Invin-
              eible by their p4ltience of thirst and hea.t, their
              spirits were frozen by a winter~8 cold; and the
              consciousness of their propensity to sleep ex-
              acted the most rigorous precautions against the
              snrprises of the night. Their order of battle
              was long square of two deep and solid lines;
              the first of archers, tlie second of cavalry~ In
              their engagements by sea and by land, they sus-
           . tai ned with patient firmness the fury of the at-
              tack, and seldom advanced to the charge till
              they could discern and oppress the lassitude
              of tbeir foes. But if they were' repulsed and
              broken, they knew not how to rally or renew
              the combat; and their dismay was heightened
              by the superstitious prejudice, that God had
              deClarE"d. himself on the side of their enf'mies.
             Thede<'line and fall of the caliphs counteaanced
              this fearful opinion; nor .were there wanting
             among the mahomeians and c.hristians. some
              obscure propheciesr which prognosticated their
             alternate defeats. The unity of the Arabian
             empire was dilSolved, but the independent frag-
             ments were equal to popnlous and 'powerful
             kingdoms; and in tbeirnaval and mIlitary arma-
             ments, an emir of Aleppo or Tunis might com-
             mand no despicable 'fund efskiH, and industry,
             'Bnd treasure. In their transactions of peace
              • LlutprlDd (p, 484, 4(5) relatel aDd iDterpreta the orae_ of tile
             Greeks aDd SaraccDI; in which, after the fiuhioD of prophec,., the
             put II cleat' aDd lriatarieal; the fatDre il Jiark, eDipaatieal, aDd c....
             I0Il_.    ,Frem thia ....D.ary of lialat aDd lbade, aD bapa~ aide
             _,. cOllllDOaI,. determiDe the date of tile coapolitin.

                                                          Digitized by   Google
                    01' 'l'HE ROM'AN BMI'IH.                                     ,) ~.,
aud war with the Sa~~ens, the 'Pr~noes,of Con-                                 CHAP.
 atantinople too often felt that these barbarians LUI.
 ~ad nPtJiing barbarous in their discipline; and ..~-" ...
 thah if they weI:e destitut;e of original genius,
 ~y ~<l been e.ndowed :with a 9uick spirit of
 CJlr.i~sf1lY and imitation. The mod,el ,was in-
 ~e~d ,~~r~~'Perf~ct than t~e coPy: their ships,
 ~nd eQgine~,- ;Iond (o,tifica~~ons were, of a less
 AAUful ~oA,truc.Qon: and th~y confess, without
~p,m~" ,tbat the, same God who Ila:s given a
 ~~~,e tQ ,the Ar~bians, ,hacl ~O.fe nicely fa-
 s"j~ed ~IW h,ands of ~he Chinese, ~nd the heads
o,f ~h~.Qreeks"
    ,A name of s,ome Germ.~~ ,tribes 1>etwe,en the ~i!ti.:.kl
 Jl.hine and the Weser bad $p~ead its victorious
 jnAu~c,e o,ver the greatest part of .G,ul, Ger-
~w,an,4 Jtaly,; and the c~mn\on ~I>pel\ation
of Rr.a,lfI.ks' was applied by the G,~k,sl\n,d A.ra-
,m~qs to the christiall8 of the L~tin chufch,the
~tiQ~spf tbe West, .who s,tretched Qeyolld thei,'
ko~.wleqg~ to t~e sl~o~es of the Atlan;tic ocean.
+p~ .v~t· ~ody had been inllpired ;md' united
~y th~'fiQll:l ,of Ch~)~~aglltC; but t~e division
.l)Rd i~9~er~y of his. r~ce soon annjhilated the
im~rMJ·)p~w~r, which ·wo,ul€! bave rivalled ,the
,~~", p!By,zan~i~lD, and,r.ev~~,ed tl,le indig-
~Ui4f~ qf !~h..~christi~n Daple. The enePlies nQ
,   .'"   .~.   "

  .• 1J'Iie.'.e8ae {jf tbi. diatinetion u· npr.ea"d by AbaJp.....iu (Dy"
-..; p'~ ,~~. 1~1), ,iwt I caDDot recollect th, p_ace in which it u
,:onYey,dby tbislinly apotbegm.                         .
  ". Ex' Praneis, quo lIOIitine talp ~&iooa quam.TIIOloD,' ~OJ1lpr.eb'....
.pJ. ~!p~lia"* ,t-Li~~p'rll'qd io Ifl~~. ad Imp", ~'qepborlll}1. po 483,
~). :rbis.extenlion of the oame mllY be t'onfirmed from Conilaa;.
tine (de adminiatrando Imperio, 1. ii, c. 21, 28.),aod Eutycbin•. (Aq.
"'~"f p ..65. G6)",,..OO both lived before tb, cnlljldea, Tbe. tn.
1i~onilt._l!f 4bqlpbaragilll (DyUut.p. 60.) and Abulfeda (Prefat. ad
Geo,raph.) are more recent.                 .,

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148                     THJ: 'DECLINE AND .'ALL

 CHAP.      longer feared, nor could the subjects any longer-
_,,..,,,,,,                  lcatlOn 0 f a publ·IC revenue, t he
            t rust, t he app• . .
            labours of trade and manufactures in the mili-
            tary service, the mutual aid of provinces and
            armies, and the naval squadrons which were
            regularly stationed (rom the mouth of the Elbe
            to that of the Tyber. In the beginriing of the
            tenth century, the family of Charlemagne had
            almost disappeared; his monarchy was broken
           into many hostile and independent states; the
            regal title was assumed by the most am~itious
           chiefs; their revolt was -imitated in along sub-
           ordination of anarchy and discord, and the
           nobles of every province disobeyed their so-
           vereign, oppressed their vassals, and exercised
           perpetual hostilities aga~nst their equals and
           neighbours. Their private wars, which over-
           turned the fabric of government, fomented "the
         , martial spirit" of the nation. In the system of
           modern Europe, the power of the sword is pos-
           sessed, at least in fact, by five or six mighty
           potentates; their operations are conducted on
           a distant frontier, by an order of men who de-
           vote their lives to the study and practice of the
          military "art: the rest of the country and com;..
          munity enjoys in the midst of war .the tranquil-
          lity of peace, and is only made sensible of the
          change by the aggravation or decrease of the
          puolic taxes. In the disorders of the tenth and
          eleventh centuries, every peasant was a soldier,
          and every village a fortification; -each wood or
          valley was a scene of murder and rapine; and
          the lords of each castle were compelled to as-
          Burne the character of princes and warrior.~

                                           Digitized by   Google
                      "OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                     14~

 To theit own courage and policy, they boldly CHAP,
 trusted for the safety of their family, the pro- LII.
 tection" of their lands, and the revenge of their - -
injuries; and, like the conquerors of a larger
 size, they were too apt to transgress the privi-
lege of defensive war. The powers of the mind·
 and body were hardened by the presence of
 danger and necessity of resolution: the same
 spirit refused to desert a friend and to forgive
 an enemy; and, instead of sleeping under the
 guardian care of the magistrate, they proudly
 disdained the authority of the laws. In the
 days of fendal anarchy, the instruments of agri-
 cuI ture and art were connrted into the weapons
of bloodshed: the peaceful occupations of civil
and ecclesiastical society were abolished or
 corrupted; and the bishop who exchanged his
mitre for an helmet, was more forcibly urged
by the manners of tbe times than by the obliga-
tion of his tenure."
     The love of freedom and of arms was felt, Their ch"     d
              .       ·d·                ,-
    . h conscIous prl e, b y t hf' F ran~s t hem- tactic••an

selves, and is observed by the Greeks with some
degree of amazement and" terror.             "The
Franks," says the emperor .Constantine, "are
'-' bold and valiant to the verge of temerity; and
" their dauntless spirit is supported by the con-
" tempt of danger and death. In the field and
" in close onset, they press to the front, and
   • OD thil lubject of eccleaiutical and beneficiary discipline~ father
'I"homallin (tom. iii, 1. i, c. 40,45,46, (7) may be uufully coolulted. A
«euenllaw of Charlema«ue exempted the bishops from penonal ler-
lIiee; but the 0ppolite pnetice, which prevailed from the O!uQl to the
fifteeoth century, iI cuuDtenanced by the example or silence of saiuu
and docton ••••• You justify your cowardice by the holy caDon.,
aay. Rutheriul of Veron.; tbe CaBOOl lik.ewise forbid you to whore,
and yet-

                                                             Digitized by   Google
150                            'Ia"lEOUIO.. AND I'AU.
 CKAP.     "rush       ~o:aIo~          against the enemy, with9ut
l"~~:""   ., their Their ranks af'e his nUl~bersthe
             deigning     cGmpu~ eiiher
                                            formed by

          If   firm connections ~f consanguinity and friend-
          " snip; and their mal'tial deeds are prompted
          "by the desire of saving. 01' revenging their
          " dearest c~JllP~i~ns~ In their eyes, a retreat
          " is a sh~mefur flight; and flight is indelible in-
          c. f.imy •."z A.uatieri emlowed witll such high
          and· iiltrepid' sPirit,. timst haTe been :Se4ure of
          victory, i.f thete adlVlIBt~ges had not been· coun-
          ter balanced by .etny weigllty defects. The
          ~cay      «  theilf naval pc1wer .left the Gr.e4tks aDd
          Saracens in p~.elfsiOn of the selli, for every pur-
          PE»S& of annoyance aad supply.             In the age
          which preceded tire i~ati.utioB cjf knighthood,.
          the Franks were rUtfeand 'ilnskiIf1l1 in the ser-
          vice of cavalry;' and, in all perilous. emergen-
          cies, their warriors were 10 conscious gf their
          ignorance, that they chose to dismount frOni
          their horses and fight on foot.. UDpraotised in
          the use of pikes, or ·9f rpi8SiI~ weapons,. tb~y
          wete encumbered by th~ length of their swords,
          the weight· or theit armoor; the .. ma3Dit..d~ o(
          their shields, aDd, if I ml9 repeat ~he Satire: o'
          the meagre Greek., by their . .wieldy. .. iB*....
          peranee. Their independent spitit, ctisdairied
             .•: in the xviiith ~hapter ot hii TacficI, the elll~r Led hU lairl,
         . Ifatel t~ military vioel Uid vimift rj( tke FrUIw (w.... "eaniDl'
  traa.latea by GaUi) anei the Lombard., or Laogobard••
           See likewise the Dil.ertatiOD til Mantein de Alatiquitattb..
           Italiae medii 11M•
            . )' Domini' tui mftites (says the prG'lut Nietpllo....) tqtlitaadi ipari
           Jledeitris pugn:lll sunt Inscii: scatoraDr nillp1ru4la, kmtllru. rraritatlo,
           eo,11I1Il longltn-do, ,u.arumque pondu. neatril, ,.I't. pucaare eOlilillitj
           ac lubrldeDs, impedlt, inqait, ae eoll' patri_rlia hoc eat ventyia . .
           iluvlt's~ Mc. i.intprand In Lelat. p. 480, 4SI.

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                      OP,THE KOMAN EMPIRI'.                                  151
the yoke of subordination, and abandoned the CHAP /
standard of their chief, i(he attempted to keep LII.
t-he field beyond the term of their stipulation or .,---
s~rvice.' On all sides they were open to the
snares of an enemy, less brave, but more art-
ful, than themselves. . They might be bribed,
for the barbarians were venal; or surpris~d in
the night. for they neglected the precautions of
a close encampment or vigilant centinels. The
fatigues of a summer's campaign exhausted
their strength and patience, and they sunk in
despair if their voracious appetite was disap-
pointed of a plentiful supply of wine and of
food. This general character of the Franks
was marked with some national and local
shades, which I should ascribe to accident, ra·
ther than to climate, but which were visible
both to natives and to foreigners. An ambas.
sad or of the great Otho declared, in the palace
of Constantinople, that the Saxons could dis·
pute with swords better,than with pens; and
that they preferred inevitable death to the dis·
honour of turning their backs to an enemy.. It
was the glory of the nobles of France, that. in
their humble dwellings, war and rapine were the
only pleasure, the sole occupation, of their Jives.
They affected to deride the pala~es, the ba~
quets, the polished manners, of the Italians,
who, in the ~stimate of the Greeks themselVes,
had degenerated from the liberty and valour
of the ancient Lombards.·
  • 10 Sasoai. elite ~lo • • • deee.tilil eDlibu pupare quam c....
                     ebire..... hOilibu. ter,. dare (Lilltpraad, p.
• • et ,riUl moneDi

. • .•",,.r. .,... ....   AryI/Ja~ ""'" ~fC14f   .'14 ..fA".   ••.w;r...

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152                                TIlE DECLINE AND .'ALL

 CJI,\P.        Bv the          well-known edict of Caracalla, his
    1.111.      1 ..
••• .,,. ••• Sll lJects,              f1ta.m to E gypt~ were enbt-
                               Iirom B"                        .I
Obliviull  ed to the name aud privileges of .Romans,
~~ l:~~I~' and their national sovereign mIght fix his
,uage.     occasional or permanent resid~nce in any
           province of .their . common country. In the
           division of the East and West,. au. ideal uni-
           ty was scrupulously preserved, and in tbeir
           titles, laws, and statutes, the successors of Ar-
           cadius and Honorius announced themselves as.
           the inseparable colleagues of the same office, as
           the joint sovereigns of the Roman world and
           city, which were bounded by tbe same limits.
           After the fall of the Western monarchy, the
           majesty of the purple resided solely in the
           prince of Constantinople; and of these; Justi.
          nian was the first who, after a divorce of sixty
           years, regained the dominion of .ancient Rome,
           and asserted by the right of conquest, the au-
          gust title of emperor of the Romans.' A mo-
          tIve 01 vanity or discontent solicited one of his
            .",,'   ~'. fA"   A"",B.~.....0   _,....   "T', ...o,.un,   _PI'I'II'
            Leonia Tactica, c. 18, p.80S. The emperor Leo died A. It. 911: au
                                                                                    M   ._J.w...
            historical poem, which end. in 916. and appears to hue been c_
            pOled in 040, by a nat in of Venetia, discriminates in theae vene•.the
            manners of Italy and France:
                                      -Quid inertia bello
                     l'tclora (Ubertu. ait) duria pneteoditil anilis
                     o Itali? Ponlinl vubis sacra pocula cordi j
                     Slepiua et atomachum nitidis laxare aagiola
                     Elatuque domol rutilo fulche metallo.
                     Non eadem Gallol simili. vel cllra remordet;
                     Vicinal quiblls est studinm deYincere terras .
                     Deprcssumqlle larem II,oml hioc indc: coaelia
            (Anonym. Carmen Penl'gyrillm de Laadibal ~~aprii Auguati, I. ii.
            Mllitateri Script. Rrrumltalic. tom. ii, para i, p~ sua.)
              • Jllitiniall, says the biliorian Agathial (I. Y, p. 167), "ferrec ....,....
            -t.T1IIt '"fAA"" ..., -".Y/AA""     Yet the 'pecific title of empe...r of
            tbe Romani was nol used at Cooltautinople, till it had beeD claimed
            by the Fnucb and German rmprrora of old Rom,..)

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                        OYTIlEltOMAN EMPIRE.                                               loS3
Sl1ccessors,· Cons tans the second, to abandon                                           CHAP••
the Thracian Bosphorus, and to restore the
pristine honollrs of the Tyber: an extravagant
project (exClaims the malicious Byzantine), as
if he had despoiled a beautiful and bloo.1ning
virgin, to enrich, or rather to expose, the de-
formity of a wrinkled and decrepid matron.                                           C

But the sword of the Lombards opposed his
settlemerit in Italy: he entered'Rome,-not as a
conqueror, but as a fugitive, and, after a visit
of twelve days, he pillaged, and for ever desert-
ed, the ancient capital of the world.· The final
revolt and separation of Italy was accomplish-
ed about two centuries after the conquests of
Justinian, and from his reign .~e may date the
gradual oblivion of the Latin tongue. That
legislator had composed his institutes, his code,
al!d his pandects, in a language which he cele-
brates as the proper and public style of the
noman government, the cousecrated idiom of
the palace and senate of Constantinople, of the
camps and tribunals of the East.· But this
foreign dialect was unknown to the people and
  C   Constantine Manuses reprobates this design .in his barbarola

          T", ..0).<'
                   '1'11' S.r,)..",' ...._,..~O ... ••
          Ka, ."" "CX" x.p'r_~,..' ",p.nilfl.).'! ...       ,..n,
          .n, II"" al3por-''('"'' ."'011 or,,
.         K., 'YfAU' ...". "'P'llte""" '" lIop" ..tA,r.,
imd it is confirmed by Theophane' J Zonarll Cedrenus, 'and t4e His-
toria MiscelJa: voillit in IIrbem Roman Imperium traDsfere (I. xix, p.
117, in tom. ,i, ,parI. i, of the Scriptorel Rer. Ital. orMuratori).
  • Paul. DiacoD. I. v, c. 11, p.480. .tnastasiuI iD Vitia PODtificma,
i. }\furatori's Gollection, tom. iii, pan. i, p. 141.
  • Con.nlt the preface of Ducange (ad Glols. Grrec. medii }EYi). aad
the Novels of Juatinian (vii,lxvi). 'l'he Greek lanroale was                   ."Mr.
the Latin WII "."'P''C to himself "vi"""'."'" to the """".JC rX'fMIt the
aystem of goyernment.

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154                        'l'H& D&CLlO Awn .FALL

CHAP •.     soldiers of the Asiatic provinces, it was imper.
,..,,~~~~__ fectly understood by the greater part of the in-
            terpreters of the ·Iaws and the ministers of the
            state. After a short conflict, nature and babit
            prevailed oyer the obsolete institutions of bu-
            man power: for the general benefit of his sub-
            jects, Justinian promulgated laisuovels in the
            two languages; the segeral parts of his voln
            minous jurisprudence were sU,cce8aiYely trans
            lated:' the original was' forgotten, t\le version
            was studied, and tbe Greek, whose in~rinsic
            Inerit deserved indeed the preference, obtained
           a legal as well as a popular establishment in
           the Byzantine monarchy. The birth and resi-
           dence of succeeding princes estranged them.
           from tbeRoman idiom: Tiberius by the Arabs,'
           Maurice by the Italians,· are distinguished al
            the first of the Greek Cesarl, as the founders
           of a new dynasty and e!Dpire: the sileot revoh,
           tion was accomplished before the death of He-
          , Ou fAU   4~ 11&.   Awr.,..,   ~IC    ... tru'1C Qf ....~ HfAIIC 'I'IIC
       ....._......,.,., fA' ~ .........'lltl(  (lbtda. B"'~ret, Hitt. Juri ••
        apad Fabric. BibUot. Qrac. tom, xii, p. 189). The Code IUId PIUI'
        decta (the latter by Tbelelaus) were trIUIslated in the time of JUltini..
        ~ 1M, 1CI!6). TIIeopIlilDt, oae of the original trillml'in, hu left a.
        eleput, tho..... difFase, panphrue of the lostitutes. Oa the other
        ha~d, JUlilUl, aDteeeuor of CoDitautloople (A. D. 570), en, No,eI1u
        Gracu elepnti Latiuitate douuit (Heioecciul, Hiat. J. R. p. UG),
       for the ue of IUly aDd -'frica.
          S AbDlpharqiuI auicnl the 7th dyuuty to the FrllDks or RomaDl,
       tIM 8da to the Greeks, the 9th to the Arabi. A tempore Aogusti
       CeIaria cIoDec impenret TiberiDi C....r .patio circiter aDuornm_
       fBenmt .lmperatores C. P. Patricii, et pnecipua pari ellercitt, ROo
       1JIIUi': atra quod, conliliarii, Icribe et popnllls, omoet Greci fnerant:
       delode repom etiam Gueaoicnm factum elt (p. 90, vers. PocotkJ.
       The cb~1UII aod eccie&iutieal atudil!' of Ablllphanliol gan hiIII
       ICIIDe advaotqe oYer the more i,ooraot MOllem._
          II PrimDl ell Greeoram, ,roere in Imperio» confirmatn. eat; or_
       cordin, to lUIother 1II1. of Panill' DiaeoDllI O. iii. e. 15, po "I), ..
       Gneeorom Imperio

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                    OF THE ROMAN EMPIRL                                       1S6
  raelius; and the ruins of the Latin speech were· CHAP.
  darkly preserved in the- terms of jurisprudence _:~~~: ....
  and the acclamations of the pa,laee. After the
 restoration of the West.erh empire by Cbarle-
 magne and- the Othos, the t1amelt of Frooks a'Dd
 Latins' acqttired an equal sigtii:tication and ex-
 tent; an(I these h~ughty barharians asserted,
 with some justice, their superior claim to. the
 language and dominion 01 R()me. They iusult-
 ed the aliens ot the East who had renounced tbe
 dress and idiom of Romans; an.d tbeir relPSOfl-
 able pr~ctice wif), justifY the frequeat appella-
 tion otGreeks.' Unt this contemptuous appel- TheGl'ff1l
 Jation was indignantly rejected by the pa'ince :~~~~!i:
an d peope t 0 \V h " 1 j s applled. ' Wba
           1       ,om °t                           lubJecta
                                              ,tso- retain and
ever changes. had been introduced by the lapse :~=: !~e
of ages, theyilfledged a lineatdnd unbrokell RoDIUII.
succession .from Augulrtds and Constantine;
and, in: the lowest period of degeneracy and
decay, the name of RomanS adhered to the last
fragments of the empire of Constantinople!'
    While the goV'ern~ent ofthe Ea$t ·was trane. ~eriod of
acted in Latin, the Greek was the I~JJgnage of Iporauee,
literature and philosophy; not eo.ld the mas-
ters of this rich and perfect idiom be tempted to
   I Quia liu,nam, morea, "tI.telque mdtlti',. putaYit ,..tiailbll.
 Papa (an audacioul irony), ita "OS (.ob.) lliaplleere' ao....___
men. Hie nUllcios, rogabant NicepbCiruliI Impera1Me. 6J'"".rdm,
uf cum Othone Imperatore Romanoram amieitiam facent (LilJtp~
in Legatione, p. 486). "
   II By Laonicul Chaleocondylea, ",hOl,united th lal. ~ of eo...
ltantillople, the account is thul statt:d (I. i, p .•): Conltantine t _
planted hil Latini of Italy to a Greek city o( Tbrace.: tiler adopfft
tlie language and mannen of the nati".I, ",ho "ete eOJJfUlindecl wMlt.
them under tile name oiRoman.. The Itillga of ConltaDtiDopie, ..,.
the bi8torian, ,., '" .....~ .UTII,   ,.,.._"e..   e.-.
                                                       "''''''Iff .. ..
"'""'fA""'" "..",..M.~, I}.",._ fI , ..",}.", "atTI IIJ.,.....

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                              TKE DECLINE AND FALl"

           envy the borrowed learning and imitative taste.
 i~~~' of their Roman disciples. After the faU of pa-
·_'''''u   ganism, the loss of Syria and Egypt, and the
           extinotion of the schools of Alexandria and
           Athens, the studies of the Greeks insensibly re-
           tired to some regular m~masteries, and above
           all to the royal college of Constantinople, which
           was burnt in the reign of Leo .the Isaurian} In
           the pompous style of the age, the president of
           that foundation was named the sun of science:
           his twelve associates, the professors in the dif-
           ferent arts and 'faculties, were the twelve signs
           of the zodiac; a library of thirty-six thousand·
           five hundred volumes was open to their inqui-
           ries; and they could shew an ancient manu-
           script of Homer, on a roll of parchment one.
           hundred and twenty feet in length, the intes-I
           tines, as it was fabled, of a prodigious serpent                          III

           But tJIeseventh and eighth centuries were a
           period of discord and darkness; the library was
           burnt, the college was :abolished, the Icono-
           clasts are represented as the foes of antiquity;
           and a savage ignorance and contempt of letters
           has disgraced the princes of the Heraclean and
           Isaurian dynasties.·
           I See Ducange (C. P •.Cbri.tiana, I. ii,p. 150,151), who collects the
        tntimonin, not of Tbeopbane" bot at least of Zonaraa (tom. ii, I. xv,
        P. 14M), Cedrenn. (p.454), Micbael Clyda8 (p.281), Constantine
        Manallea (p. &7). After refnting tbe ablurd 'cbarge againlt tbe em.
        peror, Spanheim (Hi.t. Imaginum, p. 99-111), like advocate, pro-
       ceed. to doubt or deny the reality of tbe fire, and almost of the Ii.·
        brary •
          .. .According to .Malcbnl (apud Zonar. J. xiv, p. 53), tbi. Homer
       . _ bamt in tbe time of Baailiscna. Tbe MS. milfbt be renewed-
       B"t on a serpent" 8kin? Moat Itrange and iacredible!
          -- TIle .,..".. of Zonaral, tbe ..",...... , &,..&9,& of Cedrenul. are ,trOD,
       word., perhapl nol. i1laailed W thoae reign,.

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                      OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                    151'.
   In the niuth century, we trace the first dawn:.. CHAP.
ings of the re&t6ration of science.o After the LII.
fanaticism of the Arabs had subsided, the ca- R;;~:~;;'
liphs aspired to conquer the arts, rather than ~::~nl~
the provinces, of the empire: their liberal curio-
sity rekindled the emulation of the G reek 6,
brushed away the dust from their ancient h-
braries, and taught them to know and reward.
the philosophers, whose labours had been hi-
therto repaid by the pleasure of study and the
pursuit of truth. The Cresar Bardas, the uncle
of Michael the third, was the generous pro-
tector of letters, a title which alone has pre-
served his memory and excused his ambition.
A particle of the treasures of his nephew was
sometimes diverted from tbe indulgence of vIce
and folly; a school was opened in the palace
of Magnaura; and the presence of Bardas ex-
citt:d the emulation of the masters and students.
At their head was the philosopher Leo, arch-
bishop of Thessalonic~; his profound skiJl in
astronomy and the mathematics was admired
by the strangers of the East; and this occult
science was magnified by vulgar credulity,
which modestly supposes that all knowledge
Buperior to its own mnst be the effect of inspi-
ration or magic. At the pressing entreaty of
the Cresar, his friend, the celebrated Photius,'
  • St'e Zonaraa (1. :ui, p. 160, 161), and Cedrenul (p. i49, 660).
Like Friar Bacon, the philosopher Leo haa been transformed by ig,
DOraDCe into a conjuror; yet not 10 undeservedly, if he be the author of
the oracle. more commonly ascribed to the emperor of tbe lame name.
The pbysics of Leo in JIll. are in the library of Vienna (Fabricius,
Dibliot. Gr..c. tom. vi, p. 366, lorn. xii, p. '181). Quielcant! .. ~.   i
   P Tbe eecle.iastical and literary character of Photill8 ia copiously
dillclliled by Hanekilll 'de Scriptoribus Byzant. p.2fH1-396) and Fa-
brieius.                                                               .

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]1&                        IfRE DECLINE AND ......U.

        , renounced the freedom of a secular and studi.
 i~tt OllS life, ascended thepatriarchalthrol1e, a.od
,--" ..., was aiternately' ·excommunicated and absolved
          :by the syneds of the East and West. By tQe
           confession e,en of priestly hatred, no a~' or
           science, except poetry. was foreign to this uni-
           versal scholar, who was deep in thought,inde-
           ~tigable in: read-ing, and eloquent in dietion.
          Whilst 'he exercised the office of prot08patbaire,
           or captain of the guards, Phe>tius was sent am-
           bassador to the caliph of Bagdad.lI The tedi~
          ous hoUl's of exile, perhaps of confinmelit, were
           beguHed by the hasty composition of his li/wary,
          a living monument of erudition and criticism.
          Two hundred aDd fourscore writers, histori~n.,
          orators, philosophers, theologians, are reviewed
          without any regular method : be abridges their
          narrati,e or doctrine, appreciates their style and
          character, and judges even the father. of" the
          church with a discreet freedom, which of-
          ten breaks through the superstition of the
          times. The emperor Basil, who lamented· the
          defects of his own education, entrusted·.to the
          care of Pbotius his son and succe.sor Leo the
          philosopher; and the 1'eign of thatpnnoe and.
         .of bis son Constantine POI'phyrog.enituB 'forms
         one of the most prosperous eras of the Byzau;.
         tine literature. By their munificeace ;the' lrea.,.
          q EI, A"tIpIIlC can onl)' mean Bagdad, the of the caliph; and
       the relation of his embu.), migbt Ilan been cnrlouaand in.tnleti~
       Bllt how did he pro(.'Ore his boob? A library 101lnrnerOo. could
       Deither be found at Bagdad, nor tranlportl'd with Ili. baggage • .or
       prell'rnd in hil memory•. Yet the last, bowenr, incrediblt'; ,eernl to
       be aSirme4, by Photial himself, wac._ • ,...•• ~...(.. Cam....
       (Hiat. Critique de. Joanaux, p. 8T-94) li.e,a lood aecoaat of tbe

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                   OP 'rRE"ItOMAN DlPJRL •                                   1$9
  sares ofantiquity were deposited in the imperial CHAP.,
 library; by their pens, or tbQse of their asso- .:~~: ....
  ciates, they were imparted in such extracts and
 abridgments as might amuse the c~riosity., with
 out .gppressing the indolence. of the public.
 Besides tbe Basilica, or code of fa wa, the arts
 of"busbaa'dry: and war~ of 'feeding or destroy-
 ing tire inanan species, were propagated with
 equal :diligence; and the history ()f Greece and,
 Rome wal digested into fifty-thTee heads or,
 titles, .of which two only (of emba,ssies, and of
 Tirtues and vices) have escaped the injuriesof
 time. IneTery'Station, the reader might con-.
 template tbe image of tbe past ,world, apply the
 lesson or :warniDg of eac1;l ,page, and· learn to
"admire, perhaps to "imit.te, tbe, examples of a
 brighter period.· I· shall :DQt expatiate on the
 works()f the Byzantine Greeks, who~ by the as-
 siduous study of ,the 3acients, have desetved
 in some meas\1re the remembrance and grati~
 tude of the moderns. The scholars of the pre-
 IleDt age may still enjoy the benefit of the phi-
 losophical common-pJace book of Stobreus. the
 grammatical and historical lexicon of Suififas,
 the Chiliads of Tzetze$, which ~omprise sh~.
 hundred narratives in twelve thousand verses,
 and the commentaries on 'Homer of"Eustathius,
 archbishop of Thessalonica, who, from his hom
 of plenty has poured the nanies and authori,ties
 of four hundred writers. From these originals.
 and (rom the numerous tribe of scholiasts and

 critics: some estimate may be formed of tbe'
   t Of tbele modem Greeb. lee the relpectiYe artielet in ....e BibUoo
tlleca Gntea of Fabrieiaa;.a IaborioUl werk, yet aaacevtible oca ,bet-
                           -                 "

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J60                        THE DECLINE AND )'ALL ..

 CHAP.  literary wealth of the twelfth century: Con~.
•••""".                                             .
        RtalltIUop Ie was enI'Ightened by t he gemus 0,
               •                                         (
        Homer and Demosthenes, of Aristotle and
        Plato; and in the enjoyment or neglect of Qur:
        present riches, we must envy the generation,
        that could still peruse the history of Theopom-
        pus, the orations of Hyperides, the comedies.
        of Menander: and the odes of Alcreus and.
        Sappho. The frequent labour of illustration:
        attests not only the existence but the populari-
        ty of the Grecian classics: the general know-
        ledge of the age may be deduced froQ} the ex-
       ample of two learned females, the empress Eu-
       docia, and the princess Anna Comnena, who cul-
       tivated, in the p1,lrple, the arts of rhetoric and
       philosophy.' Theyulgar dialect of the city was
       gross and barbarous.: a more correct andela-
       borate style distinguished the discourse, or at
       least the·compositionsof.the church and palace,
       which sometimes affected to copy the purity of
       the Attic models.
       ter method and many improvements: of EDstathins (tom. i. p.289-
       292,106-329); of the PaeUi (a diatribe of Leo AIIatiDs, ad calcem
       tom. v) i of Constantine Porphyrogentius (tom. yi, p. 486-009); of
       John Stobam. (tom. Yiii, 665-128); of Suidas (tom. ix, p. 621J-.'.821);
       John'l'zetzea, (tom. xii, p. 245-21'). M•. Harris, iu hi' Philologi-
       cal Arrangements. OpU8 senile, has given a .ketch of this Byuntioe
       learning (p. 281--3(0).
          " From obscure and hearsay uidence, Gerard Vellius (de Poetis
       Ol1llcis, c. 6) and Ie Clerc (Bibliotheqlle Choisie, tom. xix, p. iS5)
       mention a commentary of Michael PleIllls on twenty-foDr plays of
       Menander, still extaut in MI. at Constantinople. Yet lueh classic
       ,tndies' seem incompatible with the gravity or dulness of a.•ehool~a.
       who poured over the categoric. (de PSeJiI, p. 42): and Michael has
       probably been confonnded with Humerus Stlliu, who wrote argllmenta
       to the comedies of Menander. In the tenth century 811idas quote.
       fifty plays, but he often transcribes the 0111 scholiut of A ristopbanl'l.
          • Anna Comnena may boallt of her Greek style (TO E).A",~~ ... ...,..
       .",,,1___), and ZODllru, her contemporary, bllt nol her Batterer, ma,
          .                                                                  add

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                       O•. THE ROMAN EMPIRE..                                        ·.
                                                                                    ·161 .
~   In ou.r modern education, the painful though 'CHAP" •
 necessary attainment of two languages, which 'UI.
are no longer living, may consume the time"and .....~ •.""••
damp the ardour of the youthful student. The
poets and orators were long imprisoned in the
barbarous dialects of our western t,lncestors,
 devoid of harmony or grace; and their genius
without precept or example, was ,bandoned
 to the rude and native powers of their jUdgment
and fancy. But the Greeks of Constantinople,
 after purging away the impurities of their vul-
gar speech, acquired the free use "of their an-
 cient language, the most happy composition of
 llUman art, and a familiar knowledge of the
 sublime masters who had pleased .ar instructed
 the first of nations. But ~hese adyantages only
 tend to aggravate the reproach and shame of a
 degenerate people. They held in their lifeless
 hands the riches of their fa~hers, without in-
 heriting the spirit which had created apd im-
proved that sacred patrimony: they read, they
 praised, they compiled, but their languid souls
seemed alike incapable of thought and action •
.In the revolution of ten centuries, not a single
discovery was made to exalt the dignity or pro-
 mote the happiness of mankind. Not a single
idea has been added to the speculative-systems
 of antiquity, and a succession of patient dis-
 ciples became in their turn the dogmatic teachers
 of the next servile generation. Not a single
 composition of history, philosophy. or litera-
 add with truth, )').&T1., .'X" 4Xt,S.,·AT1...,tlln,. 'l'he princess was con•
.Yenant with the artful dialognel of Plato; aDd had studied the
          o~ q~rillm of aatrology, geometry, arithmetic, and maai.e
 (See her pre$e. to the Aleaiad, with 1:)O••Dg.'. not..).
    . VOL. X.

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162                           THE OECUNE AND FALL

          ture, has been saved from oblivion by the io-
 LIII.    t' . b eaut' 0 f s t yIe or sentIment, . 0 f ' ...
           rInSIC I
                     les                  .           ongl
".,m,,,. Dal fancy, or even of succ~ssful imitation.        In
            prose the least offensive of the lJyzaD.tin~ \'\Iri..
            b~rs are absolved from censure by their naked
            and un presuming simplicity; hut' the orators,
           most eloquerita i~ tbeh' 'own conceit, are the
           farthest removed from the' models whom they
           affect to emulate. In every page our taste aud
           reason are wounded by the choice of gigantic
          'and obsolete words, a stiff and intricate phra-
          'seo]ogy, the'discord of images, the childish play
         .of false or unseasonable ornament, and the pain-
           fulattempt to elevate themselves, to ~stonish
           the reader, and to involve a trivial meaning ill
           the smoke of obscurity and exaggerati(m. Their
           prose is soaring to the vicious atfectation of
           poetry; their poetry is sinking below the flat-
         'neSi and insipidity of prose. The tragic, epic,
         'and: Lyric muses were silent and inglorious:
           the bards of Constantinople seldom rose above
          a r.iddie o,r epigram, a panegyric or tale; tbey
         .forgot even the rules of prosody; and with the
          melody of Homer yet sounding' in their ears.
           they confounded all measure of feet and 8ylla-
         'bles in the impotent strains which have receiv-
          ed the name of political or city verses." The
         ·minds of the Greeks were bound in the fetters of
          a base and imperious superstition, which extends
          U To censnre the Byzantine taste. 'Oucange (Prefat. Gloll. Grzc.

       'p.17) strings the aut40rities of 4nlul Gellius, Jerom Petrouiu&, Georp
        Hamartolus, Longinul; who give at ODce the precept and the elo:aDlpJe.
          • The verSUB politiri, those com mOD pro.titutes, as, from their eaai·
      . ntss, tllpy are styled by Leo Allatins, usually eonsist of fifteeD .yllabiH.
        They are used by;Collstantine Manalses, John Tletzes, &c. (Dacuce.
        Gloas. Latin. tom. iii, p. i, p. 345, 346, edit. BoiL 1181). -

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                   OF THE. ROMAN DIPIRRo.                                     163
her dominion round the circle of profane sci-                               CHAP.
eu~e.       Their understandings were· bewildered ,~~~~: ..
 i(l QJeta.pbysical controversy: in the belief of
 ~:i$ons and miracles, they h~ lost all priilci..
 ples of moral e'Yidence, and 'heir taste was vi-
 t~ &y the homilies of the IDonks, an al)sm:d
 m~GlJey of declamation and. scripture.       Even
 these ~ntem~tible studies were no· longer dig-
 ~ed py the abuse of superior ta]ents: the lea-
 de,s. pi tbe Greek·churcb were humbly content
to. ~dmire and. copy the orades of antiquity, nor
did the s.chools er pulpit pr.oduce any rivals of
th~ fame of Atbanasins and Chrysostom ..1
    In all. the pursllits of active and speculative Wa.Dt of
""fie. t h Iabon 0 f states an d· In d"'d ua]S IS national
JI       e emu '                      . IVI       . emulatioo.
the most powerful spring. of the efforts and im-
provements of man~ind. Tl1e cities of ancient
Greece were cast in the happy mixture of union
and independence, whichis repeated on a larger
scale, hut iD. a looser form, by. the nations of
modern Europe·: theunionof ]~ulguage,. religion,
and· manners, whidl :r.enders tllem the specta-
tQrs·and judges of each otber's ~erit:· the in-
depeBdence o£ government ami interest, wlii'cti
a~rts tneir separat~ freedoai •. and excites them
to strive fQr pre-eminence in' the career of glory.
The situation oJ' the Romans was less favour-
able; yet ill tbe. early. ages of the republic,
which fixed the national character, a similar
emulation was kindled among the ·states of I..a-
tium and Ita]y; and, in the arts and science~,
they aspire to equal or surpass their Grecian
  , As St. Bernard of the Latin, so St. John Damascenul in tbe eighth
rentury, is rl'vered as the last father of the Greek church.
  S Bllme'. Elsay., vol. i, p. 120.

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16-4                   THE ,DECLINE AND .'ALL

  CHAP. masters.            The empire of the Cresars undoubt-
.....~..~...... edly checked the activity and progress of the
                human mind; its magnitude might indeed al-
                low some scope for domestic competition; but
                when it was gradually reduced, at first to the
                East, and at last to Greece and Constantinople,
                the Byzantine subjects were degraded to an
                abject and languid temper, the natural effect of
                theIr solitary and insulated state. From the
                North they were oppressed by nameless tribes
                of barbarians, to whom they scarcely imparted
                the appeUation of men. The language and re-
               ligion' of the more polished Arabs were an un-
               surmountable bar to all social intercourse. The
               conquerors of Europe were their brethren in
               the christian faith; but the speech of the Franks
               or Latins was' unknown, their manners were
               rude, and they were rarely connected, in peace
               or war, with the successors of Heraclius. Alone
               in the universe, the self-satisfied pride of the
               Greeks was not disturbed by the comparison
               of foreign merit; and it is 110 wonder if they
              fainted in the race, since they had neither com-
              petitors to urge their speed, nor judges to crown
               their victory. The nations of Europe an~ Asia
               were mingled by the expeditions to the 80)y
               Land; and it is under the Comnenian dynasty
               that a faint emulation of -knowledge' and mili-
               tary virtue was rek,indled in'the Byzantine eID-
               pire.                           '-

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                 OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                           165

                     CHAP. LIV.
  .Origin and doctrine tif the Pauiicians- Their
    persecution b!J' the Greek emperors-Revolt in.
     Armenia, etc.-Transplan.tation, into Thrace
    -Propagation in the West-Tile seeds, cha-
    racter, and consequences of the refortnation .

. - IN the profession of christianity. the variety of CHAP.
    national characters may be clearly distinguish- ...~~~:...
   ed. The natives of Syria and Egypt abandon- 8 "plDe tV.
   ed'their lives to lazy and contemplative devo_.peratitioD
     ·               .     .
   t Ion: R ' agalD aspIred to t h'e d omlDlon 0 fortbe
            ome                             ..       'Grerk
   the world; and the wit of the lively and 10- church.
   quacious Greeks was consumed in tht. disputes
   of metaphysical theology. The incomprehen-
   sible mysteries of the trinity and incarnation,'
   instead of commanding their silent submission,
   were agitated in vehement and subtle contro-
  versies, which enlarged their faith at the ex- .
  pence 'perhaps of their charity and reason.
  From the council of Nice to the end of the se-
  venth century, the peace and unity of the church
  was invaded by these spiritual wars; and so
  deeply did they affect the decline and fall of
  the empire, that the historian has too often been
  compelled to attend the synods, to explore the
  creeds, and to enumerate the sects, of this busy
  period of ecclesiastical annals. From the be-
  ginning of the eighth century to the last ages of
  the Byzantine empire, the sound of controversy
  was seldom heard: curiosity was exhausted,

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J66                      mE DECLINE AND FALL

  CHAP. zeal was fatigued, and, in the decrees oC six
.....~~: .... councils, the articles of the catholic faith had
              been irrevocably defined. The spirit of dis-
              pute, however vain and pernicious, requires
              some energy and exercise of the mental facul-
              ties; and the prostrate Greeks were content to
              fast, to pray, and to believe, in blind obedience
              to the patriarch and his clergy. 'During a
              long dream of superstition, the virgin and
              the $3lnts, their visions and miracles, their
              relics and .images, were preached by the monks
             and worshipped by the pe.ople; and the ap-
             pellation of people might be extended witb-
             out injJlstice to the first ranks of civil society.
            ,At an unseasooable moment, the Isaurian elO-
             perors attempted somewhat rudely to awaken
             their subjects: llnder their iniluence, reason
             might obtain some proselyte.s, a far greater
             l:umber \Vas swayed by interest or fear; but
             the Eastern world embraced or deplored their
             visible deities, aod the restoration of images
             was .celebrated      the ftlast of orthodoxy. In
             this .passive and unl).oiJnOu.8 s"tate the ecclesias-
        . tical rulers were relieved from the toil, or de-
             privedof the pleasure, of perseCution. The
             pag~us had disappel).red; the Jews' were silent
             and Q~~cure; the disputes with lhEt Latins were
            lare UlJd remote hostilitws against & national
            eBemy; ~nd the sects of Egypt and Syria en-
            joyed a free toleration, under the shadow of
             the Ar~bian caliphs. About the lniddle of the
            seventh century, a branch of mallichreans was
            selected as the victims of . spiritual tyranny:
             their patience was at lfmgth exaspE>rated to de-
             spair and rebellion; and their exile has scat.

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                       OF THB ROMAN DlPIR£.                                       167
  lered over the West the seeds of reformation•. CHAP.
  T.hese important events will justify .sorne en- uv.
  quiry into the doctrine and story of the pauli- m"~',,.
  cians;a and, as they cannot plead for them-
  sel ves, our candid criticism will magnify the
 good, and abate or suspect the evil, that is re-
  ported by their adversaries.
     The gnostics, who had distracted the infancy, tObepaa-
                                                      rigia 0lif
  were oppressed by t he greatness and authonty" e!an~ or
 of the church. Instead of emulating or surpas- !f'S:~~"
 sing the wealth, learning, and numbers of the ~~.D. 6Gt-
 catholics, their obscur.e remnant was driven
 from tbe capitals of the East an.d West, and
 confined to the villages and \ mountains along
 the borders of the Euphrates. Some vestige- of
 the marcionites IDay be detected in the fifth
century;" but the numerous sects were finally
lost in the odious name' of the manichreans;
and these heretics, who presumed to reconcile
the doctrines of Zoroaster and Christ, were·
pursued by the two religions with equal and
unrelenting hatred. Under the grandson of
Heraclius, in the neighbourhood of Sarnosata,
more famous for the birth of Lucian than for thE:
title of a Syrian kingdom, a reformer arose,
    • Tbe error. and virtues of tbe paulieian. are weiglled, with hi,
n.ualjodgmeat aud eaadour, by the learned Mo.beim (Hist. Ecelni.
ut. aeeulum b:; p. Ill, &:e.) He clraw. hi' origioal iatelligeaee froill
Photios (coatra Manieh.o.,). i) aad Petcr Sielliu. (Hiat. Maaleh. .
onua). The firat of these accounts hal aot fallea iato my haud.; the
secoad, which Mosheim prefers, I hue read in a IAtiu nrsion- insert·
ed in the Maxima Bibliothet'a Patrum (tom. xvi, p. 164-164), from
the edition of the Jesuit Radcros (-Ingoiltadii, 1604, in 4to.)
   b In the time of Theodoret, tbe diocese of Cyrrhos, in Syria, co..
tained eight hundred villages. Of these, two were iuhabited byariau
and 1:'lDomians, and eight by marcioni'e., whom the laborious bilhop
l'et'ollciled to the catholic church (Dnpin. Bibliot. Eeele.iastiqoel tom.
iv. p. til, 82).

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168'                        THE DECLIN2 AJfD .'ALIO

 CHAP.   esteemed by the paulicians as 'the chosen inei-'
.#!:~~:u senger of truth.     In his humble dwelling ot
         Mananalis, Constantine entertained a deacon,
         who returned from Syrian captivity, and receiv-'
         ed the inestimable gift of the new testament,
         which was already concealed from the vulgar,
         by the prudence of the Greek, and perhaps of
         the gnostic~ clergy.c These books became the
         measure of his studies and the rule of his faith;
         and the catholics, who dispute ~is interpreta-
         tion, acknowledgt.d that his text was' genuine
         and sincere. ,But he attached himself with pe-
         culiar devoti9n to the writings and character of
         St. Paul. The name of the paulicians is deriv-
         ed by their enemies from some unknown and
         dombstic teacher; but I am confident that they
         gloried in their affinity to 'the apostle of the
         gentiles. His disciples, Titus, Tirnothy, Syl-
         vanus, Tychius, were represented by Constan-
         tine and his fellow-labourers: the names of the
         apostolic churches were applied to the con-
         gregations whiC'h they assembled in Armenia
         and Cappadocia; and this innocent allegory
         revived the example and memory of the first
neir     ages. In the gospel, and the epistles .of St.
         Paul, his faithful follower investigated the creed
         of pri~itive christianity; and, whatever might
         be the success, a protestant reader will applaud
         the spirit of the enquiry. But ifthe scriptures
         of the paulicians were pure, they were not per-

           C Nobia profaDis iata (.aera EIXIIIgtlia) legere nOD lit'd .ed aace ...

         dolibll. dnDlant, waa the firat .cruple of a catholic wben wu ad,iae.
         t. read the bible (Pelr. Sicul.p. 761l

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                     01 'tHE itOMiN EMPIR2. :                                      J.69
feet.· ·Their founders rejeCted the two epistler' CHAP.
of St. Peter: the ,apostle of the circumcision, :".:~~:'4
whose dispute with their favourite for the ou- '
servance of the law could not easily be forgiv-
en." They agreed with their gnostic brethren
in the universal contempt for the old testament, '
the books of Moses and the prophets, which
have been consecrated by the decrees of the
catholic church. With equal boldness, and
doubtless witli more reason, Constantine, the
new Sylvanus, disclaimed the visions, which,
in so many bulky and splendid volumes. had
been publ~shed by the Oriental sects;' the fa-
bulous productions of the Hebrew patriarchs
and the sages of the East; the spurious gOHpels,
epistles, and acts, 'whIch, in the first age, had'
overwhelmed the orthodox code; the theology
of Manes, and the authors of the kindred here-
sies; and the thirty generations or reons, which
had been created by the fruitful fancy of Va-

lentine. The paulicians sincerely condemned
    • In n-jecting the _0l1li epiltle of st. Peter, the panlicilllll are jua-
tified by lome of the mOlt reapectable of the ancienta and moderJlt (see
Wetatein ad loc. Simon, Hilt. Critique da Noav.ean Teltament, c. 17).
Tbey likwile oYer~ooked the ApCMlalyple (Petr. Sical. p. '166); bat
a. luch neglect is not impated as a crime, the Greeks of the ninth
centary malt have been carelesa of the credl\ an. bodoar of the Rue-
lalion..                        .
 . • Thil contention, wbich has not escaped the malice ofPorpbyJ:Y,
Inpposes some error and pasai6n      in one or both of the apostle.. By
ChrylOatOIll, Jerom, and Erumnl, it illepreaented as a.bam quarrel,
a pions fraud, for the btnefit of the gentile. and the correction of the
Jqrs (Miildleton" Works, vol. ii, p.1-1O).
   f ThOle who are carious of tbis heterodo:lt library, may consult the
reaearchea of BeaalObrc (Hilt. Critiqae du Manicheilme, tom.·j, p.
106--437). Even io Africa, St. Anltio coald describe the Manieh.all
books, tam molti, tam (ran des, tam pretiOli codices (contra Fauat. Kiii,
14); bot be adds, withoot pity, Incendite omnea llIal membraDu :
and hil advice has been ri(orooaJv followed.

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17('                  TBI'DECLINE AND F.u.t, ,

 CHAP. the memory and opinions of the manichman
.,.~!!:... sect, and complained of the injustice which im-
              pressed that invidious name on the simple vo-
              taries of St. Paul and of Christ.,
 !~:i~~~f Of the ecclesiastical chain, many links had
 tbeir belief been broken by the paulician reformers', and
and wor-                                                  ,
llaip.        their liberty was enlarged, as they reduced the
              number of masters, at whose voice profane rea-
             son must bow to mystery and. miracle. The '
           . early separation of. the gnosticshad preceded
             the establishment of the catholic worship; aJ,ld
             against the gradual innovations of disciplipe
             and doctrine, they were as strongly guarded by
             habit and aversion, as by the silence .of 8t. Paul
             and the evangelistA. The objects which had
             been transformed by the magic of superstition,
             appeared to the eyes of the paulicians in their
             genuine and naked colours. AJ;l image mad~
             wiihont hands, was the common workiDansbiJ.
             of a r mortal artist, to whpse skill alone the
             wood and Canl'aS8 rimst be indebted for their
            merit or value. The miraculous relics were an
            heap of bones apd ashes, destitute of life or vir-
            tue, or of any relation, perhaps, ,with the per-
            son to whom they were ascribed. The true
            and vivifying cross was a. piece of sound or rot-
            ten timber; the body and blood of Christ, a
            loaf of bread and a cup of wine, the gifts ofna-
            ture and the symbols of grace. The mother of
            God was degraded from her celestial honours
            and immaculate virginity; and the saints and
            angels were no longer solicited to exercise the
            laborious office, of mediation in heaven, and
            ministry upon earth. In the practice, or a.t
            lea~t iu the theory, of the sacraments,' the'

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                      OF'THE ROMAN EMPmE.                                         ]   '1 (
 paulicial:s were inclined to abolish all vi~ible CHAP•.
object$ of worship, and the words of the gos- •.~~~: •• '
pel were, in their 'judgment, ,the baptittm 3l,id
communion 'of the .faithful They in.dulged a
convenient latitude.. the interpretation .of
scripture; and as 'often as they were presse<l
by the literal1'lense, they could, -escape to the
intricate mues of figure and allegory. Their
utmost diligence must have beenempJoyed to
dissolve the connexion between the old and the
new testament; siMe they adored the latter as
the oracles of God, and abhored the former as
the fabulous and absurd mventions of men or
dremons. We cannot be surprised, that they
should have found in the gospel the' orthodox
mystery of the trinity: but instead of confess-
ing the human ·natureand substantial sufferings
of Christ, they amused their fancy with a celes-
tial body that passed through the virgin like
water through a pipe; with a phantastic cruci-
fixioo, that eluded the vain and impotent malice
of the Jews. A creed thus simple and spiritual ,:;:!el,,'::ld
waH not adapted to the •genius of the times·,1 0 the ma-
and the rational christian who might have been gian~ and
              • •                                   maDlcha-
contented WIth the hght yoke and easy bur- aaa
then of Jesus and his apostles, was justly of-
fended, that the paulicians should dare to vio-
late the unity of God, the first article of natural
and revealed religiou. Their belief and their
trust was in the }'ather, ·of Christ, of _the hu.
man soul, and of the invisible world. But they
likewise held the eternity of matter ; a stubborn
  I   The tilt capital errofl of the paulicians are defined by Pl:ter Sica..
JUI   (p. 766) with mach prl'jnfiice and passioD.                        .

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172                        THE.. DECLINE AND FALL
 CHAP.     and rebellious subl$tance, the origin of a aeeond
...!;!;,,, principle,  of an active being, who has created
           this visible world, and exercises his temporal
           reign till the final consummation of death and
           sin." The appearances of moral and physical
           evil had established the two principles in the
           ancient philosophy and religion of the East;
           from whence this doctrine was transfused to
           the various swarms of the gnostics. A thousand
           shades may be devised in the nature and cha-
           racter of AJ.riman. from a rival god to a subor-
           dinate dremon, from passion and frailty to pure
           and perfect malevolence: but, in spite of our
           efforts, the goodness and the power of Ormusd
           are 'placed at the opposite extremities of the
           line; and every step that appr.oacht:s the one
           must recede in equal proportion from the
'~e eata- . The apostolic labours of Constantine Sylva-
                         , I .' l' d h
nh.bmeut     .
~r~bep.aa- nus soon' Inn tIp Ie      t e numb er 0 f h' d' .
                                                      IS ISCI-
~~:!ai~ pies, the secret recompence of spiritual ambi-.
::~tu, tion., The remnant of the gnostic sects, and
           especiaUy the manichreans of Armenia, were
           united under' his standard; many catholics
           were converted or seduced by his arguments;
           and he preached with success in the regions
           of Pontusk and Cappadocia, which' had long
              b Primnm illorum axioma elt, duo rerllm e..e principia; Deum
         malum'et Denm bonnm·alinmque blljll' mllndi condltorem et prinei-
         pem, et alium futuri .vi (Petr. Sicul. p. 756).
             i Two It-arued critic., Beauaobre (Hist. Critique ~ Maniebeiame,
         I.. i, (56) and Moabiem (IlIltitllt. Hist. Eccles. and de Rebus Cbria-
         tianis ante' COBltantiDllm, aec. i, ii, iii), ban laboured to explore and
         discriminate tbe variou••y.tem. of the gDOltic. on the subject of the
         two principle••
             I< The countries betw.un the Eupbratel and the HaIY' .ere pos-

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                   or TH~     ROMAN EMPIRE. '                                    173
.ince imbibed the .religion .of Zoroaster. The CRAP.
 paulician teachers were, distinguished oilly by ......~!~:....
their. scriptural nallles, by the modest title of
fellow-pilgrims, by.lhe austerity of tht-ir lives,.
their zeal or knowledge, an~ the credit of som'e
extra-ordinary gifts of. the holy spirit. nut
th~y were incapable of desiring, or at least of
obtaming, the wealth aud honours         the. ca-       of
tholic prelacy. Such anti-christian' pride they
bitterly censured; and even the rank .of elders
or presbyters was condemned as an institutiol1
of the Jewish synagogue. . The new sect was
loosely spread over the provinces of Asia
.M inor to the westward of the Euphrates: six
of their principal congregations represented
the churches to which 8t. Paul had addressed
'lis epistles; and. their founder chose his resi-
dence in the neighbourhood of Colonial, in the
same district of Pontus which had been cele.
brated by the altars of Bellona" and the mira-

IPlled abon 350 years by tbe l\oledel (Hprodot. I. i, c. 103) and Per-
liallS: lind thp kings of Pontus were of the royal race of tbe Ache- (Sallu.t. "ragml'nt. I. iii, wilb tbe French lupt,lpment Ind
nolI's of-tbp prpsidpnt dp Brolspl).
    I ~Iost probably founded by Pompey after tbe conqnet of PODtnl.
Tbis Colonia, on the Lyeu. above Npo-C.sarpa, is named by the
Turks Coulrihiaar, or Chonac, a populous town in a slrong country.
(d'Auvilll' Geographie AncieDne, tom, ii, p. 34•• Tournefort, Yoyage:
tlu 1.(,Valll, tom. iii. Ittlre xxii, p. 293).
    ID The tC'mple of RtllQlla at Comana, in Pontu •• waa a powerful aDd

wrallhy foundation, and the high priest I ' l l relppcted I I tbe second
pC'lIon iu the kingdom. As Ihl' .acerdotal ollice had bepD occupipd .
by bis mOlher's falnily, Straho (I. xii. p. 809, 8U, 836, 837) dwells
.. ith peculiar complupncy on tbe temple, the worship. and fel-
ti ..t w!lieh WII twice crlebrated every year. But the Bellona of
Poatbl bad Ihe (ralurtl aDd character of the coddtll, not of wlr, bal
.flove.                                                  .

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:174                         THI DECLIN" A)fD ULl-
 CHAP.      cles' of--Gregory ..- Alter 3;wissiOa Of tWentr
."J:!;':" seven years, Sylvanus, who ba.Clreti~d f~
            tDe'tolerating govermDeut of the Anabs. feEl a
Persecn. sacnnoe to' Roman perseclltion.,; The la,WI.oI
tioD of the b
            I e pIOUS emperors, W h'ch St:& om toUCrRrul ,the
                                              :"'ld       L. __l

emperors. lives of leset odi&us heretics, proscribed, 'wit....
           'ouhue-cy or disgUise. the' tenets, the books,;
           and'1iIle peFSObS       orthe morianists and mani~
            reans: the books weli! clefivered .to: the :flaala~;
           aud  all woo·     should pre81l1Ile to secret~· SQcli
            wlltings,Ol"to pi0fess 8udl;opio.i()ns, we~ de,
            \toted to an ign~iDious deatb.O A GreekflN-.
            nister,·. ·armed. nth legal and, military powel'S,
  at Calonia, te> strike the shepherd,
            and. to recl'ai~' if possible;: the. lost sheep. By
           a refinement of cruelty, Simeon pla.c~d the un·
           fortllBate Sylvanus: before a:Iine of bis msciples,
           who were commanded., as the price ofth~irpar­
           .roll·; lIhe pil'oof o£ their r~p~ntance, to nias-
           fJa4lTe their spiritual father.     They turned aside
           from the impious office; the stones dropt from
           their filial hands, and of the whole number,
           only o~e executioner could be found', a new
           David, as he is styled by the catholics, who

              n Gregory, bishop of Neo-Cmsarra (A. D. 240-261l), snrnamed
           fbaumaturgU8, ortbe Wonderworker. An bundred yearl aflt!rwards
          the history or romance or his life was composed by Gregory of Ny~sa,
          bi5 aalDe.. ~ and. countrYIOlln the brolher of tbe gl'rat St. Basil.
              o Hoe caeteruM ad lua egregia facinora, diviai atque ortbodolll, lID.
          peMtores' addidernut, ut· Maniebmos MontaDosq"e c.pitali pllDiri It'n.
          ttntiA jnbt'rent, eOfnmque .ibros, qnocnDque in weo inYI'uti eAscmt,
         'ftlmtis tradi; quod siquis ulpiam eoadelD eccnltlL!llo deprl'~Dderf'tur,
          IlIInc eundem mortis preme. addici, f'juaqlle bona in fiscllln inferi
          (Petr. Sicul: 'po 769). Wbat·more could.bigetr,. and pt'l'IIecutiD~

                                                          Digitized by   Google
                     OF'rHE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                          J7li
boldly overthrew the giant 01 heresy. ThIS: CHAP.
apostate, Justus was hil'i name, again deceived ; ••".".
and betrayed his unsuspecting brethren, and
a. new conformity to the acts of St. Paul may
be found in the conversion of Simeon; like the
apostle, he embraced the doctrine. which he
had been' sent .to persecute, renounced his ho-
nours and fortunes, and acquired among the
paulicians the fame of a missionary aud a
martyr. They were not ambitions of 1l1artyr-
dom;P but in a calamItous period of ooe. hun-
dred and fifty yea)'s, their patience su~tain~d
whatever zeal could inflict; and power was in:";
sufficient to eradicate the ()bstina~e veget~tio~
of fanaticism and reasoD. From the: blood· au~
ashes .of \ the .irst· victims, a succession o.f.
teachers and congregations repeatedLy arose:
amidst their foreign hostiliti~s, they f0-1Ul.d lei-.
lJurefor domestic quarrels: tht.y pr~a,ched, they.
disputed, they suffered; aD.~ the vir.tue8~ th~
apparent' virtues, of Sergi us, in a t'ilgrimage                               I

0.6 thirty-three years. are reluctantly eoufesseQ
by the orthodox historians:c' Th, native cruel..
ty of Justiniao the ~coDd wa~ stimulated by
a piQUS cause; and h~. vainly ho.ped to ex:"
tinguish, in a single c~nflagration. the. name
and mem~r.y of the: paulicians. By thejr pri~

    ·p·Iuhould aeeQl that the paulieia~ aUowied. theD!sehel lome lati-
 tude of equivocation IUd mental re.enation, t!1l the catbolies disco-
 .ered the prelling questions, which reduced theQl to-. the. alte'nIUi"Q of
 apoatley or martyrdom (Prtr. Sicul. p. 760}h
     q Tbe prraeclltion il told by Prtrns Sicnlus (p. 579-763) with I ..
 wf'lction Ind pleasantry. JUltns j"sta persolvit. SiJllll4lIl, was n,~
....IT~ bnt X"TIC (the pronoociation of tbe two vowels mll~"~ve bt'eD
 nearly the lame), a great whale that drownell the mariners who milo
 took him fOf an bland•. See likewiJe Cedrenlll (p.432--436)..

                                                               Digitized by   Google
 176                        THE DE('LINE AND PALL
  CHAP.          mitive simplicity, their abhorrence of popular
 .#u.,.,,,,.                      e lCOllOCIast prmces mIg h I "
                 superstItion, t h·
                         • .                      ..    . t lave
                 been reconciled to some erroneous doctrines;
                 but they themselves were exposed to the ca-
                 lumnies of the monks, and they chose to be
                 the tyrants, leRt they should be accused as the
                accomplices of the manichreans. Such a re-
                proach has sullied the clemency of Niceph orus,
                who relaxed in their favour the severity of t.he
                penal statutes; nor will his character sustain
                the honour of a more liberal motive. 1:he
                feeble Michael the first, the rigid Leo the Ar-
                menian, were foremost in the race of persecu-
                tion; butthe prizemustf:!oubtless bcadjudge-rl to
                the sanguinary derotion of Theodora, who restor-
                ed the images to the -Oriental church. Ber
                inquisitors explored the cities and mountains
                of the lesser Asia, and theflatterer& of the
                empress have affirmed that, in a short reign,
                one hundred thousand paulicians w~re extir-
               pated by the sword, the gibbet, or the flames.
               Her guilt or merit has perhaps been stretched
               beyond the measu'Fe of truth; but if the ac-
               count be allowed, it must be presumed that
               many simple iconoclasts were punished under
               a more: odious name, and. that some who were
               driven from the church,' unwillingly took re-
               fuge in the bosom of heresy
.Rrvolt of
thr pauli-
                   The most furioU!~ and desperate of rebels are
~ian.,         the sectarit;s of a religion long persecuted, and
:8::   85/10   at length provoked. 111 an holy cause they are no
               longer susceptible 9f fear or remorse: the jus-
               tice of their arms hardens them against the feel-

                                               Digitized by   Google
                     0' THE ROMAN EMPllt&                                         J77
  jogs of humanity; and· they revenge., tlieir la-: CHAl'.
 thers' wrongs on the children of their tyr;m.t.s'.....~~~:..
 Such,have ,been the hussites. of. Bohemia and .
  the ,calvanists of France, and sllch, i.n then.i.nth .
 century, were the paulicians of Armenia and ~he
 adjacent provinces; They were first awaken-
 ed to . the~ massacre of a governor and bishop,
 who exercised the imperial mandate ofconvert-:
 i,ng o~ destroyjng the heretics; and the 'deepest'
 .recesses ofmo'Unt Argreus protected their iude- .
 pendelice and revenge. A more dangerous ~l.I~d
 consuming Bame was kindle«J by the persecu-
 tion of Theodora, and the revolt of, C~rbeal!!; a
.valiant paulician. who commanded the guards of
 the.general of .th~ East. IJis father hadbt:ell
 impaled by the catholicinqui.sitors; an4 reli-
.gion, 01' at l~ast ~a.ture, might justi.fy h~s d.~er-:
,tiOI~ and rev~ng~. Five thousand ,of bi~ bre-
 thren were, united by the same motives ;: they .
.renounced . the. allegiance· of anti-:-c~risti~n
 ,:tl.o~e; a Saracen emir ;introduced Ca~beas t~
 t~~ c~liph; ~pd 'the comma~der of the: fait~~ul
 extepded his sceptre to the impJacl\.bJe enemy
 of the Gr~k8. .In the mountain' between Se- .
.wa~ ,and Trebizond he founded or fortified the The,. f_
 city of Tephrice," which is Idill occupi~d' by a ~~ri!:'
 fierce and licentious people, and the neighbo'ur-
. r'Petrul Bienlul (p. '163, '1"), the 'coiltinuator of 'Tbeopbauci (I. iy,
 c.4, p. 101, 10(), CedreDUI (p. 64.1, 15(2, 1546),' aDd Zoaaru (t~m. ii.
 1. :ui, p. 115~). delcribe tberev91t aDd exploiu of Carbeu aad hi.
 paulicia...                                      .
    • Otter (Yoyare en Tnrqllie et ill'PerR, tom. ii) i, probably the oa-
 ly Frank who haa vi.lted the iadependeat barbarians of Tepbrice, now
 DiYripi, from whom b. fmtllDlltely Hcaped iu the train of a 'l'urldlll
    YOLo    x.

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'118                                 THE DEtLtNE AND FALL
,CHAP.,            iog hills were co-vered with the pauliC18.B fugi-
••   :~~   ..#O'   tives, wha now reconciled the use of the bible'
                   and the sword. During more than thirty years,
                   Asia was afflicted by the calamities of foreign
                   and domestic war: in their hostile inroads the
                   disciples of St. Paul were joined with those of
                   Mahomet; and the peaceful christiaas, the
                   aged parent and tender v.irgin, who were de-
                   livered into barbarous servitude, .might justly
                   accuse the intolerant ~pirit of their sovereign.
                   So urgent was the mischief, sa intolerable the
                   shame, that even the dissolute Michael, the son
                   of Theodora, was compelled to march in per-
                   son against the paulicians ; he was defeated uu-
                   der the walls 'Of Samasata; and the Roman
                   emperor' fled before the heretics' whom his mo-
                   ther had condemned to the flames. The Sara;.
                   cens fought under the same, banners, but the
                   victory w,as ascribed to Carbeas; andthe cap-
                   tive generals, with more tban an hundred tri-
                   bunes, were either released by his avarice, or
                   tortured'by his fanaticism. The valour and
                   ambition 'of 'Cbrysochier,' his suc"cessor, em-
                   hr.aced a wider cirdeof'rapine ~nd ·revenge.......
                   In alliance with his faithful moslems, he bold-
                   ly penE't~ated into the heart 'of Asia; the troops
                   of the frontier and t-he palace were repeatedly
                   overthrown.; the edicts ofpersecution were ao-
aDd pll.
                   • wered by the pdlage of Nice and Ni£omedia,
lale  '.fa         of Ancyra and Ephesus;' nor could the apostle
Jliuor.            St. John protect from violation his city and s~
                     tIn thelNatory ofChrYSOI!liier, a-ill8 (ehron. ,.11,10. edit Ve-
                   Dat.) hal exposed the DakedDesl of the empire. CODstaDtiDe P.orpbJ.
                   rogeDilUi (in Vit. Bull c. 37-43, p. 166-1'11, hu diaplayed the glory
                   of Lil grandfather. CeclreDDI (po 5700673) i. withouUbe1r palaioaa
                   01' their knowledce.

                                                              Digitized by   Google
                 OF THE ROMAN' BMPIRL'                    J 10 The cathedral of Epllesll. wasium· CHA}'.
 ed into a stahle for mul~s and borses; and the ..~..~~~:_
 paulicians vied with the Saracens in their con-
tempt and ~bhorrellce of images and relics ...:....
·If is not unpl~sing to observe the triumph of
"ebeUion over the same despotism which has
Aisdained the prayers of an inj~l'ed people.__
The emperor. Basil, the Macedonian, wal re-
du~ed 'to sue {o, peace, to .offer a ransom for'
.the eapti'fes, and to request, iu tbe.l:1uguage of
moderatiop and' charity, that Chrysoc~ier "'0 old
 $JAlre his (bilow-christians, and content llimself
-1rirt' a· royal donative of gold and silver and
.Uk gatMents. "If the eiuperor~" replied the
iltlOIeDt &'liatic, " be desirous of peacet let him
!¥'hb(ilc~ the East, and reign without moleat-
~(l~fl in the West. nhe refuse, the servants
!¥ >Cif' ~lte .LordwiU pMcipitate. him frOm .the
 "throne." The reluctant Basil suspepded tl~
tre8ty',.'acoepted 'the defiance; and Jed his army
ko tM· Ia)Kl of h.el'e8Y, whioh he wB~~d .w.ith
·ate.aud awore.The opeh couatlY of 1he pau-
~i~ns was eXJrosed to the ~e' calamities
 i+t.iqh ,they ,hbd .illiitt;ed; .hut ~ hen be bad ex-
lMCIl'ecl':die't;treogtb of the Teplwice, tbe ,m.ulti-
· ude of· thu .barbarians, and tb~ ample map- .
~%Mei:qf'arms .and pr••isions, pe desisted witba
~jtt"m ~tHe hopele}is aege. .On his .return lb
.Col1st1llltmGl* he,laboared, by tb.e.fQ1JDd.ti~
 of convents and churches, to secure the aid of
,ai, £.~!~$t4\1 p.3:~'Qn.s. Qf M;.~h.ael 1:h.e' archa~gel
 and the prophet ;Elijah; and it was his daiJ'Y
~A:uJ~rJ~at ,~~e m~~~'live to ~ran~pierce, wlf:h
 three arrows, the head of his impiousaQY~Bary.
 Beyond his expectations, the wish was accom-

                                               Digitized by   Google
180                             THE DECLINE- AND F.,tLL
 CHAP.     plished: after a successful inroad, Chr.ysocliier
...~~:.., was surprised and slain in his retreat; and the
           rebel's head was triumphantly presented at the
           foot of the throne. On the reception of this
           welc~me trophy" Basil instantly called for :his
           bow, discharged three arrows with ,unerriDg,
           aim~ and accepted the applause of. the C,QDi't,
          ·who hailed the victory of the royal archer:.-
~:!~ de- With Chrysochier, the. glory' of thepauliciaDs
           faded and withered .;- on the second expedi~ion
           of the emperor, the hilpregnable Tepbrice' was
           deserted by the heretics, 'who sued fOr. mercy
           or escaped to the borders. Tbe city was
           ed, but the spirit of independence survived in
           the mountains; the paulicians defended, above
           a century, their religion and liberty, infested
         ,the Roman limits, and mq.intained their perpe-
           ~ual alliance .'with the enemies. of the empire aod
           the gospel.            '
Their         About the mHrlle of the eighth century. Con-
:ti!,!:::~stantine, surnamed. Copronymus by the wor-
!~~uia .shippers of images, had, made a.Ji expedition in-
     racc· to Armenia, and found, in the cities· ofMeIitene
         . and TheodosiopoIis,; a great number of pauli-
         'Cians, his.kindred hereth::s. As a favour or
         . punishment, he transplanted them from the
           banks of the' Euphrates to. Constantinople and
           ThracE:; and by this emigration their doctrine
           was introduced: and diffused. in Europe.x If

           • JIIII• ....,... . . . . . . . . . ..,.... 'tIJf TIf"'~ IU....a.... Howelepat iI tile
         Greek tODgae, neu iD tlte mouth' of' cedreDuI! ,
          "" CoproDyma. traDlported hi...~, heretic.; IDd tltDl ........
         • "","'c n.II)._ aa.. ('edrea•• (p. 4."), who ha. copied the ......
         of Theop......                                                     '

                                                            Digitized by   Google
                       OF THE ROMAN EMPIllB. "                                1&1:
the . sectaries of the metropolis were soon CHAP.
mingled' with the promiscuous mass, those of .'!:~:.:. .;
the country struck a deep root in a foreign soil.
The paulicians of Thrace resisted the storms
of persecution, maintained a secret correspon-'
dence with their Armenian brethren, and gave·
aid and comfort to their preachers, who solicit-·
ed, not without success, the infant faith of the
Bulgarians.' In the tenth century, they were:
;restored and multiplied by a lLore powerful co- .
lony, which. John Zimisces· transported from'-
the Chalybian hills to the valleys of Mount.
Hremus.The oriental clergy, who .would have
preferred the destruction, iillpatiently sighed
for the absence, of the manichreans: the war-
like emperor had felt and· esteemed their va-
lour: their attachment· to the Saracens was'
pregnant with mischief; but, on the side of the'
 Danube, against the barbarians of Scythia,
their service might be- useful, and th~ir loss
would be desirable. Their exile in a distant.

land was softened by a free toleration: the,

paulicians held the' city of Philoppopolis, imd

the keys of Thrace; the catholics were their
subjects; the jacobite emigrants their asso-                              0

ciates; they occupied a line of villages _and -
castles in Macedonia and Epirus; and many.
native Bulgarians were associated to the com-,'
  , PetrnlSicalns, wbo relided Diue mODths at Tepbrlce (A. D. 810),
for the raDlom of captinl (p. 1M). w.. iDformed of iDtended
milSioD. aud addressed bil pn.ervatin, tbe Hi.torill ManicbEorum,
to tbe Dew arebbilbop oftbe BulgariaDI (p. 164). •
  ·0 The coloDY of pa.liciaul LDd jacobitel by JohD Zi. '
..ilcel (A. D. 910) from ArmeDia to'1'bral'e, il mentioned by Zona,.. ,
tom. ii, I. ~yii, p. 209) aDd ADDa ComUeDa (AleJ:iad, 'I.
                                                         xi,. p. 410, .

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181-                        TIlB ~~un~ AND FALL

 CL~'V:     l\1ullion of armti and heresy~ As long 8S they
•..,.,,.... were awed by power alidtreatea with mod(ra-
            lion, their voluntary bands were distinguished
        . in. the armies of the empire; and tlie courage
            of these dogs, ever greedy of war, ever thirsty
            of huma.n blood, is noticed with astonishment,
            and almo!!t with reproach, by thS pusillani-
            lDons Greeks. The Same spirit rendered thent
            arrogant and contumacious: they were e3sHy
            provoked by caprice or injury; and their pri-
            vileges were often violated by the ffii(hless bi-
            gotry of the government and Clergy. In the.
           midst of the Norman war, two thousand fife
            hundred manichmaits deserted the standard of
            Alexius Comnenus;a and retired to their native
            homes. .He disSembled till the moment of r~­
            ven~; invited the cbiefs to a friend.y 'confe-
            rerlce: alidpunished the innocent and guilty
            by impriSonment, cordiscation, and baptism.-
           1ft an interval of peace, the emperor undertook
           the pious office of reconciling iDeni to the clirlreh
           and state: his winter quarters _ere ':xed at
           Philippopolis; arid the tbirteerlth apostle, as
           he is styled by his pious danghter, consumed
           whole days and nights in 'th.eoJogieaf contro-
           versy. His arguments were fortified; their o~
           stinacy was melted, by the hODobrs: and re-
           wards which ite,bestewed on the inost eminent
            proselytes; and a new city, surrounded with
           gardens, enricb'ed with i1nin~nities, and digni-

             • Tbe AlclI.iad of ABDa COQlMDA (I. ,,; p. Ill; I••i. fl. 164. 151. 1.
          lIi~,                                             >
                p. 410-467, with the .DBOtatiOIla' of D . . . . r.eorda .lIe tr_ _
          tieD. of her .pMtotiC father with the ....iche.... WIIo.e Ilbomillablie
          hera,. llae was desirous of reflltiD,.                                •

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                    o~   THE RO)fA~ BHPIRE.                                      18.1
. fied with his own name, was founded by Alex- CHAP.
  ius, for the resiQ,ence of his vulgar converts.- .. :~~,~...
  The important station of Philippopolis was
  wrested from their hands; the contumacious
  leaders were secured in a dunge~ or barush.
  ed from their country; and their lives were
  spared by the prudence, rather than the mer-
  cy, of an emperOl', at whose com,mand a poor
  and solitary heretic was burnt alive before the
  church of St. Sophia.' But the proud hope of
  eradicating the prejudices of a nation was spee-
  dily overturned by the invincible zeal of the
  paulician.., who ceased to dissemble or refused
  to obey. After the depar~ure and death of
  Alexius, they SOOIl resumed their civil and re-
  ligious Jaws. In the beginning of the thirteenth
  century, their.pope or primate (a manifest cor-
  ruption) resided on the confines of Bulgaria,
  Croati, and Dalmatia, and governed, by his
 ..iears, the, filial congregations of Italy and
  France.c Fro.w that era, a minute scrutiny
  might prolong.and perpetuate the chain oftra-
  ditioD.At the end of the last age, the sect or
  colony still inhabited .the vallies of mount Hz.
  mus, where their ignorance and poverty were
 more frequently tormented by the Greek clergy
 than by the Turkish government. The modern
  paulicians have lost aU memory of their origin;

    L Bull, 8 monk, anel flIe anthor of the bogo.lle., a aaet oI ...It!a,
who lOon ..nilbed (AnDa ComDena, Alexiad, I. X'f, 'po 486.494, 11_
helm, Hi.t. Eccle.ia.tiea, p. 420).                      . .
    • M'ltt. Pam, Hi.t. Major, p. 267. This palla,e      0'   oar ED,II...
 lIiatoria8 i. allelted by Ducllo,e iD aD exeelietrt note oa VillellardGum
(No. 208), who fOUDd the paalieiaDt at Philippopoli. the frieDd. of tloe

                                                              Digitized by   Google
184                     THE DECLINE AND'PALL
  c;Ho\p'and their religion ,is disgraced by the worsllip
r-:~~· of the cross, and'the practice of bloody sacri-
            fice, which some captives have imported from
            the wilds of Tartary.·
Their in-      In the West, the first teachers-of the mani-
!POdnction chman·theology had been repulsed by the peo-
Ilito Ital,
ud          pIe, or soppressed by, the prince. . The favour
Frace.                                 IClans lD teeIeven th
            and .success 0 f t he pan I"      . h
            and twelfth centuries, must be imputed to the'
            strong, though secret, discontent which armed
            the most pious christians against the church of
            Rome. Her avarice was oppres~ive, . her des-
            potism odious: less degenerate perhaps than
            the Greeks in the worship oesaints and images,
            her innovations were more rapid;and scanda-
            lous:' she had rigorously defined and imposed.
            the doctrine of transubstantiation : the.lives of
            t.he Latin clergy were more· corrupt, an~ the
            Eastern bishops might pass for the successors
            of the apostles, if they were compared with the
            lordly prelates, who wielded by turns the cro-
            Zier, the sceptre, and the sword. Thrc~ diffe-
            rent roads might introduce the paulicians into
            the heart of 'Europe. After the conversion of
            Hungary, the pilgrims w~o visited Jerusalem
            might safely follow the course of the Danube:
            in their journey and return they passed through
            Philipp opolis ; and the sectaries,. disguising
            their name and heresy, might accompany the
            French or German caravans to their respective
            countries. The trade and dominion of Venice
            pervaded the coast of the Adriati~, and the
            hospitable republic opened her bosom to fo-
            • Ste Mani,li, Stato Militare dcll'IlIJlIero OUomano, p. M.

                                                      Digitized by   Google
                   OF THE,ROMAN EMJ,'IR& ..                                   J 86 .
reigners of every climate and religion. - Under CHAP.
the Byzantine standard, the paulicians were of••.!:~~                          . _.
ten transported. to the Greek provinces of' Italy
and Sicily; in peace and war they freely con-
versed with strangers and natives, and their
opinions were silently propagated in Rome,
Milan, and the. kingdoms beyond the Alps"-
I t was soon discovered, .that many thousand
catholics of every rank, and of either sex, had
embraced the ma.nicbsean heresY.; and the
flames which consumed twelve canons of Or-'
leans, was the first act and signal .of perHecu-
tion. The Bulgarians,' a naine so innocent in
its origin, so odious in i,ts application, spread
their branches over:the face of Europe. United
in common hatred of idolatry and Rome, they-
 were connected by a form of episcopal and
presbyterian goveniment; -their various Hects
 were discriminated by some fainter or darker
shades of theology; but they generally agreed
in the two principles, the contempt of the old
  e Tlte i.troclactioa of the pauliciau. ,iato Italy aDd Fraace. ia amp'y
dilcaued by Mantori (Aatiqaitat. ltali., medii 'hi, tom. Y, diuert~
b, p. 81-162), aad,Molheim (p. 179.182, 419-422). Vet both han
e.erlooked a CDriO.' p....p of William the Apuliaa, wllo elearly de-
ac:ribel them ia a hattie bet"eeo the Greeka a.d Normaal,A. D.I0c0
(ia Mantori, Script. Rerum Ita!. tom. Y, p. 266).
        Com Graci. IIderaat, quidem qao. peslimas errur.
        Fecerat ameatel, et ab ipso aomea habebaat.         ,
Bat he il 10 igaorant of their doctriae .. til make them a kind of ...
beDiaa. or patripaulaas.
  f lfIIlpri, B ..",.,.,n..,.,.., •aatioaa) appellatioa; haa beeD ap-
plied by the-Freach aa a term of reproach to vauren aad unnatnnl
linaen. The Palmlli, or Patalilli, hili been made to sirnify a amooth
aad Battering hypocrite. loch .. r A_I PGltlin of thaI origlaal and -
pleuaut farce (Ducance GIOia. Latinltat. medii et intimi .Evi). The
Maalch_DI were tiILewile Damed CGlAari, ur the parr, by corruptioll,

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100                        THE DECLIlVa AND PALr..
  CHAP.' testament, and the denial of the'bOOy'ofChrist
             'h                                 an .
_ .....,.. elt er on th e cross or lD the eucb ' st. A. con-
   LIV.                              .
            fession of simple worship and blameless man-
            ners is extorted from their eBemies; and so
            high was their standard of perfection, that the
            increasing cGogregatioDs ,were divided into two
            classes of disciples, &f tbose .who practised,
~eneeu- and of those who aspired. It wal iu the coun-
albi«eoia, try 0 f the a lb'
tion of tbe                     . . th e louth 'pr0\11nCeS
                            1geol8,1 m           ern       .
 I~:.e. of France, that the pauliciau were moat deep-
            ly implanted ~ and the same viciuihtdes of
            martyrdOiD and revenge wbielt Bad bee~ dis-
            played in theneigbbonrhood of th.e E.phra,ttw,
            were repeated ill the tliirt£oa.tb A:Jeatu~y 011 the
            banks of. the Rhone. The lllow.s of the £ ••ern
            em p~r.()r8 were renTed by' Fr~,rie" tbe secoDd.
            The ihsurgents of Tephrice wert .repreeenteci
            by the baroDs aod citie. of Lauguedoc; Pope
            Innocent III. surpassed the napioary fawe
            of Theodora. It wa. in Crqe)ty .al9be her
            soldiers could equal the beroe.· 61 tbe .cr,usades,
            and the cruelty of her priests was far excelled
            by the founders of the inquisition;" an ollce
            more adapted to confirm. than to refute, the be-
            Hef of an evil principle. The visible aSIleBlbliea
            of the paulicians, or albigeois, were extirpated
          I Of tbe Ia~a, eraaade, aad peraeeution against tbe albigroia. a jllst,
        thoavb cmeral idea, II eltpreued by Moabeim (p. 477·"81). The de-
        tail may be found fa the eeeleaiutieal biatoriaa., ~adeat and modem,
        catbolic. aad proteatub; and lUIIoapt tbeae Fleury i. the molt im.
        partial and moderate,
           .. The Acta (Liber Seateatiarum) of the inquisition or Tholoule (,t.
        D, 1387-1323), ba1'e beea publialaed by Limboreh (Amatf'lodami, 1692).
        wilh a preyiolla Hi,tory or the In'lulaitlon iu cenerlll. Tht'y dl'llt'rytd
        amore learDed and eritieal editor. Ail we mUlt not cal\lmniate I!l't.
        Satan, or tbe Holy Offiee, I will obArrve, thilt of • lilt or erimiua"
        wbieh fills nineteen folio palt'l. only fifteen mea and four wOlllea were
        deIiYered to the Aeeular arm,

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                 OF 'fHE ROHAN EAlPIRB.                       187
by fire alId sword; and the bleeding remnant CHAP.
escaped by flight. concealment, or catholic con- .,~~_~:._
fortuity. But the invincible spirit whioh they
had kindled still lived and breathed in the
Western world; In the state, in the church,
and even in the cloister, a latent succession was
preserved of the disciples of St. Paul; who
protested against the tyranny of Rome, E:m-
~raced the bible as the rule of faith, and puri-
fied their creed from all the visions of the gnos-
tic theology. .The struggles of Wickliff in
England, of Huss-in Bohemia, were premature
and ineffectual; but the mimes of Zuinglius..
Luther, and Calvin, are pronounced with gra-
titude as the deliverers ofnatious.
    A philosopher, who calculates the degree of~arartr'
t h.elr trierlt an d t h e vaI ue 0 f t h' relormatJ.on, ~:ncC:I ~f
     .       .                           elr. I".   •    aud conle-
wIll prudently ask from what articles of falth'lIIati,::~r
ahove or agaiftl' ollr reason, they have enfran-
chised the christians; for such eDfranchif!lement
is doubtless a benefit JlO far af$ it may be com...
patible with truth and piety. After a fair dis-
cussion we shall rather be sorprised by the ti-
midity, than scandalized by the freedom, of our
first reformers! With the Jews, they adopted
the belief and defence of all the llebrew IIcrip-
tures, with all their prodigies, from the garden
of Eden to the visions of the prophet Daniel;
and they were bbund, like the catholic8~ to JUII-
tify against the Jews the abolition of a divine
law. In the great mysteries of the triDity and
   I 1'be opinionl illld proceeding. or the reformers are rxpOl~d iD Ibe
le('oDd parI of the gelleral biltory of Mosheim: but the balaDce, wbirb
he h.. held witb 10 clc:ar an ey", and 80 steildy aD band, breiD' to i.-
eliDe iu f.'four ofbi. LutheraD brethreu"

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188                       THE DECLINE AND FALL
  CHAP. incarnation the reformer8 were severely ortho-
...~~v..:..... dox :' they freely adopted the theology of the
               four, or the first six councils; and with tbe
               athanasian creed, they pronounced the eternal
               damnation of all who did not believe the catho- \
               lic faith.    Transubstantiation, the invisible·
               change of the bread and wine into the body and
               blood of Christ, is a tenet that may defy the
               power of argument and pleasantry; but instead
              of consulting the evidence of their senses, of
               tbeir sight, their feeling, ,arid their taste, the
              first p'rotestants were entangled in their own
              scruples, and awed by the w.ords of Jesus in
              the institution of the sacrament. Luther main-
              tained a corporeal, and Calvin a ,'eat, presence·
              of Christ in the eucharist; and the opinion of
               ZuingIius, that it   isno more than a spiritual .
              communion, a simple memorial, has slowly'
              prevailed in the reformed churches.k But the·
              loss of one mystery was am'ply compensated by
              the stupendous docll'ines or' original sin, re-,
              demption, faith, grace, and' predestination,
             which' have been strained from the epistles of
              8t. Paul. These subtle questions. had most
             assuredly been prepared by the fathers and
              8choolmen; but the final improvement and po-
              pular use may be attributed to the first l'eform- .
              ers, who enforced them as the absolute and es-'
              sential terms of salvation .. Hitherto the weight
              of supernatural belief inclines against the pro-
         k Uml.r Edward VI, on, reformation was more bold and perfect:
       bnt In tbe fundamental articlt'l of tbe cbllrch of England, a atrong aDd
       explicit derlaratiou against the rfal pre~euce ",al ohliteratt'd in the
       original ropy, to pl~ase the pl'opll', or the Llltbt'ranl, or Qlleen Eli~ ,
       lIetb (Burnet'. History uf th~ Rt'folm~tion, yol. ii, p. 82, 128, 301' .

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                  OF. :mE ROMAN E"PJ~E.                                      180
 testants, and many a s.ober christian would ra.. CHAP,
 ther admit that a wafer is God, than that God ....~~~..~...
.is a. cruel and capricious tyrant.       .'               .
    Yet the services of Luther and his rivals are
 solid and important; and the philosopher must
 own his obligations to these fearless enthu-
 siasts'! I. By their hands the lofty fabric of
 superstition, from the abuse of indulg~ncies to
 the intercession of the virgin, has been leveIIed
 with the ground. . Myriads of both sexes of
 the monastic profession were restored to the
liberty and labours of social life. An hie)'ar-
 chy of saints and angels, of imperfect' and su-
bordinate deities, were stripped of their tempo-
ral power, and reduced to the enjoyment of ce-
lestial happiness: their images ~nd relics were
 banished from the church; and the credulity
 of the people was "no longer n~urished with the
~aily repetition of miracles and visions. The
 imitation of paganism was supplied by a pure
11Dd spiritual worship of prayer and thanks-
'giving, the most worthy of inan, the least un-
 worthyofthe deity. It only remains to observe,
 whether such sublime simplicity he consistent
 with popular devotion; whether the vulgar, in
 the absence of all visible objects; will not be
 inflamed by-enthusiasm, or insensibly subside
 in languor and indifference.               II:
                                     The chain of
.authority was broken, which restrains the bi-
 got from thinking as he pleases, and the slave
 (rom speaking as he thinks: the popes, fathers,
 and councils, were no longer the supreme and
  I " Had it Dot been for luch meD as Luther and mYlelf.~ laid t"e

fa.atic Whiatou to Halley the philosopher, " yoo would DOW be kneel- •
    before aD im,.,e of St Wiuifred."

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190                          TH£ D£CLINE AND FALL
 (~HAP. irifallible judges of the world; and each chris-
;.~~~.: •• tian' was taught to acknowledge nc law but the
           scriptures, no interpreter but his own con-
           science. This freedom, however, was the con-
           sequence, rather than the design, of the refor-,
           malion. The patriot reformers were ambitious
           of succeed~ng the tyrants whom ~hey llad de--
           throned. They im,po,sed with equal rigour
           ,their creeds 8;n.d confessiolls; they asserted the
           right of the magistrate to punish heretics with
           death. The pious or personal animosity of
           Cahin proscribe~ in SerYetus the guilt of his       lll

           own rebeHion: a and the Barnes of Smitbfield.
           in which he was afterwards consumed, bad
           heen kindl~ for the an~baptists by the zeal of
           Cranmer: The nat~re of t~e tyger was the
           nme, but be was gradually depr~ved -of his
           teet,h and fangs. A 8pjrit~al' B,nd, temporal
           1in~dom .. wa8 possessed by the ito~an pont,iff:
        , ,- 'De article of &,wIlJI the Dictio,~", .;\i,tiqtJ~ ~ q~~.lfeR~. ia
        the beat acoouDt which I hue S~D cifthi. shameful trallsactioD. lee
        ilkewise the Abb' 4'Artip1,NenYeabZ Memoirs d"liiltme, _
        ..... II, p. 15-164.                        "                               ,
        , • I am ~re deepl11Ca11daliICd ,at the .tD,1e ~lI:ecatioD of Senft...
        thaD at the hecatombs which haye blued iD the Auto' Ja F~a of spaID
        alld Portagal. 1. The leal ofCalviu SftDII to haM ileeQ eDrea ••eII
        " peRlltal ~alier, aDd envy. ' He ~c,*"d ,Jtj.~"e""" be-
        (ore thf'ir commOD enf'miel, tbe jlldges,ofVlenna, aDd "etrayrd, for
        hi. de.tructioa, the Iccret trolt of a private eorrelpolldeace. I. 1'he
        der. '9' crult, wal ,not va~i.~ II,. ,b~ preteDce of dan,et
        c:harcb or Itate. In biB pallage throogla Geneva, Srrvetul wu aD
        harmle.. stranger, wbo Drithei preaehrd, nor prilited, DOr fllade proo
        leIytes. S. A ratbolie iDqllisitor yields tIle aalae obedienc.e ."ida be
        requirt."bnt Cahin violated thr golden rale of doin, U be would he
        done by; a rille which I rrad ill a moral trratise of Ilocratea (in Ni-
        eole, tom. I, p..93, eclit. Batti&\), fOllr hundred ye,n before the pullJi.

        cation of the ,o~pel. 'A ....,,,.....,~, I..., ... "t,,'CI'~I, "'''1/'1'& ".", &U.IIC'
          • See Baroet, yolo ii, p. 801 86. The lenle and hllmanit, of the , . . .
        kiD' were opDreued by the authority of the prllllate.

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                    OF THE ROM1\N 2MPtlm. .                                    191-
(he protestant doctOl"s were . .:suLjec:ts or an CHAP.
humble rank, w.ithout rntlnueor ju.risdiction .•.!~..:.,.
His decrees were conseorated by the antiquity
of the catholic church': iAeirarguments and
disputes were submitted ·to the people ; and
their appeal to private·juc;fgment'.wu accepted
beyoud their wishes, by curioSity aJld .e&lthu-
siasm. Since the days ()fLuthel' 8Dd Calvin,
a secret reibrmation has been ~lently working
in the bosom of the ·reformed c'hurcheB; many
weeds of prejudice we~ .eradicated ~and .the
disciples. of BnlsmusPditrU6ed' ~ spirit of free-
dom and moderation': The li~rty of con·
science has been claimed asa common benefit.
an inalienable right :'1 the fr£e governments of
Holland'" and England-, introduced the practic~
of.toleration; and the narrow allowance of the
laws ha-s been enlarged by the prudence and.
humanity of the times. In the exercise, the
lDind has understood the limits. of its powe~s,
    p Erum1ll may be conlidered u the rather o( rational theology.-:,
After a Ilumber of an bundred yean, it "u revived by the Armeniani
of Holland, Grotius, Limborch, and Le Clerc: in England by Chil-
 ling".orth, the Latitndinarianl of Cambridge (Barnet, Hist. of own
Timea, 1'01. I, p. 26l-lI68, octavo edition), 'I'iIIotlon, Club, Hoadley,
Irc •
     • I am sorry to ob.e"e, tbat t~ three "riterl of the la.t age, by
....hom the rightl of toleration bue bern 10 nobly defended, Bayle,
Leibolt., and Locke, are an laymen and pbilolOpben.
     • See the Rcenent chapter of Sir William Temple on tbe religion of
the ani ted proyinces •. lam not satisfied with Gl'OtiuI (de Rebus Bel-
 gicil, Annal. I.i, p. IS, 1-1, edit. in 12mo), wbo .ppro1'e. tbe imperial
la"l of penecotion, and only condemns the bloody tri.bonlll of the iu-
     , Sir William Blackstone (Commentariea, 1'0.1. h', p. 83, 54) explainl
 tbe la" ofEnglan~ .. it W.I fixed at the revolution. The·exc..ptionl
 ofpapilltl. aud of thOle who deny tile Trinity, would ItiIllraye a to-
 lenble Ic:ope for peraecl\tio~, if th. lIational .pirit "ere not more ef.
 fectual tlaan an hundred .tatatea.

                                                            Digitized by   Google
CHAP.      and the.words and shadows that mightamu8e
_,..-,..                       .n£D lo%£ger                 hi%% ma5:z:ly r%£%f-
           St::m~ The volumes of contr~versy are pver-
           spread with cob-webs;;                    494::ttj£:&e of :p:w.
           trr:%%tant .chH%%ch . fa%% renK%fved {rORgE the kno%ft::~
           ledge or belief of its priyate .meI:Qbers; at:ld the
           fmms          o%%ill.hodrDxy, the                              .
           subscribed w'ith a High ora aroile by t~e mo-
           dem                     et       fri+::nd%% of eQrirtianitg
           are alarmed at the bOUDdl~lJs il;npJlls~ of inquiry
                                     The pr%%dictirms            the '"·.... LAA""~
           lies are accomplished: the. :web oJ mystery is
           u%fraveHed                ar¥m:njHn~,; erianr,                 SOBr,~
           DEnms, %%%%hBJSe numbers mU$t not be comhuted
           from tHeir separate; cong%%eg%ftioDr ,
           piUar%% Bif n7%%elt::Btioll ~ri'e                 bH thor%f mrzll
           who preserve the name ·witbQQt . the substance
           of religion, ho'                         lkeece rrithBJ"!
           temper of philosophy,t "                     .,
              t I ,ball recommend to public animadversion two passagea 'in Dr.
           Priestley, wbich betray the ultimate of his opiniun.. At tbe
           6"B Blf         (Hi,L of     CornlrtionA Blf CE;riBtiani2J, vol. p.1715,
           116), the pl'ieat, at the lecond (vol. ii,' p. 484) tbe magistrate, ma,

                     · 0'" THK ROMAN ,EMPIRE.,                        JS)3

                          CHAP. LV.

 Tke Bulgari(J.'ns-~01-igi'n; 'migt·ationsj an~ se'~
, tlem.ent of the' Hungarians- Their inroads in
     , t"e
        East, and West-, Tlte monarchy of Rtitisia'
," ";',GefJgraplljJ. and, trade- Wat" 'rif' tlte 'R'Us-
.. 'sians ,ag~i"'!t ~he' Gr~ek empi~e-Co~vei'sion of

 , t/,e b(Jrbaraans.·, ' , , " , ' , '. , ,
                                         "   .,'

UNDE~ the"rejg~; of'Constantine the ~and.;                         CHAP.
 son of Heradius, the ancient barrier of the Da.                    LV.
 nub~,so often violated and so' often restored, -"",,..
 was' ~rretri,evably' swept away by a, new deluge
 of har,barians:, Their progress was ,favoured
 by the caliphs, their unknown and acc,idental
 auxili~ries: the Roman legions were occupied
 in Asi~ ;, and after the loss of Syria, Egypt,
 and: Africa, the Cresars were twice'reduce:dto
  tQe'<langer and disgrace of defending their ca-
 pita~ against the Saracens; If, in the account
 of this interesting people, I have devia1ed from
 the strict and original lineof my uildertakiDg,
 the merit of the subject will bide my transgres..
 siop or solicit my excuse. In the East,in ~the',:,,~',/r
 West, in war, in religion, in' science, in ibeir         ,{
'prosperity, and in their dec'ay, the Arabians, ,',.'1,4
 presS themselves. 'on our cufiosity:, the' ,first
 overthrow of the church and empire of the
 Greeks may be imputed to the"ir anns, and the
 disciples of Mahomet still hold the civil and re-
 ligious sceptre of the oriental world. But the
 _me labour would be unworthily bestowed OR
         VOL.   x.                o

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    ]94                        THE DECLINE          AND FALl

    CHAP.        the swarms of savages, who, between the se-
   _ ..~..~:~~.. venth and the twelftb century, descended from
                 the plains of Scythia; in transient inroad or
                 perpetual emigration.· Their names are UD-
                 couth, their origins doubtful, their actions ob-
                .scure, thei, superstition was blind, their va-
                lour brutal, and the uniformity of their public
                and private lives was neither softened by inno-
                cence nor refined by policy. The majesty of
                tile Byzantine throne repelled and survived
                their disorderly attacks; the greater part of
                these barbarians has disappeared without leav-
                ing any memorial of their existence, and the
                despicable remnant continues, and may long
                continue, to groan under tbe dominion of a fo-
                reign tyrant. From the antiquities of-I. Bvl-
                gar.i.ans, II. Huragarians, and III. Russians, I
                shall content myself with selecting such facts
                as yet deserve to be remembered. The COD-
                quests ~fthe-IV. NOl"m.lln8, and the monarchy
               of the, V. Turks, will natural1y terminate in the
~~             mdenblolra:lle crfushade.s to thde holr lanfd'Cand the
r                 ou e la 1 0 t e cIty an empIre 0            on stan-
 ::~dae In bis march to Italy, Theodoric' the Ostro-
 :~.            goth bad trampled. on the arms of the Bu)ga-
 £. D. 010, riana.        After this defeat, tht: name and the oa-
 k             tion are lost during.a century a~d an half; and

              • AU \he pallBgel of the Byz..tiDe, which relate to dae bar.
            harianl, are compiled,lDethodi,ed, aDd traDlcribed, in a Latin YeraiaD.
            hy the laborioa • .JobJl Gottelf Strlner, in his c. Memori., Popaloraa
            a4 nannbiom, POD tum Eusinnm, Paludem Meotidem, ('.anca• ...,
            Mare C.lpium, et In de magi. ad Septemtrionel Incolentinm." p~
            pOlio nn·l'T'19;· iit foar todIea, fJi' aix 'fOIDlDea, ill ato. Bat the ...
            "ion bu Dot enhallced tbe price of thele raw materlall.
              , Hilt. yol. Yii, p. 11.

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                    OF TKR ROMAN EMPIRE.                                         IDO
 it may be suspected that the same or a silllil'al'                           'CHAP.
          .         .
 appeII ahon was reVlve(1 h i ' •••LV.....
                          y strange co ollies ...,
  from tbe Borysthenes, the Tanais, or the Vol-
   ga. A king ot the ancient Bulgal'iac beq'\Ieatb-
   ~ ") his five sons a last· lesson of ·DlOderatioll
 -and ~tUICMd. ' It was received as youth lu.
  ever received the coulusels of age and expe-
   ¥ie!lce; file five princes buried their father;
  divided his subje~ts aDd cattle; forgot his ad-
   ~ice; sepa'l'atecl frem each other ; and wander-
  ~ itt questofforUtne, tilllVe fiud tbemost ad-
  'fttltUl'&8S ·in the ;heart or haly, under ·tbe pro..
  ~ti6liof the e!Xarch of UalVenna! But the
   stream of enligl'9.lioh 'W~B directed or impelled
. tnwatds the -capital. The .1Ilodern Bulgaria,
   along the southern banks of the Danube, was
   stamped with the name and image which it has
  1'etaiBed IftJ the present hour·: the new conque-
. roi's successively acquired, by war or treaty,
  ·the RomMl provinces of Dardania; Theslaly,
   ~tld the two Epirus;· the ecclesiastical lupre-
   IRa0J was translated from the native city                            of
  .!l1stinilui; and, in their prosperous age, the
    • Tbeoplaanet. p. 2Mo2D9. AuutuiuI, p. llS. Nletphol1ll, C. .P•
 •. ft"ft. Tbeopbanea plae.. tbe old Bulgaria eo tbe bub of the
 _ell'Dr V.... , but be elepriyea bi18le1f of all ,eOJrtlplaical cruit by
 ·diMharilDi dlat riftr iuto tile Ealdue HL
    '. Paul. ·DiacOD. de Geatil LaDeobard.l. v, e. 10, p. 881,881. Tbe
 ·.ppanDt di&ftDee betweeu the Lombard hiltorlaD aud the abo""
  _tioDad Greeb. I. euily reeoneilecl by Camillo Pellqriao (de DII-
  eat' BeaeYeiltauo, eliI.ert. vii, in tbe Seriptorea Rerum ltal. tom. y,
  po 186, 181), and Beretl (Chrorograpb. Italie medii lEyi, p. 271, &e.)
  TIIil Balprlan eol0ll1 wal pllUlted iu a neant ell.triet of Sa18DiUIII,
  _d leal1led the Latill. without forgl'lting their native lang..age.
     • Tbele proyiucl" of tbe Grel'k idiom and empire, are auigued to
  1M "lpriaa !Liagdom iu the dispute of eeele.iaatieal jurisdiction be-
  tweea tile patriarc:hl of Rome and COIIItalltlaople (Bar.uiut, AD....
  ...... A. D. 869, N°, 75).          .

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196                         THE 'DECLINE AND PALL.
  CHAP obscure town of Lychnidus, or Achrida. was
._..~;': •• honoured with the ,throne of a kmg and.a pa-
             triarch.' The unquestionable evidence of lan-
           'guage attests the descent of ·the Bulgari~nB
           ,from. the original· stock of the Sclavonian, or
           ·more properly Slavonian r~ce;", and the k~n~
           · dred bands of Servians, Bosnians, Rasci.ans,
           : Croatians, Walachians,~ &c. followed eithe.-
           · the standard.or the example. o(th~ lea,<\ing tribe,.
           , From the Euxine to: the Adriatic, in the, st~te
           ·of captives or subjects, ,or allies or enemies, of
            .the Greek empire, they overspread the land.;
           'and die national appel1a~ion of the slaves' has
           :been degraded. by chance or malice (rom the
           ,8igni,fication ,of gl«?ty to that of servitude.Ir.-.
                  .    ..   ;   :
           f     ,1be sitnation and royalty of LycbniduI, or Achrida, are clearly
         'exp).elKd in Ctdrennl (p. 713). The removal of ali arebbiabop or
        .. palriar.cb {rom JDstini~ne!l'prima~ to Lyebnidnl, and aUengtb to Te....
           novo, bal ,p,roduced ,lome perplexity in tbe ideal or language of the
         "Greeks (Nic~phorus Gr~goras, I. ii, e.2, p.l(, 15. Thomaslio, Dit-..
           cipline de I~Eglile, tom; i, I. i, ,c. 19, 23); aad a Frenchman (d'A.n-
        · ville) is mor,e accurately skilled ,in the geography of their OWD co....
       , try (Hist. de I'Academie ,des Iuscriptions, tom. xxxi.)
               • Chaleociondylea; a "Conipelentjudge, affirms the ide~tity of the lui-
           ,uage oftbe Dalmatians, Bosnians, Se~viansi Bulprimw" Pole. (de
           Rebus Tureicis, J. x, p. 283); and eisewbere of the Bohemians{I. ii, p.
           IS). The lame author hasll!arked the separate ,idiolD'of the HaD",
             , .. See. tJu. work of Jobn Christopller de Jordan" de Originibu. Scla.
           vieil. Vindobonle', 1746, in {our par", or two vollimel in {olio. Bia
           collectionl and researches are useful to elucidate the, antiquities of
           Bohemia and the adjacellt countries; but his plan II narrow, hi. style
            barbaroul, his criticism shallow, alld 'tbe Aulic counsellor i. nDt fne
        - from the prejudices of a Boh.emian •
         • '    I Jordan subscribes to the well-known and probable derivatioD &om

        "..,/1,     latu, gloria, a word of familiar nse in the different dialecta ud
        , pa.rts of spel:ch, and which forms the terminlltion cf the DlOlt ill.a-
            triolla names (de Orieinibus Srlavicia, pari i, p. (0, pars iv, p. 101,
                " Thil convcrsion of:a national into an appellative name appears t.
            have &riacn iu the eiehth centnry, in the orieDtal France, where tile

                                                      Digitized by   Google
                        01' THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                        ] 91
    Amon"g these colonies, the Chrobatians,1 or CHAP.
    Croats, who now attend the motions of an Aus- •.. ~.v',.••
    trian army, are the descendants of a mighty Croats or
    people, the conquerors and sovereigns of ]}al- ~f~::~t
    malia. The maritime cities, and of these the ~.a:.~I=,
    infant republic of Ragusa, iniplored the aid and "&c. '
    instructions of the Byzantine cOllrt: they were
    ach·ised by' the magnanimous Basil to reserve
    a small acknowledgement of their fidelity to
    the Homail empire. and to appease, by an an-:
    Ilual tl'ibute~ the wrath of these irresistible bar-
    barians." The kingdom of Croatia was shared
    by eleven Zoupa1ls, or feudatory lords; and
    their united forces were numbered atsixty thou-
    sand horse and one hundred thousand foot.-
    A long sea-coast, indented with capaciolls har-
    boms; covered with a string of islands, and al-
    most in sight of the Italian shores, disposed
    both the natives and strangers to the practice
P   of navigation. The boats or brigantines of the
    Croats were consb'ucied after tlle fashion of
    the old Liburllians: one hundred and eighty
    vessel~ 'may excite the idea of a respectable
    navy; hut onr seamen will slllile at the allow-
    ance of ten, or twenty, or forty, men, fur each
    of these ships of war. They were gradually
    prince. and bishop' were ricb in S"('lavoniaD captivel, not of the Bohe-
    mian (exclaimi Jordao). but of Sorabian race.' From tht'nce the word
    _ I l'llteuded to gl'onal 01(", to" tIle modem langnagel, and even fo
    llae 'lyle of the lalt Byzantinel (lee tbe Greek and Latin Glolsarit's"
    of »urBnge). " The confusion of the :EI~", or Senian., with the IAlin
      ffl'i, was It ill more fortunate alld familiar.(Constant. Porphyr. ele ad.
    loinillrando Imperio, c, 32, p. 99).
       I 'fbe emperor Conltantine Porpbyrogenital, mOlt accllrate for hil

    own lime., molt fabuloal for precedinl alea. dtleribel the ScllYonianl
    o( J)almali~ (e. W-IG).

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198                          THE DECLINE AND PALl.
CHAP.        converted to the more honourahle leryiq of
                                h S          .    .
...... ., .• commerce: yet t e e1avoman pIrates "He

             still frequent and dangerous; and it was no$
             before tile close of the tenth c~tury thilt tbe
             freedom ~nd soyereignty of the gulfwere effec-
             tually vindicated bV the Venetian republic.-
             The ancestors of these Dalmatian kings wer~
             eqqally removed from the use and abuse of na-
             vigation: they dwelt in the White Croatia, in
             th~ inland regions of Silesia and Little Poland,
             thirty days journey, according to the Greek
             c9wpntation, from the sea of darkness.
Firat killr-    The glory of the Bulgarians· was confined to
~oa'r~ the a narrow ·,c~pe b,oth of time and place. In the
ria~·D. ninth and tenth centurie~, t~ey reigned ~o tile
14G-1017'. south of the Ilanube; but tbe more powerful
   .         nations that had followed their emigration, re-
             pelled all return to ~be north and all progress
             to the west. Yet, in the obscure ca~logue of
             their explojts, they might boast an honour
             which had hitherto been appropriated to the
             Goths; that of slaying in battle one of the suc-
             cessors of Augustus and Constantine.. The
             emperor Nicephorus had lost his faQle in the
             Arabian, he lost his life in the Sclavonian, war.
             In his tirst operations he advanced with bold..
             ness and success into the centre of Bulgaria,
             and burnt the rOJal court, which was probably
              • See the aaonymo1l1 Cllroniele of the elnenth centnl'J. aleribed te
         Jobn Sasomma•• p. ".102, and that C!Cllllpo.ed fa the foarteeDth II;
          tile Dog~ Andrew Dandolo (Script. Rerum Ital. tom. xii, p.U'I.ISO) •
        . tbt' two oldest monnmmts of the bislo.., of Vl'Diee •
               • Thl' fint kingdom of tbe Rntprlan. may be foancl, under the p....
          p'" rlat"~, ia tbe aanal, of Cedl'ftlDl a.d Zoaana. The ByaatiDe

         l\'I ..morial~ ar, roll"~t,d by Strilter (H,morie Popuieram. tom. il,
          ,~,... ii, p • .&41-481); and tbe leri •• of tbeir Iti.... il
         •• ttled by llucaD,e (lo'am. BYDat. p. 106.SI8).

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                    OF THE IlOMAN BHPIIt&'                                    199
   no more tban an edifice and village of timber. CHAP.
   But, while he searche'd the spoil and refused ..... :~:4'
  all otTers of treaty, his enemies collected their
 \spirits and their forces: the passes of retreat
  were insuperably barred; and· the trembling
  Nicephorus was heard to exclaim: "Alas!
  " aJas! unless we could assume the wings of
  " birds, we cannot hope to escape." Two days
  he waited his fate in the inactivity of despair;
  but, on the morning of the third, 'the Bulga-
  rians' .surprised the camp; and the Roman
. prince, with the great officers of the empil'e,
 .were slaughtered in iheir tents. The body of.A. D 811:
  Val ens had been saved from insult; but the               .
  head of Nicephorus was exposed on a spear,
  and his skull, ~nchased with gold, was often
  replenished in the feasts of victory. The
  Greeks bewailed the dishonour of the throne;
   but they acknowledged the just punishment of
  avarice and cruelty. This savage cup was
  deeply tinctured with the manners of the Scy-
  thian wilderness; but they were softened be-
  fore the end of the same century by a peaceful
  intercourse with the Greeks, the possession of
  a cultivated region, and the introduction of the
  christian worship. The nobles of Bulgaria
  were educated in the schools and palace of
  Constantinople; and Simeon: a YOllth of the
  royal Une, was instructed in the rhetoric o( De-
  DlOsthenes and the logic of Aristotle. He re-

    • Slmecqaem HIIIl.GJ'llellm elM aiebaDt e6 qulHl a pneritil Byzantii
 Dt'moltbelli. rbmricam et Ariatotelil .ylloti- didieerat. Li.t·
 prand, I. iii, c. 8. He .a,. iD aDotber ,lac", 8imeOll, (Qftll beUatn,
 BaI,aria preerat; CbriltiaD.', .iI .icillu Gnlici••ahU iabaic", (J,
 I, c. I).

                                                          Digitized by   Google
200            ,           TH~ DECUNE AND FALL                    ,,
  en \P. linql1ished the profession of a monk for that oC
•.,.:~'••. a king and ,a warrior; and in his reign. of more
 , •• D.   than forty ye'a:rs, Bulgaria assu~ed a ra~k
'=   :a~:' ampng the ci:viHzed powers of the earth. The: ,
           Greeks, who~.he repeatedly attacked, derived
           a faint'consolation fro~ indulging ~he~sel~es
           in the rep~oaches of perfidy and sacrilege~'
           They purchased ,the aid :of the pagan Turks;:
           but Simeon, in a second battle, redeemed the'
           loss of the first: at a time when it was esteem-
           ed a victory to elude ,the arms of th'at formida-
           ble nation. 'The Servians were overthlown,
           made captive and dispersed; and those who
           visited the country be{oretheirrestoration could
           discover 110 more than fifty vagrants, without
           women or children, 'who extorted a precarious
           subsistence froln the chace. On classic ground,
           on the banks of the Achelous, the Greeks were
           defeated; their horn was broken by the strength
           of the barbaric Hercllles. p He formed the
           siege of Constantinople; and, in a personal
            conference with the emperor, Simeon imposed
           the conditions of peace. They 'met with the
           most jealous precautions; the royal galley was
           drawn close to an artificial and well-fortified
            platform; and the majesty of' the purple was
           emulated by the pomp ofthe Bulgarian. "Are
            " you a christian?" said the bumbl~ Romanus;
            " it is your duty to ablSlain from the blood of
            "your fellow-christians. Has' the thirst of
            "riches seduced you from the blessings of
                   ,   ,

        , p,            -Rllidum sera dexterl'& comu
          ,     Dum teDet, iDfregit truDdllfoe a (route revellit.
       'O.vid(Metamorph. Ix. 1-100), bas boldly paiDteli tire combat of tile
        rher-god aDd the hero. the Dative and lhe Ilranler.

                                                   Digitized by   Google
                    OPTHE ROMAN EMPIRL                 .                       20 I
 .. Jl~ace?· Sheath your sword, open YOul' hand, CHAP.
 " and I wi~1 satiate the utmost measllre OfyOlll' ....:~;_ ..
 "desil'es,': The· .:econciliation wa!o; se.aled by
 a domestic 'allia'nee:; the freedom of trade was
 granted or l'es1ol'ed; the' fil'sf honours of the
 com't 'were s~cured to the fl'iends of Bulgaria,
 above the ambassadors of ene'mies or strangers;.
 and her princes were dignified with the bigh
 and title of basileus, or emperor, But.A.., ....
 this friendship was soon distm'bed: after the &c, .
 death of Simeon, the hations were again in arms;
 bis (eeble successors :were divided and extin-
                       .           .
 guished; .and, in the beginning.ofthe eleventh
century, the sec:ond .I3asil', wl1o·.,vas born in the
purple, deserved:the appellatifl~ ~f conqueror
of the Bulgarians, His av~rice 'was in some
measure gr~tified ·by.'a tre~su... eof four hundred
tbolis~lld pOUllds·sterling(te.i thousand pounds
weighi of gold),' ",'lid) he.f'ourid in the palace
of Lychnides: 'His ~rlle'lttinflicted 'a cool and
exquisite venge~nce on fifteen thousand cap-
tives who had been guilty of the defence of their
country: they were deprived of sIght; but to
one of each 'hundred' a single eye was left, that
he might conduct his blind century to the pre-
sence of their king~ Their king is said to have
expired of grief and horror; the nation was
awed by this terrible example; t.he Bulgal'ians
                                                 , ,
   II 'J'b~ ambassador or Otho was pr090k~d by' tb~ Gr~t'k exce....;
elm Chri.tophori filillm Petrus Bulgarorum run/tit' conjugt'm dllce-
ret, Symph.JI., id ~st conlonautia, acripto juramenlo firlllata lunt, nt
omnium gt'ntium .dpo5tolil, id est nunc:iil, peOl!.nel Bulgarorum Apo..
toli pneponantur, bonorentur, diligantllr (Lilltprand in Legaliont', p.
482). See tb~ Ceremoniale of Conltalltine of Porphyrogenilus, tom.
i, p. 82, tom ii, p. 429, 430,434, 41li 441,444,446,447. wilb the a ..
uetatioUI of Rei.b.

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20i                       THE DECLINE AND PALL
 CHAP.   were swept away from their settlements, and
,_:~:_,.,. circumscribed within a narrow province; the
             surviving chiefs bequeathed to their children
             the advice of patience and the duty ofreveng~.
~mifl'f'-,,_   II. When the black swarm of • Hungarians
tlOD 0 I..,
Turks or first hung over Europe,' about DIne hundred
!r.:!,a- years after the christian ;era, they were mista-
Jo. D. 884. ken by fear and superstition for the Gog and

             Magog of the scriptures, the signs and forerun-
             ners .of th~ end of the world.r Since the intro-
             duction of letters, they have explored their own
             antiquities. with a strong and laudable impulse
             of patriotic curiosity.. Their rational criticism
             can no Jongel" be amused with a 'vain pedigree
             of Attila and the Huns: but they complain
             that their primitive records have perished in
             the Tartar war; that the truth or fiction of
             their rustic songs is long since forgotte n; and
             that the fragments ·of a rude chronic1el must be
             painfully reconciled "With the contemporary

            r A bilbop of Wartabar,b aabmittecl thla oplalO8 to a re~ereJld abo
         IIot i bat At more .... n)y decided, tbat Go, aDd Mago, were tbe api-
         ritual .prraRutora of the elaarcb; liD.. 00:1 lipifirl tbe ,"t,       au
         pridr of the Heralarebs, aDd MalOl "bat eoeel from tbe rllOt, tbe
         propaplioD of tbelr iecta. Yet tblle,meD ODee co......iled tlae re.
         'P.,ct of",J:md{Fleury, Hilt. Eecla. tom. xi. p. 69C. ok••)
            • Tbe two natioaa) antbe", from wbo.. I hue dul~ed the moat
         a ..i.tlla"e. are Grorge Pray (DluertatiODII ad aDaaiel fttt!l1lm Ha..
         promm, okc. Vindob.,..w. 1'716. ill filJio), ••d IltepheD KatoQ(Hilt.
         Critit'l dUCD• •t rerum HOIIpriw Itirpia Arpadi.... P . .tiDi. 1778-
         1781,1 yoll. in 8~0). Th., fint embnc:.. a )ar,e aDd oft.. eonjedn-
         nl.pace; the latt.r, b, hia Iraraia"judlmeDt, IIId penpieuity, de-
         ..r~u the nIH of a critical hl.torilll.
            • The antbor of thia Cbronicle ia .,Jed tbl! notary of kiDI Brla. Ita-
         tona baa uaigued bim to tbe twr)flb centllry, and drfrDdl bia ebara,,-
         ter agaiDlt tbe hypucritieiam of Pray. Thil 'llde Innalilt must ban
         .raDlerihrd lome biltorical rt'cord.; amn be eOllld ilffirm witb digDit,.
         rejRtii falill fabulil raatieorllm, et ,arrulo tIIDt'" joelllato"lm. Ia
         ae Ifteeatb ceDtury, theN fablet ,..rre "oJl~ctt.d    b, Thurotaiul, ud

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                   OF 'tHE KOMANDIPID.                                           203-
 though foreign intelligence of the imperial geo- CHAP.
 g(apher." Magiar is the national and oriental_r.:~:_
 denomination of the Hungarians; 'but, among
 the tribes of Scythia, they are distinguished by
 the Gree~s ~nder the proper and peculiar name
 of Tut·"', as the descendants of that mighty
 people who had conquered and reigned from
 China to the Volga. The Pannonian colony
 preserved a correspondence of trade and amity
 with the eastern Turks on the confines of Per-
 sia ; ,and after a separation of three bundred
 and fifty years, the missiouaries of the king of
 Hungary discovered and "isited their ancient
 country near the banks of the Volga. They
 were hospitably entertained by a people of
 pagans and savages, who still bore the name of
 Hungarians; conversed in their native tongue,
 recollected a tradition of their long-Jost bre-
  tbren, ,aDd listened with amazement to the mar..
 'Vellous tale of their new' kingdom and religion.
 The zeal of cODversion was animated by tbe in-
 terest of consanguinity; and one of the great-
 est of tbeir princes bad formed tbe generous,
 thougb fruitle.s. design of replenishing the sOo-
 litude of PanDonia by tbis domestic colony
'from the beart of Tartary:~ From this primi-
embeDi.bM'by tbe    lrana. BODftm.. See the PreHmiaary DiooD...
hi lite Hilt. Critlca Dncum, p.7'.".
    • See CoDstantiDe de AdmiDiltraado Imperio, c. I, ., IS, 18·41.-
 KatoDa lIal nie.l, ftxrd the eompolition oftbi. work to the ".an Nt.
 ttiO,951 (p •• 7'). The critical hiatoria. (p. IN lor) .nd.,.\'On~ 10
 prove the elllltl-DCe. and to relate the actiODI, of a fint dllke ..U_,·
 the falher of Arpad, who is tacitly rl'jl'Cted by -CoDalantine.
, • Pray (DillCrt. p. 17'-19, &e.) produce. aad iIIudrat., ahe oripl
 Yi...     01 the H.... riau mil5ioDariea, BODfiDiu. and .Eu...
                                                      -                   ",I-

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~04                    THE DECLINE AND FALL.
 CJfAP. tive country they were driven to the West by
_.~.~: ... the tide of war and emigration, by the weight
         . of the more;~stant tribes, who at the same time
            were fugitives· and conquerors. Reason or
            fortune directed their course towards the fron-
            tiers of the Roman empire: they halted in the
            usual stations along the banks of the great ri-
            v~rs ; and in the territories of Moscow, Kiow,
            aud Moldavia, some vestiges have been disco-
            vere.d . of tbeir temporary residence. In 'this
            long and various peregrination, they could not
            ill way"s' escape the dominion of the stronger;
            and the purity of their blood was improved or
           s,ullied 1)y the mixture of a foreign race; from
           ·a.motive of compulsion or choice, several tribes
           'of the Chazars were associated to the standard
           of their ancient vassals; in trod uced the llse of a
           second language·; and obtained by their superior'
           renown the most honourable place in the front'
           Qfbattle. The.military force oftheTurks and
          their allies marched in. seven equal and artifi-.
          .cial divisions; each division. was formed ofthir-
           ~y thQ~sand'eight hundred and fifty-seven war-
          .riors, and the proportion .of. women, chUdren,.
           and servants,. supposes and requires at least 8:
          .inill,ion· of emigrants. Their public cQunsels
           were' directed' by seven' va!lvods~ or hereditary
           chiefs; but the experience of discord and weak-:
           ness recommended the rIlore simple and vigo-
           rous administration of a single .person. The
           sceptre, which had been declined by the mo-
           dest Lebedius, was granted to the birth or me-
           rit of Almus and his son Arpad, and the au-
           thority of the supreme khan of the Chazara

                                             Digitized by   Google
                   OF THE ROMAN £MltlltL '                                    t06
confirmed' the engagement of the prince and CHAP.
people; of the people to obey his commands, _ ..:~;......
of the prince to consult their happiness and
   With this narrative we might be reasonably TlaeirFen.
content; if the penetration of modern learning Dic orilia.
had not opened a new and larger prospect of
the antiquities of nations. The Hungarian lan-
guage stands alone, and" as it were, insulated~
among the Sci avonian dialects; but it bears a
close and clear: affinity to :the, idioms of the
Fennic 'race';' of an obso.lete imd ~avage race,
which formerly occnpied the northern regions
of Asia and·Europe. The genuine appellation
of Ug1'i or Igonrs is~found on· the western con~
fines of ChiDa;" their migration 'to the banks of
the Irtish' is attested by Tartar' evidence;" a
similar name and· hlnguage are detected: in the
southern parts of Siberia;" a~d the rernains of
   'I Filcber iD the Qu.estiones PetropolitanlB de OrigiDe Unlr,orllm.
and Pray, Dillertat. i, ii, iii. &e. bue drawD uP. several comparative
tabi>!. of tbe Hungarian with tbe Fenuie dialect••. The affinity is In-
deed striking, but tbe lists are ,bort ; tbe words are purposely ebolen;
aDd I read in tbe learned Bayar (Comment. Academ. Petropol. tom.x,
p. 311), that, altbo\lgh, the HUDgariaD bas adopted many Penuie word.
(innumeras voeea), it I'SsentialIy diff'en toto genio et naturl.
   • In tbe region ot Turfan, which is clearly and minntely dl'seribed
by tbe Cbinese gl'o{lraphers (Gllubil. His.t. du Grand Gengisean, p.
13; De Guignes, Hist. dea Huns, tom. ii, p. 31, &e.)
    • Hilt. Genealogique del Tartafl, par Abullhazi Babadur Khan,
partie ii, p 90·98.
 , .' In their journt'y to Pekin, both Isbrand hrs (Harris'. Colll'ction
of Voyage. aud Travel., vol ii, p. 920, 921) and BI'II (Travda, vol. i,
p. 174) fOlllld the Vogulilz in the n.. igbbolll'hnod of Toholsky. By the
 torturr. of the etymologiral art, Ugur and Vogul are reduc~d tu' the
aame name; the eircllmjaceut mouutains really bear the appellation of
 UJriaa; aud of all the Fennie dialt'ctl, the Vogl1lian i. the n~afl'&t to
 tbe Hunlarian (Filcher, Disst:!'t. i, p. 20.30. Pray Dil.ert. ii, p. 31.
S'-                                             '

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                          THE nU:UNt: Aim NLL
CHAPl       the Fennic tribes are widely, thougb thinly,
._~~;...... 3Cattered f-rom the SOAIrces of the Oby to tbe
            ~<wes ofLapland.c The consanguinity of the
            Hungarians and Laplanders would display the
            powe.-flil energy of climawon the children of a
            commoa parent; the lively contrast between
            the bold adventurers. who are intoxicated with
            the wines of the Danube, and the wretched fu-
            Jitives who are immersed beneath the snows
            of the polar eircle. Arms and freedom have
            ever been tbe ruling, though too often the un-
            succes.ful, passion of the Hungarians, who are
           endowed by nature with a vig~rou8 constitu-
            tion of sou I and body.· Extreme cold has di-
           minished the stature and congealed the fa~ul­
           ties Gf the "Laplanders; and the arctic tribes,.
            alone among the sons of men, are ignorant of
            war, and unconscious of human blood: an
           happy ignorance, if reason and virtue were the
           guardians of their peace I·
               It :is the observation of the imperial author
            of the tactics,' that all the Scythian hords re-
          • The rigbt tribn of the FeDDie race are dClCribed ID the euriOlll
        work of M. Lenqne (Hi.t. de. Pcaplet lOumit a Ia DomiJNtloD de Ita
        RUllie, tom. i. p. 181-161).
           • l·hi. picture of the Hungarianl aDd Bulgarian. i. ehieRy drawn
        from the Tactici of Leo. p. 196 801. and tbe LatiD A.llIs.... 1II'hich are
        aUeged by Baroniul, Pagi, and Mnratori, A. D. 881, ""c.
           • Bulf'on. Hi,t. Na&urelJe, tom. 'Y, p. 6, ID limo. Gasta... aldol-
        phnl att.mpted. wi thoDt lucce.., to form a regimeDt of LaplllllClen -
        Grotiul layl ofthele atotie trib", al1lM, arcol, et pharetra, ltd ad-
        nrau. feral <"nDal. I. iv. p. taG); tnd attemptl. after tile manncr of
        l'aeitul. to varuish with pbilosophy their brulel iguoraDCl'.
           f uo hu observed, that tbe loverument of tbeTar'" wal monarehi-
        cal. aDd tbat pUDishmeDts were rigorou.. (Tacit. p. IIIHJ,
        .......f ••, ' ......f). Rhf'lino (in Chrog. A. D. 889) mt.'DtinDI theft ..
        • upital erime, aDd his jurilprudence is cODfirmed by tbe origiDal
                                                                            , code

                                                           Digitized by   Google
                        OF 'lilt ItOMA'N Jtmlt1t.~                                      20'
      lembled each other in their pafltoral and mili- cit" ...
      tary life, that they all practised the same means m~,~~~;.
      of subsistence, and employed the same instru- Tactici
      ments of destruction. But he adds, that the :;:he                           ::!
      two natiolJs of Bulgarians and Hungarians were ~~~,I:~d
      superior to their brethren, and similar to each Bulla~r~D'
      other, in the improvements, however rude, oft· D.· .
      tbeir discipline and government; their visible
      likeness determines Leo to confound his friends
      and enemies in one common description; and
      ibe picture may be heightened by some strokes
      from their contemporaries of the tenth century.
    . Except the merit and fame of military prowess,
      all that is valued by mankind appeared vile
      and contemptible to these barbarians, whose
      native fierceness was stimulated by the con-
      sciousness of numbers and-freedom. The tents
      of the Hungarians were of leather, their gar-
      ments of fur; they shaved tbeir hair and scari-
      fied their faces: in speech they were slow, in
      action prompt, in treaty perfidious; and they
      ghared the common reproach of barbarians, too
      ignorant to conceive the importance of truth,
      too proud to deny or palliate the breach of
       their most solemn engagements. Their simpli-
       city has been praised; yet they abstained only
       from the luxury they had never known: what-
       ever they saw, they coveted; their desires were
                .                       . '
     eocle ofStepileD (A. n; 1016). It ulan were guilty, lae WII ch...
     tbed, fo ~ the fint time, with the lOll of billlOft, or a fiDe of five bei.
     fen 5 for the· ICCODd, with the 1011 of bi. ean, or a siDlilar fiDe; fer
.    the tbird, with death; which the freemeD did Dot iDeur till tbe fourtb
     "coee, al bil fint peDalty wal tile 1011 of liberty {ltatuba, Hiat. lle-
     .... HDDpr. tom. i, p. 211,20).

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!08                     TD' DECLINE AN» PALL
 CHAP. insat~te, ,and theiI: 'sole industry was ~he hand
_ ..~..~~... of violence and rapine. B.y ~he defi'nition of a
             pastoral na~ion, I have recalled a long descrip-
             tiQn of, the econ~my, th~ warfare, and the go-
             vernment that that stage of society;
             I D;lay ,a4d.,: tha~ to, fil!J4~~, ;as, 'well as t~ the
           'ch~se, ~e Hungari~ns were indebted for ~,part
             of tbE;ir su~sisteQce ;,aud since they seldom c~l­
             tivated the ground, they must, at least in their
            ',ne~ ,settlements, ,li,8;ve sQmei,i~,e~ practised a
             slight and' unskilful hus-bandry. In their eJl)i-
             grations, perliaps ,i~ .their 'expeditions; the host
            'w~s accomparii~'d py ihousands of sheep and
             olCfm, lvho il.lcreas'e,(fthe' ~Io,ud,ot formidable
            ,dust, and afford'ea ,a cop stant and wholeseme
             l!lupply'ofmllk a~d'anJm~r food. ' 'A, plentiful
             command' of forag~'was'tbefirst care of the
             general;. ami' if thel·flock~an'c1.'h.erds wer,e, se-
           .cure of :ih,eir .p'~si ur~s, . ih~ ,hai;~y' .warrior was
           "alike ins'~nsibl~ p;f .d3;ng~r. :~lJ:ld 'rat'i·gti~., The
            'confusion,'       .tJen.',,~ridcaiH,e: that'over~preaq
          . the' country exp~s,ed tbeir'~amp to a nocturnal
            surprise, had not a still 'wider Circuit heen'oc-
             cupied' by th~ir light c,avalry. 'perpetually in
            lDotionto discover and delay 'the' approa'ch of
           the enemy. ,After som~ exp,erience of the Ro-
             lDan t3;ctics, they adopted the use oilhe sword
             and spear, the hel~et of ~he ~oldier, and the
             iron breast-plate of his steed: but their native
             and dea,dly weapon was the Tartar bow: from
             the earliest infancy, their children and servantB
             were exercised in the dOD ble science of archery
             and horsemanship; their arm was strong;
            their aim was sUJ:e; and in the most rapid ca-

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               OF THE BOHAN UPIItJ:.                           209
  re~r, they were taugbt to throw themselves C~AP.
  ha,ckwards, and to sboot a volley of arrows in- ••:::-.....
  to the air. In open combat, in secrd ambush,
  in flight, or pursuit, tbeywere equally, formid-
  able:, an appearance of order was maintained
  in the foremost ranks, but their charge was
  driven forwards by the impatient pressure of
  succeeding crowds.. They pursued, headlong
  ~d rash, with loosened reins and horrific out·
. cries; but if they fled. with real or dissembled
  fear, the ardour of a pursuing foe was checked
  and chastised by the sarne habits of irregular -
  sQeed and sudden evol ution. In the abuse of
  victory, they astonished Europe, yet smarting
  from the wounds of the Saracen and tbe Dane:
  mercy they rarely asked, and more rarely be-
  stowed: both Sexes were accused as equally
  inaccessible to pity, an4 their appetite for raw
  flesh. might countenance the popular tale, that
  they'drank the blood and feasted on the hearts
  of the slain. Yet the Hungarians were not de-
 ,void of those principles of justice and humani-
  ty, which nature has implanted in every bosom. '"
  The license of public ari\l private injuries was
  restrained by laws and punishments; and in
 'the security of an open camp, theft is the most
  tt~mpting and most offence. Among
  the barbarians, there wei'e ,Iij\1ny, whose spon·
  taneous virtue supplied thei!, laws and cor-
 .rected their manners, who pe'rformed the du-
  ties, and sympathised with the affections, of
  social, life.        .
     After a long pilgrimage of flight or victory,
   VOL.X.                  P

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210                      THE DECLINE AND FALL
 CH,\P.       the Turkish hordes approached the cornman Ii-
,;.~~:•.• mits of the French and Byzantine empires.-
Establi.!a. Their ~rst conquests and final settlements ex-
:::~I:d~lI:r tended on either sideofthe Danube above Vien-
the Hlln. na, below Belgrade, and beyond the measure
A.. D. 881J. of the Roman province of Pannonia, or the mo-

             dern kingdom of Hungary.' That ample and
             fertile land was loosely occupied by the Mora-
             vians, a Sclavonian name and tribe, which were
              driven. by the invaders into the compass of a
             narrow province. Charlemagne had stretched
             a vague and nominal empire as far as the edge
             of Transylvania; but, after the failure of hisJe-
             gitimate line, the Dukt:s of Moravia forgot
             their obedience and tribute to the monarchs of
             oriental France. The bastard Arnulph was
             provoked to invite the arms of the Turks; they
             rushed through the real or· figurative wall,
             which his indiscretion had thrown open; and
             the king of Germany has been justly reproach-
             ed as a traitor to the civil and ecclesiastical
A ••• 900, society of the christians.       During the life of
6c.          Arnulph, the Hungarians ~re checked by
             gratitude or fear: but in the infancy of his son
             Lewis they discovered and invaded Bavaria;
             and such was their Scythian speed, that in a
             single day a circuit of fifty miles. was stript and
             consumed. In the battle of Augsburgh the
             christians maintained their advalitage till the
            'seventh hour of the day ; tlley were deceived
             and vanquished by the flying stratagems of the
             Turkish cavalry. The conflagration spread

                 , Se. It.tou, Hi.t. t>UC1III HUDpr. p• •1.....

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                    OF THE ROMA.N EMPIRE.                                           211
   over the provinces of Bavari3, Swabia, an~ CHAI".
   Fraticooia; and the Hungarian!!!' pfOl1io~ Ute ~v
   reign of 1i.narchy, by forcing thest01!Jted barODa ."".m.
   til discipline their vassals and fortify their ~a~-
   ties. Tlie origin of waned. towns is ascribed
   to this caltttnitous period; nor could any dill!.
  tancebe secure against l1n enemy, who, almost
   at the sai\ie instant, laid in ashes the Helvetian ,
   ftioflastery of St.' Gall, and tbe city of Bremen,
   tiillhe sliores of the northern o.ce8.n. Above
   t'hitty yea~lS :the Germanic empire, f)I' kingdom,
   \Vas sUbject to the ignominy of tribute; an(J
  resistaD'Ce was by the menaee, the s~
  fioui aiid elFectualmeilace, of dragging the
  ~ei1 1l0d children Into captiv.ity, -and of
  Ila~ihteting ~he males above' the l1ge of tea
. yeaH. 'I 'have neither power DOl' inclination to
  fuU'ow the HUiig'arians beyond the Rhine; but
  'I Wltt'st observe with surprise, that the'southem
  prov"i:nces 'of France 'Were blasted ·b¥ "the t:etn~
  'j>eSt, alftd -that Spain, behind her Pyrenees, 'was
 titont'sbed at the appt'oachof theie for.midable
  "ttan~ts.1 The vicinity of Italy had tempted A. 8.Il00.
  ~~r early, inroa~l; but, from their cam. ee             .
 'the Brenta, they b~eld with 8&me terror the
  apparent strength and populousness of the new
   Ia HOirgarorom gena, cujua omDei (ere oationta uperht "8!lvltiam,
&lc. in tile preface of LiutpraD1l (I. i, c. t), who frtquently expatiate's
on tbe calamitie. of hi. own times. See I. i, c. Ii. I. ii, c. 1,2,4, Ii, 6,
7, I. iii, c. 1, &c.l. v, ·c. 8, Iii, in Legat. p. 481i. His c(\lours are
,laring, but bit chronology must be rectified by Pagi and Muratori.
  ·1 The three bloody reign. of Arpad, Zolton, and Toxu., lire criti-
eally IIlmtrated'by Katona (Hilt. Ducom, &c. p.l01.499). His dill-.
fence hi _rched both natives and foreigner.; yet to tbe deeds of
milcliief, .or Clor.y, I'have been able to add the deatroction of »reme...
(Adam Bremenlil, i, (1).

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    !12                        THE ,DECLINE AND PALL
      CHAP discovered country. 'They req.uested leave to
                      Ire; t h' request was'prou dl y reJected . by
    ....~..., .... ret"
         LV,                  elr
                   tge Italian king; and the lives ~f twenty thou,:"
                   sand christians paid the forfeit of his obstinacy.
                   and rashness. . Among the cities of the West.
                   the royal Pavia was conspicuous in fame and
                   splendour; and the pre-eminence of Rome it-
                   self was only derived from the relics of the
    A. D.92', apostles.         The Hungarians. appeared; Pavia
                   was in flames; forty-three churches were COIl-
                   sumed ; and, after the massacre of the people;
                   they spared about two hundred wretches, who
                   had gathered some bushels of gold and silver,
                   (a vague exaggeration) from the smoking ruins
                  'of their country. In these annual excnrsions
                   from the Alps to the neighbourhood of Rome
                   and Capua, the churches, that yet escaped, re-
                   sounded with a fearful litany: "Oh! save and
                   " deJiver us ftom the arrows of the Hung~
                   " rians!" But the saints were deaf or inexora-
                   ble"'; and th~ torrent rolled forwards, till it was
                   stopped by the extreme land oJ. CaJabria,.i . A
                   composition was offered and accepted .for the
                   head of ea'ch Italian subject; and ten bushels
                   of silver were poured, forth in the Turkish

,             It  Moratori hu conlidered with patriotic care the danpr MId re-
            ~urcel    of Modena. '1.... e citiRnl belOlJ,1It St. Geminianns, their pall'Oll,
            to anrl, by hi. intercealion, the rabie., jJ4gell•• , &c.
                                N onc te rOlallla', liert ler"i pelSimi.
                                 Ab Uogerorum n •• defend•• jacalil.           •
            The bilbop encted walla for tbe pnblie de-fence, not contra dominOi
            sereno. (Antiqnitat,ltal. med lE"i, tom. i, dislertat. i, p. 11,21), and
            tbe 10Dg of lhe nigbtly walch is not without elegance ot ale (tom. Iii,
            eli••• xl, p. '1'09). Tbe Italian annalist haa accurately traced the seriel
            oflheir iaroad. (Allnali d'llalia, 16m. "ii, p. 166, 161, 191, '0&01, ""
            4(0, tom. viii, p. 19, (1, iiI. •e.)

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                    01'. THK ROMAN DlPIU.                                       21;l
 camp.· But falsehood i. the uatural antagonist CRA)'
 of violence ; and the robbers' were defrauded _ ~,~~....
 both in the numbers of the assessment and the
 standard of the met~l. On the side of the Eaat
 the Hungarians were opposed in doubtful con-
 6i~t by the ~qlJal arms of the Bulgarians, wb,?se
 faith forbade an alliance with the pagans, and
 who~ .si~uation formed the barrier of the By-
 zan.tineempire. Th~ barrier was overturne~ ; ... D. tit.
 t-he emperor of Constantinople beheld tht- wav-
 ing banners' of- the Turks; and one of t~eir
 boldest warriors presumed to strike a battle-
 ax~ into the golden gate. The arts' and trea':
 &ures of the Greeks diverted the assault; but.
 the Bunga.rians might boast, on their retreat.
 that they had imposed a tribute on the spirit of.
 Bulgaria ~lDd. the majesty of the CEsars.! The.
 r.emoteand'~apid operations of the same cam-.
 paign appear to magnify the power and num-
 bers of the Turks; but their courage is most
 ~eserving of praise, since a light troop of three_
 or (our hUQdred horse would often atiempt and
 e..xecut~ th~ mo,t daring inroads to the gates of
 Thessalonica and Constantinople. At this diS-
 astrous era of the ninth and tenth centuries,
 Europe was afBicted by a triple scourge from
 the North, the East. and the South: the Nor-
   . • .Both the HUD,ari.. ad Rauia ..Dala IUPPON, tbat they b'lle,-
  eel,.r attacked, or lasulled, ConataDtiaople(Pny,dilll!rtaL s,p. utt
  Itatoaa, BilL Ducum, p. Il4-160); ad the lact it .,..", c.lIleaaed
  by tbe BYAlltlae Iliatoriana (Leo Gram_ticus. p. 600. Cedreu..,
  to.. ii, p. GIG): yet, howenr cloriou. to tbe DatioD, it it denied or
  d.llhted by tile critical biltori.., and eveD by tbe Dotary of Bel&.-
. 'J'heir lCle,ticilm il meritorious; tbey eould not ulely tranlcribe or
  b~lien th~ raatico_labul.. ; but Kalona milbl han ,iven due at-
  tention to tile evidence ol Liutprand ; BulguoruDlceateDl atque Gtw-
  CUI'II_ tribatanam feet ....t (Blat. I. it, c. 4, p. 416).

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214                             THll1ECl.IN£ liND FALL
   CHAP. m~n, tlie Hungarian, and the Saracen, some-
......:~:....~ tlr~es trod the same gtouild of defOlolation; and
               tbes,e savage foes might bave been compared
               by llo~er to the two lions growling over the
               d.rcUs of' a mangled Itag.-,
Victory of . The'deliverance of Germany and' Cbristen-
::!:Ir.the d01;Xl was achieved by the Saxon, princes.-
A. D. 934. Benry the Fow ler and Otho the Great, who,
               it. two m~lriorable battles, for ever-broke the,
               p.o*er. ot the Hungarians.- Tbe valiant Henry
              wa;~' rQtised from a bed of sickness by the in-
        vasion,         of his country; b~t his ,mind was vigor-
              ridi,'a.nd his prudence suecessful. "My com-
               .l:pluiions," said he on the m'ornirig of the com-
               bat" " maintain your ranks, r~ceive on your
              " hqcklers the first arrows of the pagans, and
               U preyent their second, discharge by tire eq uai
              "'and rapid career of your lances." They 0-
              lieyed, and conque~ed: and the historical pic-
              ture of the castle of Merseburgh expressed the
              features, 6r at least the character, of Henry,
              ~bo, in an age of ignorance,. entru~ted to the
              finer arts the perpetuity Of his name.· A t the
          "             _),I~' ~           ,.",s.,.."
                        Or. IOfIOf .~"'."'" ......,...'" .>.atNi ,
                        ...... _ ..- fd,.. ....~ f'1I~lt...
         , 'I   Tb.,   a~ amply aad Ot"it~,'ly IU~c:n.I,1l b1,Kp,to."a (~ist. I)llcnm.
         p. 360,168,421-(10). Lintprand (I. ii. c.8, 9) ii the brlt nldente for

         tbe (o~l'r, and Witichind (Annal. Saxon. I. iii) of the latter; llut, the
        'ciith:al hl.toriall   will
                                  nllt ev~iI-b"erl.oll tlie'lllll1l Gf. wartiGr which is
         laid to be prl'sri-vl'd at'.,Jaldirrin.'       '.'
           • Ru'nc vt'ro triumllilnln. tain Jandt ~.tiI mllmbl'll' cll,.Init,.ltl M..
         J'P.burgllm r~x ill supniori I'Genarulo doJht.       per  CW>,.ti.i" Id I'll, pie-
         turam. notal'i priP.('epit. ad eo tit rein yleta'm pot}os tluaill yerlaiinilr..
         vlcil'lI: all high ('n('omium (Lllltprand~ J. ii, c. D)•. AbIJtber "ala,,:e in
         O!'rmany hnd been painted with hilly .1Ibjelltl b"tlN! erdtr II' eharlr-
         mft~np; and Muratori may jnllly affirDi, .nalla •.,Cllda fUtre ia qaibn.
         pirtorel dNiderolti foerint (Aatiquitat. Itlll. medII Ahi, tom. ii, dilaert•
                                                                                     • ai,_

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                    OF TBE~ItOMAN .EMPlRL                                       2J5
 end of twenty years, the children of the Turks CHAP.
 who' had fallen by his sword invaded the em- LV
 pire of his son;' and their force. is defined, in •••" •.•••
tbe lowest estimate, at one bundred thousand                  ,
horse. They were invited by domestic. ,
                                           faption ," t°he reatl
                                                        f 0G
the gates of Germany were treacherously' un- A. D. 966.
locked; and they spread, far ,beyond the Rhine.
and the Meuse, inio the heart of Flanders.-
But the vigour and prudence olOtho dilSpelled
the conspiracy; the princes we~ made sensi-
ble, that unless they were true to each other,
their religion and country were irrecoverably
lost; and the national powers were reviewed in'
the plains of Augsburgh. They marched and
fought in eight" legions, to thedivi-
sion of provinces and tribes ~ the fi11St, .second,
and third, were composed of Bavarians; the
fourth of Franconians; the fifth of Saxons,
under the immediate command of the monarch;
the sixth and seventh consisted of Swabians ;
and the eighth: legion, of a thousand Bohe-
mians, closed the rear of the host. The resour-
ces of discipline and valour were fortified by
the arts of superstition, which, on this occa-
sion, may deserve the epithets of generous and
 salutary. The soldiers were purified with a
fast; the camp was blessed with the relics of
sai~ts and martyrs'; and the christian hero gird-
ed on his side the sword of Constantine, grasp-
 ed the invincible spear of Charlemagne, and
 ~vaved the banner of St~ Maurice, the pref~ct of

 xxiv, p. 360, S6l). Our domestic clailDs to antiquity ~f ignorallce alld
  original imperfectioD (Mr. Walpole's lively words) are ofa lDuch lDore
. receDt dale (Anecdotes 01 PaiDtiu" vol. i. p. 2, "fl.)                  .

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    i16                       THE DECLIHK AND FALL'
,   CHAP.      the Thebliean legion. But 'his firmest confidence,
    ....: :... was placed in the holy lance! whose'point was
               fashioned of the nails of tbe cross, arid which
               his father had extorted from tbe king of Bur-
               gundy, by the threats' of war and ~he gift of" a
               prol'ince. The Hungarians were expected in
               the' front; tbey. secretJy passed the Lech, a
               river of Bal'aria that falls into. the Danube;
               turned the rear of the christian anny; plun-
               dered the baggage, and disordered the legioDs
               of Bohemia and Swabia. The battle was re-
               stored by the Franconians, whose duke, the
              l'aliant Conrad, was pierced with an arrow as
              he rested from his fatigues; the Saxons fought
              uDder the eyes' of their king; and his 'victory
              lurpassed, in merit and importance, the tri-
              umphS' of the last two hundred years. The
              loss of the Hungarians was still greater in the
               flight than in the action; they were encompas-
              sed by the rivers of Bavaria; and, their past
              cruelties excluded them from the hope o(mer-
              cy. Three captive princes were'hanged at Ra-
              tif!Jbon, the multitude of prisoners was'slain or
              mutilated, and the fugitives; who presumed to
              appear in the face of their country, were COD-
               demned to everlasting poverty and d~sgrace.·
              Yet thespitit of the nation was humbled, and
              the most accessible passes of Hungary were
              fortified with a ditch and rampart. Adversity
              suggested the counsels of moderation and peace:
              • See B ......iDl, AnDal. E,c:lee. A. D. 029, Ne. 2·S. The laue or
            Chrilt illiken.from the belt evidence, LiutPl'IlDd (I. iv, c:. 12). Sip-
            ber~, aDd the ac:tl of St. Gerard: but the otber military relle. dep(Dd
            ... tbe faUIa of the G.ata Anglomm pOlt Bedam, I. ii, c. 8
              • Itaton_,-Bi.t. Duellm Bunpri., p.GOO, 6:c:.
                                                                                  " .'   I
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          ,: "    OF THE ltOMAH ••PlaL                                        217 '
the robbers of tbe West acquiesced in a sede'n· CHAP.
tary life; and the next generation was taught ..,.~,~:...... _
by a discerning prince, that far more might be .... 1171.
gain~d by multiplying and exchanging the pro.
duce of a fruitful soil. The- native rac~, the
Turkish or Fennic blood, was mingled with
new colonies of Scythian or Scla'vonian origin ;r
many thousands of robust and industrious cap-
tives had been imported from all the countries
of Europe;" and aft~r the marriage of Gersa
witb a Bavarian princess, he bestowed honours
and estates on the nobles of Gerlnany.t The
son of _Geisa was invested with the regal title,
and, the bouse of Arpad reigned three hundred
years in the kingdom of Hu-og;u'y, But the-
 freeborp barbarians were 110t da2zled by the-
 lustre of the diadem, and the people asserted·
   • Among tbe.e eolooiel we may dbtinguisb, 1. The Chlnr., or Ca-
barl, wbojoined the Hungarian. on their mareh (Conltant. de Admin.
Imp. e, ID,40. p. 108, 109). J. The Jaaygel, Moravians. and Siculi,
whom they foond in the land; the last were perlaa,. a remnant of the
Huna of Attila, and were entro.ted with the guard of the border••-
S. The RUlsianl, who, like the Swil' in France, imparted a general
Qlme to the royal porter.. 4. 'l'he Bulgariaol, wllole thiefs (A. D.
956) were invited, cum magnl multitudine HiImaJa,litarum•. Had Iny
 fIf tbeAe Selawonian. "mbraeed the Mahomet8n religion? &. The Bi..
Hni and Cllmanl, a mind moltitode of Patzioaeite., Uzi, Chazarl, &e.
 who had spread to the lower Danube. The lalt colony of 40,000 Cu.
mans, A. D. 1219), was received and converted by the kinea of Do..
,ary, who derived (rom that tribe a new regallppellation (Pray, Die-
aert. vi, Yii, p. 199-171. Katona, Dilt. DDCDm, p. D&-99, 262-264,4711.
479-483, &c.
  o   •ChriltiaDi antem, qoorom para major popnli elt, qoi ex omni parte
  mundi iIloc tl'lcti IDnt captivi, &c. Soeb was the language of Pili-
  grinDS, the firat mi •• ionary who entered Hungary, A. D.913. Para'
 major i•• trong. Hilt. Dncnm. p. 517.
    e The fidelel '!'tntonid of are aothentical,.d in old chart,,".
  and Katona, with hil nloallndu.try, bal made a fair eRtimllte of Ih ...e
  eolonie., which bad been.o loosely lIIagnified by tli., Italialllbuzanu.
 (Hilt. Critic. DOCDIII. p. 667-681.

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218 '                        TBI!: D.JteLINE ANI>        ,"J.I.!
  CHAP. their indefea.$ible tight of choosing. depoaipg,
 ~••~~:." and punishing the hereditary senant of the
Orl,in of     III. The name of RfUsiau'4 was firat divulged
the RUI.
aian mo- in the ninth ceptury, by an embassy from Th~o-
.arehy.    philuB, emperor of the East, to the emperor of
           the West, Lewis, the son of Charlemagne.-
           The Greeks were accompanied by the envoys
           of the great duke, or cbagran, or czar, of the
           Russians. In their journey to Constan~inople,
           they had traversed many hostile nations; and
           they hoped to escape the dangers of their re-
          tUfn by requesting the French. monarch to
          transport them by sea to their native country.
          A closer examination d~tected their origin:
          they were the brethren of the Swedes and Nor
          mans, whmlt~ Ilame was alread.y odioua aod for-
          midable in France; and it might justly heap-
          prehended, that these Russian strangers were
          upt the messengers of peace, but the emissaries
          of war. They were detained, while the Greeks
          'were dismissed; and Lewis ,expected a more
          satisfactory account, that he might obey the
          laws of hospitaljty or prudence, according to
          the interest of both .empires." 'The Scandina-
            • Among tile Grreks, thil national app~l1ation hal a .incular (orm
         P""   al an undec:linable word, of w!Jich many fanciful etymologiel ha..
        'been suggested. I have perilsI'd, with pleasure and pr06t, a dilleJta,-
         tion de Origine R!la,~rum (Commept. 4cadem. PetropolitanlE. tom.
         viii, p. 388.436). by Thcophihll Sigefrid Bjlyn, a learned Germau,
         who 'llent hia life and labours in the servi~e of Russia. 'A ceographi.
         cal tract of d' Anville, de I' Emllire de RI,saie, Ion OrigiJIe, et sel Ae-
         croilsrmena, (Paris, 1772, in 12mo.) bas likewise b,'en o( lise.
            • See the entire palsage (dignllm, .ays Bayer, lit aureis in tabulis
         figatllr) in the Ann ales Bertiniani Francorum (in Script. Ital. MII,a-
          tori, tom. ii. pan. i, p. 625) A. D. 839. tWl'lIty-two year. beron tile
         era of Rurie. In the tt-ntb cr.ntury, Liutpraud (Hilt. I. v, c. 6) 8ptaka
                                              ,                                  .f

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                      OF 'I!Jm ROMAN EMPIRE.                                   219
  vian origin of the people, or at least the princes, CHAP.
  of Russia, may be confirmed and illustrated m~:-'mo
  by the national annals' and the general history
  of the North. The NorU)ans, who b~d so long
  been concealed by a veil of illlpenetrable dark-
  ness, suddenly burst forth in the spirit of naval
  and miJitary enterprise. Th., :vast; and, as it
  is said, the populous regions Qf Denmark,
  Sweden, and Norway, were crowded with in-
  dependent chieftains and de8pera~ adventUJ:-
  ers, who sigh~d in the laziness of peace, aad
  smil~d in the agonies of death.' Piracy was the
  exercise, the trade, the glory, and the virtt.e,
  of the Scandinavian youth. Impatient of a
  bleak climate and narrow limits, they started
  from the banquet" grasped their arms, sound-
  ed their horn, aSClended tbeir vessels, and ex~
  plored ~very coast that promised either spoil
  or settlement. .The Baltic walil tbe first scene
  of their naval achievements; they visited the
  eastern shores, the silent residenc~ of }'ennic
  and Sclavonian tribes, and the primitive R~s-
  sians of the lake Ladoga paid a tfibute, the
  skin; of white squirrels, to these strangers,
  whom they saluted with the title, of Varan- '
  gta,lS', or Corsairs. Their superiority in arms,
  discipline, and renown, commanded the fear
  ortbe thssians and Normanl
  red complt'Xiou.
                                  .1tbe lama' " ..uilonaree bomine, of "

    r My k.llowledge of these annall II dr,.,1i (rem 111. ¥veqne, Histoi,e
  d. RUNie. Nestor, the first and be.t of thele ancient allnalist• •11
  • mnnk of Kiow, who died in tbe beginning of tbe twelftlt centnry ;
  bat hi' chronicle WII obienre, till it .11 published at Peteraburch,
• 17117, in 410. Leyeque, Hiat. de RUllie, tom.i, p. xvi. Coxe'. Tra-
  "01'" "oJ. ii, p. 184.
    a Theophil. Si,. Bayer de Varagil (for the name i. dift'erently Ipdt),
  iD Comment. Acad..m. Petropolitlnlt, tom. i", p. 3711·211 '

                                                           Digitized by   Google
~20                       THE' DECLINE AND ,F4LL
 CHAP.      nnd reverence of the natives. ' In their wars
 _ ....11._ agamst t he more In Ian d savage,., t he V·aran-
  LV.            •.

            gians condescended' t~ serve as friends and
            auxiliaries, and gradually, by choice or con-
            q nest, obtained the dominion of a people whom
            they were qualified to protect. Their tyranny
            was expelled, their valour was again recalled, -
            till at length Ruric, a Scandinavian chief, be-
£. It. liD. canie 'the father -of a dynasty which reigned
            above seven hundred years. 'His'brothers ex-
            tended his in1hleb.Ce; the'example of senice
            and usurpation was imitated by his compa-
            nions in the'southern provinces of Russia; and
            their establishments, by the usual methods of
            war and assassination, were cemented into the
            fabric of a powerful monarchy.
'.the Va-
               As long as the descendants of Ruric were,
OfeOD-      considered as aliens. and conquerors, they ruled '
pie.,       by the' sword of the Varangians, distributed
            estates and 'subjects to their faithful captains,
            aild supplied their numbers with fresh streams.
            of adventurers from the 'Baltic coast,8 But
            when the Scandinavian chiefs had struck a
            deep and permanent root into the 1II0il, they
            mingled with the Russians in blood, religion,
            and language, 'and the first Waladimir had the
            merit of df!livering his country from these fo-
            reign mercenaries. They had seated him OD
            the throne ; his riches were insufficient to sa-
            tisfy their demands; but they listened to his
            pleasing advice, that they should seek, not a
           '. Yet, a. I~te a. the year 1018, Kio\\" Rnd Ruslia were .till «uarded
         ex fligitiYorum .ervorum robore conftll€ntiIlDl, et ruaxime nanol'll"
         Bayer, who q.ute. (p. 292) the Chronic-Ie of DitllUlar of }leraebDr,,,
         observes, that it wa. UUUJua.1 fu, the Germans to rnUst in a foreip

                                                        Digitized by   Google
                OF THK ROIIAN. DlPID. ..                                 tit-
 more grateful, but a more wealthy, muter; CtfAP.
  that they should embark for Greece, where, in- #.,~,~~".
 stead of the skins of squirrels, silk and gold A. It. g72.                     .
''Would be the recompence of their service. At
  the same time the Russian prince admonished
  hi! Byzantine aUy to disperse and employ, to
 recompence and restrain. these impetuous
 children of the north. Contemporary writera
 have recorded the introduction, name, and cha-
 racter of the Vararagiaru: each day they rose
 in conpdence and esteem; the whole.body was
 assembled at Constantinople to perform the
 duty of guards; Ilnd their strength was re-
  cruited by a numerous band of their country-
  men from the island of Thule. On this occa':'
  sion the vague appellation of Thule is applied
  to England; and the new Varangians were a
  colony of English and Danes who fled (rom
  the yoke of the Norman conqueror. The ha:"
  bits of pilgrimage and piracy had approximat-
  ed the countries of the earth; these exiles were
  entertained in the Byzantine court; and they
  .preserved, till the last age of the empire, the in- .
   heritance of spotless loyalty, and the use of
   the Danish or English tongue. With their
   broad and double-edged battle-axes on their
  'shoulders, they attended the Greek emperor to
   the temple, the senate,· and the hippodrome;"
  .be slept and feasted under their trusty guard;
   and the keys of the palace, the treasury, and
  ·the capital, we~e held by the firm and faithful
    bands ofth·e Varangians.1II
  • DaCUle bu collected from the oriliaal authors the atate ,aDd

                                                 Digitized by   Google
III                                 T1fE DECLlN1t AND PALL
 CHAP             In thetentb centtu~y; the' ,geographJ ofSer-
. _:"!:.. .    thia was extended far beyond tbe limits' of ah-
               cient knowledge; ~ild the monarcby of the
              Russians obta,ins a vast and conspicuous plaee
              ill the map of C(},q.stantine.c The sOns ol Qu-
              ric were mafjt~s 9f the ttpaciolls province ,Gf
              Wolodomir, or M,E>Scow; and, if tBey were
              confined on that sid~ by tbe h1>rds 'Of the eaSt;
pbyand        ,their western frQD,tier in those early day~ was
trade of
RUllia,       enlarged to the Baltic sea and the c~,untry of
•• D. 950.
              the Prnssians. lhcir northet'u reign ascended
               above the sixtieth 'degeeof Ja1itlJde, over the
              Hyperborean regioJls~ which i'an~~ had peopled
              with monsters, or clouded with eternal dar,k-
              ness. To the I!!a~th they {oUowed the course
              of the BorystheD~, and approached with tha~
              ri ver the neighbpu,h99dof the Euxine flea.-
              The tribes that. dwelt" or wat1~ered, on this
              ample cir~uit, ,were 9pe«;lient to t~ sa,ne con-
              queror, and insen.sjbly bl~nded j~~p the sa~e
              nation. ( 'l;'he ~ngu"e . .of R,us~a is a dialect
             hiltory of the Varangi at Constantinople (Gloisar. !led. et lu6me
             Grecitatil, lub nce BIp&)?'O" Med. et In6mlll! Latinita'tf., ~Ilb voce
             V.,n. Not. ad Alelliad. ADne, ComneDa, p. 1158, 1157, ISS. Notel
             lur Villebardouin, p. 296-299.) See likewi.e t'he annotation. of
             Reuke to thc Ceremoniale Allie Byzant. of Constantine, iorn. ii, p.
             1(9, lliO. Saxo-Grammaticnl a1li!'flls that they .poke Danish; but
             Codinus maintain. tbem till tile fifteenth centllry in the Ule of their Da-
           • tive Englilh: n,),."X/"I""" II .,..,.".. 11&'1'11 'l'1tP ...,.,," )'),.wr., &1I'I'1tP .......
                 • Tile oriliDal record of the leog!'IPby and trade of ~lIia i. p....
              duccd by tbe emperor Conllanline Porphyrogenitlls (de Adlllini.lrat.
              Imperii, c. 2, p. 55, 56, c. 9, p. 59·61, c. IS, p. 63.61, ('.11, p. 106,
              c. 42, p. 112, 113), and illustrated by the dilif/eut'e of Bayn (de Gte-
              gf.phiA Ru.iae vicinarnmqlle,RegioDum dr('!tor A. C. 948, ,in Com-
              ment. Academ. Petropol. 10Dl. he,              rt.
                                                        367·42~" tolll. X, p. 371 421).
              with the aid of the ebronic1ea and tradition. of Ru ••ia, Scandinavia•
              • c.

                                                                            Digitized by   Google
                      OF THE ltOMANEM'PIRE.                                       t23
 of the Sclavonian; but, ill the tenth century, CHAP.
 these two modes of spe~ch were different from ••,~~;_,;
 each other; and, as the Sclavonian prevailed
 in the South, it may be presumed that the ori-
'ginal Russians of the North, the primitive sub-
 jects of the Varangian chief, were a porti'on of
 the Fennic race. With the emigration, unioni
 or dissolution, of the wandering tribes, the
 loose and indefinite picture of the Scythian de-
 sert has -continually shifted. But the most an-
 cIent map of Russia affords some places which
 still retain their name and position; and the
 two capitals, N ovogorod4 and Kiow·, are coe-
 val with the first age ofthe·monarchy. Novo-
'gorod had not yet deserved the epithet of great,
 nor the alliance of the Hanseatic league, which
 diffused the streams of opulence and the prin:.
 ciples of freedom. Kiow could not yet boast
 of three hundred churches, an innumerable
 people; and a degree of greatness and' splenp
 dour, which was compared with Constantine
 by those who had never seen the residence of
 the Cmsars. In their origin, the two cities

, • The haughty proverb, " Who ('an resist God and tbe great NilYo.
 " gorod 1" is 'applied by M. l.e"e~qne (Hist. de Runie, tom, i, p. 60)
 eYen to tbe time8 that precedt'd the reign of Rnric. In tbe course of
 hil history be frpquently celf'brates thil rt'public, whlcb wassllppre..
 ted A. D. 1475 (tom. ii. p. 252-266). That accllrate tranller, Adam
 OJeariuI, drscribes(iu 1635) the remains of Noyogorod, and the rOllte
 by Bea and land of the Holstrin ambassadors (tom. i, p. 129-J29).
 , • In hac magna ciyilatf', qmll est cap"t regni, plul trt'crntl!! ecclt-li..,
 h.beDtle et nandiol!! octo, pop"1i etialll ignola manul (Eggebardul ad
 A. D. 1018, .pnd Bayer, tom. ix, p. 4JlI). He likewise qnott's (tom.
 x, p. 897) the words of the Saxon annalilt; Cujnl (Rill/lie) metrflpo-
 Ii, est Chin, amula Iceptri Conltantinopolitani qUI!! elt clari"imntit
 deeal Gracia. The fame of Kiow, especially in the ele\'ebth ceutul'J.
 IIad reaelled the Germ.. and tbe Anbi.. leopphe....

                                                             Digitized by   Google
                           TO DECLINE AND FAL!.
 CHAP.     were no more than camps or fairs, the most
  LV.      convenient stations ill wl,tich the barbarian,
••_-...... might assemble for the occasion.,l .business. of
           war or trade. Yet ~ven,these a~semblies :an-
           nounce some prog~e$$ in the arts of society; , a
           ne~ breed of cattle Was imported {ronl the ~GU­
           thern provinces; and the spirit of commercial
           enterprise pervaded the sea and land from the
           Daltic to the Euxine, from the mouth of the
           Oder to 'the port, of Constantinople. In the
           days ,of Idolatry and barbarism, the Sclavonic
           city of Julin was frequented and enriched by
           the NorD)ans. who had prudently secured a
           free mar.t of purchase and exchange.' From
           this harbour, at the entrance of the Oder, the
           corsair, or merchant, sailed in forty-three days
           to the eastern shores of the Baltic; the mos.
           distant nations were intermingled, and the holy
           groves of Curland are said to have been dec~
           rated with Grecian and Spanish gold.' Be-
           tween the sea and Novogorod an easy inter-
            flu Odore oatio IJul SClthicu alluit paludel, DobiliaeimaciYitu Ju.
         linum, celeberrimam, Barbaril et Grecil qui aunt in circuit6 prCltllans
         Itationem; elt lane maxima omnium quu Europa claudit civitatum
         (Adam Bremenail, Hist. Eeeici. p. 19). A Itrange exargnation enu
         iD thc eleventb century, Tbe trade of till' Baltic, and the. HaDleatic
         leagnl', are carefully truttd in Andl'rlon'l Hiatoril'al Deduction of
         Cammerce; at least, in filiI' languages, I am not aequaiBted with any
         book so satiafactorY.
            • According to Adam of BremeD (de Sit6 Danie, p. 68), th. old
         Cllrland extended eight days journey alopg tbe coast; and by P~ter
         Teutoburgicn. (p. 68 A. D. 1126), Memel ia dt'fiut'd a. the comBlOD
         frontier of Rlluia, CurlaDd, aDd J'rllisia. Allrllm ibi plnrimum (Iayl
         Adlm) diviuis, auguribu. atque DeeromaDticia omnt'l dORml IIIDt plena
          •••• a toto orbe ibi retponaa petllntur maxime ab Hitpanis (fonau
          z.".u, id elt r.gulis Lt'ttovllle) et Greci,. The Dime of Greeks Well
         .,plied to the RU'liani even before thei-: cODveniop; an imperft'ct
          conYersiou, if .they Itill con.nlled the wizard. of Curland ~Blyer, t...
          x, p. 17'1, '02, Icc. GrotiUl. I'rolepmea. ad Hiat. Goth. p. 99).

                                                         Digitized by   Google
                ,   OF THE Rt>MAN EMPIRE.                                 226
 (:ourse was discovered; in the summ~r, through                         CHAP.
 a gulf, a lake" and a navigable river; in the _:.~; ....
  winter season, over the hard and level surface
  9f boundless snows. ' F!om the neighbo~~h~od
  of, t~at city, the Russians descended the
  stre~ms that fall into the Borysthenes,; their
  canoes, of a single tree, were'laden ~ith' slaves
  of every age, furs of every species, the spoil of
  their bee- hi ves, aQd !pe hides of their cattle;
   ~nd th~ whole, produce of the north ~'as col-
  l~cted, ~n4 ,discharged ill the magazines of
  Xiow. The mo.nt~ of June was the ordinary
  season of the d~parture of the fleet: the tim-
, ber of the canoes was framed into the oars and,
  benqhes of more ,~olid ,and' capaci~'us boats;
  and they proceeded without obstacle down the
  Borysthenes, as far as th~ seven or thirteen
  ridges 9f rocks~ which ,traverse the bed, and
  precipitate th~ ~aters, of ,~heriver. At the
  IllOre shallow falls .it ~a5 sufficient 'to lighten
  the velilsels; but the deeper cataracts were il,l1-
  »assable'; ~nd the. m~riners, who dragged their
  vessels and th~ir slave!J si.x miles over land, were
  exposed in this toilsol!le journey to the robbers
  of the desert." At the first island below the
  falls, the Russians celebrated' the' festival of
  their escape; at a second, 'near the. mouih of
  the river, they repaired their shattered vessels
  for the longer and more perilous voyage of the
 , .. Conillalltine only reekoaa .na cataract., of ,which he gin. the
 Itaallioo and Selavooic Dame.; bat thirteen are enomerated by the
 Sieor de Bf'luplan, a French eoBioeer, .....0 bad ,uneyed tbe coune
  .!HI DDvigatioo of the DUiper or Bo.,.theD" (Description d'Ukraiue.
 'BOatD, 1660, • thin quarto): bat the _p ia unluckily waotiol in mJ
 "PJ· ,             '
   VOL X.                           'Q

                                                        Di~itlzed by Google
                          THE DJ!CLINE AND PALL'
 CHAP.        Black sea. If they steered along the coast,
..#.~::.. tbe Danube was accessible;         with a fair wind
              they could, reach in thirty-six or forty hours
              the opposite shores of Anatolia; and Constan-
              tinople admitted the annual visit. of the stran-
              gers cif the north. They returned at the stat~
              ed season with a rich cargo of corn, wine, and
              oil, the manufactures of Greece, and the spices
              or India. Some of their countrymen resided
              in the capital and provinces; and the national
              treaties protected the persons, effects, and pri-
              vileges of the Russian merchant. I
Naval ex·        But the same communication whichhad been
pt:clitiOD of    '   d ' h b fi                  b "::a ~
the RUI- opene for t e ene t, was soon a useUlor the
:~~:. injury, of mankind. In a period of one hun..
COD1ltaati-: dred and ninety years, the Russians made four
nop e.                           '                           •
              attempts to plunder the treasures of Constanti-
              nople: the event was 'Various, but the motive,
              the means, and the object, were the same in
              th~se naval expeditions.... Th'e Russian traders
              had seen the magnificence and tasted the luxury
         of      the city of the Cresars. A marvellous tale,
              and' a scanty supply, excited- the desires of.
              their savage coun.trymen: they envied the gift.
              of nature which their climate denied; they co-
              veted the works of art which they were too
           , Nestor, apad Lave.que,  Hi".    chi ~uSlie, tom. i, p, 78·80. Proa
         the DDirper or BoryltbeDes, tbe Ranian., weDt to Black Balpria,
         Cbar..ia, and Syria.      To Syria, bow? where? wben? May we Dot,
         iDltead of%.,.. %"",.. (de Adminiatrat. Imp. c. 42, p. UI)? Tbealten-
         tion ia aligbt; the pOlition of Suania, bet1reen Chanria and LuIea,
         il perfectly laitable; and the name wal ItiD ued iu the elneuth CeDo
         tory (Cedrell. tom, ii, p. 770).
            k Tbe wan of the RU.lianl and Greekl iu' the niuth, teuth, ucI
         elenn&li centuries, are reillted in the BYZUltiD' unala; especiaUr
         thOle of Zonaraa _Dd Cedrenu; aDd all their teltimoniel are collecto
         ed iDthe Runca ofStritter, tom. ii, pan. ii, po ."1'"'. --

                                                     Digitized by   Google
                   THE ROMAN EMPIRIi
                            01'                        121
 lazy to jmi~ate and too indigent to purchase; CHAP.
 the' V\lrangian prh~ces unfurled' the ban,ners of .~t~;~                                               ..
 pltatical adventure, and their bravest soldiers
 were drawn ftomthe nations that dwelt in the
 northel'n isles of the ocea~.l The imag~ oftheir
 naval armaments was revivedint,he laost centu-
 ry, in the Be¢ts of th,e C.osack~,which issued
 from tbe :BQry.thenes, to navigate the ,lSllllie
 fleas, for ~ simil~r purpo~e:1Q, ,l'l~ei Greek ap-
 pf!llation ofmono:cyla, or sit:Igle c'anoes" migh~
,be justly' a'pplied t~the: l?ott~'of tJleir'vesselw.
 It was scooped Ollt; 0,' the'I,oft$' 8tem·~rla beech
 Qr willow; but' the' slight ,and nurrow founda-
 tion wa~ raised' a~d continued' o,n either side
 ~ith planks, tin it attai~edithe lerigth of sixty,
 and the height of about'tiwclve, feef! These
 boats were built without'a1deek, but"'ith two
 rudders and a mast'; to nlOVe' with' sail:S- arid
  oars; and to contain from' forty to sev~ty men,
 with their arm's, and provisions of fre~h:water
  and salt fish. The first trial        tire Russians
 was made with two hundred- boats; bat wlien
 the na~onal force was] 'eX~rted, they; might' arm
 against' Constantinople a' thousand; ot· twe~ve
'hundred vessels. Their fleet W3.-S not' much
 inferior to' the royal navy of'Agamemrion, but
 it was magnified in the eyes of fear to ten or
 -fift'een limes the real proportion of; its strength
 and numbers. Had tlie Greek emperor. been
 endowed with foretfight to discern, and vigour
   J   n,on1''''1'''''',.u''' J, lIAI "'P1M'XIJI." IIll ').,)<41' "'" 1''' lI.flIItllrT
_",,,,,1'11<, I'll 0......, ""'If .sr.,.      CedreDUI in COlllpeDcL p. 76
   m See Beanplaa, (Description de l'Ukraine. p. 64-61); hlf deHrip-
tioDI are lively, hit plaDs accur,te, _Dd ex~ept the CiftU~ta... 0'
6".arllll, we may read old RUliian., (or modern Coalae     .'
    ., .... ....                                             .,    -

                                                                                    Digitized by   Google
228                          THE DECLINE          AN~   FALLl
 ~HApt<     to prevent, perhaps they might. have -sealed with
_,~~:,.... a maritime force the mouth of the Borysthenes.
            Their indolence abandoned the coast of Ana-
            tolia to the calamities of a piratical war, which,
            after an interval'of six hundr'ed years; again in-
            fested the Euxine; but as long as the capital
             was respected, the sufferings .of a distani pro-
            vince escaped the notice both of the prince and
            .the historian.. T~e storm .which 'had' sw~pt
            along from the Phasis.and Trebizond, at length
            :J>urst on the Bosphorus o,f Thrace; a streight
            {)f fifteEm miles, in which the. rude vessels of
            the Russian might have been stopped and de-
            stroyed by a more skilful adversary. In their
The first, 6rst ente'rprise- under the princes ofiGow, they
A. D. 8fI6. pas!ied ~itho~t opposition, and occ':lpied the

            port of Constantinople in the absence of the
            emperor Michael, the son of ',fheophilus.-
            ,Through a crowd, of perils he landed at the pa-
            lace-stairs, and immediately went to the church
            of the Virgin Mary.· .By the ad ,,!ce, of the pa-
            triarch, her garment, a prec~ous relic, was
            dni\wn from the, sanctuary and ~ipped in the
            sea; and a seasonable tempest, which d~ter-
The Ie-     mined the retreat of the Russians, ,!as devout-
A.D.1I04.   Iy'ascribed to t,he mother of God! The silence

            • It is to be lameDted, tbat Bayer bu 01lly ,inD a ollHrtatiOD de
          Rossornm prima expeditillne CooltaDtjnopolitanl (CoDlDleDt. Academ.
          Petropol. tom. Yij p.W·SOI). After di_taD,ling lome chronoIop.
          cal intricacies, he fixel it in the yean 864,or 861, a date "hith miP'
          have smootbed some doubts and difficulties in tbe beginnin, oeM. Le-
          nlqne'l hiltory.
            • When Photiul wrote his enciclic rpistle on the c01lunion of tile
          Roulanl, the miracle wu not yet lufficiently ripe; he rrproachea tile
          .ation u .,f ..,.._ .., ,.1&,"',,, .. a.,.ae 3'.....,1If .,.a...1,._. •

            , Leo Gl'UUD&tI\:u, p • .tOI, .64. CoaatantiDi CoatiDDator, i. Seript.

                                                      Digitized by   Google
                   OF ''''HE ROMAN EMPUtL                                 22G'
  of the Greeks lDay inspire some doubt of the CHAP.
  truth, or at least of the importance, of the se- _,~~;::,."
  cond attempt by Oleg the guardian ofthe 80ns A ••• II71. :
  of Ruric." A strong barrier of arms and for-
  tifications defended the Bo~phorus: they wer~
  eluded by the .usual expedient of drawing the·
  boats over the isthmus; and this simple ope.:
  ration is described in the national chronicles,'
  as if the Russian Heet had sailed over dry land .
  with.a brisk and favourable gale. The leader TH thin!,
  of the third armament, Igor, the son of Ruric, A. •• "1.
. had chosen a mome~t of weakness and decay,;
  when the naval powers of the empire were em-
  ployed against the Saracens. But if courage'
  be not wanting, the instruments of defence ar~
  seldom deficient. Fifteen broken and decayed:
  galleys were boldly launched against the ene-.
  my; but instead of the single tube of Greek.
  fire Utlmally planted on the prow, the sides and:
  stern of each vessel were abundantly supplied.
  with that liq uid combustible. The engineers
  were dexterous; the weather was propitious:.
  many thousand Russians, who chose rather to-
  be drowned than burnt, leaped into the sea;.
  and those who escaped to the Tbraeian shore.'
  were inhumanly slaughtered by the pe~ants
  and soldif,lrs. Yet one third of the canoes
  escaped into shallow water; -and the next
 PPllI Theopbaaem, p. III, 111. 5imeo~ Loaothet, p. 441, «&.-
 George Monaeh. p. 611, 616. CedreDu., tom. ii, p. QI. ZODaru,
 tom ii, p. 162. _
   • See Nellor and Nieon, in Lneaqne'. Hilt. de Rume, tom. I, p.
 74·80. Katona (Hilt. Dueam, p. TI-TV) alea hi. adnlltale to di..
 pron this RUlliRD Yietor)" ."bit:h wOIIld dopd the lie,e of lUow bJ
 abe H UDpriaDI.

                                                      Digitized by   Google
230                  THE n~~E ~ND :fALl.
 Cl~P. s,priog) ~or was ~ai.~ prepared to retrieve hi.
""';:'#0 ~isgrace ~and .clalm hIs l'evenge; After a long
 TbefoonhpeaCe, JaI:oslalls, the great-grapdsoll ongor, re-
.... ~.10~S. sl.imed the same project of a naval invasion.:......
             A.·lle.e~ under the command of his son, was re-
             p,Ulsedat the entrance of the Bosphorus by the
             sameai-tificial Sames. But in the rashness of
             p~.\'suit the vallS,uard of the Greeks was eD-
             chmpassed by' an irresistible multitude of boats
        .. .3,ndmen;· ,their proviSion of nre was probably·
            exhauSted; and twenty-four galley's were either
             taken, sunk, or destroyed'.
  Neaod..Yet the threats -or calamities of a Russian
. ::on;.:~. 'f~r were. :mol'e f~eqllent1y· di"ert~~ ~y treaty
        ; than by arms. In the~e .naval hostIhtIes" every
             disadvantage was on the side of the Greeks:
             their sange enemy aWarded no mercy; his po-
           . yerty promised no spoil; bis impenetrable re-
          • treat deprived the con.queror of the hopes of
             revenge; and the pride or weakness of empire
             indulged an .opil).ion. thai no honour could be
             gained or lost ~n tbe intercourse with harba-
             rian~. . At ·first their demands were high and
             i~~dmlssible, three pounds of gold for each
             soldier 01' mariner of (he fleet: the Russian
             youth adhered to the des~gn or conqu.est and
             glory; but the 'counsels of moqeration were re-
             commended by the' hoary sages. "Be- con-
                 , Leo Grammatieol, p. G06, G01.       Inrut.   Conlin. p. 263,    264.· Si-
               meon Ltpt'het. p. 400, 491. Georg. Monad.. p. 588, 689. Cedrrn.
               tm.·iI,,..619. Zanral, tOIll.ii, p. 190, 1M, and Lintprand, I. v, c.
               e, who wrile. from   tbe narrativl's of bia fatber-in-Iaw, then a!lllta ....
               dol' at Oomtantinople, 8'IId cotl'~ela lhe vain exaggeration af the
                 "-I ~o~y .. ppeat te()drmfll ,(tblll. ti, p.     V'-, 1.,) MId Zomtrn
               (tom. ii, I" 253, 254); bot tbey grow Dlore weighty INId r'rwilli....
               they draw near to their own time••

                                                                  Digitized by   Google
                   OP THa KOMAN DWIlt'L                                      2'1
e, tent," they said, "with the liberal oWers of                            CHAP.
e.  C~sar; is it not far better to obtain, without ..., ...,...
                                                      LV •                  . .
•, a combat, the possession ofgo]d, sihE:r, silks,
 cc and all the objects of our desires? Are we
e, sure of victory? Can we conclude a treaty
., with the sea? We do not tread on the. land ;
e' we Hoat on the abyss of water, and a coinmon
., death hangs over our heads.''t The memory
'Of these arctic Heets that seemed to descend
from the polar circle, left a deep impresijion of
 terror on the imperial city. By the vuJgar of
 every rank, it was asserted and believed, that
an equestrian statue in the square of Taurus,
 was secretly inscribed with a prophecy, how
 the Russians, in the last days, should become
 masters of Constantinople." In our own time,
a Russian armament, instead of sailing from
the Borysthenes, has circumnavigated the con-
tinetlt of Europe; and the Turkish capital has
 been threatened by a squadron of strong and
lofty ships of war, each of which, with its na·
'Yal science and thundering artillery, could
have sulik or scattered an hundred canoes,
such as those of their ancestors. Perhaps the
 present generation may yet behold the accom
 plishmeht of the prediction, of a rare. predic-
 tion, of which the style is unambiguous. and
the date unquestionable..
     Neltor, apud Lenlqae, Hilt. de RUllie, tom. i, p. 87.
   • Thil brauD ltatae, whieh laad beeD broa,ht from Autioch, and
... melted down by the Latini, wu lappoled to npresent either Jo-
ahua or Bellorophon; &D odd dilemma. S~e Niretas Cholliatel (p.
413, 'l(), Cod in us (de Originibul c. r. 2'), and tht anonymou. wri-
ter de Autiql,ilat. c. p. (Baudnri, Imp. Oritut. tom. i, p. 17,18), wbo
livtd about the year 1100. 'l'ht'y wituul the belief of the prophtcy;
lhl! it'lt i, immaterial.

                                                         Digitized by   Google
~32,                      TIlE tJECLINZ' AND FALL'
  CHAP.       By land the. Russians were less formidable
, ..~~:,•• than by sea.; and .as they fought for the most'
Reign of . part on (oot, their irregular legions must often
~~:~Ol. have been broken and overthrown by the ca..·
 ~-:3. valry of the Scythian hordes. Yet their grow=--
           ing towns, however slight and imperft:ct, pre-'
           sented a shelter to the subject and a barrier to
           the enemy: the monarchy of Kiow, till a fatal
           pamition, assumed the dominion of the north;
           and the nations from the Volga to' the Danube
           were subdued or repelled by the arms of Swa-
           ioslaus;" the son of Igor, the son. of Oleg, the.
           son of Ruric. The vigour of his nIind and bo-o
           dy w~s fortified by the hardshipis of a military
           and savage life. Wrapt in a bear-skin, Swa-
           toslaus usually slept on the ground, his bead
           reclining on a saddle; hi~ diet was coarse and
           frugal, and, like the her.oes of Homer,:' ~is meat
           (it was often horse.Besh) was broiled or roast-
           ed on the coals. The exercise of war gal'e
           stability and discipline to his army; and, it
           may be .presumed, that no soldier was permit-
           ted to transcend the luxury of his chief. By
           an e~bassy from Nicephorus, the Greek em-
           peror, he' was m.oved. to _undertake the con-
           quest of Bulgaria,and a gift of fifteen hundred
            pounds of gold was laid at his feet to defray
                                                . '
          . II The life of Bwatollaul, 'or SviatOilaf, or Spheudolthlabul, ia u-

        tracted from the Rnalian. Cbrou~cl~1 by M. Len.que (Hilt. de R_
        lie, tom. i, p. N-I07).
            J Tbil relemblaDce may be clearly seen In the niuth book of th
        Ili.d (205-91) in the minute d.taiJ of the cookery of AchiDN. B;
        snch a picture, a modern epic poet would dilcrace hil work, aDd di..
         gllil hi. reader; but tbe Greek nne. are harmonionl; a dud laa-
         r:nlge clln uldom appear low or familiar. and at tht' disl..c:r of t ••
        thonaalld leY.n lumclred year., .e are amuled witll tbe primitive lOaa-
        Dna of BJlliquity.

                                                       Digitized by   Google
             01' THE ROMAN ,EMPtRP..' :                       ~S.
 the expence, or reward the toils, of the ~xp~ CHAP.
 dition. An army of sixt.y thousand men was ...,~~:....;
 assembled and embarked; they sailed from the
 Borysthenes to' the Danube; their landing was-
 effected on the Mresian shore; and, after a
 sharp encounter, the swords of the Russians
 prevailed ag~inst the arrows of the Bulgarian
 horse. The vanquished king sunk into the
grave; his children were made captive'; 'and
 his dominions as far as mount' Hmmus, were
 subdued or ravaged by the northern invaders.
 But instead of relinquishing his prey, and per-
 forming his engagements, the Varangian,prince
 was more disposed to advance than to retire;
 and, had his ambition been crowned with suc-
 cess, the seat of empire in that early period
 might have been transferred to a more tempe-
 rate and fruitful climate.. Swatoslausenjoyed
 and acknowledged the advantages of his new
 position;' in which he could unite, by exchange
 or rapine, the various productions 'of the earth.
 By an easy navigation he might. draw from
 Russia the native commodities offurs, wax,' and
 hydromel: Hungary supplied him with a breed
 of horses and the spoils of the West; and
 Greece abounded with gold, silver, and the fo-
 reign luxuries, which his poverty had affected
 to disdain. The bands of Patzinacites, Ch<>'
 zars, and Turks, repaired' to,the standard of
 victory; and the ambassador ,of Nicephor,us
 betrayed his trust, assuIDed the purple, and
_promised to share with his new allie.s the trea
  sures of the ea8tern world. From the bank's
 of the Danube, the Russian prince pursued hi.

                                          Digitized by   Google
234                        T,. DECLINE AND FALL
 c;~~~. march 48 .far as AdrianopJe.: a ~onnal su~-
.•_ ..~" •• mODS to evacilate the Roman provmce was dls-
         -missEld with coatempt; and Swatoslaus fierce-
          ly repli~d, that Constantinople might soon ex-
          pecl the pr~~D.ce of an enemy and a master.
Hil deCeat. Nicephorus ~ould no longer expel the mis-
~m"!::'. chief which he introduced; but his throne and
 87t;S. wife were inherited ~y John Zimisces: who. in
          a. diminutive body, possessed the spirit and abi-
          lities of an bero. The first victory of his lieu-
          tenants deprived the Russians of their foreign
          allies, twenty thousand of whom were either
          destroyed by the sword, or provoked to reTolt,
          or tempted ,to desert. Thr.ace was delivered,
          but seventy thousand barbarians were still in
          ~rms 1 and the legions that had been recalled
          from -the new conquests of SYl'ia, prepareq
          with the return of the spring. to march under
          ijIe.banners of a warlike prince, who declared
         himself the friend and avenger of the ipjured
          Bulgaria. The passes of mount Hremus had
         been left unguarded; they were instantly occu-
         pied; the Roman vanguard waS formed of the
         immortal.. (a proud imitation of the Persian
         style); the emperor led the main borly of ten
         thousand five hundred foot; and the rest of
         his forces followed in slow and cautious array
          with the baggage and military engines. The
         ,wst exploit of Zimisces was the reduction of
           • Thil liap1ar epithet iI derind Crom tbe AfIII.nian lanlaage, and
         TCYA"a", il interpreted ia Greek by ""C",C.r, or ""p,,••C.r. A. I pro-
         C_ .YleiC e'lually iguorant of lAue wordl, I may be iodlll".d in the
         ...eltion in the play... Pray. which uf YOIi is the interpreter?" From
         the contellt, they let'm to aignify Adolf,elf/tlllll' (Lto Diac:on. I. iv.
         MS. apad Duc~oce. GIOI~ar. Gnec. p. 1670).

                                                         Digitized by   Google
                    OF 'TilE ROMAlfEMPlRE.c '                                      2M '.
 Marcianopolis" or' P,eri8tblaha,~ .in two daYf$:                                CHAP.
t~ trumpets sounded,' :tl1e wQ.Us were,HCaled' ..".",,#,••
                   " ,                 . ,
                                                 'I.V., ,.                               I

 eight tlrousand five, bnndt~ ,Russians, were                                : ' "           >

'put-to th~;sword:;,:a'lld the -$O~S, of't~e Dulg.,:                         :
 rianking were rescued, ~ .~ ;ig,nominiQus
 prison, arid inTestetlwith. boqtiQal 4iadem.                                ,
 Altel- these repeated I-b~jIE$, Swato'Shms retired
 to 'tbe strong post of DriSlra. OJ). the ~anks 'of                          '
 the Dan.ube, ;and was ~raued .by an enemy
 wbo alteraately employed' the alOls of celerity
and delay. The Byzantiae g~neys ascended
the river; the legions completed a line of cir-
cumvallation; ami the Russian prmce was en-
 compassed, 8.&saulted, and fatni$bed, in the for-
tifications of the camp and city. Many deeds
of valour *.erepenorined;, se"eral desperate
sallies were attempted; nor ,wasi,t till after a
siege of sixty-five days that Swatoslaus -yield-
ed to hisadvoerse fortune.: Tile liberal terms
which he obtained annollDcethe prudence of
the l'ictor, 1Vho respected th~ v~lour. and ap-
prehended the despair, of a~'unconqueredmind.
The great duke of BU81ta bound himself by
solemn imprecatiou to' relinquish all hostile
designs; a. safe passage was opened for his re-
turn,; ,the liberty of trade and navigation was
restored; a measure of corn was distributed
to eaoh of his soldiers; and the allowance of
twenty-two thousand measures attests the 10s8
  • In the 8cla.onlc .agae, tbe lIIIIIe of Perialhlaba implied tbe Iftat
or UInltTion. city, ,..~ ..., .... _:,.."."""", la,.. ADna ComDeD.
(Alexiad. 1. yii, p. 194). From. ita poaition betweeD mOllDt H.mnl
and the lower Dunbe, it appean to fill tbe ground, c.r at leut the
elation, of Mareian8l'01i1. The litnation of Dar~.tolnl, or Driltra, ia
_ell knoWn aDd CODlpleOonl (Comment. Aeadem. Petro pol. tom. Ill,
P: 416,_416. D' An.iIle, Geolnphie AneieDDc; tem. i, p. 307, Ill).

                                                          D';9;tlzed by   Google
236                           THE DECLINE AND PALL
  CHAP.        'arid the remnant of the barbarians. After a
_. .....
      ~:!: perilous voyage, they again reached the mouth .
               of the Borysthenes ; but their provisions were.
              exhausted, the season was unfavourable; they
              passed the winter on the' ice; and,before they ,
              GOuld prosecute their march, Swatoslaus· was '
              surprised and oppressed by the ~eighbourjng ..
              tribes, with whom the Greeks entertained a pel'. ,
              petual and useful correspondence.', Far di.1fe. ;
               rent 'was the return of ZiJDisces, ,who. was; re-:
              ceived in his capital like Camillus or Marjt~s,
              the saviourlf of ancient Rome'., ,:B.ut the nterit ;
              ofih£> victory was attributed by.the pious em- .
              peror to the motlier of God; and tb~' image of ,
              the Virgin Mary, with the', divine'iiifant in her:;
              arms, was placed on a triump~al c~r, adorned                                J

              with the spoils of 'war and the ensigns Qf Bu1
              garian royalty. Zimisces made his public en-' ,
              tryon 'horsehack ;' the diadem on -hiJi Jiead, a
              crown of laurel in his hand; and C,OP$tantino-
              pIe was astonished to applaud the lJIartial 'Yir- ,
              toes of her sovereign.C.        ,
<:OD1'er.         Photius of 9~nst8.ntinople;,a patriarch whose:
R~:!.i~, ambition "as eq\lart() his curiosity,. cQngratu- ,
.A.. Do 864.. hUes himself and: the Greek cb~r,ch on the COD-,

              version of the :Russians.· .:. T~osefier(fe and.
             "                                  ,

             • .The poiitieal ..~aleme'Dt' 'of tiie Gr,e\~, more especially "ilia '
          the Patzinacite., is' explained iii the leYeD first chapter.. de AdmiDi·
          atratione Imperu.,.               .
             C In the narratin of tbis war,  Leo'    ih~ DeacoD <apad Pagi, Critic&,'
          tom. iv, A. D. 96~,973) i, more authl'ntic and circumatantial than Ceo
          drt'nllA (10m. ii, p. 6410·983) and ZOllllfaa(tom. ji.p.'jf)i-l!14), 1'1If'1e
          dedaimrl" have multiplied to 308,800 and aao,ooc.lIlell, lbofC Raui. .
          lorers, of "'ilicil tile cont('liIporaty bad given a moderatl! and CODIU.
          trnl If'connt.
            ~ Photo Epi,tol, ii, 1\"'. 35. p, 1i8, l'dit. Montaeut. It "u u,,,orthy
          of theiramilll of the editor to Dli,take tbe R.lli. . .atiOD, .,. ...... C.

                                                            Digitized by   Google
                 or THIt ROMAN D P J R 2 3 1
  bloody barbarians bad ,been pers1Jl1ded by the .CHAP.
 'Yolce 0 f reason an'd re1"
    .                       IgloO,. t'0 aek I d ' .........,
                                           now e ge LV.
 Jesus for their God, the chris.tian·missionaries
 for' their' teachers, and ·the Romans for tbeir
friends arid brethr~~ His triumph was tran-
 sient and premature. In tbevanoaa (ortu,ne of
 their piratical adventures, .some Russian chiefs
 migbt allow themselves ,to he s.pJ'inkled with
the waters of baptism; and 'a Greek bishop,
 with the 'name' of metropolitan,' might admini-
ster the sacraments in the' church of Kiow, to
a congregation of 's)aves a:nd·n~tive~. But the
seed of the, gospel was'sown on ,a barren soil:
many were ~ the: apostates:, the. converts wt:re
few; and the' baptism, Qf Olga may be fixed as

tlie . era. of, Rus~i..n: christianity.. A female,
perhaps of the:basest1oTigin., 'who' CQuld revenge
tbe'deatb, and: assUme tbe' sceptre,. of her hus-
,band Igor, must.bavebeen'endowed witb those
active virtues', whicb. :comma'nd the fear arid
obedience of bar.barians. IiI'a moment of fo-
reign and'doinestre peace, she, sailed from Kio,w
t? Constantin~~le,; and tbe emp~ror C~I1sta~- B~pli5m
tme Porphyrogemtus has described WIth ml- 01 01/1.,
nute'diligence the ceremonial.of her reception A. 11,1144
inhfs'capital and palace.. The steps, tbetitles,
the salutations, the 'banquet, the presents, were
·exquisitely. adjuste~, to gratify the vanity of

 • W''''-ery of the Bq.lgariall' ;. Dor did it bt~ome the eDlillhteDf'd .,...
 triareb to .eclI~e the Sela\lonian idolaten   'til, I!).)..,,,,., .A.
                                                               ,,6... ~.(.,.­
'l'hey were neither G.'eu. nor alht-ilil ..
    • M. LenRqlle has rxtrartf'd, frllpl old rhronirlel and modnn l'f'_
 learehes, the most Aati.factory account of the religion of Ibe SIat'i, and
 the eOD\lenion ofRulliia (Hist. de RUJlie, tom. i, p. SIi-1i4, liD, 02, US.
111-121, 124-129, 148, 149, I&c).

                                                                Digitized by   Google
'238                         111& 'IJ8CLlWm ·.wD,~A""
 CHAP.   tile .tranger, with due revereoce&. to! .~r supe-
_,~;,:,., rior majesty of tlie purple.' "In.·~ sacrament
          ol,baptism, she received the. venerable name' of
         ibe empress Helena; and.her coiu!eraian, .miglit
         be preceded or follow.ed ~ bel' unolej t.o.                            m.
         terpreters, sixteen damsels, 01) an higher, arid.
         eighteen of a lower r~lIlk, tJlPlellty-t.w.Q)Sm.,e8tiC5
         or ministers, and {OIlly.fou, RWliliaD .erch~ta,
         "ho composed the J'eti,nue of: the great pucea.
         Olga. Af~er' he~ retqm 'to. .KiDw, ami· NDV.Og()l-
         rod, she firmly 'persisted in· betr'new:religioa.;
         but her labouIs:intbepropagatiolllo.f ,the.goa.
         pel were       ut
                        crow,ned: with suCce.s..;. and both
         her. family and nati~, adhered with. obstiua£,.
         or indilfereoce; to the gods' uf theii! fatherS''''''':''
         Her son Swa~osJau•. was apprehensive .of the and .ridicule of his companidnll; apd her
         grand son W ol~olBir' devCl'ted hiS lYOlltbful> zeal
         to multiply and decorate the DIGD~eJlt. of ian-
         cient worship. The:S8Ivage deities;ofitne ltC)rth
         were· still propitiated with human SHrjficel:
         in the choice of die v.ietim. a:ciiAen;~was!pr~
         Cured to a· str~ngelJ, a c_i8tia~ to an;idoJater.;
         Rnd the fa~r; ·w ho daeadtid hil1, ~o~ from the
         sacerdotal knife, was ia'f4ltved itt the lI~me doom
         by the rage of a.. fanatic tumult. Yet the Ie&.-
         sons and example of the pious Olga had made
         a deep, though secret, impressipn on the mlDds
 "       of the prince and people: the Greek mission-
         aries continued to preach, t& d>ispute, and. to
         ~ f See the Ceremoniale 'Anlle Byzant. tom. ii, c.15, p. 141·345: the
         .tyle of Olp, or Elga, is Ae"orT'''''''' 'P".. ,,,,. }'or tbe ebief of bar-
         bariana the Greeks'ally borrowf'd the title of an Athenian ma-
         Ii.trate, with a female termination, whicb would have astoni.hed tlae
         ear .f Demo.thene••

                                                           Digitized by   Google
                    OF THE ROMAN EMPIU.                                          2S9
baptize; and the ambassadoFs:or merchants 0(' CHAP.
 Russia compared: the idolatry of the woods LV
 with the elegan t superstition of Constantinople..                          ##### ......

 They had gazed, with admiration on the dome
,of St. S'ophia, the lively' pictures of saints aud
 martyrs, the ri~hes of the attar, 'the number and'
vestments of the priests, the pomp and order'
 of the ceremonies; they were edified by tbe
 alternate succession of. devout silenee and bar-
monious song; nor was it difticult tope rsuade
 them, that a choir of angels desceaded each
 day from heaven to join in the devotion of the,
 christians.' But the conversion of Wolodomir or Woloo
 was determlDt!, or hasMXR: ~ by b· d· of domir.ns.
             . d                        18 eSIr8    A. D.

 a Roman bride. At the same time, and in the'
 city of Cherson, tlie rites. of· baptism and mar-
 riage were celebrated by the· oorj'stian pontiff:
 the city he restored, to the, emJjeror 'Basi), the
 brother of his, spouse; but the'brazen 'gates
 were t1'8.nsported, as it is said;               to
                                        N ovogorod,
 and ert:cted before the first churcb ,as a trophy
 of his victory and faith.lI, At his despotic COUl-
 mand, Perouu, the god of thunder, whom he
 ha4' so long adored, was dragged through the.
   t See an" anOD:J1IIoaa fraPlent published by Baqclu,i (Imperiulll,
Orientale, tOIll. il, p. 111, liS) de ConversiODe RUliorum.

   1 Chenon, or Conan, if mentioned by Herberateln (apnd Pagi, tom.'
     p. 118) u the plaee of, Wolodollli~. baptial ud lIWdap;
botll the tradition and the ,atea are .till prcolund at Novogorod_
Yet an obltrviDg traveller transport. the bra.con glltea from Mapl!oo'
burgh in Germany (CoSe'1 Traub into Ruala.        Icc. yol.l, p. US), ...
• 119~ au i ....eriptioD. "hie. leem. to jPltify hi, opinion. The mo-
dem reader mDlt not eonfound thil old Chenon of the Taaric or Cri- peniD,ula, with a Dew eity of tbe IBIIle ,oaml, ,whle. bat arilea
near tbe muutb of the Borylthenn. and      11''  lately honoared by the
_lIlonble bate"iew of the .lIlprell of Blllia wit1& tIa• •",Ol" of t1&.

                                                            Digitized by   Google
240                       THE DECLINE AND FALL
   CHAP. streets of Kiow; and twelve sturdy barbarians
.....~~~. battered with clubs the mishapen image which
            was indignantly cast into the waters of the
            Bory~thenes. ,The 'edi~t of W olodomir had
            proclaimed, that all who should refuse the rites
            of baptism would be ireated as the ,enemies of
            God anti their prince; and the rivers were in-
           stantly filled with many thousands of obedient
            Russians, who acquiesced in the truth and ex-
            cellence of a doctrine whic'" had been embraced
           by the great duke and hisboyars. In tbenext
           generation, the relics of 'paganism were finally
           extirpated; but as the two 'brothers of W 010-
           domir had died without baptism, their bones
           were tak-en from the grave, an<l sanctified by
       _ an irregular and posthumous ,s~craJllent.
C:bri.tiani-: In the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries of
~O~~h~b' the christian era, the' :reign of the gospd., and
~i:' 800- of the church was, extended : ove~ ',Bulgaria,
      • Hungary, Bohemia" Saxony" Denmark, Nor-
           way, Sweden, Poland, and Russia"              The,
           triumphs of apostolic zeal :w,ere repeate~ in the
           iron age of christianity; and, th~ nort~ern' and
           eastern regions of Europe ,sQbmitted to·a reli.
           gion, more different in theory than in practice,
           from the worship of their native idols. A,lau..
           f,lable ambition excited the monks~ both olGer-
           many and Greece, to visit the tents -and huts
           of the barbarIans: pOl'erty, hardships, and
           dangers, were the lot of the first ~is6ionaries:
           their courage was active a~d patierit,; their mo-
           tive pure and meritorious: their, present re-
                .                                            '

          ' the Latin text, or En,lilla ,.enioa, 01 Meaheiai. escelleat
       IIlatory ." the eh.reb, ander the int head Of leetioll of each of ......

                                                      Digitized by   Google
        "            0' '."HK ROMAN EMPIRL '                                   241
    ward ~onsisted in tbe testimony of'their con- CHA ...
    science and the .respect of a grateful people; ~~:... .
   but the fruitful harvest of their toils was inhe-
    rited and enjoyed by the proud and wealthy
   prelates of succeeding times. The 'first con:"
   versions 'were free and spontaneous: 'an holy
    life and an eloquent tongue were the only arms
   Qfthe missionaries; but'the domestic fables of
   the pagans were silenced by the miracfes and
   visions, of the strangers; and the 'favoniable
  'temper, of the chiefs was accelerated' by the
   dictates of vanity and interest. The leaders of
   nations who were saluted with'the tit~es of kings
   and saints," held it lawful1lnd piOllS to impose
   the catholic faith on their subjecis and neigh-
   bours; the coast of the Baltic; ~om Holstein
  ,to the gulf of I'inland,' was invaaed under. the
   standard of the' cross; and the reign of idola-
   try was closed by the conversion of Lithuania
   in the fourteenth century. Yet truth and can-
.' dour must acknowlcd-ge,that the conversion: of
 ,t~e north imparted many temporal benefits both
   to 'the old and the new christians. 'The rage of
   war inherent to the human species, could not
   be' h~aled by the evangelic pr~cepts of charity""
   and peace; and the ambition of catholic princes
   has renewed in every age the calamities of hoS-
  tile contentic;m. But the admission of the bar-
, barians into the,. , . of civil and. ecclesiastical
                                         '.    .:

   kin the year 1000, the' ImbBlildor. of St•. ~tephrn reetivrd (rom
 pope Sylvester tbe title u( king of' Hungary, with a diadt'm o( Gret·k .
 workman.hip. It hid been desigoed (or the dukr of Poland; 'but the
 Polrl, by their own con("I.ioo, were yet too barbarous to' <leaene    ,m
 agelic,d and lIJIO,toli,al crpwlI (Kltona, Hi~t. Critic. Regllm SHrpil
 Arpadiaml!, toOl. i, p. 1.20).
     VOL. X.                         R •

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142                      TUB DECLINE AND FALL
  CHAP. society delivered Europe from the d~predations,
.._~~_ by sea and land, of the Normans, the Hunga.
         rians, and the Russians, who learned to spare
         their brethr.en and cultiva,te their possessions.
         The establishment of law and order was pro-
         moted by the infiuence of the clergy; and the
         rudiments of art and, science were introduced
         into the savage countries of the globe. The
         liberal piety ofthe Russian princes engaged in
         their senice tile most skilful of the (jreeks, to
         decorate the cities and instruct the inhabitants:
         the dome and the paintings of St. Sophia were
         rudely copied in the churches ofKiow and No-
         vogorod : the writings of the fathers were trans-
         lated into the Sclavonic idiom.; and three hun·
         dred noble youths were invited or compelled
         to attend the lessons of the college of J arosl aus.
         It should appear that Russia might have deriv·
         ed ~n early and rapid improvement from her
         peculiar conuection with the chu~ch and state
         of Constantinople, which in that age so justly
        despised the ignorance of the, Latins. But the
         Byzantine nation was servile, solitary, and
       . verging to an hasty decline: after the fall of
         Kiow, the navigation of the Borysthenes was
         forgotten; the great princes ofWolodomir and
         Moscow were separated from the sea' and Chris-
         tendom; and the .divided monarchy was, op-
         I Liltea to the exoltatiOD. of Adam of Bremen CA. D. 1010), of
       which the l.b.tIlllCII il aereuble to troth, Ecce illa feroctuillla J)a..
       DOrum, &e. Datio •••• jamdodum noyit in Dei laodib1l1 Alleluia . . -
       Bare •••••• !tece populol iIle piratieul •••••• lui. UODC finiboa COlI-
       teut., elt. Ecce patria horribilll semper iDaeee... prupter ca....
       idolorum •••••• pnediolatorl!l Yentatil 1Ilrique certatim admittit, Ite.
       Itc. (de Sito nania, &e. p • .&O, 41, edit. ElseYir): a corioa and .....
       linal prospect of the Dortll of Europe, and the iDtndactio. of c....

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                   OF THE ROMAN DlPlRL                                             '~:J
  pressed by the ignominy and blindness of Tar- CHAP.
  tar servitude.- The Sclavonic and Scandina- .,.~~~."
  vian kingdoms, which had been converted by
  the Latin missionaries, were exposed, it is true,
 to the spiritual jurisdiction and temporal claims
  of the popes;a but they were united, in lan-
  guage and religious worship, with each other,
. and with Rome; they imbibed the free and ge-
  nerous spirit of the European republic, and gra-
  dually shared the light of knowledge which
  ar.ose on the western world.
   ".Tbe creat prince. remond in 1156 from Kiow, whichwa. ruined
by the Tartan in IMO. }lOIooW became the .nt of .pire ill, the
lixtenth century. See the frlt and aecond volume. of :J.enlqne'.
 Bi.tory, and Mr. Cosc'. Traull into the N~rth, tom. i, p. 241, ace.
   • The ambulador. of St. Stephen had Died the I'Jnrential ellpl'floo
lionl of rqam obilltllm, dlbilllm obIdielaliGm, te. which wu mqat rigor-
olll1y interpreted by Gregory VII. ; and the Bnngarian catholic. are
diatrealed between the lanetity of the pope aDd. the independence        0'
tlte crOWD (KatOJla, .Bi.t, Critica, tom. i, p. 10·16, tom. ii, p.I04,.., .
IGO,.~                                        .

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t44                        THE DECLINE AND FALL'

                                                               ~    .
                                 . CHAP~ 'LVL .
                                                      .   ~.

        'J'lIe Sa1'acens: :F1~~1~ks, ,u:n.d OreeJ.:&·, in Italy'-:'
            Firstad'IJentut'es rind settlement of tile Not'manS
            -Character andconq1Lests of Robert Guiscard,
            Duke·of Apulia-Deliverance of Sicily by IIis
            lJrotker Roger- Victories of llobert over the
          . emperors of the East an(lWest~Roge1" kif&!(
           .of Sicily, invades Afi'ica and Greece-The em-
            pero1'Manuel Comnenus- Wars qf tile Gt'eeki
            attd Normans-'Eztinction ofthe NormaJIs.·

 Cfv~~' THE three great nations of the world, the
#'~.~• .,.- Greeks, the Saracens, and the Franks, encoun·
CoaSiet of tered each other 00 the tll.eatre of Italy,- The
the Sara.
c~u., La- southern provinces, which now compose the
tla., a a d ,           N 1                '
Greeb, in 'kmgdom of ap es, were subject, for the most
~~.;: 840- part, to the Lombard dukes -and princes of
           • For the lQeral hiltor;, of 1ta1;, ia the !!iath aad teath cl'ntlJrie., I
        may properly refer to the fifth, .ixth, and seventh boob of Sigoniul
        de Re,no Itali. <ia the .econd .,olnme of hi. worb, Milan, 11S!);
        the Aanal. of Baronia., with the Critici.m 9f Pagi; the leventh and
        ei,hth booln of the I.toria Civile del Repo di Napoli of Giannone;
        in  the aeventh and el,hth .,olama (the octavo editiou) ofrhe Ana.1i
        i:Italia of Kantori, aad the lid .,olnme of the Abrege Chronologique
        of M, de St, Marc, a work wbicb, nuder a .nperficial title, contaiDi
        much ceouiae learoinc and;" ,But my lonc-accustomed read-
        er will give me credit for aayinl, that I myaelf have a.cended f8 tbe
        ~aotain.he.d, a often a .uch aceDt conld be eithu "rofitable or;
        po••ible; and tllat I han diligently tumed onr the oriciaala ia tile
        fir.t volame. of Muratori.. creat coUection o( .the Script_ B.-

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 •          OF TH2 ROMAN EHPIRL                                             2.. 5
:Beneventum;~ so powerful in war,        tbat tbey CHAP.
~hecked for a, rooment tbe genius of Charle- ••~~}:...#
magne; so liberal in peace, that they maintain-
~d in their capital an academy of thirty-two
philQ!fQphers an~ grammarians. The division
of 1hiIJ floudshing s~ate . produced the' rival
prillcipalitie.s: of Benevento, Salerno, and Ca-
pua ; and 'the. tho~ghtl~ss ambition or r-:venge
of the .competitors ,inv,ite4 the .Saracens to the
}:uin ·.of. th~ir com~on inheritance. 'During 8:
calamitoJl. p~rlQd of two hundred years, Italy
was expo~ed to 8: repetition of wounds,· which
t;be-.inyaders were not capable of healing by the
u.nion . and tranquillity of a. perfect conquest.
Th~r frequent and almost annual squadrons
issued Jrom the port of Pal~rmo, and were en..
tertained "ith too: much indulgence by' the
eb.ristians of ~aples: the more' formida'l\1f,
~eets' werelprepared on the African coast; and'
even the. Arabs of Andalusia were sometimes.
teiDpte~ to. assist 'or oppose the moslem of an
adverse sect. >In the revolution of human events,.
a new ambuscade was concealed in tbe Cau-,
dine forks, 'the fields of Crumm were'bedewed
a, 8·e~ond. time with .the blood of the Africans,
and tbe, sovereign of Rome again attacked. 'or
defended, the. walls of Capua' and. Tarentum.
A' col.ony.of Saracens had been planted at Ba- .
ri~ which commands the entrance of the Adria-
tic gulf; and their impartial depredatioDspro-
yoked the resentment, and conciliated the union,
   , Camillo Pellegrino, a learned Cllpuan of the lut century, bu il-
lutrated tbe bistory of the duchy of B.,neventunl, in bi, two boob,
Hi.toria Priucipum Longobardorllm, in the Scriptore. of lIarator!,
 tOUI. ii, ,ar•• i, p. 221.&46. and. tom. v, p. 159·246.

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246                             THE DECLINE A'ND FALL
 eRA'P. df the i\V{~ eillpe~o~s.           An offen~i"e a}lianee
  LVI:     was coilclude'd be'tween Basil the Macedonian,
.. ,.""uu the first oeMs rac~, and Lewis; the greal'graild-
           80n CJf Chiuleniagne;t: and'ea:ch p8)'ty s~pplied
           the deftcienees of 'his associate. It lfdUld ))\tve
           l,e~ii iinprudent in 'tli~ Byzat1tirte tudnarc'li to
           tmnspbrt ,his staiidrufry-tt06pt of :ASia 'to an
           ftdliaIi campai~n; ,and ~he lJati~ ~rmt& 'Would
           m/Ye 'beeh itisa16ciebt,. it'lliB supetior navy Lad
           Dot;occtlpied the fuout'it '<if tbe ~u)t. ,The fOr-
           ttbs'lJ of Ban Was i'nvbsled by !tb~in(SDtrt oftbe
           Ft~tft1ts; '''-till' by die <:svah'yand galleys of the
CoDqll~t GH~~s~' tind, after' 8), mten'ce of four yearl,
orBan        b                  \..,.
•• D. 811. te :ktabiafi eMit, suhutitUtd to the, clemency

           .sf. be"'is, ·,tho 'cbmhuUnled in 'penon the op&.
           rtUiotts 'of the siege~ This important conquest
           lIid been 'ILt!lfib'ted bj'1he concord of the East
           sad West';, but,theirreclmt BUlity was soon eni-
           "jIttered by the rDutualcomplaints of jealousy
           dd, 'pride.: 'The Greeks assiimed as their own
           dal1nerit 'of the conqtl~t and, the pomp of the
           triumph ,; e"toUed ;ibe greatness of their 'pow-
           el1Ji'and: affeCted, to, deride the intemperance and
           ilbth the handful ,ofbarbarians who appear...
           ed: un:(Jer the, banners of the Carlovingian
           prince. ; His reply is expressed with the elo-
           quence of'indignation and tr~th,: "We-confets
           ,!,themagDltude~f.youT preparations,".sa.ys the
  ,of Ctrarl~magne. "Your a;-
           " ~ies were indeed as. Jlumerous as a cldo~ of
           "'fl.ummer Jo'custs, who darken tbe day; flap
           " their wings, and, after a short flight, tumble

           <See iCo~8Ianlin. Thematibu8. I. ii, c. xi, iD Vt't.
         Basil. c. 65. p. 181

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                   QI' TO ltOMAN'DlPDU£.                                     t47
 .. weary and breathless to the gr@nd. ~ Like CHAP.
 ee them, ye sunk after a feeble effort; ye were ":~~:...
 ee vanquished by your own cowardice, and with-
 ee drew from the scene of action to ,injure and
 ee despoil our christian subjects of the SClavo-
 "nian coast. We were few in number, and
 " why were we few? because, after a tedious
 " expectation of your arrival, I had dismissed
 " my host, and retained only a chosen band of
 aa warriors to continue the blockade of the city.
 " If they indulged their hospitable feasts in the
 " face of danger and death, did these (eaata
 c, abate the vigour of their enterprise? Is it by
 " your· fasting that the walls of Bari have been
 ae overturned? Did not these valiant Franks,
 c, diminished as they were by langour and fa-
'" tigue, intercepi and vanquish the three most
 " powerful emirs of the Saracens? and did not
 " their defeat precipitate the fan of the city?
 " Bari is now fallen; Tarentum trembles; Ca-
 " labria.will be delivered ; and, if we command
 " the $ea, the island of Sicily may be rescued
 " from the hands of the infidels. My brother.
 " (a name most offensive to the vanity of the
 " Greek), accelerate your naval &uccours, re-
 " spect your allies, and distrust your Batter-
 " ers/"
    These lofty hopes were soon extinguished by New                          "'0-
 the death' of Lewis, and tlie decay of the Car)o-;':Gr~~b'
 vingian house; and whoever might deserve the A. D. 890.
                                                   in Ilaly.

   4 The original ..pi. tie of the rmperor uwil II, to the emperor Ba.
ail, a cllrioul record of the age, wal fint publilhed by Baroniul (An-
nal, Eccles. A. D, 611, N°, 5171), from tlae Vatican MS. of Ercbea-
pert, or rather of the anonymous hi.lolian of Salerno.

                                                          Digitized by   Google
248                          THE Dl;CLINK AND FALL
CHAP.:     hoiiour,,.Greek emperors, Basil~ &l'\d,his ~~n'
,_~,~~:..#.Leo, se,cured the, of the re~uc~ion
           of Bari. The Italians of Apulia and Calabria·
           were persuaded or compelled to' acknowledge
           their supremacy, apd an ideal line from mouat
           Garganus to the bay of Salerno, leaves tile "far·
           (treater part of the kingdolll of Naples, under,
           the dominion ,of the eastern empire.' Beyond.
           that line the dukes or republics of AmaHie and·
          Naples, who had never forfeited, thejr vohin·,
          taiy allegiance, rejoiced in '~he neighbourhood·
          of their lawful :sov~l'eign ; and Amalfi. was en··
          ri.cbed by:supplying Europe with t,he produce·
          and manufactures of Asia, But the.L.QIUpard·
          princes of Benevento,' Salerno~ and Capua' were-
          Feluctantly torn from, the, COmmu))j()n' of 1:b'e'
          Latin world, and too often vi.olated. their oatl15-
          af servH'ude :and tribute', ' The city, of Bari.
          r.o~e to dignity and wealth~ as th~ metro.p~1is, 'Of.
          the new theme 01' pr.ovince; of Lombar<ly.; the
          title of patrician, and aftenyatds . the singu Jar
          name of CatapaR,'.was. assigned to the.supre:lJle
             • ~ee an ul!ellent de Re.,nblica AlDalphitaDl, iD the
          Apptmdix (p. 1·42) Qf HeDry BrenemaD's Hiatoria Pandectarum Tra.·
         jt'cti all 'RheDum, 1122, in 4to;) .      ,                       ."
           . f Your muter, aaya Nicephorlll, hall'liYeD 'aid aDd protecti.n priD-
          eipibus Capllallo et.Benncntano, I('rvi. mel.; quOi c.pugnare dispono
          •••••• No .. a (potias nota) rea est qllod eornm patrc. et Bvi nollro Im-
          perio tributa dedrrunt (LiutprBnd, in 1.rgat. p. '484). Salrmo i. Dot
          mentioned, yet the prince cbanged his party abollt the saml:! time, alld
         Camillo Pdlcgrillo (Script. Rer. Ital. tom. ii, pan. i, p. 28G) blls Dirl:!-
         Iy di.eerned this cbange in the .Iyle of the anonymous cbronicle; On
         the rational grollud of biitory aud !lmguag.., Liutprand (p. 4EO) bad
         alSt-rted tbe Latin claim to Apulia and Calabria.
             e S(,I:! Ihe Greek and Latin Glos~ari"l of Dnrallge (K........'., nztllpa-
         It. .: and hi, notel 011 the Alexi .. (p.216). Against the ronl~mpOI1l­
         ry notion, whil'h derive. it from KaT......., jrn-ia MlIlle, he Irrats it a' a
         eorrovtion of the Latin cqUGIIIIII. Yet M. de St. Marc has lu;curale '

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       .            .   or THE ROHAN EMPIRE.                   .'                         249 .
  governor; and the poltcy both -of the church CHAP•
  an d state' was mo de11' exact su b ord' . "'i.U••,
                         ed m               matlon 1.\'1.                                      #.

  to .the· throne of Constantinople. As long as
  the'sceptre'Wasdisputed by the princes of Italy, .
  their efforts were feeble and adverse; and the
  Greeks resisted or eluded the forces of Germa-
  ny, which descended from the Alps under the'
  imperial standard of the Othos. The first and'
  greatest of those Saxon princes was compelled
  to relinquish the siege of Bari: the second, af-
. ter the loss ofh~s stoutest bishops 'and barons, '
  escaped with honour from the bloody field of
  Crotona. On that' day the scale of war was Defeat of'
  turned agamst th e IFran k s b y the vaI ' of the .A. •• till.
                                         our          Oillo III.

  Saracens.· These corsairs had indeed been
  driven by the Byzantine fleets from the fortres-,
  ses and coas,ts of Italy; but a sense of interest
  ~as tnore prevalent than superstition or resent-
  inent, and the caliph of Egypt had transported
  forty thousand moslems to the aid .of his chris;,.'
   tian ally. The successors' of ~asil amused
   themselves. with the belief, that· the conquest'
   of Lombardy had been achieved, and was still
   preserved, by the justice of their laws, the ·vir·,
  .tues of their mi~isters~ and the gratitude of a,
   people whom the~ had rescued from' anarchy, ..
                                     "    .
 11 ob.erted (Abr. Cbroaolopqae, tom. ii, p. OM), tbat In tbi. a.~
 tbe capitnei .ere not CIIjItllitu, bllt only noblea of tbe fint rank, tbe
 ,reat "InRON of'ltaI,•
    .. 011"._ l .. a.>..,..., ""'lit _,."...      on ......... 1Ift)II)'I on -'"' (tbe
 Lombardi)•• )'J.a ..., .nc''''1'~""-,,,.Nr, ... ,.....,IWl', h ' " " "......., .....,.
 -c .,. "'Me .tw.,,,.,.....
                         'C ...,.....,., h i " ' ",....,... -11\, .....e .... --
 ).IUIf h' ....., aU.. f"c)~-        ,,-,&1;., Tactic.....    _y.   p. Ul).
 Tile little Chronicle of Bl'nenntum (tom. Ii. pan i, p. 280) liY" a far
 dift'oerelll character of the Greeka during tbe five ynrl A. D. SDI.8III),
 that Leo wu muter oftbe cit..

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~!'!60                      THE DECLINE AND .'ALL
  CHAP' and     oppression. A series of rebellions might
 _~~:.. dart a ray of truth into the palace of Constan-
            tinople'; and the illusions of flatter'y were dis-
            pelled by the easy and rapid success of the
            Norman adventurers.
 Aaecdotea     The revolntion of human afl'airs had produced
            in Apulia and Calabria, a melancholy contrast
            between the age of Pythagoras and the tenth
            century of the christian era. At the former
            period" the co~s~ vf fjreat Greece (as it was
            then styled) was plaDted with free and opulent
           cities; thes~ cities we,re people~ wi~h soldiers,
           artists" ~n'd philosophers; and tqe military
           strength of Tarentum, Sybaris, Qr, Croton&., was
           not inferior to that of a powerful ldngdom. At
           the second era, these o,nc~flourishipg provinces
           were clouded with igQorance, impoverished by
           tyranny, and depopulQ.ted 'by barbarian war;
           nor can we severely accu~e th~ exagg~ration
           of a contemporary, that a fair and ample dis-
           trict WaS reduced to the saJJJe de~olation which
           had covered the ear~h after th~ gelJeral deluge.-
           Among the h()stilities of the t\rabs, tbe Frank',
           and the Gre~k$, in the sf)uthern Italy, I shall
           .elect two or three anecdotes expressive oftheir
A. •• 871~ DQ.~ioBal man~ers.    I. It w..s the amusement of
           the Saracens to profane, as well as to pillage,
           the monasteries .andcburcbes. At the siege of
           Salerno, a musulman chief spread his couch
           on the communion-table, and on that alt~I: §a-
           • Calabriam ,deant, inter Ie 4i yiaam reperientea fuodii.1
         depop.lati lunt (or d~pularunt). it, .ut.I,IeI"rta lit,velut in diluvio.-
         Sneh i. tl)e lut of Herempert. or ~\lChe~pert, !lccording to the ~o,
         editions of Caraecioli (Rer. Ital. Script. tom. ",.p. 2S) BIId eamiUo
         Pellt'ltrillo (10111. ii, pars i, p. 246)' Both were extremel, .cuee,
         wbell tht'y were I't'printed hy Muratori.

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                     or   THE aOMAN ~MFlJl:r..                                   261
  erifieed ~Qch ll'ight the, virginit)' of a christian CHAP.
  nun. As he wrestled with a reluctant ,maid, a .#:~~:                            ..
  beam ill the roof was accidentally or dexterous-
  ly thrown d ()wn on his head; a~d the death of
  the lustful emir was impu:ted to the wrath of
  Christ, which was at length awakened to .tbe
  defence of his faithful spouse.1t II. The Sara- 4 ••• 8'1'4-
  cens besieged the cities ofBeneventllm ,and Ca-
  pua: after a vain appeal to the successors of
  Charlemagne, the Lombatds implored tbe cle-
  mency and aid of the Greek em'peror} AJear-
  less citizen dropt from the walls, \ passed the
 entrenchments, accomplished his cpmmission,
 and fell into the hands of the ba'rbarians, as he
 was returning with the welcome hews. They
  commanded him to assist their 81'1terpri8e, and
'deceive his countrymen" with the, assurance
 that wealth and honour. shb'Uld be the reward
  of bis falsehood, and that his sincerity would
 be punished with immediate death. He.affect-
 ed to yield" but as soon as ht' Was conducted
 within hearing of the christiahs on the rampart,
 ,~ Friends a.nd brethren," be cried with a. loud
voice, "be bold and patient, maintain the city;
" your sovereign is infQrmed. of your distress,
" and your deliverers are at 'band. I know my

i kBU'ODial(Annal.Eeele•• A. D.8'Tt, r. I), Ja.. tlraWD tIda .torl
from' a MS. of Erehelllpert, who diecl at Cap.a oaly6t'teeD yean after
die ennt. Bllt the carciiDal   wa.tleceiyecl by a (alae title,·uul ..e Cia
only qnote the anoDymOnt Chroalc1e 0' Sa~r1IO (ParalipemeDa, Co
110), compoaed toward. the end of the tenth cenhlry, and pubJiJlleti
iii tbe leconcl nlnme of Maratori'. Collection. lee the Di.aertation.
of Camillo PeJJecriDo, tom. ii, pan i, 21l.1I81, Icc.
   1 'CoDstantine Porphyrogeuita. (iD Vito Buil. e. 68, p. 181) is the
origiaalllutbor of tbit Itory. He place. it under the reilDa of Balil
aDd Lewis II. ; yet the reduction of BeDenntuJII by the Gre!:Ju it
dated A. D. 801, after the: deceueofboth ofthou princa.

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2t'l1·                       THE DECLtNEAND }'AW
 CHAP. ." doom; and com·mit my wife and. children to
_ ..~~~;.... " your gratitude." The rage of the Arabs con-
              firmed his evidence; .and the self·devoted pa-
              irioi was transpierced with an hundred ,spears.
              He deserves to live in the DJe{llory of the virtu-
              ous, but the repetition of the same· story ,in an-,
            . cient and. modern times, may sprin:kle some
              doubts on the reality of this generous deed.m -
4.~. 9So. III. The r~cital.of the third incident may pro-
              voke a smile. amidst the horrors of war. Theo-
              bald,inarquis of CalD~rino and SpoJeto,' sup-
              ported the:r~bels of BeneventulD ; and his'wan-
              ton cruelty was I)ot incompati~le in that agf!
              with t\le character of an hero. His, :captives.
              of. the Greek nation or party were castrate«J..
              without mercy, aod the outrage wasaggravat~
              ed by a cruel jest, that he wished to present
              the emperor with a supply of eunuchs, th~ most
              precious orn~n)ents of the Byzantine court.-
              Thegarriso~'of a castle' had. been'defeated in
              a sally, and the 'Prjsoners were :senteDc~d to
              the customary operation. But. the sacrifice
              was disturbed by the intrusion of a. frantic fe-
             .. In tbe year &6S, tbe .ame tragedy i. described by Paul the Dra.
          con (de Gelti. Lan(Cobard. I. Y, c. 1, 8, p.8'1'O, 871, edit. Grot.) DDdt.r
          t\le wan. of the 'am, cit, of BueHntulD. ~ut the actor. are di4re-
          rent, aud the gailt i. imputed to the Greeks themlfhei, which in the
          Byzantine edition if applied to the SaracenI. In the late war in Ger.
          many, H. d'A ...., .. Freach officer of·the i't!giIDtnt of Au,ergut', u
          aaid to 'hllye duoled himself In a .imilar manner. His behaviour II
         tbe more heroic, III mllre ,i1enee was required by the rnemy who ball
          made llim pri.lloer (Voltaire, Sieele de Loui. XV, e. as, tom. is, p.
             • Theobald, who i•• tyled Heros by Liiltprand, wa. properly dnke
         of Spoleto and marqui. of Camerino, frolrl the y('ar 926 to 916. The
         title and office of marquis (coDlmander'of tbe mucb or frontifl') Will
         introduced into Italy by tbe Frencb emperor. (Abrrgf Cbronologi'lue.
         tom. ii, p. 646-712, ~e.

                                                            Digitized by   Google
              OF THE IlOMANEMPIRl!!.                           2~3
  male, who, with bleeding cbeeks; dishevelled eHA}',
  hair, and importunate clamours, compelJed the L\'I.
  marquis to listen' to her complaint. U Is it ..........
  thus," she cr~ed, "ye magnanimous heroes, that
  " ye wa'ge wa~ against women, against women
  " who have never injured ye, and whose only
  " arms are the distaff and the loom ?" Theo'-
  bald denied the charge, and protested, that,
 since the' Amazons, he had never heard of a {~
 Inale war. "And how," she {urious,ly exclaim~
 ed, " can you attack us more direCtly, h9W c!ln                     .
  "'you wound us in a more vital part, than by
  '~'robbing our husbands of what we inost dear-
  " Iy' cberish, the source of our joys, and the
." hope' o{ our posterity? The plunder'of our'
   , flocks and herds I have endured without a.
 '., 'murmur, but this fatal injury, this irrepara-
  " ble loss, subdues my patience, and calls a-
  u loud on tne justice of heaven and earth."    A
  general laugh applauded her eloquence; the
  savage Franks, inaccessible to pity, were mqv-
  ed by her ridiculous, yet rational despair; and
  with the deliverance of the captives, she ob-
  tained the restitution of her effects.' As sbe
  returned in triumph to the castle, she was ovei'-
  taken by a messenger, to inquire, in the name
  of Theobald, what punishment shruJd be in- .
  :flicted on her husband, were be again taken in
  arms? " Should sucb," she answered without
  hesitation, " be his gUilt and misfortune, tit!
   " has eyes, and a nose, and hands, and feet.
  " These are his own, and these he may deserve
   " to forfeit by his personal offences. But let
   .. my lord be pleased to spare what, his little

                                       Digitized by   Google
254                        'rHE DECLlN,Jt AND PALL
         U      handmaid presumes to claim as her peculiar
..~ ....: •• " and lawful property."·
Origin of       The establishment. of the Normans in the
::!i!' kingdoms of Naples and Sicily,P is an event
IIaIY'lOl_ most romantic in its origin, and in its conse-
A.D.      u.                •
             quences most Important both to Italy and the
             t:astern empire. T~e broken provinces of the
             Greeks, Lombards, and Saracens, were expos--
             ed to every invader, and ev.ery sea and land
             were invaded by .the adven~urous spirit of the
             Scandinavian pirates. After a long indulgence
             of rapine and slaughter, a fair and amp1e terri-
             tory was accepted, -occupied, and named, by
             the Normans of Fra,nce; thE!y renounced their
             gods for the god of the christians;'I and the
             dukes of Normandy acknowledged themselves,
             the yassals of the successors of Charlemagnl
             and Capet. The savage fierceness which they
             had brought from the snowy mountains of N~r­
             way, was refined, without being corr~pted, in
           • Liatprand, Hist. I. i'l', C. i'l', in the RerulD ltalic. Scrip~ tom. i,
         pan i, p. 453, 4Sf, Shoald the> UCl'ptiou'Dell of the tale be qaeltioa-
         ed, I may exelaim "ilb· poor SterBa, that it il bar. if I may pot· tna-
         ~cribe wjlh cautioD~ what a biibop could write withoat aeraple I Wh.t
         if I had trlln.lated, ut 'l'irul certeti. testicnloa amputare, in lIoiba. _
         tri corpori. refocillalio, ""c. i
            P The original ..onomeDta ofthe Nermanl in Italy are collected in
         the fifth 'I'Olume of Mllfttori, and .mong thele we may di.tinguillt the
         poem flf William AIwlol (p. 24j1·~8) aBd the hil~ory of GalfridUl
          (oI~tly) Malaterra (p. 617.601). Both were Batin. of Franc", but
         they wrote on the Ipot, In the age of the lint Clonqaeron (before A. D.
         1100), and with th" .pirlt of (r,eDleD. It ia Beedley to reeapitalate
         Ule compilera ..nd eritiea of Italian hiatol'J, SiconiUJ, Baroalul, Pari,
          Giannone, Muratori, 't. Marc. &c. whom I bave alway. conanlteci,
         alld n~nr copitd.             .
            • Some of tbe firat cODnrta were baptind ten or tweln timel, for
         lbe .ake of the wbite priDent usually ginn at thil ceremony. At tile
         "neral of RoUo, tbe rift, to .. onaateriel for the repole of bit 1081,
          were accompaaied .by a lacrilil:e ot: one bundred captin.. But in a
         ,"eration or two, the national r.han" was pure and ,eneraL

                                                           Digitized by   Google
                    OF THl1! KOMAN BMPIRE.                                     256
 a warmer climate; the companions of Rolla CHAP
 insensibly mingl~d with the natives; they im- ._~~.~'. "
 bibed the manners, language,r and gallantry, of
 the French nation; and, ip. a DJartial age, the
 Normans might claim the palm Qf'valour and
glorious .~chievements. Ofthe fa~hionable su-
perstitions, they embraced with ardour the pil.
grimages of Rome, Italy, and the Holy land.
In this active devotion, th~ir ·minds and ·bodies
were invigorated by exercise: danger was the
incentive, novelty the recompence; and the
prospect of the world was decorated by won-
der, credulity, and ambitious hope. They con·
federated for their mutual defence; and the
robbers of the Alps who had been allured by
the garb of a pilgrim, were often chastised by
the arm of a warrior. In one of these pious
visits to the cavern of mount Garganus in Apu-
lia, which had been sanctified by the apparition
of the archangel Michael,· they were accosted
by a straDger in the Greek habit, but who soon
revealed himself as a rebel, a fugitive, and a
mortal foe of the Greek empire. His name was
  r The Danish language was Ilillspoken by tbe Norman. of Bayeux
OD the lea coaat, Pot a time (A. D. 940) when it wal already forgotte.
at Rouen, in the court and capital. Quem (Richard I.) confeltim pa.
ter Baioea. mitenl Botoni miiitilP. IUIII prineipi Dutrieudum tradidit,
ut ubi lilfB'lUJ eruditul Danica Inil (,xterisque hominibul leiret aperle
dare relpODla (Wilhelm. Geml'ticenl. de Ducibul Normannis, L ill,
c. 8, p. 621, edit. Camden).' Of the ~erDacular aDd favourite idiom
of Williaoi the Conqueror lAo D. 1031i) Selden (Opera, tom. ii, p.
16(()"1656) hal ginn a ~peoilll'fn. oblol"te and ohacure eveD to anti.
quarians and lawyerl.
  I See Lt'ftndro Alberti (Deleriziope d'Italia, p. 21i0) and Baronin.

(A. D. 49S, N°. (3). J(tbe arcbangt'l iBherited tile temple andoraele,
perkapl the eanrn, of old Calcbu tbt: loothsayer (Strah. Geograpb. I.
h, p. (Iii, (311), the catholic., cn thi. oceaaion, have lurpalled tbe
Greek. iD the elepDIIe of their 'Iupentitlon.

                                                           Digitized by   Google
25~                  THE DECLINE AND .FALL
 (~HAP.    Melo; a noble citizen of Bari, who, after an
... ~~:_. unsuccessful revolt, was compelled to seek ne.
          allies arid avengers of his country. The bold
          appearance of the:Normans revived his hopes
          and solicited his confidence: they Jjstened to
          the complaints, and still more to the promises,·
          of the patriot. The 'assurance of wealth de-
          monstratecl the justice of his cause; and they
          viewed, as the inheritance of the brave, the
          frUItful land which was oppressed by effemi-
          nate tyrants. On their return to Norman~y"
          they kindled a spark of enterprise: and a smal,l
          but intrepid band was freely associated (or the
          deliverance of Apulia. They passed the Alps
          hy separate toads, and in the disguise of pil-
          grims; but in the neighbourhood of Rome the,
          were saluted by the chiefofBari, who supplied
          the more indigent with' arms and horses, and
        , instantly led them to the field of action. In
          the first conflict, their valour prevailed; but in
          the second engagement they were overwhelmed
          by the numbers and military engines of the
          Greeks, and indignantly retreated with their
          faces to the enemy. The unfortunate Melo end-
          ed his life, a suppliant at the court of Gel' many:
          his Norman followers, excluded (rom theil' na-
          tive and their promised land, wandered among
          the hillA and valleys of Italy, and earned their
         "daily subsistence by the sword. To that (or-
          midable sword, the princes of Capua, Beneven-
          tUlD, Salerno, and Naples, alternately appeal.
         ed in their domestic quarrels; the superior
          spirit and discipline of the Normans gave vic-
          tory to the side which they ~spoused; and

                                         Digitized by   Google
;their cautious policy cbsC'rved the balance of C:HAo.P.
power, i elit tile'prepon derance ot any nval s t a t e ~ .., ..\i
                                     '"      ..             ... u".,
should render their aid less important and their
service jess profitable. Their first asylum was
,3. strong camp in the Jepth of the marshes of
 Campania; but' they were soon endowed by
the iiberality of the duke of Naples with a
 more plentiful aud permanent seat. Eight miJes FODnd.a-
         . "d                                     C Anna,
 trom hIS reSl. ene£', as a b'u I wafK agalOlSta- 1100 or
 ~                                                 1       . •

 PUCI., the town of Aversa was built a.nd fortified A • • • HjJfj
 fer their use; and they enjoyed as their owns
 the, corn and fruits, the meadows and
 groves, of that fertile district. The report 'of
  their success attracted every year new swarms
  of pilgrims and soldierl!l· the poor''tvcre urged
 ,by - :uccessity; the rich were excited by hope;
  and the brave and ,active spirits of Normandy
 ,were impatient of e~se and ambitious 6frenO\fn.
   The independent standard of Aversa aftorded
   shelter and encouragement to the' outlaws of
   the province? to every fugitive who had escap-
  ,cd fr~m theinj.ustice or ~ustice of his ~uperior8.;
   IlDd these foreIgn aS8ocmt4::S \Y'cre q ulckJy as£n-
  ,iniiated in manners and lal)guage to the Gallic
 'colony. The first leader of the Normans 'was
  ,count Rainnlf; and, in the origin of society,
   pre-eminence of rank is the reward and the
   ,proof of superior merit.'
       S?,e th", liz"t b??olt uf William ApuID'. Hil wordl !IN ~pplif'aMe
  ~   ;E'ery .wai'll' of barbarian. aDd ffll!ebooten
              Si vfciDofum quia pen1itie411;fr; ~d ill!).
              Coofllciebat, eum gsat!lotet Il,adpieba??t;
              Moriblli et li?lg",1t 41ZlosCililqllil \'?'olfil ,£deblint
              [nf",rmailt psol,ri$;; I'illli "mdaiur Ui IIDa.


                                                                 [   :)1   ~e   b' "   n "   ,~ 11
Ili8                      THE DECLINE AND PALL
 CHAP.        Since tlie' conquest of Sicily' by the AraLl,
,_";,.,, t h'; . 'emperors h-I.1 beep anXIO bS to· r~
   LVI.       e ureclan               i V,

The Nor- gain that valuable possession; hut their efforts.
~a:kii;:e however strenuous, had been opposed by the
•• D.I018. distance and the sea. Their' crist,ly aPm~eBt.,
           after a gleam ofsnccess, .I).dded new 'pages of
           calamity and disgrace io t;h:e B,z8lJtineaooals:
           twenty thousand of their'~st t'oops were lost
           in a single 'expedition ; and tM vi:Ctorious Mo.
           lems derided' ihe policy, of a' n'ation, which en.·
           trusted euuuchs not' only with' th~ custody of
           their women, .but with the'· command of their
           men.-' After'a reign        oftwo
                                           hundred' years, the
          Saracens' -.rere ruined by thei~ divisiol1s. The           JI

           emir 'disclaimed .tlie :author-ity of the' king' of
          Tunis; the people: ros&, against, the emir; the
           cities were usurped by..theoh'ief&; each· mean-
          er rebefwasind.epend-ent in his village'or cas-
          tle; and tlie Weaker of· the two rival brothers
          implored the friendship of· the christians. In
          -every 8~rviceof ~auger' t~e ~~rn;i~ils, were
          prompt and· useful; and, five h~ndted lnfiK"",
          -or warriors on horseback,' were enrolled by
           Arduin, the ag«:nt and interpreter of the Greeks,
          under the standard of ·M.amaces, .governor of
          LOlilbardy. 'Be(ore:their Jauding, the brotben
          were reconciled; tile union of Sicily and Afri·
           ca was re.stored; and' the island was guarded

       Aud eIuwherr, of Ihe naUnHuDturen or NormaDdy: I
                 Pan pal'al, elticulB nI opelederant quia ~1U1I1B ;
                 PaFl, qllia de inacuis.ljora subire TOlebaDt.
           • Liutprand Mptioue, p . . . Plgi h... iIIultraled this enid
       (I'om tbe 1\1S. bistory of lb. deaeoa Leo (tOlD, iv, A. D.961, N".I'.
         a See the Arabiau Chrouicle   of Sicily. ,patl Murateri Script. . .
       rut Itll. tom. i, p. liS:

                                                 Digitized by   Google
                          OF THE ROMAN EMPJltI.                                        '.2GO
      to the water's edge. The NOI'manllled'.tlHi van, CRD.•
      and'the Arabs of Messina fel t the· val~r. of an ~#!;,,!!;._
     untried foe. In a second' action, the. ~i~ of
     Sy~acu~e wafJ unhorsed and tr"D9piedCed,by
     the iron arm of William' of Itau~il-N. :, ~la'
     third engagement, his .iDitr~id cbmpamonsc                              m..
     comfited' the host of slxtt fholt~a:rld'i SilDraceDIi, -
     and lefi tl~~ Gte~k8 no' iDOr& th~ ih~ lDaft of
     the pursuit: 8: splendid n~,tort ~ 'but .of;~ ,. hroll
     the pen. of tile. historian may dilfi'de the merit
    witli the lance of,the Ni&maana. It is, haw;.
    ever:, true, thatthe1esseiitiaU~promotedt1resacj.
    ces~ ofManiacea, "ho :r.dneedi tliirAlee~ C~tie8;
    aQ,d ·the gi'eat~t;pafit« Sicily) utuler Ole obe..
    di't~n'ce of,~'empeto...::ButJbiSl militu, fame
    was'sufl'ie<f,- by iogtMi\ludeliJild tyranny. III
    the divi.~lo:n of ~1!ispoi"fhe de~~s ofhia bra~.e
    auxjfiari~$' ..ete· Idrgott~n' :andi . neither: th~il'
    a~a,lice}'for' .t~eir ptid~ ~ douM' brook this- injU'-
    rioUf~ tr'~atme'nt      Tlfey cODiplained; by' the
    mouth ofthejr interpreter·: tbeiT complaint",a.
    di:s~ega~cr~d; theit:' illt~pref~r W~B. sco.urged :
    tli,e' suffefln'gs were'M3;' the! lriMllt: and Jlesen~
    nitmt belonged'fo iAoge:Whose seUtimenU he :had
    Jl~~J.ered.: Yet th~y dissembled till they had
    ~blined~ oI\8tolell',8t8af~~a:ge to tbe Ita~ia~
    continent :tlieir brethren' of. A::versa sympa~
    thized in their indignatjQP,altd the province of
    Apuliawas"inva:d'ed' a~' the foJ!feit. of the debt.'
     Above' twenty. y~ar$ afier tlie 'first emigration,
.      , Jeffery Millaterr•• who ftlatea tlJe.Sicili-. .,.r.·llld:lht: cODqllelt
     ., ApDlia (I. i, c. ,,,8; fI, 10). 'fbe ...... ~ .... ~d by Ce-
     dreDul (tm...·'il,:p. 'U"U;"'t''1IiO) ,...... z..tal. (t9JlllJ. ii,. p. IS'.
    ; ftI); .nd.the Greekl art: 10 hardened to diJpace. that their narn-
     tina are impartial enol,b.,                             .

                                                                     Digitized by   Google
·~oo                          ' 0 DEcLlNB AND FALL

   'eRAI'. ,the Norinans took the field with no more than
....~~~:- seven hundred horse and five hundred foot;
'l'Ileir co.... and' after the recall of the Byzantine legions·
l~~f from the Sicilian war, their numbers are, mag-
~O:;.lNO nified to the amount of threes~ore ~ thousand
                men. Their herald proposed the option, of
               battle or retreat: "of battle," was the unani-
              'mons cry of the Normans ; and' one of their
               stoutest warriors, with a stroke of his fist~ fel-
               led to the ground the horse of the Greek 'mes-
               senger. He wa,s dismissed with a fresh horse;
               the insult was conceal.,d from the imperial
               troops; but in two succ~sire, battles they were
               more fatally instructed of the prowess of their
               adversaries. In the plaiDS of Cannm, the Asia-
               tics fled before the adventurers of France; the
               duke of Lombardy was made prisoner; the
         , Apulians acquiesced in a new dominion; and
               the four places of' Bari, Otranto, Brundusium,
              and Tarentum, were alone saved in the ship-
              wreck of the Grecian fortunes. From this era
              :we may. date the establishment of the Norman
              power, which soon eclipsed the infant colony
              of Aversa. Twelve counts· were' chosen by
           s CC!drenaa lpeeifiel the ".ff'& of tbe Ob1llqlliem (Pllrnia), and the
       "'fOr of the Thraeeaiul (Lydia; couult Con.tUtine de Tbematilnll,
         i, .,4, with Delille'. map); and after.arda namel the Pilidiua and
       , LyeaGniaul with the Cederati.
                  • Omnca conyeniont; et bit tell: nobiliorca,
                    QOOl.,eDa. et,gr.8l'itu mona decorabat et .tu.
                    Ele,.re dacca. 'Provectil ad comitatum
                    HII alii parent. Comitataa nomen bonoria
                    Quo dODalltur erat. Hi totu undique terra
                    Diyiaere libi, ni lora iilimica repu,net »
                    SiDpla proPOUIIDt Ioea q•• eoatiD,ere Corte'
                    Cape duel dC!bent, et tribata IOllllor~'"
       ,   ....

                                                        Digitized by   Google
                  OF THE ROMAN' 2M'lll..
 the                        ;. end           end          CHee.
were the motives of their choice. The tributes' LVI.
of their               distrids eeere ehprf}driated
their use; and each couot erected a fortress in'
 th'f         of his lend},          at     head
vafS}als~ In the centre of the province, the'
common hahitation of Melphi fSeeS                    8}
the meh'f}polifS          cit},del d tis" repnblie' aerr'
house and separate quarter was allotted to each
of                  c"ent} and the natif}nal eon~ .
cerns were regulated by this military senate.-
The fir}t of         p"ffrs,       hre},dent }md       .
r~l. was entitled coun~~ ~ pulia; and this dig- .
Dlt" wafS                011 eeIlhfSm ,he §"~on
wh~, in =the language o~i th~=age" i~st;ied a lion
in h"dtle, a Ji,mb in                      an. aOh"} •
coe"ciP The mn§"mers of his countrymen are
fairly delineated         a contemporary and nation-         .
al b.i8tsf::sian~c "'hhe NOfSman}," snvs Mala~ §"fha~,,*er
terra, "are a cunning and reveJlgefJli people ; ::~ nor-
"h,fqu"nce nnd his}imubftion                        bn'
" their hereditary qualities: they can stoop to

 And after, 'peakin, of Melpbi, :William !pulu, _ddt
           Pr" "ume,,, eom14,m b", ,,~x .I"fs;tre ",fS"CU.
            A'que domu. comiE:lml jf"w.idem ,,,brictfS,,,r iD fS,be:
 Leo (I. ii. c. Cl7) enumerate. the dhilion. of the ApaliUl ci.
"iea. ,,}ich i. nefS}lS'1i tfi B!€'peafS
   , Gulielm. Apulu.,I. ii, c. 12, according to the reference of Gw..
Don!€' (latoriB CjyilS' di NaI,oli, tom. ii, 11), which I CUlDOt nrif'y
gD I}if "ri,hlS'£. Thif ApWl!€'B pra',ifl infSifl'd hi, ,¥¥Ii" rim, £.,,,1riI§
aimi. aDd rillid4 vir'",; Uld dec!area that, had he lind, DO poet coilld
haY, 'fSnalll'fS hi, mif,it. (TI. p.           I. ji,    26fS). H!€' mu £.,,,aileiil
by tEle Norma"I, q,lEppe            laDtE ,lfinlil±A llirum (..,. TI.illlate,~, I. i,
c. 12, p. 1552), tam armil .lrenuUl, tam.ibl munifieum. aft'abiJem,
,ige¥ll,llm, llTI£,rilia babs.A·s. diftj,ls.but.
   < The gcnl ututi.lima, iujuriarum ultrix •••... adulari Bclnl ••••
llloq.m¥tii. fAA¥fini!'AE¥, o(Malaterra (I. i, r.', 660), are upreaaive
of tEs!' pAopuE!,A" aad TI.,ou,£.l!'1 CbEs~AEEster g£. ~he TI.iAErmUl" .

262                         TIfI£ ~CLIn AND FALL
  CHAP: "~tte:r; but unless they are curbed by the re-
• _."o"u "' $ t raID t 0 f Iaw, t h ' d' uIge t h e I'
   LVI.            .              ey J(~                  .
 ,         , '~ nesjI of n.atllF,e a,ld passion. Their princes
              "affect tl},epraise of popul~r munificence; the
             ", people observe the medium, or rather blend
             II      extremes, of ava,ri~e apd prodigality;
             ", ~n4, i~ their ~, thjrst of wealth and domi-
             " nion, they despise whatever they posse~s, and
             ":hope whatever they desire. ,Arms and horses,
             u the luxury ofdres8, the exercis~s of hunting
             ". a~d h~wking" are tl~e delight of the Nor-
             ", m8:ns; but on pressillg occasions they can
             "" end!)re with iQctedi~le patience the inc1e-
             " ~ency of ~'f!l'y ~nniAt~ ~nd the toil and ah-
             "stin~Dc~ of il- n)i1i~~r". ~lfe.'"
~!:~~          ! The NormaJl~ of Ap4lia ""ere seated pn the

Apulia,      verge of ~lle two eIDpir~!!!; and, a~coi'ding to
10!6,Doire. the policy of the hpurt they accepted the inves-
            titure of tp~ir lands froin the sovereigns of Ger-
            many 01' COQ!.'tantipC1>ple. But the firrri~st title
            of ~hese advt;JltUl'crl!! W~~ the right of conquest;
            t~,y nej~h~r love"q nQ\, trp,sted; th~y wer~ I}ei-
            thel' trusted nor beloved; the contempt of the
            princes was JlQi~eq with f~ri, ~nd th~ fear of
            the natives was' mingledwiih hatred aod re-
            se~'ln~D.t. Every obje(:t, pf ~~sire~..~ horse, a
            woman, a ~arden, tempted and gratified the ra-
            Pacip1! of the st... ~ngers;' and the avarice
          • The hUllUy and     hawkillg m9re propl'!r!1 bl'loDg to tlie d"cntd"""
        .r ~e liiC1J;W"jan ~ailon:    thollgh t~e, might import (rom Norway and
        Ieel~d t\le fill ••t eu.. of faleo•••
          • We ~ay e,mpare thia portrait with that of William of Malmabur.,
        (de Gelti. Aaglorum, I. Iii, p. 101, 10i?. who ali"Prf'ciatl's, like a PDI-
        lOlophie hiltori~~ ~e °yic;~a and "irtues of the Saxona and Norman••
        Englud wal .I.ur~dly a ~Der by the eouqul'.t.
          , The biograph~r_ofSt. Ll'o IX, poun his holy ullom on tbe No...
                                              o                             ,maD.-

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              o~ TIlE ROMANI.:UU:um.                263
of their ~hief8 was only coloured' by the more CHAP.
speCIous names 0 f am b' . an d gory. Th e _,." .....
      .                   ltIon                    LVI.

twelve counts were sometimes joined in aleaglle
of injustice: in their domestic quarrelM they
disputed the spoils of the people: the virtues
of William were buried in his grave; and Dro-
go, his brother and successor, was better qua-
lI6.ed to lead the valour. than to restrain the
violence, of his peers. Under the reign of Con-
.tantine MonomachulJ, the policy, rather than
benevolence, of the Byzantine court, attempt~
ed to relieve Italy from this adherent mischief, .
more griev,ous than a Bight of barbarians ;' and'
Argyrul, the s~n of Melo, was in-vested .r~r thi~
pu~po~e with the most lofty titles' and the ~ost
ample commission. The memory of his father
might recommend him to the Normans; and
he had already, engaged their voluntary service
to quell the revolt of Maniaces, and to avenge
t.heir own and the public injury. It was the
design of Constantine to transplant this' war-
like colony from the .Italian provinces to the
~aD",   Vid~DI    Indilciplinatam et alienam gentem Normanorllm, crn-
~l   et illauditl  tabi~,. et plnlquam PaganA impietate, .adnn6a eecle-
aiu Dei inlurgere, pulim chriltianol trucidere, Ikc. (Wibert. c. 6).
Tbe bonelt Apnlian (I. ii, p. 2(2) .ay. calmly of their accuaer, Veril
comDllaeeu. fallacla:•
  .- 'nIe I¥\licy of the Greekl, ieyo1t of Maniace., &tc. mlllt be coll"ct-
ed (rom Cedrenn. (tom. ii, p. 151,1(8); William Apulul l1. i, p. 261,
258, t. ii, p. !(9) ; and the two Cbroniele. of Bari, by Lnpul Protolpa-
ta (MDratori, Script.ltal, tom. 'r, p, 42,41, ")j and an uonymoul
writer (Antiqoitat. Itali. medii .£"i, tom. i, p. 11-15). Thilla.t II a
fragmeut of .ome ..lue•
   .. ArBYrul receind, layl the anonymoul Chronicle of Bari, imperial
lett(,rI, FlI!derat6a et Patrldatus, et Catapani et Veltatil.. la hi'
 Anuala, Moratori (tom. "iii, p. 426) nry properly readl, orinterpreU,
 S«,IIutv" the title of Sebaltol or Augultna. Bat In hi. Antlquitirl,
he wu taulht by Ducanp to make it a palatine alice, mutu of the

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26.&                         THE DECLln: AND PALL
 CH'P,      PersIan war; and the son of Melo distributed
 ._#~;'~:._ among the chiefs the gold aud manufactures of
            Grt!ece, as the first fruits of the'imperia] boun-
            ty. But his arts were baffled by the sense and
            spirit of the conquerors of Apulia: his gifts, or
            at least his proposals, were rejected; and they
            unanimously refused to relinquish their pos-
            sessions and their hopes fortbe distant prospect
League 0'   of Asiatic fortune. After-the means of persua-
tile pope
and tbe     Slon h ad r. '}.,.1 A rgyrus reso Ived to compeI or
                       lal "'-I,
two em- t 0 d estroy: t h e. L atm powers were so]' 'ed
pire.,                              ' .                  ICIt
~'':c~o.&9. against the common en~~y; and an offensive
            alliance wall! formed of, the pope and the two
            emperors of the East and West. The throne
            of St. Peter was occupied by Leo. the ninth, a
            simple saint,! of a temper most apt to deceive
            bimseU and the world. and whose venerable
            character would consecrate with the name of
            piety the measures least compatible with.. the
            practice of religion. His humanity was affect.
            ed by the complaints, perhaps the calumnies,
            of an inj ured people; the impious Normans had
            interrupted the payment of tythes; and the
            tenlporal sword might be lawfully unsheathed
            against the sacrilegious robbers, who were deaf
            to the censures of the church. As a German
            of noble birth and royal kindred, Leo had free
            access to the court and confidence of the em-
            peror Henry the third; and in search of armB
           .and allies, his ardent zeal transported him (rom
            ~ . I A life of St, Leo IX. deeply tinged with the pu.ions and ,I'f'ja,
            dice. of the age, ha. beencompoled by Wibert, printf'd atParil,161',
            in oetavo, and .ince inlerted in the Collections of tbe Doiandi.t., or
            Mabillon, and of Muralori. The public and pl'inte Iliatory of that
            pope is diligently treated by M. de St. Marc (Abrtg~, tom. ii, p. 14t-
            210, and p 25.96, uc:ond column)

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                    OF THR ROMAN BMPIRL                                          266 '
 Apulia to Saxony, from the Elbe to the Tiber. CHAP.
 D urlOg th eae h ostl'I e preparatIOns, A rgyrus 10- •••LVI.•••.
                                    .             .      ,._
 dulged himselfin the use of secret and guilty
weapons: a crowd of'Normans became the vic-
tims of public or private revenge; and the' va-£.•. 1011.
liant Drogo was murdered in a church. But
bis spirit survived in his brother Humphrey,
the third'count of-Apulia. The assassins'were
chastised; and the son of Melo, overthrown
and wounded, was driven from the field to hide,
his shame behind the walls of Bari,· and to
await the tardy succour of his allies.
   But the power of Constantine was distract-Ellped'" '
ed by a Turkish war; the mind ~f Henry ·was ::De°f.e.
feeble and irresolute; and the pope, instead oft,!-;ro;~t
repassing the Alps with a German army, wal lD....,
accompanied only by a guard of seven hundred 4 ••• 101"
Swabians and some volunteers of Lorraine.-
In his long progress from Mantua to Beneven-
tum, a vile and promiscuous multitude of Ita-
lians was enlisted under the holy standard :k
the priest arid the robber slept in the same tent;
the pikes and crosses were intermingled in the
froid; and the martial saint repeated the les-
sons.of his youth in the order of march, of
encampment, and of combat. The Normans of
Apulia could muster in the field no more than
three thousand horse, with an handful of in-
fantry: the defection of the natives intercepted
their provisions and retreat; and their spirit,
incapable of fear. was chilled for a moment
  .. a~e the npeditloD of Leo IX, ·apiD.t the NorlDaDI. lee Wil-
liam Appal•• (l. ii, p. 269-Hl), aDd Jfffr~y )falat~rra (I. i. c. II, 14. '
15, p. 25S), They are impartial, u the DatioDai ia cODDterllaJ...ced b~
the clerio&1 pr~jlldice. •.

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266                         THE DECLINE AND FALL
 CHAP.       by superstitious awe. On the hostile approach
 _ ..~~~:,. of Leo, they knelt without disgrace or reluc-
             tance before their spiritual father. But the
            pope was inexorable; his lofty Germans affect-
            ed to derid'ethe diminutive stature of their ad-
            versaries; and tlie N ormaDS were informed
            that death or exile was their only alternative.
            Flight they disdained, and, as riulny·of them
            had been three days' without tasting food, the,
            eln braced the assurance of a more easy and ho-
            nourable death. They climbed the hill of Ci-
            vitelIa, descended into the plain, and charged
Bia lleteat in three divisions the army of the pope. On the
::.1'::-left, and in the centre, Richard count of Aver-
.1. ' sa, and Robert 'the famous Guiscard, attacked,
            broke, routed, and pursued the Italian multi-
            tudes, who fought withou't discipline, and fled
            without shame. A harder trial was reserved
            for the valour of count Humphrey, who led the
            cavalry of the right wing. The Germansl~bave
            been described as uDRkilfur ib ihe:management
            of the horse and lanc'e: but on fobt they form-
            ed a strong and iinpenetrable phalanx; and
            neither olen, n9r steed, nor armour, could re-
           sist the weight of their long and two-banded
            sword8. After a severe coililict, they were en-
            compassed by the squadrons returning from
            the pursuit, and died in their ranks with tbe
           esteem of their toes, and the $atisfaction of re-
                I TeutoDici quia ca.aries et forma decoro.
                   Fecerat elP'egie proeeri corpori. illoa
                   Corpora derideDt NOI'llWlDica qua bre9iora
                   Eue yidebaator.            , .     .
         TIle yenel of the Apoliaa are commolll, in ta.i. stnip. \boolb ,be .eata
         lIimaelf _ little ia the battle. Two of Ilia .imilit;. {rom h_"kiD, ad
         IOrc,"" are deacriptin of manner••

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-..                       OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                     267
           The gates of CiviteHa were shut against CHAP.
       flying pope, and he was overtaken by the LVI.
   pious conquerors, who kissed his feet, to im- ~r.,,,,r~r
   plore his blessing' and the absolution of their
   efnful victory. The soldiers beheld in their
  enemy arid captive the vicar of Christ; aile),
  though we may suppose the policy ofthe chiefs,
  it is prob,able that they were infected by the
  popular superstition. In the calm of retire-
  nient, the well-meaning pope deplore,d the ef-
  fusion of christian blood, which must be im-
. puted to his account; he felt, that he had been
  the author of sin and scandal; and as his un-
  dertaking had failed, the indecency of his mili-
  ta.ry charact~r was universally condemned.--
  With these dispositions, he listened to the of-
  fers ofa beneficial treaty; deserted an alliance
  which he had preached as the cause of God;
  and ratified ihe past and future conquelts of the
  Normans. .By whatever hands they had been Origin of
                                                    ~h. p~pal
  usurped, the prol'inces d Apulia and Calabria lDyr.t.tu.!!
        ..                  .    .C        .
  were a part of the donatIon of oustanbne and to thrNor-
  the patrimony of St. Peter: the grant anc:l the mlUll.
  accepta.nce confirmed the mutual claims of the
  pontiff and the adventurers. They promised
  tQ support each other with spiritual aud tem-
  poral arms; a tribute or quit-rent of twelve-
  pence was afterwards stipulated for every
  "lough-land; and since this. memorable trans-
        .alllln",1 respectablc crnsure. or complaiDti'are producrd by M. de
      S~. ~c    (tom. ii. p. 200-204). As Peter Damiano., tbe oracle of the
      tim,.. had denied tbc popes tbe rigbt of making war, the brrmit (In-
      ".IIIe   ere~,
                 incola) j. arraignf'd by tbr cardiDal, and Baroni... (ADnal.
      ~l:le•• A. D. 1063. N°. 10-17) moshtreDoooaly Ulerts the two l.oNa
    '., St. Peter.

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 ~68                           THE DECLINE AND FALL"

   CRAP. 'action, the kingdom ·of Naples has remained
 ..,~~:_,. above seven hundred years a fief of the Holy
              S~~                               .                         .
, Birtil ud The p~digree of Robert Guiscard~ is various-
         Iy deduced from the peasants and the dukes of
 ~~~~~ Normandy; from the pe~sants, by the pride
 .1086.  and ignorance of a Grecian princess;' from the
         dukes, by the ignorance and flattery of the
         Italian subjects.· His genuine descent may be
         ascribed to the second or middle order of pri-
        vate nobility.r He sprang from a race of 'Val-
        'Vassors or hanneret8, of the diocese of the Con-
                • The origin .and natnr~ of the papal inuatitntel are, ably diaClllHd
             by Giannone (Iltoria Cinle di Napoli~ tom. ii, p. 1149, 51·66) u a
             lawyer and antiqnarian. Yel he ninly Itrh ea to reconcile the dnliea
             of patriot and catbollo, adopt. an empty'diltinction of" Ecelelia Ro-
             maua non dedit led aceepit'" and .brinks trom an honelt bat duge'
             ron. confenion of the truth.                                           ' ~
               • The birtb, character, and fintactiClnl of Robert Gui.card, may he
             lound in Jeffft!y Malaterro, (I. i. c. 1,4,11,16,11,18,18, 19, 40).-
             William Apnln. (L ii, p. 2GO-262), William Gemelicenaia or of Jami-
             ege. (I. si, c. 10, p. 66S, 664, edit. Camden), ud Anna ComDeDa
             (Aluiad, I, i, p. 9.21, I. Yi, p•. I65, 166), with tbe aunotation. otD ..
            cange (Not. tn Alesiad. p. JlO.2S2, 120), wbo hal .wept all the Prench
             and Latin chronicle. for ,npplementlll intelligence.
               • 0 •• Pt","rnc (a Gr~eek corroption) /iortf~, ~'"' .... ,-r, .... nx-
            """,If •••.••• Again,'E ...."" ..olru 'I'fIX'It ..If't&"f. And ellewhere (I.
            iy, p. 84), _. 'wx"""" ntu.c ... .,"X~ ct",IIIf.· Allna Comnena _ Le...
            iu the pnrple; yet her father wu no more than a·printe tholl,h ill...
             trious lubject, wbo rai.ed himaclf to the empire.
               • Giannone (tom. ii, p. 2) forceta aU his oricinal authon, and rea..
            thia princely delcent 011 the credit ofInngea, an Aapatine monk 01
            Palermo in tbe last century. Tiley continue tbe .ucce••ioa of dun
            &om Rollo to William II. the baltard or oonqueror. whom they bolll
            (eommnnemente .i tiene) to be the "th~r of Taocred of Bautnilie: •
            most Itrange and .tnpendou. blund.,! 1be 1801 of Taoered (ou,bt ia
            Apulia, before 'William II. wa. three yean old (A. D. 1017).
               r The judgement of Ducange i, jillt aud moderate: eert' bnaru.
            fuit ac tenlli. Roberti familill, .i duclliem et r~gium lpeetelmll api..,
            ad quem pOltea penrnit; CJIlIe bone.ta tamen et pl'IIlter nobiliulll 'fill.
          . prium Ita tum et conditionem ilIuatril habita elt, " qua Dec bami reo-
            peret nec altllm CJuid tumerel!' (Wilbelm. Malmlbar. de O_tiI All-
           ,lorum. I. iii. p. 101. l'iIot. ad Alesiad. p. 1141).             - -' .

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             ~r   TIlE ROMAN EMPJu.                         269
  ances, in the Lower Normall~y: the castle of CHAP.
 Hauteville was their honourable seat: his fa- ...",.,..
                                                    LVI •
  ther Tancred was 'conspicuous in the court
 and army of the duke; and his military service
 was furnished by ten soldiers or knjghts~ Two
 marriages, of a rank not unworthy of his own,
 made him the father of twelve sons, who were
 educated at home by the impartial tenderness
 of his' second wife. But a narrow patrimony
 was insufficient for this numerous and daring
 progeny; they saw around the neighbourhood
-the mischiefs of poverty and discord, and re-
 solved to seek in foreign wars a more gloriouR
 inheritance. Two only rep}ained to perpetuate
 the race, and cherish their fatber's age: their.
 ~n brothers, as they successivE!ly attained the
 vigour of man~od, departed from the .castle,
 passed the Alps, and joined the Apulian camp
 ofthe Normans. The elder were prompted by
 native spirit; their success encouraged tlleir
 younger ·brethren, and the three first in seniori-
 ty, William, Drogo, and Humphrey, deserved
 to be the chiefs of their nation and the (oun-
 ders of the new repuhlic. Robert was the el..
 dest' of the seven sons of the second marriage;
 and even the reluctant praise of his foes has
 endowed him with the heroic qualities of a sol-
 dier and a statesman. His lofty stature sur-
 passed the tallest of his army: his limbs were
 cast in the true proportion of strength and
 gracefulness; and to the decline of life, he
 maintained the patient vigour of health and the
 commanding dignity of his form. His com-
 plexion was ruddy, his shoulders were broad,
 hi. hair and beard were long and of a flaxen

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170                 ' THE DECLIN'R 'AND, 'ALL
 CHAP. colour, his eyes sparkled with fire,' and hi8
_~~~:._ voice, like t~at of Achilles; could impress obe-
         dience and terror amidst the tumult of battle.
         In the r~d:er ages or chivah'y, such qualific.
        tions are not" below the notice of the poet or
         historian: tt:.ey may observe that R~~ert, at
         once, and with eqtl~1 ~exterity, coul~ wield in
        the right hand his sword, his lance in ttie left;
        that in the battle or Ci vi tell a, he was' tnrice 'UD!-
        horsed; and' that in the 'clo!re of that memora-
        ble day he was adj IJd'ged 'to b~ve, Horlle' awa}
        theprize of' vallo ut' , from tJ\e ,warriors of the
        two armies." His boundh~ss' amBition .
                            -                  . . was
        founded on the conscious,ness ohuperior worth:
        in the pursuit of greatne5S~ he was never arres-t-
        ed'by the scruples of justice, and seldom mov-
       'ed by the feeling's of humanity: ~ough notiD-
        'sensible of fame, the choice of open or claude.
        tine means was determined only bY'his pre~ent
        ad'v.antage. The surname of Oui~C'art! wa'S a~
        plied to this master of political ;yisd'om, wlricla
       'is too ofte,n confoundedl wi~h' ~~ pra~tiee:of
       'dissimulation and deceif; and R~b,ert Inai81-                                                       rs
               I ....1 qooteo _lIh p~ulU'O I_eqf J~ ~,~el:ofltlftt A~
        (I• .ii, p. lI70).' ,                  ,                                             .        '
               ,   'Pognu ntrtaqoe mauti, Dec laDcea ea.... ,.D~eD ..1'
                    Cauul,erat; qnocnIli4.em"'cle~                                               ,,,11i '
                    T,r de~ctu. eCj'G, t'er..,jrib~ ipae 'r~lWDJlti.
                     MajGr i'D arma ,edit: .timuIG(fnror ip~e 'mini.trat.
                     Ut Leo oalli fftD~eD..,.&e.,    "               '
                     • • • • • • t. •.•• : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

                     MajIUl' iD hoc beU~ sieutl po.t bell. 'proliatnm est
                     Victor Yet vicins, tam miguel edidit ic(cli. ,
           t   The- NGrm•• -titen ,!'d editor. J!Il06tcOIIV,l'llnt "ilh Ihf'ir 0".
        idiGm, iotf'lprl't GtlilCGrd, Gr IJ'i..:ard, by Clillidlll, Ii ("onniallC man_
        'l'he rGGt (1Dfa) fa fllmiHar to our f'ar; and iu the old ""orcfWi"""",,.1
        cadi.eem ••wetlriut of • ajmjlar .,nl,e allfl tt'fmiB01I~n. ·tII, •
        • ~. it 041 bacl traD.latioD or the luruame aud character of ltII-
        berlo               •

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            OF 'l'HE ROMAN EIIPIRE.                          I'll
ed by the Apulian poet for excelling the cun- CHAP.
ning of Ulysses and the eloquence of Cicero.- ":~!~""'.
Yet these arts were disguised by an appear-
ance of, military fi'ank~ess: in his highest for-
tune, he was accessible and courteous to hi~
fellow-soldiers;' and while he i'ndulg(;d' the pre:-
judices of his new ~ubjects, he affected' in h~s
df.'ess and manners to maintain the ancient fa.
shion of his 'countTY~ 'He gra~ped with ~ ~;\­
pacious, that he niig~t distTibut~ with a,
hand: his pr~mitive indigence bad' taught, tb~
habits of frugality; the gain of a merchant w,al
not below his attention; and' his prison,ei'$
were tortured with slow and unfeel~ng crrreity
to force a dist:0ve,ry of their secret treasure.";"';:'
According to the Greeks, he departed"fro,IIi.
Normandy with only five followers onllor~~
back and thirty on foot; yet even' this allow-
~lDce appears too bountiful: the sixth son of
Tancredof Hauteville passed the Alps, as, a.
pilgrim ; and his first military ~and was levie-d
among the adventurers of Italy. His brothers
and countrymen ha~ divided the fertile land~
of Apulia; bu t they guarded their shares wWl
the jealousy of avarice; the aspiring Y01.1~~
 waR driven forwards to the mountains 'of
 Calabria, and'in his first exploits against tll'e
Greekl; and the natives, it is not easy to dlsci,i~
 minate the hero from the robber. To surprise
  •   f            •   r       ,      , . '       "    'It
 a castle or a convent" it)' ensn,ar~ a wealthy CI-
tizen, to plunder the adjacent villages forne-
 cessary food, were the obscure labours which
 foroie~ and exercised the powers of hia mind
 and body. The volunteers of Normandy ad-

                                        Digitized by   Google
. S7i                        THE DECLINE AND FALL
. CIUP.      hered to his standard; and, under his com·
 _:..~~;.... mand, the peasants of C.alabria assu~ed the
             name and character of Normans.
Hit amb"        As the genius of Robert expanded witll his
:~~~:I~~ fortune, he awakened the jealousy of his elder
A. ••• ,1014 brother, by whom, in a transient quarrel, his

.1010..      life was threatened and his liberty restra~ned.
             After the death of Humphrey, the tender age
             of his sons excluded the~ from the command;
              they were reduced to a private estate by the
             ,ambition of their guardian and uncle; and
             Guiscard was exalted on a buckler, and salut.
             ed count of-Apulia and general of the repub,ic.
             With an increase of authority and of force, he
             resumed the conquest of Calabria, ~nd soon
             aspired to a rank that should raise him for ever
             'above the heads,of his equals. By some acts
            .Qfrapine or sacrilege,. he had incurred a papal
            ,excommunication: but Nicholas the second
             :was, easily persuaded, .that the divisions of
             friends could terminate onlyin their mutual pre-
             judice.; that the Normans were' the faithful
             champions of tbe Holy See; and it was safer
             to trust the alliance of a prince than the caprice
             of an aristocracy. A synod of one hundred
             bishops w:aK convened at Melphi; and the
              count interrupted an important enterp~se to
            .guard the person and execute the decrees of
              the Roman pontiff. His gratitude and policy
             conferred on 'Robert and his posterity, the du-
              cal title,. with the investiture of Apulia, Cala·
            • The acqniaitioD or the docal title by Robert Glli.card ia a Dice aDd
          .bacDre bUliDe... With the good advice or GlaDDODe, Muratori, aDd
          St. Mare, I have e"'ea~oured to terra ,a c•••i.tnt     U1~ prob~blJ' JIll'
          ~"e.                                                           .

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                     or THE:ROMAN         EMPiRE•. '                          273
    hria; and all the lands, both in Italy and Sicily;' CHAP.
    which his sword could' rescue from the schi~ LVI• .
 , 'matic Greeks and the' ~nbelieving Sa~acfms. x_ ..,"",,#,.
   This apostolic s~nction might justifyhjs'ar~s,;,
   but the obedience of a free andvic~~~i~us pe~­
    pIe could not be transferred without their con-
. Bent; and Guiscard dissembled, his eleYation
  "till the ensuing campaign had:been;ilJustrated,
   'by the, conqllest of Consenza and ReggiO. In
 , t~e' hour of triumph, he assembled his troops,
  'and solicited the Normans to confirm by their
   suffrage the judgment of the vicar of ,Christ:
   the soldiers hailed with joyful'acclamations
   their valiant duke; and the counts, his:former
   equals, pronounced the oath of fidelity, with
   hollow smiles and secl'etindignatioD. After, Duke.f
   this inauguration. Robert ,styled himSelf, " by Apulia,
  'c, the grace of God and St. Peter, duke of A pu- A. D.IOClO.
   u lia, Calabria, and hereafter of Sicily.;" and-it
  'was the'lahour of twenty years to deserve and
  'tealise these lofty appellations. Such tardy
  -progress~ in a narrow space, may seem unwor":
   thy of the abilities of the chief and the spirit of
 the    natian: hut the Normans were few in num-
  ber; their reROUI'CeS were scanty; their service:
 was     voluntary and precarious., The bravest
  designs of the duke were sometimes opposed
  by the free voice of his parliawent of' barons;
    • Baroniu's (Annal. Ecc:lci. A. D. 1059, N°. 60),1185 p"J,Ji;,htd' the
 original ad. He prof(JII:. to have cc.pird it from the Liber CIIIIII_•
 • Vatican MS. Yet a Liber Cenlllllm of the twelfth centnry haa been
 printed by Muratori (Antiqnit. medii ~vi, tom. v, p. 861.9011), an4 "
 the namel of Vatican and Cardinal aw.ken the IUlpicioDI of a prote••
 taDt, aDd enD a philo.opher.
     VOL.X.                           T

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i74                       THE DECLINE AND FALL
 CHAP.       the twelve counts of popular election, conspired
 ...,~~~: against his authority; and against their perli-
            dio~s uncle, the sons of Humphrey demanded
             justice and revenge.. By his policy and vigour,
            Ouiscard discovered their plots, suppressed
            their ,rebellions, and punished the guilty with
             death or exile: but in these domestic (euds,
            his years, 'and the ,national 'strength, were un-
            profitably consumed. After the defeat of his
            (oreiglJ enemi~s, the Greeks, Lombards, and
            S!lj-ac~ns, th~ir broken forces retreated to the
            strong ,and pe>puloqs cities of the sea-coast.-
            The'y :e;)';ceUed ',i(J th~ arl$ of forti~cation and
            defence: the :NO.fQ)~ps were accusto~ed to
            serv,e ~ hDfAe'ba<:k in the fieJ(,I, and their rude
           .at~mpts lCOUW :c>.u:ly succeed by the efforts of
            p'ersevering courage. The r~sistance of Salerno
            was mainwlled abQve eight months: the siege
            or blockade of ,Bari lasted near four years.-
            In these actioD'S the Norman. d,u,lte was the
            fqremost in every danger; in ev~ry fatigue the
            last :and most patient. As h~ ,pressed the cita-
            del'of Salerno, an huge stone from 'the rampart
            shattered one of his Inilita}"y engines; . and by
            a. splinter he was wounded in the breast. Be-
            fore the gates of Bari, .he lodged in a miserable
            hut or barrack, composed of dr.y br.anches, and
            thatohed with straw; a'periJo.usstati()n, on all
            sides open to the inclemency of the winter and
            ihe spears of the enemy.'         .
Hi.ltalian      The Italian conquests of Robert correspoad
cODqne.b. with, the limits of the present kingdom of Na-

           ~ Rl'ad the life of GuilC~ard iD the second and third boob 01 tile
         a\pulian, the fiut and aecoDd books of MalateJTa.

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                 or THE ROMAN EMPIJlE.                  27J
 pIes: amI the count.,ies united by his ·afUlllcHAv.
 have 110t been dissevered by the revolutions .of _:~~:..
 seven hundred years.- The monarchy has been'
 ~omposed of the Greek prQvinc~ 0{ Calabria
 and Apulia, .of the Lombard 'prinClpality ~of
Salerno, the republic o.f Amal.phi, .and .the iD~
Ja.nd dependenCies of the awl ancient
du.tchy ofB.e~leve'ntum. Three distric.ts only
 were eXempted from the common la,,, of sub·
 jection,; the, first for ever, and the tw,o last .till
 the middle of' the succeeding century. The
city'and immediate territory' of Benevento bad
been transferred, ·by gift or trXcha-nge, from ,the
~eriri~n emperor to the Rowan .poutiff;. and al..
though this hol'y land· sometimes 'iwaded,
the n'ame 'of 8t. Peter was ,ooan,. 'more potent
than the sword of the Normans. 'Ibeir first
colony (j( Aversa. subdu~d and'held-the stale
ofCapna; and her princes were' reduced to
beg   th:eir ·bread before the .palace of t~ir fa-
thers. The ·d ukes of Naples;' the ipre~eJlt me-
tropolis, maintained the .popular· :tneedoUl, un~
der ,the ·shadoW of the' B,.zantine eriipire.~
Among -the Ile:W acquisitions of: ~8iseard, .the
science of Salerno,. .and ;the trade pf Ama~,'

   • 'De ~onqoe.t.,ef ~B.t: G.9,",rll. a~ ~Her I~ -tile 'I(xrmpt~on of
Benennte and the 12 proviners' of ihe kingdom, are fairly upoaed by
Gi\IPljlqpe in tl:ae .~cond volull,l(' of hi. Istoria 'Civile, 1. ix, x,. x.i, and
1.,;lJ.vli,.p.460-470. :J:bia.modern diyil;on wu Dot e.tabli.bed before
~ JimA!, of Frene\ic.II.                                    .
   • Gianuone (tom, ii, ,p. 119·127), .Muratbri ADtiquitat. me"li ,1£vi;
(tom. iii, dissert. x.liv, p. 935, 9116), and Tirabolcbi (I.toriadella Let-
tl!tllra Italiana) haye given an bistorical account of Iheae phy.icianJ;
their D1~diC:lI\ k,lOW\cdCe and practice mllst be Idt to our physicians.
    L At the end of tbe Hilloria I'andcctarum of Henry Brenckman
(Tr~ l\'num, 17;12, in 410.), the indefatigable Blltbor hB. in-
 urtt:d two disscrtaliol:t, de Rl'pllblica AmalpbitanD, and de Ama\rbi

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276                        THE DECLINE AND "AL~,
.cHAP.     may detain for a moment the curiosity of the
-=:I:-reader. I. Of the learned faculties, juri~pru­
School of dence implies the previous establishment of
Salerno. Iaws an d property; an d t h eo Iogy may perh aps

          be supe~8eded by tbe full light of religio~ and
          :reason. But the savage and the sllge must
          alike implore the assisiance of physic:; and, if
          our diseases are inflamed by luxury, ',the mis-
          cbiefs of blows and wounds wpuld be more fre-
          quent in the ruder ages of society. The trea-
          sures of Grecian medicine .had been communi--
          ,cated to the Arabi3;n colonies of Africa, Spain,
          and Sicily; and in the inter~ot;lr8e of peace and
          war, a spark of knowledge h~d been kindled
          and cherished at Salerno, an illustrious city, in
          which the men were honest, '~nd the w.omen
          beautiful.c ' A school, the first that arose in
         the darkness of Europe; was consecrated to the
          healing art: the conscience of monks and
         bishops was reconciled to that salutary and lu-
         crative profession; and a crowd of patients, of
         the most eminent rank, and most distant cH-
         mates, invited or visited' the physicians of Sa-
         lerno. They were protected by the Norman
         conquerors; and Guiscard, though bred in
         arms, 'could d,iscernthe merit and value of a
         'philqsopher: After a pilgrimage of thirty-nine
         a Pilania dirept., which are buUt on the teitilil9Diea of one hundred
         and forty writer.. Yet he hu forgotten two mOlt important PIII&IN
         .f pae embauy of Liutprand (A. D. 9!l9). which compare the trade
         and navigation of Amalphi with that ofVenjce.
                   Urb. LatH Don est hac delltiosior nrb..,
                  .Frngibu•. arboribul vino redundat; et node
                   Non tibi poma, nue"s, ROil pulehr. palati. deaunt,
                   !ilon species muliebria abelt probit ••que yirorDlll ••
                                          (Gnlielmu. Appal." I. iii, , • . , .

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                     OF THE ROMAN BMPlltL                                     277
   Years, Constantine, an African christian, ~e- CHAP.
   turned from Bagdad, a master of the language .,.. .",..
  and learning of the Arabians; aud Salerno was            .
, enriched by the practice, the It>s~ons, and the
  writings, of the pupil of A vicenna. The schQol
   of medicme has long fillept in the name of an
   university; but her precepts are abridged in a
  string of aphorisms, bound together in the leo-
  nine verses, or Latin rhymes, of the twelfth
  century! II. Seven miles to the west of .Sa~Tndt: of
  lerno, al,1d thirty to the south. of Naples, the AmalpW.
  obscure town of Amalphi displayed the power
  and rewards of industry. The. Jand, however
  fertile, was of narrow extent; but the sea was
  accessible and. open; the .inhabitants first as-
  sumed the office of supplying the western world
  with the manufactures and productions of the
  East; and this useful traffic was tht> source of
  their opulence and freedom. The government
  was popular under the administration ofa duke
  and the supremacy of the Greek emperor.-
  Fifty thousand citizens were numbered in the
  walls of Amalphi ; nor was any city more abull-
  dantly pl'ovided with gold, silver, and the ob-
  jects of precious luxury. The mariners who
  swarmed in her port excelled in the. theory and
  practice of navigation and astronomy; and the
  discovery of the compass, which has opened
  the globe, is due to their ingenuity or good
  r • Moratori carrie. their aDtiquity above the yrar (106G) the deatll
. of Ed...-.rd the CODfe...r, the rlZ A..,."". to whom they are addr,.-
  aed. Nor i. thil date al"eeted by the .pinion, or rather llliltake" of
  Puqnier (Reeherche. de I. Franer, 1....ii, c. I) aDd Duennp (GI....r
  Latin.) '1'he practice of rhymin,••1 early a. the .enDUI rentnry,
  wu borrowed from the laDlllarea of the North anel Ealt (M.ntori,
   ADti.aita.. tom. iii, dianrt. xl, p. 686-708).

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218                         THE I)J!CLUm ANI) FALL
          fottune. Their trade "as extended to fh'e'
. . ..
  #~:~: coasts, or at least to the commodities, of Africa,
          Arabia, and India; and their settlements in:
          Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Ale-x·
          dria, acquired the privileges of independent co-
          lonies.- After three hundred years of prospe-
          rity, Amalphi was oppressed by the arms of
          the Normans, and sacked by the jealousy of
          :Pisa; bllt the pOVe1ty of one thousand fisher-
          men is yet digalfied by the remaint of an arse-
          nal, a. cathedrlll, and tIte' paladl of royal mer-
          cluntts'            .
Conquest     Roget,tbe twelfth and fast of tbe 80!uifof
of Sicily T ancre, hIi db'
by c:ount                                 .             . .l-w
                            een )ong detalned' N ormanuJ'
~0;~1060. by his own arid his father's ar;e. He accepted
.1090.    the welcome l!lmilmoris; hasteJled to the .Apu-
          lian camp; and deserved at first the esteem.
          iind afterwards the eilvy, of his elder brother.
          Their valour and ambition were equal ; but
          the youth, the b~a:ufy, the elegant mannen, of
          Roger, engaged the disinterested love of his
          soldiers and people. So scanty waS his allow·
          ance, for himself and forty followers, that he
          d~scended from conquest to robbery, and froPI
          robbery to domestic theft; and so loose were
          the notions of property, that, by his own histo-

           • 'llke deaCri~"D cif AJilaJpbi. by Willi. . th, ApuliIID (I. m, p. I&'T",
         eoDtaiDa mucb trutll aDd lome poetry; aDd tbe third IiDe IJlaY be ap
         piled to the   .aI10"', eompua:                   '
                  Nuna mali. loc:aplel argeDto, YeltibuI, auro
                  I'.aI1lhI iDDQlerta I hie phlrpmaurbe mota...
                  Jf.ata....,.,.,.....          ~,.u-
                  Hac et Alelludri tli,.lIII.(e~*r alt,em.,
                  ",iI, rtAntictehi. OeDs. lI.e fteta plar.uoa tn.m~
                  HI, Arabe., Judi, S.iculi,D~Q••",r,ea Alrie .
                  Haee gi!*. cst toblm PTopu~b.ilitiite per orllf8.
                  Et mercando ferrill, amant mereal& fillerr••

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                     01' THE ROMAN DlPID:.                                    !79
 rian, at his special command, he is accused. of CRAP.
 stealing horses from a stable at Melphi.' His ..",.",.,.
 spirit emerged from poverty and disgrace: from
 these base practices he rose to the merit and
 glory ofa holy war; and the invasion of Sicily
 was seconded by the zeal and policy of his
 brother Guiscard. After the retreat of the
 Greeks, the idolaters, a most audacious reproach
 of the catholics, have retrieved their losses and
possessions; but the deliverance of the island,
80 vainly undertaken by the forces of the eas-
tern e~pire, was achieved by a small and pri-
vate band of adventurers.' In the first attempt,
Roger braved, in an open boat, the real and fa-
bulo'us dangers of ScylJa and Charybdis; land-
ed with only sixty soldiers on a hostile shore;
drove the Saracens to the gates of Messina;
and safely returned with the SPOili of the ad-
jacent country. In the fortress of Trani, his
active and patient courage were equally con-
spicuous. In his old age he related with plea-
sure, that, by the distress of the siege, himself,
and the countess his wife, had been reduced to
a single cloak or mantle, which they wore al-
  f Latrocinio armi,erorum laerum in maltia I.stentabatar, quod qui.
dem ad rjul ignominiam non dicimua: .ed ipao ita pneeipiente adlluo
"iliora et reprebeallbiliora dictarl .uma. 1It plnribal pateacat, qulm
I.boriott: et cam q1llna. aUCU.lia a proftlDd1 panpertate ad aummua
calmen di,itiarum vel hODoria aitiprit. Sach 11 the preface of Mala-
terra (I. i, c. 25) to the hone-.teallng. From tbe moment (I. i, c. 19)
tbat be bu mentioDed hia patron:Ro,er. the elder brother .Ink. ioto
the lecond character. SomethiBg aimilu in Velleiul ma,
be oblerved or AUgUltUI and Tiberiol •
   • Doo libi prosicul depotaol ani_ lCilicet et col'pOria II teft'UI
Idolia deditam Id caltlUD diviDum revocaret (Galfrid Malaterra, I. Ii,
c. 1). The conquelt or Sicily i. related iD the three Jut hoeb, aad
he biauelf hal PVlD au ICCuat•••amu1 of the. chapten (po "'"

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280                     THE DECLINE AND PALL
C~~r~ t~~natt:ly:        that in a sally his borse had bet:D
",.",:" slam, ,and he was dragged away by the Sara-
      .. cens_; bui that he owed his' rescue to his good
           sword, and had retreated with his saddle on
           his ba~k, iest the meanest trophy might be left
           in the, hands of the miscreants. In the siege of
           Trani, tbree h undred Normans withstood and
            repulsed the forces of the island. In the field
            of Ceramio, fifty thousand horse and foot were,
           overthrown by one hundred and thirty-six
            ~hristian sQldiers, without reckoning St. George,
            who fough,t on horseback in the fore~ost ranks.,
           The captive banners, with four camels, were
            reserved for the successor of St. Peter; and
            had these barbaric spoils been exposed. n,ot in
            the vatican, but in the capitdl, they might have
            revived the memory of the Punic triumphs.-
           These insufficient numbers of the Normans
           most probably denote their _     knights, the so].
           diers of honourable and equestrian rank, each
            of whom was attended by five or six followers
           in the field ;h yet, with the aid of this 'interpre-
            tation, and after every fair allowance on the
            side of'valour, arms, and reputation, the dis-
            comlifiire of so many myriads will reduce the
            pruilent reader to the alternative of a miracle
            ~t a: fable~ - The Arabs of Sicily derived a fre-
            q!l~n.t :and powerful succour from their coun-
            ttYW~~:of Africa: 'in the siege of Palermo, the
         -, Nopma'o cavalry was assisted by the gallies of
        , ~i~a; and, in the hour of action, -the envy of
            the two brothers was sublimed to a generous

          a See the word lllililu, ia the LatiD Glouary of DaCla,e

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              or THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                         281
and invincible emulation. After a war of thirty CHAP
                            . eo
years,I R og~r, .'. b t he tIt1 . f great count, 0 b- ...,;""".
                 WIt                                     LVI.

tained the sovereignty of the largest and most              ..
fruitful island of the Mediterranean; and his
administration displays a liberal and enlighten-'
ed mind above the limits of his age and educa-
tioll. The· moslems were maintained in the.
free enjoyment of their religion a.nd property;k
a philosopher and phyiician of Mazara, of the·
race' of' Mahomet, harangued the conqueror,·
aud was .invited to court; his geography of.
the seven climates was translated into ~~tin ;
and R«:>ger, after a diligent perusal, preferred
the work of the Arabian to the writings of the
Grecian Ptolemy.' A remnant of .christian na-
tives had promoted the success of the N Of- .
mans: theywererE~warded by the triumph of the
cross. The island was restored to the juris-
      Of odd particulan, I learn from Malaterra, tbat tbe Arab. bad In-
 troduced into Sicily tbe ule or'camell (I. I, c. I.) and of carrier~pj.
 cunl (c. (1); and that the bite of the tarantula provekel a "Indy.
 dilpolltion, qua per anum inhoneste crepitando .,mercit: a ')'1Dpton
 mo.t ridiculously felt by the whole Norman army in their camp near'

 Palermo (c. 116). hhall add an etymolocynot unworthyoftheelnenda
 nnw..,.:            il derind from .aa.,. the place from wbence. the
 harYeatl of the illc were lent .in tribute to Rome (I. ii, e. 1).
   ," See the capitulatiou of Palermo in Malaterra, I. ii, c. 4i, and Gian..
aone, wbo remarb the ,enem toleration of the SaraceDI (tom. ii, p.
72).                                               .
. I JObD Leo Afer, de Medicil et Pbilolophis Arabibua, c. 14, apud
Fabric. Bibliot. Grlltc. tom. xiii, p.278, 279•. Thi, pbilolopb.,r it
. .med .Esleripb Eallcballi, and be died iu Africa, A. H. 616, .t. D.
 UO. Yet thil lte..,. bean a Itraage relemblauce to the Sberif ad
 &lri..I, wbo presented hi' book (fleograpbia Nubieall., lee preface,
p. 88,90 ITO) te. Roger kine of Sicily, A. H. 648, A. D. lUI (d'Her.
 beJot, Bibliothf'qll., Orif'ntale, (I. T8&. Prideaux.. Life of Mahomet,
p.I88. Petit de la Croix, Hilt. de GengilCIIlI, p. 635, 636. Cuirl,
 Bibliut. Arab. Hiapan. tORI. ii, .,. 9·11); aDd I am afraid of lOme .
miatake.                                       .

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282                          Tm: DECLINE AND FALL
  CHAP. diction of the Roman pontiff; new bishops
 _ ..:~~;.... were planted in the principal cities; and the
              clergy was satisfied by a liberal endowment of
              churches and monasteries. Yet the catholic
              hero asserted the rights of the civil magistrate.
              In&tead of resigning the investiture ofbenefic~s.
              he dexterously applied to his own profit the
              papal claims: tbe supremacy of the crown
              was secured and enlarg~d, by the singular buH,
              which declares the princes of Sicily hereditary
              and perpetual legates of the holy see.-
Robert III-      To Robert Guiscard, the conquest of Sicily
"II~~' the was more gloriou$ than beneficial,· the posses-
e..... rn                                             '
empire,      sion of Apulia and Calabria was inadequate to
A. D.1081. h· amb· .
               IS                       'I
                     ItJon; an d h e re80 ve d to emb race or
             create the first occasion of invading, perhap!t
             of subduing, the Roman empire of the East.a-
             From his first wife, the partner of bi's humble
             fortunes, he had been divorced under the pre-
             tence of consanguinity; and her son Bohe-
             mond was destined to imitate, l·ather than to
             succeed, his illustrious father. The second
             wife of Guiscard was the daughter of the priOr-
             ces of Salerno; the LOlnbards acquiesced in
             tbe linealsuccessioB of their 80n Roger; their
            five daughters were given in honourable BUp-

          • Malaterra remarks the roondation of the hishoprie. (1. iY, Co 7'),
        and produeea the original or the ball (I. iv, e. 29). Giaunene civet a
        national idt'a or thii privilege, and the' tribuual of the monarchy of Si-
        eily (tom. ii, p. 95-102); and St. Marc (AbregE, tom. iii, p. 217.101,
        fint clllnmn) labourl the c..e with the diligence or a Sicilian lawyer.
          • In the fint n;pedition of Robert againu the Greekl, I follow Anna
        Comnena (the ht, Id, 4th, and,6th books or the Alrsiad) j Willi. .
        Appulul (I. 4th and 5th, p. 210 175); and Jeffrey Malaterra (I. iii, c.
        13, 14, 2"-29, 19). Their information i. contemporary ad autlirntie.
        "ut none of~hem were ell-wilDe,se. of the war.

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                     OF THE JtOMAN EMPIRE.                                         283
titds: ·and one of them was betrothed, in a ten- CHAP.
der ~ge, to Constantine, a beautiful youth, the _~!:...
son and heir of the emperor Michaelp• But the
throne of Constantinople was shaken by a re-
volution: the imperial family of Ducas wai
confined to the palace or the cloister; and Ro-
bert deplored, and resenfed,· the disgrace of
hi8 daughter and the expulsion of his ally. A
Greek, who styled bHl1self tIle father of Con-
stantine, so 10 appeared at Salerno.. and related
the adventures of his tali and Bight. That un-
fort.unatefriend was acknowledged by tIle duke,
and adorned with the potdp and titles of im-
perial dignity: in his triumphal progress
thrbttgh Apulia and Calabria~ Michael'! Was
saluted with the tears and acc1amation$ ot the
people; and pope Gregory the seventh exhort-
ed the bishops to preach, and the catbolics to
fight, in the pious work of his reAtoration.-
His conversations with Robert w~re frequent
   • 0* of tIiaa . . marnecl to Rtgb, the . . of Ano, or Aso, a
. .rqUi of Lombardy, ricb, powmul, and 1IObl. (Galielm. ApuL I. iii.
p.167), in the eleventh centnry, and whOle anceatora in tbe tenth and
niMh Ilre explored by the critical ilidultry of Ltiilllitl and Muralori.
Fr_ tIM two elder lonl .f tlH! marquil A••o, are d41r~v.d tile ill_
trionl linel of BrllDiwick and Eate. lee Moratori, Antichit.. Eatenle.
   , Anna ColDDena, lomewhat too ",antonly, prailel and benill that
haild..- boy, wIlo, after the rap.-re of hia barbaric .aptiala (I. i, p-
21). ",u betrothed u ber hUlband; he wu .)"I~ FIIfC ......... .
8.01 ')(•.,." "J,"'I~~. •••••••••• 'XJII'II ,,-r ...."... okc. (p. 2'T). Elle-
wheret,lhe! ileaerill"l tIM red ad wbill'.f hil ~n, hil bawl', ~t.,
&e. L iii, p.71.
    ~ Anlla Comnena, I. i, p. 28,29. Gulielm. AppnL I. iY, p. 271.-
o.tfrid Malaterra, I. iii, c. 11, p. 1I'lV, 688. Maiaterra ia more can-
tionl in biB Ityle I bnt the Apnlian i, more bold 'and pOliti...
                     - - - Hmtita Ie Micbailem
             Ventrat a Danai, lJuidam ..ductor ad llIum.
A.  Gt-t',."     VII bad brlievcd, Baroni"., almost alone. reco,nilt. aha
emprr.r Mkb'lel CA. D. 1080, N·. 44).

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184                      'THE DECLINE AND FALL"
,CHAP,   and familiar; and their mutua) promises wue
 LVI. justified by the valour of the N ormaDS and. the:
_ ..- -treasures of the East. Yet this Michael, by:
        the confession of the Greeks and Latins, was
        a pageant and an impostor; a monk who had·
        fled from his convent, or a domestic who had I
        served in the palace. The fraud had been con-'
        trived by the Rubtle Guiscard ; and he trusted,
        that after this pretender had given a 'dec~nt co-.
        lour tohis arms, 'he would sink, at tl)e nod of.
        the conqueror, into his primitive obscurity,-
        But victory was the only argument that could
        determine the belief of the Greeks; and the a 1'- •
        dOllr of the Latins was much inferior to their
        credulity: the Norman veterans wished to en-
        joy the harvest of their toils, and the unwarlike
        Italians trembled at the known and unknown
        dangers of a transmarine expedition. In his
        new levies, Robert exerted the. influence of gifts
        and promises, the terrors of civilllnd ecclesias-
        tical authority; and Bome acts ofviolence might
       •justify the reproach, that age and infancy were
        pressed without distinction into the service of
        iheir unrelenting prince. After two years in-,
        cessant preparations, the land and naval forces:
        were assembled at Otranto, at'the heel, or ex-'
        treme promontory of I; and Robert was'
        accompanied by bis wife,. ~ho rought by his.
        Bide, his son Bohemond, and the representative
        of the em peror Michael. Thirteen JlUndred'
        knights' of Norman race or discipline, fornJed
           r Ipse .rm.11II militilll non plulqu•••ccc militeJlecuab.boille;••
         cil q'" eidtm nl'Iotio ioterfuemot ,UfOlt.tor (Mal.terra, I. iii, c. 14,
         p.683), Tbue are tbe ••me whom the Apuli.o (I. 'Y, ,.171) .11..··
         the equtltri. ,eol ;luci., ('quite. de ,C:Dte ducll.

                                                       Digitized by   Google
                       ·OP THE,ltOMAN EMPIRE.

  the sinews of the army, which might be swened ~HAP.
  to thirty thousand" followers of every denomi. • .. "",,#,.
  nation. The men, the hOfSf;ls, the arms,. the
 engines, the wooden towers, covered with raw,
 hides, were embarked on board one hundred
 and fifty vessels: the transports had been
 built in the ports of ltaiy, and the gallies were
 supplied by the alliance of th~ republic Qf Ra-:.
  . At the mouth of the Adriatic gulf, the sbores, Siep or
 of Italy and Epirus incline towards each other. ~u:';:-L
The space between Brundusium and Durazzo, June 17.
 the Roman passage, is no more than- Qne hun-
dred miles;t atthe last station of Otranto, it
is contracted to fifty ;u and this narrow distance
bad suggested to Pyrrhu8 and Pompey the
sublime, or extravagant idea of a bridge. Be-
fore the general embarkation, the Norman duke
despatched Bohemond' with fifteen galJies to
seize or threaten the isle of Corfu, to survey
the opposite coast, and to secure an harbour
in the neighbourhood of Vallone (or the land.,
jng o( the troops. They passed and landed

• "lie ..., , _ . X~"     laY' Anna ComneDa(Aluiu, I. i, p. S7); and
 ber account ta\liel with the number and lading of the ship.. Ivit in
 Dyrrachium cum Xv millibul homiDum, "YI tbe Chronicon' Brne
 Normanicum (Muratori, Scriptore., tom. Y, p. 278). J have endea-
 voured to reco\lcile the.e rtckoning••
    t Tbe Itinerary of Jern.alem (p. 609, edit. Wt'lieling) llfel a tme
 and realonable 'pace of a tholllland Itadia, or ~ne bundred IIlilrl,
 which ill atra\lgely doubled by Sirabo (I. vi, p. 4SS), and Pliny, (Hi.t.
 Natllr. iii, 16).                        .                       -
. • Pliny (Hi.t. Nat. iii, 6, 16) allow. QllitlqllUgi7ltu millia for Ihis bre-
 vialimnl cnrsuI, and agreel witll the rea.l distance (rom Otranto to la
 Vallona, or Aulon (d'Auvillc, Analy.t' de Is" Carte del Cotel de la
 Grece, .Ire. p. S.6). Hermolalll Barbaml, who lobatitute.·~
 (Hllrduin, Not. IXYi, iu Pliu. I. iii), mi,ht Lan been correcte4 by eYe-
 r, Te.etian pilot who had .ailed out of the plf.

                                                                Digitized by   Google
286                              1 HE DECLINB AND FALL                                     "'.

    CHAP.    without perceIving an enemy; and this Bucces..
.        ..
    #~~!~# ful experi.meut displayed the negle~t ~nd ,de-
             cay pf the nanJ power of the Greeks~ TJ;.~
            islands of Epirus the aa.ritime towns wer~
             subdued by tbeums or the name pf Robert,
            who led his 6eet .ad his .army fro ... Corfu (.
            use the modem appe)JMic)li) to the siege of Du-
           ,razzo. That city., the 'W.estern key of the em-
            pire, was guarded by ancient renown, and re-
            cent fortificatioll6, :"'. PaJmo)oguJI, a
            patrician, victM'f(HIS _ .the Oriental wars, and
            a numerOUf; ,ga",is.. tGf; AJlMwwns and Mace..
            donians, who, 'in 'l8Veryage, ,have maintained
            tne characteqo,of. ,101dielJB.. Ia the prosecution
            of his enterprisrt, the courage of Guiscard was
            assailed h'}' ever,. fo.mof ~anger and mischance.
            In the most propiuoua season of the year, a&
            his flee,t JKlssed along ithe coast, a stOrD,l of wind
            and 'snow 'uneKpeCtedly ar.ose: the AdriatiC
           was swelled by .the: raging ,blast of ~e .south,
           and a new shipwreck confirmed t-be old infa-
           my 'of the AcrocarauIJiaIi ~ocks." The saill,
           the masts, and :the oars" were shattered or torn
           away: the sea and shore were covered with the
           fragments of ves~)8, wj.thaMl$-1Uld-de$d bo-
           dies; and the greatest part of the provisions
           were either dt"owneu or damaged. The ducal
           galley was laboriously rescued froin the waves,
           and Robert halted seven days on the adjacent
           cape, to collect the relics of his l~ss and revive
             • " Infamel ICopuio. Acrocerallnia. Horat. carm. i, s. The pncipi.
            tem Africum decertant.m Aquilonibul et rabitm Noti, and the mon-
            ItN lIatllltil of the Adriatic, are lome what enlarged j but Horace
            tr.mblf.. ror the life of Virril, i. III inttrtltifl, moment in tbe billor)'
            .f pee try 011111 friendaJUp.

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                     OP THE ROMAN ElIIrIRF. .                                     287
 the drooping spirits of his so]dier~. The Nor- CH,\I'.
mans Wl're no longer the bold and experienced _;~~:••
mariners who had explored the ocean from
 Green]and to mouDt Atlas, and who smiled at
the petty dangers of the Mediterranean. They
 bad wept during the tempest: they were alarm-
ed by the hostile approach of tbe Venetians,
who had been solicited by the prayers and pro-
mises of the Byzantine court. The first day's
action was not disadvantageous to Bobemood,
a beardless youth,.' who led the naval powers
of his father. All night the gallies of the )·e..
public lay on their anci:lo.rsin the f.orm of a
crescent; and the victory of the sec~>Dd day,
was decided by the dexterity of their evolu-
tions, the station of their archen, the weight
of their javelins, and the borrowed aid of the
Greek fire. The Apulian and Regusian vessels
lied· to the shore; several were cut from their
cables and dragged away by the conqneror;
and a saBy from the town carried slaughter and
dismay to the tents of the NorlDan duke. A
seasonable relief was pourp(l into Durazzo, .and
as soon as the besiegers had lost the command
01 the sea, the islands and maritime towns with,
drew from the camp the supply of tribute and
provision. That camp was soon atBicted with
a pestilential disease; five hundred knights pe-
risbed by an inglorious death; and the list of
buriall!l (if all could obtain a decent burial)
   , T .. b IIt..., ....,.- • ..,.. ....8,."._ (Alexiu, I. h', p. lOCI). Yet
tIM Nllrml8l ahaved, and the VeoetiaD'1I'ore their beard.; theymaal
un d ..rided the tao-beard of BohcmoDd i aD barlb iDtcroretatioD !
(Du....'e. Not. ad~exiad. p. IllS).

                                                               Digitized by   Google
288                       THE DECLINE AND 'PALL .
 CHAP.       amounted to ten thousand persons~ Under
.•#~~~_. these calamities, the mind of Guirscard alone
             was firm and invincible: and while he collect-
            ed new forces from Apulia and Sicily, he bat-
            tered, or'scaled, or sapped, the walls of Du-
            razzo. But his industry and valour were en-'
            countered by equal valour and more ~rfect in-
            dustry. A moveable turret, of a size and ca-
            pacity to contain five hundred soldier!:;, had
            been rollf:d forwards, to the foot of tbe ram-
            part: butthe descent of the door or drawbridge
            was checked by an enormous be~m, and the
            wooden structure was instantly consumed by
            artificial. flamel.                     '
 The army       While the Roman empire was attacked
 ::~h~~:~ by tbe Turks in tbe east and tbe N m:manll
            in tbe west, the aged Sllccessor of Michael
 April-     surrendered the sceptre to the .hands of
 SeptelR-                                  •      d
 ber.       Alexius, an iUustrious captain, an t~e foun-
            der of the Coninenian 'dynasty. The princess
          , Anne, his daughter and historian, observes, in
            her affected style, that eyen Ht:rcu~e·s. was un-
            equal to a double combat; and, on this princi-
            ple, she approves an basty peace with the
            Turks,wbicb aHowed ber fatber to undertake
            in person tbe relief of Durazzo. ',On his ac-
            cession, Alexius found the camp without sol-
            diers, and treasury witbout money: yet sucb
            were the vigour and activity of his measures.
            that in six months he assembled all army of se-
            venty thousand men," and performed a march

           • Haratori (ADnali d'ltalia, tom. ix, p. 136,117) OblerYeI, that_
         authoR. (Petral DiacoD. Chron. Caainea. I. iii, c. 49) compoae tile
         Greek army of 170.000 meD. but that the 1tIm4ml _y be Itrack .,.

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                   OP THR ROMAN BHPIlt&                                       ~89

of five hundred miles. His troops were levied CHAP.
jn Europe and Asi~, from to the ••:~~...
Black sea; his majesty was displayed in the
~ih'1l' a~Dls and rich trappings of the· com-
p.~l!if?s of horse-guards.; and the emperor wB;s.
!II~~nd~d by a train of nobles and princes, some
pf whom, in rapid succession, had been clothed
with" the purple, and were indulged by the l~
pity of the times in a life of affluence and dig-
llity. ';rheir youthful ardour might animate -
~Iie multitude; but their love of pleasure and
contempt of subordination were pregnant with
~isorder and misch~"!f; and their importunate
.clamours for speedy and decisive action discon-
.certed the prudence 9f Alexius, who might
~~ve surrounded and starved the besieging ar'"
my. The enumeration of provinces recals a
sad comparison of the past and present limits
of the Roman world: the raw levies were drawn
together in haste and rerror; and the garrisons
~f Anatolia, or Asia Minor, had been purchased .
by the evacuation of the cities which were im-
mediately occupied by the Turks. The strength
of the Greek army consisted in the Varangians,
the Scandinavian guards, whose numbers were
recently augmented by .a colony of exiles and
volunteers from the British islan~ of Thule.~
 Under the yoke Of the Norman conqueror, the
Danes and English were oppressed and unit-
aad that Halatura oaly ,('ckoaa 70,000: a slight iaatteation. The
pa.aage to whieh he alludea i. in the Chronicle of Lnpul Protolpata
(Soript. Itat. tom. Y, p. 45). Malaterra (I. iv, c. 2'1) apeab io high,
'at iadeflaite, terms of the emperor. cum eopiia innumerllbilibua: lib
tile Apaliaa poet (t. iY, p. 272) :                              --
-              Morc)ocutuum moatn et plaaa teguatar.
   VOL. X.                          11

                                                            Digitized by   Google
too                        THE DECLINE AND FALL
. CHAP.   eel: a band ofadventuroos youthH resolnd to
_~~~: •• desert a land of slavery; the sea was open to
         their escape; and, in their long pilgrimage,
         they 'Yisited ,every coast that afforded any hope
         of liberty and re'Yenge. They were ent~rt~11t
         eel in the service of ~he Greek emperor; and
         their firl!lt station was in a new city on the Asia-
         tic shore: but Alexius 800n recalled them to
         the defence of his person and palace; and b&o
         queathed to his successors the inheritance of
         their faith and valour.- The name ofa Norman
         invader revived the memory of their wrongs:
         they marched with alacrity against the nation.
         al foe, and paI)ted to regain, in Epirus, the
         glory which they had lost in the battle of Has;.
         tingl!l. The Varangians were supported by
         some companies of Franks or Latins; and the
         rebels, who had fled to Constantinople from the
         tyranny of Guiscard, were eager to signalise
         their zeal and gra,tify their revenge. In tbi.
         em,ergency the emperor had not disdained the
         impure aid of the paulicians or manichrean8 of
         Thrace and Bulgaria; and these heretics united
         with the patience of martyrdom, the .pirit and
         discipline of active .valour.· The treaty with
         the sultan had procured a supply of some thon.
         sand Turks; and the arrows of the Scythian
         horse were opposed to the lances of the Nor.
         man cavalry. On the report and distant pros-

             • See Willillm or MalmJbury de Geati. AII"lomm, I. ii, p. n. Alu-
          Ius fidem An,lorum lo.c:ipien. praeipui. ramiliaritatibu. ruia eo. ap-
          ,lieabat, amorem orum filio tran.eriben.. OderieUl Vitalia (HiM.
          hln.l. iv, p. IiOtl, I. vii. p. 641) relatel their emigration rrom En,.
          land, and their len iee in Grl'ee~.       ,
              ~ See the Apuliaa,J. i, p. 1li6. The ehllneterand Itory .(tbne ....
           nichaan. haa been the lubject of'the 64th chapter        .:       -

                                                     Digitized by   Google
                    OF THE ltOMAN EMPIIt..                                      J91
"peet of these formidable                numb~nJI, ~oberta.- ,CHAP.
   sembled a coucH of his principal' 04icers.- ~~~~~.
-" You behold," said he, "your duger-: it is
   " Ul'gent and inevitable. The hills are covered
   " with arms and standards ;' a.nd the emperor
   ~. of tile G"eeks is &ccllstomed to ·wars -and
   C4 triumphs. 'Obedience and union ue .our on-
   ce iysafety; aDd I am read,. to yield the eom-
  ·4-'maDcl t& 'a more wortby leader." 1'he v-ore
 ,and ..cclaliDMioII~ 6v.en of hiB e&emiel!l,
 uBored lim, ill tltat peritMs mOment,             theil'     of
@~e. and confidence '; and the duke thus
 ..coDl€mued ~ ~'Let us trust, • the re'wards ot
 -SIC ~iectory, and .dep~e .eGwardice d     the OleaRS
  ~, of escape" Let us ~bU.rD'ollr"esseJi and 08,r
." baggage, ~d give battie.01J. this sp~t, as if it
,'" ' ilbeplace,G)four iativity amll ou..' burial."
  'iJ'rhe resolution wuun8l1imously a'ppro:ved;
aed without confming'him.selfto hi.linel, Guis-
.ean:I awaited in battle.array the nearer approach
,of the enemy. His reBl' was cOl'ered by a SIIla]l
-ri~er '; his right wing extended to the -sea; his
 lefttp the hills : nor was he COUciODS, per-
  haps, that on the same ground Cresar and Pom-
'pey bad formerly disputed the empire of the
  wOJ'ld. c                ,
       Against the advice of bis wisest captains, Battle of
  Alex.ius resolved to risk the event .of a ,gen~al ~u:';:·l.
  action, and exhorted the garrison of' Duraz,z9 g,~tober
  io assist their own deliverance by a weU~tir;lled
 .sany from the town. He marched in t-w'O co..
  , See tbe simple,and ma~terly narrative of C81Har binuelf {Comment.
de ~e!J. Civil. iii, 41-7.5). It is a pity tbat Qlliutu. leilius ~M. Guil.
ellard) did not live to allalys~ these qperatioDI, lUI be has ,doDe $-
campaigD' of Afl'ica aDd !tl'ain                                      ',

                                                             Digitized by   Google
202                          THE DECLINE AND FALL
CHAP.    luL.'tns to surprise the Normans before da,-
.1"::,:- bl"~ak on two different sides: his light cavalry
         was f'cattered over the plain: the archers form-
         ed the second line ;an4 ,the Varangians claim-
        oed tbe bonours of- the ,van-guard. In ·the. first
         onset, the battle-axes of: the strangers made a
         deep and bloody impression on the army of
         Guiscard, which was' ,now _reduc~d, to fifteen
         thousand men. The Lombards and Calabrians
        ,ignominiously turned their backs; they fled
         towards the river and the sea; but- the bridge
         had heen broken down to c'heck the sally of
         the garrison, and the coast was lined with the
         Venetian galleys, who played their engines
         among the disorderly throng. On the verge
         of ruin, they were saved by the spirit and cou-
         duct of their chiefs~ ,Gaita, the wife of Robert,
         is painted by the Greeks as a warlike Amazon,
         a second Pallas; less -skilful in arts, but not
         less terrible in arms, than the Athenian god-
         dess:· though wounded by. an arrow, she
         stood her ground, and strove, by her exhorta-
         tion and example, to raJly th,e. flying troopS.41~
              ·1T&Mac' all.,...... ,... A9m, which i.'nry properly traDal.ted by the
           preaident Cousin (Hilt. de Conltautinople, tom. iv, p. Ill, in 12mo),
           qui combattoit cOlOme une Pall.., qlloi'luelle ne ({it p. . .oui "nDte
           que celle d·A.~ne•. ' The 6recian goddeal wal eompol~d of t_ dilo
           cordant ebllraclen; of N ~itb, the workwoman of Saia in Egypt, and
           of a virgin Amazo. of tbe Tritoniau Lake in Lybia (Banier, Mythol..
           • Ie, tom. iv, p. 1.11, in 12mo).
              • Anna Comnen. (I. iv, p. 116) admirel, with lome df'cree of terrw,
           Iter m..culiDe virtue.. Tbl'Y were more familiar til tbe Latina; aM
           tbongh tbe Apolian (1. iv,p.21S)m.ntio.,ber preaence aDdhenrOllDd,
           lie repreaent. ber al far Ie.. iDtrepid-
                      Uxor iD hoc beDo Itoberti forte Agittl
                      QuAdam IlNa fuit r flllO "olDera Itrrit4 BOIIaJD
                       Dum .perabat opem Ie pelle nbqwal hOili.
            'I'll. t.t ilu UDluCQ word (or a female Jriaoaer.

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                            OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                               293
     Her female voice was s.econded by the more'                                        CHAP.
     powerful voice and arm of the Norman duke,
                                                                                     . . . # • •, • • • •

     as calm in action as he was magnanimous in
     council: "Whither," he cried aloud, " whither
     " do ye fly? your enemy is implacable; and
     " death is less grievous than servitude." The
    moment was decisive: as the Varangians ad-
•    vanced before the line, they discovered the na.
    kedness of their flanks; the main battle of the
     duke, of eight hundred knights, stood firm and
    entire; they couched their lances, and the'
    Greeks deplore the furious and irresistible-
    shock of the French cavalry.' Alexius was·
    not deficient in the duties of a. soldier or a ge-
    neral; but he no sooner beheld the slaughter
    of the Varangians, and the flight of the Turks,
    than he despised his subjects .and despaired of
    his fortune. The princess Anne, who drops a
    tear on this melancholy, event, is ,reduced to
    praise the tltrength and swiftness of her fathel"s                                  i

    horse, and 'his vigorous struggle, when he was
    almost overthrown by' the stroke of a lance,
    which had shivered the imperial. helmet. His
    desperate valour broke th~ough a squadron of
    Franks who opposed his flight'; and,' after
    wandering two days and as Dlany nights in the
    mountains, he found some' repose of body~
    though not of mind,. in the walls of Lychnidus.
    The victorious Robert reproached .the tardy

      , Aft .....'.,., ~ ..,..,..,.,..... fM&"~ " - . " ...,., tr,.,-m ...........
    •_ _ 1                                       p. US); and elleillhere
          .......' ..... ItA..... aRMlrtC'l'(Alllla,1.   Y,
    ... ,.., Jto."", .,., ..., ...~     ,...,.~                      ••
                                                 .,,.... &AI ...,., B , ,,"If (po
    140). The pedantry of the priDeeu in the ehCliee of d appella-
    tion., encouraged i)_cup to apply til hi. eOlUltrymen tJae chal'aeae..
    eI the aDeient Gull.

                                                                   Digitized by   Google
"     .
29"                          THE DECLINE AND FALL
  CHI\P, and feeble pt1fsuit which had suffered tbe
...~:~:~. escape of so illustrious a prize; but he con·
           soled his disappointment by the trophies and
          standards of the field, the wealth and luxury
          of the Byzantine camp, and' the glory of de....
          feating an army five times more numerous tban'
          his own. A ll1Jl1ltitl1d'e of Italians had been
           the victims of their own fears; but only thirty                              •
          of his knights were slain in this memorable
          day. In the Roman hO$tl the Joss, of Greeks~
          Turks, and English. amounted to. five or six
          thousand:' the plain of Durazzo was stained
          ....ith noble and royal b100d; and the end of.
          the impostor Michael was more honourable
          than his life.
Durano,        It is more than probable that G~iscard was
~~~~i0l2. not' afilicted by the J0815 of a costly pageant,
Feb. II.  which had merited only the conteolpt and de-
           rision of the Greeks. After their defeat tbey
          still perseVered iu the defence of Durazzo; and
          a Venetian commander supplied the place of
          George, Palreologus, who had been imprudent-
          ly called away from his station. The tents of
          the'besiegerswere CODyerted into barracks, to
          sustain the inclemency of the winter; and in
          answer to the defiaDce of the pmlon, Robert
          insinuated, that his patience was at least equal
          to t~eir obstinacy.· PerhablShe already trust-.
             • Lupus Protolpata (tom.   ni,   p. (5) 'laYI 6000; "n8m   the Apulia...
          more thaD 1000 (I. iY, p.ITa). Tbeir modelty ia .iulular aDd lauda·
          hIe: tbe, migbt witb.o littlet....ble han 'IIain t~1t • tluM ..,nads
          of Ichismatic. aDd iufide"!
            L The Romau. had chaged ~ inIl..,.i~            ....   ,
                                                                 "j i41!i ..... til
          Dyrracbium (Plia. iii, tS); and tbe .ulpt' eormptiob of Doracill.B
          (see Malaterrll) bore lome alinity t9 ,...--., Ollie of Robert'. nalll&:.
          was DllI'and, a dlirNO: poor wit! (Albuic. MolIIIdI. iD Ch,OD. ap''''
          Jdurlltol'i Annali d'ltalia, tom. ill, p. 1117).

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               QF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                            291
   eel to his secret corr~spondence with a Vene~ CH;lP.
   tian noble, who sold the city for a rich and hO-_"~~~~"#4
   Bourable marriage. .At the dead of night se-
   veral rope-ladders were dropped from thewalls;
   the light Calabrians ascended in silence; and
   the Greeks were awakened by the name and
   trumpets of the conqueror. Yet they defend-
   ed the street three days against an enemy al-
  ready master of the rampart; and near seven
  months elapsed between the first inve~tment
  and the final surrender of the place. From
  Durazzo, the Norman duke advanced into the
  heart of I!pirus or Albania; traversed the first
. mountains of Thessaly; surprised three hun-
  dred English in the city of Castoria; approach-
  ed Thessalonica; and made Constantinople
  tremble. A more pressing duty suspended
  the prosecution of his ambitious designs. By
  shipwreck, pestilence, and the sword', his army
  was reduced to a third of the original numhers ;
  and instead of being recruited from Italy, he
  was informed, by plaintive epistles, of the mis-
  chiefs and dangers which had been produced
  by his absence: the revolt of the cities and
  barons of Apulia; the distress of the pope;
  and 'the approach or invasion of Henry king of
  Germany. Highly presuming that his person Rttam of
  was sufficient for the public safety; be repassed !o::~
  the sea in a single brigantine, and left the re- ::b!.:~a"
  mains of the army under the command of his
 son and the Norman counts, exhorting Bohe-
  mond to respect the freedom of his peers, and
  the counts to obey the authority of their lead-
  er The son of Guiscard trod ip the footsteps

                                            Digitized by   Google
t96                           THR DECLINE AND FALL!"
CHAP.       ol his lather; and the two destroyers are com-
_ ..~~;.... pared, by the Greeks, to the caterpillar and
            the Jocust, the last of whom d~vours whatever
            has escaped the teeth of the former! After
            winning two battles against the empe'"or, he
            descended into the plain of Thessally, and be-
            sieged Larissa, the fabulous realm of Achilles,t
            which contained the treasure and magazines of
            the Byzantine camp. Yet a just praise must
            Dot be refused to the fortitude and prudence
            of Alexius, who bravely struggled with the ca-
            lamities of the times .. In the poverty of the
            state, he presumed to borrow the supe,rlluoos
            ornaments of the churches; the desertion ot
            the mani~h~ans was supplied by some tribes'
            of Moldavia; a reinforcement of seven thou-
            sand Turks replaced and revenged the loss of
            their brethren; and the Greek soldiers were
            exercised to ride. to draw the bow, and to the
            daily practice of ambul!Scades and evolutions~
            Alexius had been taught by experience, that
            the formidable cavalry of the Franks on foot
            was unfit for action, and almost ,incapable                                 of
            motion ;1 his archers were directed to aim their
            I BCIIXBr .'"...,.!., """ .,"'C • .,..lIC " ....,. •• , Wlf (Annl, 1. I, p. II).
         By the.e limilel, 10 difi"t'rent from those of Homer, ahe wilhel to ia.
        apire contt'mpt I' well a. horror for tbe little ROllieu. Inimal, I eoa-
        .aeror. MOlt anfortana.ely, tbe common lenle, or commOD DO_
        IeDle, of mankind, re.ilta ber lloadable delip.
           II          Prodiit hAc aactor Trojane "Iadi. Arbillea;
        The lappotitioD of the A pllliaD (I. y, p. 1'15) ml,. be ezc:ull'd by tile
        more cluaie poetry of Virgil (.EDeid II, 191), LariuaIll Achille., bll
        .t ia Dot jaltified by tbe ,eognphy of Homer•.
            1 The ..'" nI,).", ,,~.. wbieh encllmbered the kDig"*' 011 f<lot,
        I)lYe bteDi,norllltly trall.lated Ipllr. (AliDa COmDeDa, Alniu, I. "
        p. 140)., 'nllelDge hal explained tbe Ime len.e by • ridiclllons IDd
         IneJi8naient fubioD, lI'laiela luted from the el~YeDtb to the fiftHnt'

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                      OF   TiD    ROM AX DlPIU.                                          297,
  arrows at the horse rather than the man; and CHAP. ~
 a variety of spikes and snates was scattered .._~~~:....
 over the ground on which he might expect an
 attack. In the neighbourhood of Larissa the
 events of war were protracted and balanced.'
 The courage of Bohemond was always con.pi-
 cuous, and often successful; but his camp was
 pillaged by a stratagem of the' Greeks; the
 city was impregnable; and the venal or dil-
 contented counts deserted his standard, betray-
 ed their .t~usts, and enlisted in the service of
 the emperor. Alexius returned to Constanti-
 nople with the advantage, raiher tban the ho.·
 nour, of victory. After evacuating the con-
 quests which he could no longer defend, the
 80n of Guiscard embarked for Italy, and was
 embraced by a father who esteemed his merit,
 and sympathised in his misfortune.
    Of the Latin princes, the aUiel of Alexius, nrrmp..
            .      R                              ror HrDf,
 and enemIes of obert, the most prompt and Ill. ioYil-
 powerful was Henry the third or fourth, king :tr~.\!~e
 of Germany and Italy, and future emperor OfA.D.IWI.
 the West. The epistle of the Greek monarch-
 to his brother is filled with the warmest pro-
 fessions of friendship, and the most lively de-
 sire of strengthening their alliance by every
 public and private tie. He congratulates Hen
'ry on his success in a just and pious war, and
Cl!8tury. Tllese praka, 18 the (orm of a IrorploD. were aometimel tw.
feet, and faltened to the knee with a silver el:.ain.
   • Til,. epi~t1eo itstl' (Ah'xiB', I. iii, p. 9S, 04,95), well dtlernl,to be
read. TIIere is' ODe expression, .."'C.... ,..&'"     .... ,......
                                                    ~.~.,.       ;JCCW..... whie.
Dunnee doe. not understand, I havr endeavollreod to grope out a to-
lerable meaning: XC ...." ...., i. a Bolden crown; D"'C''''''puc, I, explain-
I'd b, Simeoon Porliu. (in Lni~o Gneco, Barbar.), b)" 1C1f_....,.,.." a
8aah of li&hlning.

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~98                         THE D"IJNE AND ULL.
CHAP.       complains' that the. prol!lp,rity of his own em-
..~,:~~;.., pire is disturbed by the audacious enterprises
            of· the N orIOan Robert. The list· of his pre-
            sents expresses the manners of the age, a ra-
            dia.ted crOWD. of gold, a crosl set with pearls to
           ,hang on the breast, a cas~ of relics, with the
            namell and ti(le8 of the saints, a vase of crystal,
            a vase of sardonyx, SOnIe balm, most probably
            of Mecca, aud one hundred pieces of purple.
            To these he added a more solid present, of one
            hundred and fotty-four thousand Byzantines
            of gold, with a farther assurance of two .hun-
            dred and sixteen thousand, so soon as Henry
           should have entered in arms the Apulian ter-
           ritories, and confirmed by an oath the league
           against the common enemy. The Gennan,·
           who was already in Lombardy at the head of
            an army and a faction, accepted these liberal
           offers, and marched towards the south; his
           speed was checked by the sound of the battle
           of Durazzo; but the influence of his arms or
           name, in the haHty return of Robert, was a full
           equivalent for the Grecian ,bribe. Henry was
           the severe adversary of the Normans, the allies
           aud vassals of Gregory the seventh, his impla-
           cable foe. The long quarrel of the throne and
           mitre had been recently kindled by the zeal
           .nd ambition of that haughty priest:· the king
          • For these leJleral eyenu I mUit refer to the Ceneral hiitorianJ 5i·
        ,oninl, Baroninl, Muratori, Mo.heim, St. Marc, ""c.
          o Tbe Iivea of Gre,ory VII. are eitber legend. or inYeeti ... (St.
        Marc, AbreC6. tom. iii, p.131i, ""c.); and hi, miraculoua or magical
        performance. are alike incredible to a modern reader. He wiD, ..
        .. nal. finll lome inltruction in I.e Clerc (Vie de HiJdebrud, Bibli.,.

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              or THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                    299
 and ihe pope had degraded each other; and CHAP.
each had seated a rival on the temporal or spi- _ ..~~~: ...
ritual throne of his antagonist. After the de-
feat and death of his Swabian rebel, Henry de-
scended into' Italy, to assume the imperial
crown, and to drive from the Vatican the ty-
rant of the church." But the Roman people
adhered to the cause of Gregory: their resolu-
tion was fortified by supplies of men 'and mo-
ney from Apulia; and the city was thrice in-
etectuany besieged by the king of Germany.
In the fourth year he corrupted, as it is said, Bealege.
with Byzantine gold, the nobles of Rome, !o:.e;~l_
whose estates and castles ~ad been ruined by !~: 1084,
the war. The gates, the brIdges, and fifty hos- March 21,
tages, were deli,ered into his hands: the an-                                   ==::.
tipope, Clement the third, was consecrated
in the Lateran: the grateful pontiff crowned
his protector iii the Vatican; and the emperor
Henry fixed his residence in ~he capitol, as the
lawfulanccessor of Augustus and Charlemagne.
The ruins of the Septizonium were still defend-
ed by the nephew of Gregory: the pope him-
lelf was invested in the castle of St. Angelo;
and his last hope was in the courage and fide.
lity o't his Norman vassal. Their friendship
A.cienne et modem., tom. YliO,and much amuementia Bayle (Die-
tionnaire Critique, Gf'tgow, VII). The pope wu undoubtedly .,reat
DIan, a second Athanuinl, in. more fortunate age of the eharch_
MilY I preillme to add, that the portrait St. Athanuinl ia one of the
paullgu in my hiltory (vol. iii, p.l66, Icc.) with which I am th.leut
   • Anna, with the ranconr of. Greek lehlarnatie, calli him """1I'nf'Ir
lUTetc lI&... (I. i, p. Ill), a pope, or prielt, worthy to be .plt UpOD; and
aeellae. him of "ourcine, Ihuin" perbap. of eatrating, the amba.-
.adora of Henry (p. II, II). But thil outrage i. improbable and
duubtful (lee the aeaaible pr .rae. of

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, 300                          THE DECLINE AND FALL'

   CHAP.    had been int('rr~lpted by some reciprocalinju-
  .!~!:- ries and complaints; but, on this presl!ling oc-
            casion, Guiscardwas urged by the obligation
            of his oath, by his interest, more potent than
            oaths, by the love of fame, and his enmity to
            the two emperors. .Unfurling the holy banner,
            he resolved to fiy to the. relief of the prince of
            the apostles: the most numerous of his armies,
            six thousand horse, and thirty thousand foot,
            was instantly assembled; and his march from
            Salerno to Rome was animated by the public
            applause and the promise of the divine favour.
            Henry, invincible in sixty-six battles, trembled
            at. his approach: recollected some indispensa-·
            ble aWairs that required his presence in Lom-
            bardy; exhorted the 'Romans to persevere in
  Flie. be- their allegiance ; and hastily retreated three
  fore Ro-
  bert;     days before the entrance of the.Normans. In
            less .than three years, the son of Tancred of
            Hauteville enjoyed the glory of delivering the
            pope, and of compelling the two emperors of
            the East and West to fiy before his victorious
            arnis.q But th~ triumph of Robert was cloud-
            ed by the.calamities of Rome. By the aid of
            the friends of Gregory, the walls had been per-
            forated or scaled'; but the imperial faction was
            still powerful and active; on the third day,
            the people rose in a furious tumult; and an
             •                   lic 1I.DO tempore yicti
                       SUDt terna Domini doo: rex AlemaDDicD' i.te,
                       Imperii rector Romaui maxi Will iIIe.
                       Alter ad arma rueDI armi. lopl:rator; et alter
                       Nomioi. aoditi .011 rorruidine eeuit.
           It It .ingnlar I:DOIIJl:h, that tbe Apulian, a Latin, .llOuld di.tinpiah tbe
           Greek u the ruler or tbe Roman empire (I. jy. p. lI74).

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                   OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                     30 I
 hasty word of the conqueror, in his defence. 3r CHAP.
 revenge, waH the signal of fire and pillage.'- ....~~~~:. ..
 The Saracens of Sicily, the subjects of Roger,
 and auxiliaries of bis brother, embraced this
 fair occasion of rifling and profaning the holy
 city o(thechristians: lDany thousands of th~
 ~itizens, in the sight, and by the allies, of their
 spiritual father, were exposed to violation, cap-
,tivity, or death; and a spacious quarter of the
city, from the Lateran to the Colise11lD, walt
 consuQl~d by the flames, and devoted to per-
· solitude.. From a city, where he was
 now hated, and might be no longer feared, Gre-
gory retired to end his days in the palace of
 Salerno. The artful pontiff might :flatter the
 vanity of Guiscard, with the hope of a noman
 or imperial crown; but this dangerous measure,
 which' would have inflamed the ambition of the
 N orman, must for ever have alienated the most
faithful princes of Germany.
    The deliverer and scourge of Rome might Second
 have indulged himself in a season of repose' expedition
                                                   'of Robert
but in the same year of the flight of the Ger- ~to .
man emperor, the indefatigable Robert resum- "'~~;084 .
e d t he deSlgn 0 f h' eastern conquestN. Th e October.
             ·       IS
zeal or gratitude of ~regory had promised t~
  r The narratin of Malaterra (I. iii. e.17, p.587, 588) il autbentic,
circumllotial. and fur. Dult ipem tllclamaDi urbe incnn, &c.-
The Apulian IOften. tbe milcmef (inde qtlihMl_ adiblll exiati_),
which i. a,alu exaa,erated in lOme partial chronicle. (Muratori An-
Dali, tom. ix, p. 1'7).
   • After mentioning tbil denltation, tbe· J~IUit Donato, (de Ruma
nteri et Dova, I. i" c. 8, p • .&89). prettily add. Duraret hodirque JD
o.lio DloDte ioterqoe iplomet capitolillDl milerabili. faciel prollra_
.rbia, uiai in horrorom ,luetarumque, amaaitatem Roma relorruillet
 vt ,erpetul ,iriditate cODtee-ret '0111.... at ruinu 111810

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aoi                        THE. DECLINE ARn FALL
 CHAP.    bis valour- the kingdoms of Greece and Asia ;~
_._~~~:•• his troops were assembled in arms, flushed with
          success, and eager for action. Their numbers,
          in the language of Homer, are compared by
          Anna to a swarm of bees;- yet the utmost aBd
          moderate limits of the powers ofGuiseard haYe
          beeDalready defined; they were contained OD
          this second occasion in 8De hundred and t'W~
          ty vessels; ud as the sea&Oll. was far advanced,
          tbe harbGor of Brundusiwa was' preferred to

         the open road of Otranto. Ale.xitU, apprehen-
          sive of a second attack, .had assiduously la-
          boured to restore the Baval .forces of the em-
          pire ; and obtained from therepuhlic of Venice
          an important succonr of tbirty-six transports,
          fourteen galleys, aDd nine. galeots or ships of
          extraordinary strength .and magnitude. Their
         -services .were liberally :paid by the licence or
         ~lJonopoly of trade, a profitable giit of many
          shops and houses. ill the .pDrt ef ConatanDnOr
             • Tb~ royalty of Robert, either promiled, or bestowed, by' the Jlllpe
         -(Anna,.I. i, p. II), Illafticiendy confirmed by the ApoUan (I. iY, po
                    Romani repi lihi promiliae coronam.:
                    Papa felebator.·
           Nor can I undentaDd .wby Greller, and the otbu papal adyoeUftt
          Ihould be displfued 1I'ith tbiJ ncw illltance of apoltolic jurildic-
          tion •
             .. See Homer, Iliad B. (I hate this pedantic mode of lIootation by
          the letten of tbe Greek alpbabet) 81, Icc. Hia hee. are the imap 01
          a dilorderly crowd: th"ir di.eipline and public·works seem t" be the
          ideas ora later life (Virgil .Eneid, L i).
             a GuiIielm. Appnloa, I. Y, p. m. 'Fhelldmirable port of BrnDd.·
          .iam wal double; tbe outward barbour was a gulf! covered by •
          illand, and narrowin, by degreH, till it cCllllmnnieated by a .mall gn).
          Irt witb tbe inner harbour, wbich embraced tbe city on both .idH_
 and nature Iuwe Iabllllred for itl nlln; and apinlt lucb apa..,
          wbat are thefeeble·tIft"ortl o(tbe Neapolitan t{o\OCl'lJment:P (Iwiaba'"
           TranI. ia the Two 8ieilia, Yel. i. po .....

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                   . op mE liOMAN EMPIltE.                                           ~)Oa
pie, and a tribute to St. Marc, tbe more accep- CHAP.
table as it was the produce of a ,tax on their ..:~~:...
rivals of Amalphi. By the union of the Greeks
and Venetians, the Adriatic was covered with
an hostile Beet; but their own neglect, or tbe
'Vigilance of Robert, the change ofa wind, 01'
the shelter of a mist, opened a free passage;
and the Norman troops were safely disembark-
ed on the coast of Epirus. With twenty strong
and well-appointed galleys. their intrepid duke
immediately sought the enemy, and though
~ore accustomed to fight on horseback, he
trusted bis own life, and the lives. of his bro~
ther and two sons, to the event of a naval com-:-
bat. The dominion of tbe sea was disputed
in three engagements, in sight of the island or
C~r(u: in the two former, the skill and numb~r
of the allies were snperior; but in the third,
the Normans obtained a final and complete
victory.' Tbe light brigantines of the Greek.
were scattered in ignominious fligot: the nine
castles of the Venetians maintained a more ob
stinat~ conflict; seven were sunk, two were                                      I

taken; two thousand five bundred cap~iv~s
implored in vain the mercy sf the victor; and
the daughter of Alexius deplores the loss of
thirteen thousand of his subjects or a1lies.~
The want of experience bad been supp1i~d :by
• 'I William of A pulia (I. 't', p. 2711) d~acribel the 't'ictory of the Nor-
mana, and forgeta the two prnioul defeata, which are diligently reo
eorded by Anna Comnena (I. vi, p. UII, 160, 161). In b~r tum, ahe
inyenta or magnifiel a fonrth action, to live the V.netianuevenge anel
rewarda. Their own feelinga were far difrertnt, linte they depOied
their doge, propter exeidium atoli (Dandnlu in Cbrou.inMuratori,
·.cript. R.rum Italicarnm, tom. xii, p. 2411).

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304                        TIlE DECLINE AND PALL
           the genius of Guiscard; and each evening,
                             ""      "
__.._:... when he had sounded a retreat, he calmly ex-
.          plored the c,auses of his repulse, and invented
           new methods how to remedy his oWll "defects,
           and" to batHe the advantages of'the enemy.-
           The winter s~aso~ suspended bia progress:
           with the return" of spring lie again aspired to
           ~he conquest of Constantinople; but, instead
           of traversing the hills. of Epiru8, he turned his
           arms against Greece "and the islands,.where the
           spoils woule) repay the labour, and where the
           land and se"a forces might pursue tlleir joint
           operations with vigour and effect. But, in the
           isle of Cephalonia, hi" projects were fatally
           blasted by an epidemical disease; Ro bert him-
           self, in the seventieth year of his age, expired
           1D his tent; and a suspicion of poison was im-
       - puted, by public rumour, to his" wife, or to the
Bia death, Greek emperor." This premature death might
;.d~ :~, allow a boundless scope for th"e imagination
           of his future exploits: and the event su"flicient-
           Iy declares, that the Norman greatness was
           founded on, bis life.a "Without the appearance
             • ne mOlt authentic wiiten, William of Apulia (1.~, 277), Jeffrry
         Malaterra (I. iii; c. 41, p.I89), and Romauld of Salerno (Chron. ia
         Muratori, Script. Rerum Ital. tom. vii), are ignorant of thil crime, ..
         apparent to onr countrymen William of Malmlbury (1. iii, p. 107),
         and Roger de Honden (p. 710, ia Script. POlt Bedam) : and the latter
          can tell, ho" the jUlt Alclliul aiarried, crowned, and burnt alin, hia
         female accomplice. The Engliah historian fa inderd 10 blind, that he
          rankl Robert Guilcard, or Wilcard, among the kui,hta of HeDI'1I,
         wllo ascended the throne fifteen yean after the dake~of Apulia..
             • Tht joyful Anna Comnena scatters aomt Sowe" onr the gran of
         IlII enemy (Alexiad, I. ~, p. 162-166); and hia beat praise is tbe estf~m
         uti _en'1  or   WUliam the conqueror, tbe lonreiln of his l'amily.-
                     ----                                                  Grecia


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                     OF THE KOMAN           'EM~IRE.,                                  305
 of an enemy, a victorious al'my di$pers~d or re- CHAP.
 trell:ted in disorder and consternation; and A- ...:~..~'"..
 lexius, who had trembled for his empire, re-
joiced in his' deliverance. The galley which
 transported'the:rernains of Guiscard was ship-
 wrecked on the Italhm shore ; but the duke's
 body ,was recovered from tbe se,a, and deposit.'
ed in the sepulchre: of! 'Venu~i!l," a ,place more!
 illustrious 'for t~e birth, of I;lora,ce,c than, for
the burial of the N orml\n heroes •. ' Roger, his
second son and successor,: i,m:m~diate)y sunk
to the humble station.                 'of
                              a: duke' of A:pulia:
the esteem o~ partiality of hi's, father left the
valiant' ,Bohemond 'to the in,her.~ta~ce of his
tlword. The national tranqujUity was disturb·
ed by his claims, till the fir~,t, crusade against
the infidels of the east op~ned a more splendid
field of glory and conquest.·             '      '
    Of human life. the IIJost glorious or hnmLleReign and
pro spec t s are 'l'k an d soon b oun d ed 'L y t h eol ROler,
                   ale                                ambition

sepulchre. The male line of Robert G uiscard ~~~~tt of
was extinguished, both in Apulia and at An_Sicily.
  .       .                    .
tIoc h• In the secon d generatIon;, b ut, hO youn-:.1l64,1101
                                                      A. D.
                ,                                                                 Feb. 211.

 Gnecia (aay. Malaterra) hOltibu. recedeutibul libera 11llta quievit;
 ,A. plIlia tota sin (' labria torbatur.
     ~           Vrbl VenUliua Bitet,tanti. decorata .epu)cbris,
ilone of the lalt linel of the Apulian'l poem (I. v, p. 278). William
of Malmlbury (I. iii, p. 107) inlerta an epitaph on Guileard, which is
Dot wortb transcribing.
     C Yet Horace had few obliptionl to Vennlia: he was carried tr;

Rome in hil childhood, (Serm. i, 6); and hi. repeated aIIusioDI to the
doubtful limit of Apulia and LucilDia(Caml. iii,4, Semi. ii, 1) are
'ubworthy of hi. ,.,e and genin..        •
     • See Giannone (tom. ii, p. 88·93), lind the bistoriam of tile fint o!ru-
    VOL. X

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06                          ''IRE DECLINE AND lI'ALI.t
HAP.    ger brother became the father of a line of
~:~~;" kings; and the son of the great count was en
        dowed with the name, the conquests, and the
        spirit of the first Roger.· The heir of that Nor-
        man adventurer was born in Sicily; and, at
      . the age of only four years, he succeeded to the .
        sovereignty of the island, a lot which reason
        might envy, could she indulge for a moment
        the visionary, though virtuous, wish of domi·
       nion. Had Roger been content with his fruit·
       ftil patrimony, an happy and grateful people
       might have blessed their benefactor; and, if a
       wise administration·could have restored the
       prosperous times of the Greek colonies,' the
       opu lence and/power of Sicily alone might have
       eq ualled the widest scope that could be ac-
       quired and desolated by the sword of war.-
       But the ambition of the great count was igno-
       rant of these noble pursuits; it. was gratified
      by the vulgar means of violence and artifice.-
       He sought to obtain the undivided possession
      of Palermo, of which one moiety had been ced..
      ed to the elder branch; struggled to enlarge

          • The reign of Roger, and the Norman kille' of Sicily, fill. (Ollt
       books ctfthe Iatoria Ciyile of Gianllollf (tom. Ii, I. xi lIiv, p. UJG-S40).
       and i••pread ever tbe 9th aud 10th yolumes of the Italian Annal. 01
       l\furatori. In the Bibliolht'qlle Italiqlie (tom. i, p. tn.2ft" Ifiad au
       1I~t'fhJ abstract o( Capecelatro, a modern Neapolitan, 111'110 has rem.
       posed, in two volumes, the history of hi. countr y from Roger I, t.
       Jo'rederie: II, inclulive.          .
         , According to the te.timflny of Pbililtlll and Diodorus, the: tyrant
       DiDaYliul of Syracule could maintain a standing (orce of 10,000 bonl',
       100.000 foot, and 4!10 ,allir.. Compare Hllme (Easty., vol. i, p.1fI8,
       415) and hil advenary Wallace (Numben of I\laukind, p., lOG, 107).
       The ruins of AerigrDtum are the tbrmr of evcry truellrr, d'OfyilJe.
       Rl'ide.el, Swinburne,  "'It.

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                   OF TIlE ROMA.lf EMPIJlE.                                    .307
llis Calabrian li.wits beyond the measure of CHAP.
former treaties; and impatiently watched the u~~:
declining health ot'his co.usin William of Apu.
lia, the :grandsoD of Robert. On the fi.rst in- Duke of                               ,
telligence of his prematnre cieatb~ Boger .sailed !P:~iii                        ..
from Palermo with seven gaUies, cast anchor
in the bay of Salemo, received, .after ten da1s
.negotiation, au oath of fidelity foom the N or-
man capital, commaaded the submission of the
·barons, aad extorted a legal iuvestiture from
 the reluctant popes, who could not long endure
-either the friendship or enmity of a powerful
 vassaL The sacred. spot of Beaeveato was re-
 spectfully spared, as the patrimony of St. Pe-
ter; bllt the re.dudiOfl of Capa and Naples
 oompleted the deQgn of bis .\lDde Guiscard ;
 and tbe SDle ia8erilapee of ah:eNorman con-
 qnest.. was pBueued by the "iet,o,riou8 Roger. -
 A conscious superiority of power and merit
 prompted him to ,disdain ~ titles-of duke and
 of -count; ad the isle of Sioil,., with ,a third
 perbaps of the eoatiDeIItoiltaly, might form
 tile basis.u a kingfiom' which W:lluld only yield
~to the DlODarchies ,cil' Fl.'3nce and EngJaDd.-
.T.~ daiefs of the .nation 'W.80 attended his co-
  ronation at Palermo might doubtless pro-
 Df)Jmceunder "ht Dame he should reign over
 'tbem; but the example of aGfoeek tyrant or a

   • A eon temporary IalttorillD·of the acta orROFr Irom .lIe y.tar 1117
 '0 lUI. fonDdllJil1itle .. Iberit aDd power, tile_eDt of -tlte baroDI,
-MId lIIte ancieRt royalty Iff Sici" and.Pale_, !Withont ial••due.,
'Pope AnadetuI(Alnand. Cu:DCfbii Tc1eailli AbbMil 4e Re&.. ,EMia
 Rf'gis Rogerii, lib. iv, in MMotori, Sori,t. Rerum ltal. tom, Y, p._.

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308                          THE DECLINE AND P"LL
   CHAP. Saracen emir were insufficient to justify his re.
 •.•~~~:._ gal character; and the nine kings of the Latin
      ,      world" might disclaim their n-ew associate, unlefls
             he were con~ecrated by the authority ofthe suo
Pint kiDI preme pontiff. The pride of Anacletus was
of Sieily. .p I dto conler a ti e, W h' h t h e pn e 0 f 1he
A .... nio.     ease e .                   IC        "d
~I':: ~9" Norman had stooped to sulicit;1 but his own
July_IS. 'legitimacy was attacked 'by the adverse elec-
             tion of Innocent the second; and while ADa~
             cletus sat in th'e Vaticau, the successful fugi-
             tive was acknowledged by the nations of Eu-
             rope. The infant monarchy of Roger was sha-
             ken, and almost o~erthrown. by the unlucky
            choice of' an ecclesiastical patron; and tbe
            sword of Lothaire the second of Oermany~ the
           'excommunications of Innocent, the fleets of
             Pisa, and the zeal of St. Bernard,· were united
            for the ruin of the Sicilian robber. After a gal.
            lantresistance. the Norman prince was driven
            from the continent of Italy; a new duke of
            Apulia was invested by the pope and the em-
            peror, each of whom held one end ofthe KO"IIfa-
            non, or flag-staff, as a token that they asserted
            their right, and suspended'their quarrel. But
          'such jealous. friendship was of' short and .pre-

            I. Tbe kinel of Franee, Englud, Scotland, Castile, Arralon, }IT..
         yarre, Sweden, DeL .rlt, and Hungary. The three fint were more
         aucwnl than Charlemagne: the tbne next were created by tlarir
         Iword, tbe three lut by their baptilm; and of the.e the kin, of Bnn-
       . lary alone were honoured or de"ued by a papal crown.
            I FueJlIII,.and acrowd of Sicilians, had imagined a more early'"
         i.dependent coronation (A. p. 1110, Hay 1), which Giannone _
         willinlly rt-jects (tOlD. ii, p. 131.144). 1'lai. fiction i. dilproved hy tile
       , Iilence of contemporariel; nor can it be reatored by a apuriolla ... bar-
         ter of Meuiua (Huratori, Aanali d'Italia. tom. u, p. 3(0). Paci.         en-
         tia, tom. it, p. "1,(01).

                                                      Digitized by

                   OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
 carious duration: the German armIes soon va- CHAP.'
      In    Isease an d deserbon;t th e A pu'1'Ian __••" ••
           d'                  .                    LVI.
duke, with all his adherents, was exterminated
by a conqueror, who seldom forgave either the
dead or the living: like his predecessor Leo·
the· ninth, the -feeble though haughty pontiff
became the captive and friend of the Normans;
and their reconciliation was celebrated by the
eloquence of Be~nard, who now revered the'
title and virtues' of the king of Sicil y.
   As a· penance for this impiouN war· against Bia cO~.
                                      . . . questa la
t:he succcssoro· St. P eter, that monarch mIght AfHca,
have pro.mised to display the banner of the           11220                   ti:2.
cross, and he accomplisbedwith ardour.a ,·ow
so propitious to his interest and revenge. The
recent injuries of Sicily might provoke a just
retaliation on the heads of the Saracens: the.
Normans,. whose blood been mingled with
80 many subject streams, were encouraged tt.
remember and. emulate the naval trophies of
their fathers, and in the·' maturity of their.
strength they contended with the decline of an
African power. When the Fatimite caliph de- .
parted for the conq uest of Egypt, he rewarded
the real merit and apparent fidelity of his ser-
vant Joseph, with a gift of his royal mantle,
and forty Arabian horses, bis palace, with its
 sumptuous furniture, and the government of
 the kingdoms of Tunis and ·Algiers. The Zei-

  k Roger corrupted the sl'cond penOD of Lothaire's army. wholound-
edt or rather cried, a retreat; for the Germalll (.ay. Cillaamlll, I. iii.
c. i, p. 61) are ienorant of the uar of trumpets. Moat iporant hinl-

                                                               Digitized by   Google
S10                      'IH& DBCLlNB AND I'AU.
CHAP rides, the descendants of Joseph~ f01'got tlleir
._~:... allegiance and gratitude to a distant benefac-
         tor, grasped and abused the fruits of prosperi-
         ty; andaCter running the little coarse of. an
         oriental dynasty, weie now faintiugio.'tlreir own
         wea.kness. On the side afthe Jand, they were
       , llrf'Ssed by the Almohades, the fanatic p1'inces
         of Morocco, -while the sea..coast was open to
         the enterprizes of the Greeks 31.d Franks, who,"
         before the close of the eleve»th century, had
         extorted a ransom of two hundred thouuild
         pieces of gold. By the first arms vf Rogel',
         the island or rock of Malta, which hall been
         since ennobled by a military and religious co-
         loriy~ was inseparably annexed to the crown
        of Sicily. Tripoli,- a strong and maritime dty,
         was tbe next object of his attack; and tile
        slaughter of the males, tbe captivity of the fe-
        males, might be justified by tbe frequent prac-
        tice of the moslems themselves. The capital
        of the Zeirides was named Africa from the
        country, and Mabadiaa from tbe Arabian (oun-
        der: it is strongly built on a neck of land, bot

         I See de Ollignes, Hi.t. GeDerale des BOD', tom. I, p. SG9-SfI, aDd
       CardClDDe. Hi*t. de l'Afrique, &0. HU. la DomiDatioa dea Arabft.
       tom. ii, p. 70,1". Their commOD OrigiDaI appearl to be linairi •
        .• Tripoli (ta1' tlae Nubiaa geolrapher,· or more propnly tbe
       Sherif aJ Rdrili) arb. fol'tia •• ueo maro vaUata, lite prope IiUaa maril.
       Halle expugDBYit !toltrias, qui mulieribu. eaptjyi. dueti,. vir~ per-
       emit.              .
         "See the geography ofuo AfrieaDuI (ia RainuBio, tom. i, fol.74,
       veno, fo1. 75, recto), and Sha... Travels (p. 110), tbe 7th book of
       Thuanu!, and the nth of the Ahb~ de Vertot. 'I'he pos.e•• ioD aad
       defence Gfthe place wa. offered by Cbarles V, aDd \'Iilely deeliDed     b,
       tbo: kDillbll of Malta. •

                                                       Digitized by   Google
                    01'. THE ItOMMi                 311
 the imperfection of the harbour is not com pen- CHAP.
sated by tbe fertility of the adjacent plain.- ...,~~~:...
Mahadia was besieged by George, the Sicilian              .
admiral, with a Heet of ODe hundred and fifty
galliell, amply provided with men and the in-
struments of mischief: the sovereign had :Bed.
the Moorish governor refused to capitu.1!ate~
declined ihe last and irresistible asSault, and·
secretly escaping with the moslem inhalllitants,
abandoned the place and its treasures to the
rapacious Franks. In sDccessive expeditions,
the king of Sicily or his lieutenants red.ced
the cities of Tunis, Salax, Capsia, Dona,and a
long track of the sea-coast;A the forlresies
were garrisoned, the count:ry was tributary,
and a boast, that it held Africa in subjection,
might be inscribed with some Battery on the
sword of Roger.' Afkr his death, that sword
was broken; and these transmarine posses-
sions were neglected, evacuated, Or lost, under
the troubled reign of his successor.'! The
triumphs of Scipio and Belisariushaveproved, .
that the African continent ,is neither inaccessi-
ble nor invincible: yet the g.reat princes and
powers of Christendom have repeatedly failed

   • P ..i hal accurat~11 InIlrked t"~ Afiicaa CORfI1I~lta of Roger; and
hi' criticiam was lapplied by IIi. (ri~Dd the, Abb~ LoDguemr, with
lome Arabic memoriall (A. D. 1147. N°. n, 21, A. D. 1148, N°. 16,
A. D. 1151, N°. 16).
   "         ApPIIIII. et Calaber, Sieulaa mihi lenit d Af~r.
A ,roud inscription. which deDotea, that the Norman couqu~rora ware
Itill dilcriminated frOID their cbristiaD aDd 1D01lem aubje"ts.
   ~ Hugo FalcaDdol (Hilt. Sicula, iD Muratori Script. tom. 'Jii, p.
 tiO; 271) ueribel the.~ 10_ tv the ..,led or trncher), of the ad...

                                                           Digitized by   Google
31~                                 THE DECLINE AKD PALL
  CHAP. In     their arOlaments against the Moors, who
... ~:~..I~ ••
            may still glory .in; the easy conquest and long .
           servitude of Spain.
              Since the decease of Robert Guiscard, the:
~il   inr' Normans had relinquished, above sixty years,
G~~e:p, their hostile designs against the empire of the
A. D.1146· E as.1. The poI' 0 f R oger so1"
                            ICY                IClted a pu bli c
           and private union with the Greek prince.,
           whose alliance would dignify his regal charac-
           ter: he .demanded in marriage a daughter of
           the Comnenian family, and the first steps of
           the treaty seemed to promise a favourable
           event. But the contemptuous treatment of his
           ambassadors exasperated the vanity of the
           new monarch; and the insolence of the Byzan-                                       •
           tine court was expiated, according to the Jaws
           of nations, by the s~1ferings of a. guiltle$s peo-
          ple: With a fleet of seventy gallies, George, the
           admira~ of Sicily, appeared before Corfu; and
           both the island and city were delivered into his
           hands by the disaffected inhabitants, who had
           yet to Jearn that a siege is still more.calamitous
           than a tribute. In this invasion, of some mo·
          ment in the annals of commerce, the Normans
           spread themselves by sea, .and over the pro-
           vinces of Greece; and the venerable age of
           Athens, Thebes, and Corinth, was violated by
           rapine and cruelty. Ofthe wrongs of Athens,
           n.o memorial remain!4. The ancient walls,
                   r The siJeDc e of the Sicilian hlstorianl, who pnd too loon or bPgiD
                 too late, mUlt be lupp\it'd hy Olho (If Frisingen, a Gl'rman (de Gel.ia
                 Frederici I, I. I, C'. 33, iD Mnratori Script. tom. vi, p. 668), Ih., VI!-
                 netiau Andrew Dandul.1 (Id. tom. xii, p. 282, :283), and the Grnk
                 writeR CiDnamul (I. iii, c. 2-5), Iud Nicetu (in Manuel. I. ii, e. I-

                                                                  Digitized by   Google
              or THE ROMAN EMPJ1lE.~                 ·113
 which encompassed, without guarding, theopu.CHAP.
 lence of Thebes, were. scaled by the Latin _~~~:#.
 christians; but ·their sole use of the gospel was
 io sanctify on oath, that the lawful owners had
 not secreted any relic of their inheritance or in-
 dustry. . On the approach of the Normans the
  lower town of Corinth was evacuated : the
 Greeks retired to the citadel, whicb was seat-
 ed on a lofty eminence, abundantly watered by
 the classic. fountain of Pirene ; an impregnable
. fortress, if the want of COUl·agt. could be ba-
  lanced by any advantages of art or nature.-
  As soon as the besiegers had surmounted the
  labour (their sole labour) tif climbing the hill,
  their general, from the commanding eminence,
  admired his own victory, and testified his gra-
  titude, t.o heaven, by tearing from the altar tile
  precious image of Theodore the tutelary saint. '
  The silk weavers of both sexes, whom George
  tra·Qsported to Sicily, composed the most va-
  luable part of the spoil,- and in comparing the
   skilful industry of the mechanic with tbe sloth
   and cowardice of the soldier, be was heard to
   exclaim, that the distaff and 100m were the on-
  ly weapons which the Greeks were capable of
  using. The progress of this naval armament Hi. admi.
   ~as marked by two ·conspicuous events, the ~~~~t;.1
   rescue of the king of France, and the insult O(VII, of
   t he B yzantme capIta. I n hIS return b y sea FraDC~,
                .      0"1      O

   from an unfortunate crusade, Louis the seventh
   was intercepted by the Greeks, who basely
   violated the laws of honour and religion. The
   fortunate encounter of the Norman fleet de-

                                         Digitized by   Google
 aJ.I                        'l:IJI   ~LPla      UD, ~"LL'
   CHAP.        livered the royal captive; and after a free and
  . ".",..
 •• LVI.                       ertamment lD the court 0 f S' .
                honourabl e eD t '           .               ICI-
                ly, Lou.s continued his journey to Rome and
  jllialta • Paris.'     In the absence of the emperor, Con-
                     •    I      h i '
                ~tantlnop e aod t e Hel espont were left wIth-
                out defence and without the suspicion of dan-
               ger. ,The clergy, and people, for the soldiers
               !lad followed the standard of Manuel, were
               astonished and dismayed at the hostile appear-
               anceof a line of galJies, which boldly cast an-
               chor in the front of the imperial city. The
               forces of the SHician admiral were inadequate
               to the siege or assault of an inimt'nse and po-
              pulous metropolis: but George enjoyed the
              glory of humbling the Greek arrogance, and
           . of marking the path of conquest to the navies'
              of the West. He landed some soldiers to rifle
              the fruits of the royal gardens, and pointed
              with silver, or more prQbably with fire, the ar-
              l'OWS which he discharged against the palace
The empe- of the Cresars. t This playful outrage of the pi-
ror Ma- rates of S' 'I y, W h 0 h ad '
Duel re-                 ICI              surprIsed an unguar d,.
pulle. the ed moment, M aoue I auecte d to d eeplse, w h'l e
Normanl,                              &r.
ti:,;.U4,., his martial spirit, and the forces of the empire.
            ,were awakened to revenge. The Archipelago
           ,r To thi. ilnpt'rieet captal' and spee4y relcne, I apply the rr'; ~
         "'" ""'1 .._        ofCiDDamul, L ii, c; 19, p. 49. MUrItori, OD tole....
         ble ",icience (ADnali d'Italia, tom, is, p, 420, .01), Jauchl at the deli-
         cacy of the. Frt:uch, wb maiDtain, IIIBrisque Ilullo illlpediellte pericu-
         lo ad repum proprium rnerau. elle: yet I obterve that their ady..
         catl', Dunnee, i, I~I' po,iti.. u tbe 10mmeDtator Oil CiDnlmul,      thn
         a. the editor or JoiD"me.
           • In ,alatium rl'ginm IlI,gittu ipeal inJectt, .ay. Dudulul; bat
         Nieetas, I. ti, c. 8. p. 66, tranlforml th~ into BI>" "a-I,.,..-C ........_
         r".""~. and adds, that Huue) ,tylell this inlUl! -',,"''', and J41<- ••••
         1""........... Tblle arr.WI, by tile e~i)tr, Vincent d- Belu,aiI. ....
         again tran.muted iuto cold.                             ."

                                                         Digitized by   Google
                     Ot'THEKOMMf lIMPID.'                                           :U3
 a11d (onian sea w('re. e~nred with his squa-                                    CHA....
  drolls and those of Venice; but I know Dot by .#~!"                                      .
  what "favourable allowance of trans.ports,." vic'-
  tnaUers, and pinnaces, our reason, or eVf;D our
  fancy, can be reconCiled to the stupendous ac-
  count offifteen hundred vessels, which is pro-
  posed by a Byzantine historian. These opera-
  tions were diteck-d with. prudence and energy: .
  in his homeward 'foyage, George lost nineteen
  of his gallies, which were l!Ieparated and taken:
  after an obstinate defence, Corfu implored the
  clemency of her lawful sovereign; nor could a
  ship, a soldier of the Norman prince, be found,
 unless as a captive, within the Jimits of ·the
  Eastern empire.. The prosperity and the health
  of .Roger were already in a decliningatate:
  while he listened in his palace of Palermo to
  ~he messengers of victory or defeat, the invin-
  cible Manuel, the foremost in every assault,
  was eelebrated by the Greeks and Latins aa
 the Alexander or Hercules of the age.
   . A prince of such a temper could not be sa- He rea.
 tisfied with having repelled the insolence of a ~:d 1rJ~
  barbarian. . It was the right and duty, it might ~~ lliGo
  be the interest and glory, of Manuel to re.tore
  the ancient majesty of the empire, to recover '
  the provinces of Italy and Sicily, and to chas-
; tise this pretended king, tbe grandson of a
  Norman vassal.- The natives of Calabria were
  .. For the in'UiOD of Italy, whieh i. almost overlooked by Nicet..,
 1M   the more polite hi.tory erCiOOIUllUI (1.   i,.  c. 1.15, p.18-101). wbo
.......eea • lIiI'lIae .rratiyc 11)' • Iofay prole,lIioD, "'C' _ 11&WaC TIl
_                                          P.,...,,,, _,.,,"',... .
    'I'IIC J,.a).." IorlllS'l'tn "'" . , u, .....".'"

                                                                Digitized by   Google
316'                      THE J,>~n:AND FALL
   CHAP. still attached to the Greek language and WUf·
.....:~~... ~ship, which had been inexorably proscribed
             by the' Latin clergy: after the loss of her
             dukes, Apulia was chained al a servile appen~
             dage to the crown of Sicily: tbe found~ of
             the monarchy bad ruled by the sword; and.
             bis death had abated the fear, without healing.
             the c:liscontent, of his su bjects: the feudal go-
             vernment was always pregnant with the seeds
             of rebellion; and a nephew of Roger himself
             invited the enemies of his family and natlQD.-
             The majesty ofthe purple, aud a series of Hun-
             garian and Turkish wars, prevented Manuel.
             from embarking his person in the Italian expe-,
              dition~ To the brave and noble Palmologus,.
             his lieutenant, the Greek monarch entrusted a
              fleet and army: the siege of' Bari was his first
              exploit; and in every operation, gold as well
              steel was the instrument of victory. Salerno,
             and some places along'the western coast, main-
              tained their fidelity to the Norman king; but
             he lost in two .campaigns the greater l,art of his
            . continental possessions; and the mQdest em-
              peror; disdaining all flattery and 'falsehood,
              was content with. the reduction of three h~~­
              dred cities or viJlages of Apulia and Calabria,
              whose names and titles were inlllcribed on all
             the walls of the palace. The prejudices ofthe
              Latins were gratified by a genuine or fictitious
              donation, under the seal of the German Omsars:&
          " The Latin, Otho (de GNti. ·Frederiei 1,1. ii, c. SO, p. '114), attHti
        the forlef),; tb~ Greek, CiDllamDi (1. i, c. 4t~. '18), claima a ,romiIe

                                                       Digitized by   Google
                   or THE ROMAN         EMPIR.E.
 but the successor or" Constan'tine soon re~lOu~- Ci1AI".·
 ced this ignominious pretence, claimed' the in- .,,~~~:##
 defeasible dominion of Italy, and professed his Hi. design
 design of chasing the barbarians beyond the i:,al~~~·
 Alps. By the artful. speech~s., li~e gifts'~~~I!~:
 and unbounded promises, of. their eastern al1v, empire,
           • •.                   .     .        :' A. D.1U6.
the free cItIes were encouraged to persevere 111 1114, &c
 their generous struggle against the despotism
 of Frederic Barbarossa: the walls of Milan
 were re-built by the contributions of Manuel;'
 and he poured, says the historian, a riv~r of
 gold into·the bosom of Ancona, whose attach-
 ment to the Greeks' were fortified by the jea-
 lous enmity of the Venetians." The situation' .
 and tr~de of Ancona rendered it an important
  garrison in the' heart of Italy: it was twice be-
 sieged by the. arms of Frederic; the imperial
 forces were twice repulsed by the spirit offreee
  dom; that spi,rit was animated by the anl'ba~·
. sador of. Constantinople; .and the mosf, in:.
  trepid patriots; the m(r~t faithful servants,
  were rewarded by the wealth and, honour~ of
 the Byzantine .court.' . The pride of 'Manuel

obeltitution (rum Conrad and Frederic. Au act o( (raud il alway_
credible when it il told of the Greeb.
, 'I Quod Aliconitani Gl'8Icum imperiam niqJiI dDi,erunt ....... Vene-
.i _peciaJiodio Anconam oderuut. The caule qf Ion. perhaplof eo-
")', were tbe brnefi.ia. tnmrn aureulD of Ihe emprror; and Ihe .Lalin
aarralin il confirmed by CiDaamul (I. iv, c. 14, p. 9H)•
  .'. Muralori mentioDl the two lie,el of Ancona; the fint, in 1161•
 •,aiDlt Frederic I. in penon (Aunali, lum. x, p. 89, .c.); the aecond,'
in 1178, againlt hil lieutenant Christian, archbiabop of Menlz, a man
 IInwurtby of his name and office.(p. 16, &c.) It i. of the ncond liege,
that we POIIr'S lUI original natratin, which he hal publilhed In bi.
,r..t coJleclie. 'tom. wi. p. 921-946).                        '

                                                          Digitized by   Google
318"                      THE DECLINE AND FI\LL
CHAP     disdained and rejected a bar~aria~ colI.eag,ue;
r...--... h'
 LVI.             ltion was excite d bI¥.: th e h ope 0 f st~1p-
           IS amb' .            . _                          .
         ping-the purple from the-German usurpers".-d
         of establishing, in ihe west. as in the east, his
         lawful ti.tJe of sole emperor of the Roman&.-
         With this" view, he solicited the alliance of the
        pec>ple aud the bisbop of Rome. Sevmal of
         tbe nohles embraced the cause of the Greek
        monarch; the splendid Duptials _of his niece
        wilh Odo Frangipaoi,secured the support of
        tbat powerful family: and his royal standard
        or image was entertained with due reverence
        in the ancient metropolis.· During the quar-
        rel betweea Frederic and Alaander the third,
        the pope twice received in the Vatican the Qm.
        bassadors of Constantinople. TAtey :flattered
        his piety by the long-promised union of the
        two churches, tempted the avarice of his "enal
        court, and exhorted the Roman pontift" to seize
        the just pl'O'focation, the favourable moment
        to humble the .savage insolence ofthe AIElilm-
        IIi, and to acknowledge the true represeDta..
        tlve of Constantine and Augustus ..c, I

          " • We deriYe.til.
                           aaecdole hom .&,. UIOII~mOB' _ _ We .r ....
         Non, publilhed by Mauratori Suipthal.-toIa. YD, ,.84).
           -, The!lolrll_ n",_ of Cia_1M ,('. iY,   e.n,
                                                       Po'V', -i.-.lIIftptlblt
         01 thil double lell.e. A ~andard i. lrI'DTe ,"din. an -itmIp _ore
        _ • Nihilhominnl quoqne pPlebat, ~t quia o('casioJII~'a ('t tl'IIIPUI op
        portunlllR et arceptabile Ie oblulerant, Romaai COl'ona iml)er~ a sane
        to apoltolo libi rrddrretur; quoniam Don ad Jo'redel'id Alamagi" led
        ad IlIum jUl aleruit pertiDere (Vit. Ale:undri III, a Cardinal. Am-
        lonile, in Script. Rerum ftal. tom. iii, par. i. p. 458). Hil IKOU
        elll.....' wu accompanied cum imBlea.. anultitudine pecuDiarum.

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                     or THt itOMAH I:IIPllt1l:. .                                         349-·
   'But these Italian. conquests, this u ilivenal CHAP.
 reign, soon escaped from the hand of the LVI.
 Greek emperor. His first demands were elud~;~;;;;:;'
 ed by the prudence of Alexandar the third, his deaign.
 who paused 'On this deep 8.Ild momentous re- .
 Tolution;· nor coul~ the pope be seduced by
 a personal dispute to renounce the perpetual,
 inheritance of the Latin name.. After his re-
 uuion .with Frederic, he spoke 'l more peremp··
 tDry language, confirmed, the acts ofhis prede-.
 cessors, excommunicated the adhereDts of
 Manuel, and pronounced the final 8ep~ra.tion
of the churches, or at least the empire$;' of
 Constantinople and Rome: The free- cities 'Of
Lombardy no IDnger remembered their foreign
benefactor, and without preserving the friend-
ship of Aucona, he soon incurred the enmity
of Venice.' By his own avarice, or. the com-
plaints of his subjects t the Greek emperor was
provoked to arrest the' persons, and coofi:scatc'
tbe effects, of the Venetian merchanta. : Tbja.
violation 'Of the public faith exasperated:a free
and commercial people; one hundred gallies
were launched and armed in as many days r
they swept the coasts of Dalmatia and Greece;.
but, after some mutual wounds, the war was

  • Nilllil alta Cot perplexa lunt (Vit. AlexancJri 'III, p. '50, 'Gl), saYI
the caatiOllI pope•
 ... MIl""""" """   to.,... ".lAp·'IJt"onp 1Il1C .....' "c"llI1'Ic'"
,.."." (Cionamul, 1. iy, e. 1(, p. 99).
   , In hil listb book, CiaDalllIll deleribel tlu! Venetiau war, wbi~
~ieetel bUllot thougbt wortby ofhiI attentioB. 1:be Italian aecaunb,
.....ieb do not ..tiafy our enriolity, are reported by the aana1iat Mura-
 tori, allder the yearl 1171, &e.

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SiO                           THE DECLIH.. AND PALIi
CHAP.     terminated by an agreement, inglorious to
_.~~~: •• the empire, insufficient fol' the republic; and
          a complete vengeance of these and of freso in
          juries, was reserved for tbe succeeding gene-
          ration. The lieutenant of Manuel had infqrm-
          ed his sovereign that be was strong enough
          to quell any domestic revolt of Apulia and.
          Calabria; but that his forces were inadequate
          to resist tbe impending attack of the king of
          Sicily. .His propbesy was soon verified: the
          death of Palmologus devolved the command on
          several cbiefs, alike elDinent in r~nk, alike de-
          fective in military talents; the Greeks were
          oppressed by land and sea; aod a captive
          remnant that escaped the swords of the Nor-
          mans and Saracens, abjured all fu.ture hosti-,
          lity against the person or dOlQinioDs of their
          conqueror.1 Yet the king of Sicily esteemed
         the courage and constancy of Manuel, who
         had landed a second army on .the Italian
         shore: he respectfully addressed the new Jus-
         tinian; solicited a peace or truce of thirty years,
         accepted as a gift the regal title; and acknow-
         ledged himself the military vassal of the Roman
         empire~1I                                       .

            • Tllia victory ia"meDtiODed by RomDald of Saleno (ill Hunton,
        Script. Ital. tom. vii. p. 198). It i. whim.ical eDough, that ill It.
        praille of the kine of Sicily. Cinuamns (1. iv. c. IS, p. 9'1. tIS). i. maa
        warmer and copious than Falcaudul (p. 268, 27'0). . But the Greek ia
        fODd of description, aDd thl! LatiD hiatoriau ia Dot foad of Willi_ tile
        Bad.                                .                                       .
           .. For tbe epiStle of William I. see CiDDamu. (I. iv, c. 15, p. 101,
        102) and Nieetas (I. ii, c. 8). It is difficult to affil'lll, whether thae
        Greeks deceived them.elves, or the puhlie, iu the.e ftatteriDg por_
        tralta of the craudeur of the empire. ~

                                                         Digitized by   Google
                    OF 'mE KOMAN EQIRE.                                          atJ
  The ~yzarJtine acqu:ie9ced i~ ~i~ 8~                                 cr.:tr
  do,,'of domini(im, without exp~cting, p~r~ap.s .;""...
  ~.ithout desiring, the service of a Norman army~ Pf'aee· .. ·
  llnd the truce,of thirty years 'w~ not distu~:be~ Ni:~:                           ..
  lJy; any hostil~~es bet,!een' Sicily 'an~ ,~on~I1~~ .... D.) IIiO
  ~i~ple.       A~out the end ~f th~.t p'eri~d,; tl~~
  th,rone: of ;~anucl W~8. usurpe.d~y an j~hq.m!l~'
  ty~ant;, ~ho had ~e~ryed tge.~bho~re~c~ ;of pi~
  c;~untry and manJdnd:: ~~e,swQrd ,~fJVil;l~a~
  ~ ,econd, .th~ gr~pd8~~ ~f ~oger, .'Y~, dra,,:~
. ~Y:;f!o'lfugi~ive of the. Co~~ni,~n r~ce; l\~.~,th~
 ~1:l~j~ts ~f Andr~ic~s.Ulight ~,al~te the,stran~
 g~~s ~~.rrjends!': since they~etes~d, th.e~r .~O,~~: La
 ~~~g~ :asthe w(),rst ~f en~~ie~. ;'. Th~ La~": ,~i~~ the·~:::~
 ~Ori~81 expa~ia~ on the rapi:d J~rOJ;~~~s.::pf tlw :a~~or.
 four counts who invaded Romania with a 8ee~ 6.. D. h6l.
 and· army, and reduced many ca$tles ~nc:r €,j'.ties,:
 *0 '~he obedience of. the   king' of Sid]y" ~ The ,
  Gr.eeksk accuse and magnify the· wan'ton' a~d ' .. '
  ~acr~legious cruelties thatwe're perpetuai~:d' 111', ,
 the sack of Thessalonica, the second' cit'y of
 the empire. The former deplor.e the fate of
  those 'InvIncIble but unsuspecting.warriors who
 were destroyed by the arts of a vanquish~d foe.
 ':The latter applaud, in songs. of triump,h, the
     I I e.n only quoteor  origiaal evideuce, the poor ehroaic:le. of Hi.
 C'ard of Cremona (p. 60S), and of FOlia Nova (p. 875), as they are
 publisbed,in the .eYenth tom of Muratori'a historiau •• The king of
 Sicily .ent hia troops contra nequitiam Androulei •••• ,ad' leqUi-
'tendllID imperium c. P. They were eapti aut eo.i •••• deeeptl
 eaptique, by Isaae.
     I< By the failure of Cinnamn~ we are now redueed to Nicet•• (in
 Andronieo, 1. I, 1'. 1,8,9, I. ii, c. I, in I.aae Angelo, I. i, e. 1--.),
 who now bel'omt:. a I'l'~pectable c.. ntemporary. A. he IlIrYived the
 emperor and the cmpirt·, he i. IIbove leuery: hue the fall of eo...
 • tantinople ulilpefllled bis p\'f'judice. "gaiDlt the Latins. For the
 honour of learuing, I sball oblent' that lIomer', great eommentator,
 E ••tathiua, arebbi.bop of'lbeualonil'a, refilled to de.ert hit BotL, ,

  'VOL. X.                            y

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                      THE MCLINE AND FALL,
 CHAP.   repeated victories of their countrymen             OD   the
_;;,~:_ sea of Marmora or Propontis, on the banks of
             the Strymon, and under the waIIs'of DllntZzo.
             A revolution wbich pun1shed the crimes f1f
             Andronicus, had united against ,the ,Franks the
            zeal and courage of the successfnl insurgents:
            ten thousand were slain in battle, and Isaac
            Angelus, the new emperor, might indulge his
            vanity or vengeance in the' 'treatment of (our
            thousand captives. Such was, the event of the
            last contest between the Greeks and No~.:
            before the expiratiOBoftwen~y years, the rival
          , nations were lost or degra,ded in foreign sem.
            tude; and the successors of"Constantine ,did not
            long survive to insult the fa,n 'of 'the Sicilian
~~!d.I. The sceptre of Roger successively devolved
kS~D~ or to his son' and grandson: they might be coil-
A ... 1114. founded under the name of WIlliam; they are

!~!::too, strongly discrimina'ted by the epitbets of tlte
H_y7'.      ,had and the good: but these epi~hets, whith ap-
            pear to describe the perfection ofvice and 'virtue,
            cannot strictly be applied to either cif the Nor-
            man princes. When he 'was roused to arms
            by danger and shame~ the first William did not
            degenerate from the valour ,of his 1'800 ; bot
            his temper was slothful; his manners were dj~so­
            lute; his passions headstrong and mischievous;
            and the'monarch is responsible, not only for
            his personal vices, but for those of Majo, the
            great admiral, who abused the confidence, and
            conspired against the life of his benefactor.
            From tbe Arabian conquest, Sicily had imbib-
            ed a deep tincture of oriental manners; the

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                    . OF TH2 ltOMAN EMPIRE.'                                         323
  desp&tism, the pomp, and even the hal'am, ,of ~.
  a sultan; and a christian people was 't)t>pregg: ~~'';.'..~''....
  eel and insulted by the ascendant oftbe.eunuchs,
  who :open1y professed, or secretly cherished,
  the I'eligion       of    Mahomet. An :eloquent histo ..
 'rian of tbe times' has delineated the Inisfw>rtubEl8
  of bis coubtl"y~" the atllbitioti and faIt of tbe
  ungraWful Majo; the tev.olt' and purtishruent
  -Of 'his u~asMntl'; the impris()nment 8llddeliftr-
 'a.,liCe kMg himself; tbe private feuds that
 -arose ·fto~~nili t-lie Mle .conlusroil; 6nd the :fari-
  uns ,lotms' Uf' cahitnity and' diElcOrcl wlaicb at.. '
 llicted.P~rmo~' tbe :isI8.8d, and:thecontinent,
 ~uFiiik tlle'rcrigt) of William ;the 'irst,and .the " .
  minorIty·of t....t . ,ttoD. ' ':o:J'h e: :y~, .uutOCeBee, the Good,
  '~       '.
                                  ""        ._:'.6t..· •    WllllamU.

'and beauty of William :tke. ,sedoodl' -entkared M:': :166,
 'gilD Co' tll~ BaliGn: the {&CUODS yere £emmoileu ; A.. D. lU19,
          .        :,.         . ' .:. . ,             ..         . ..           Nov. 16.
        'The Historia Sieula of Jtugo F~lcaDsup, whleb properly edeJIda
  .floilfllM to·l1., .iii im.erted in t.ui'tentb i,ellllJllll :of .Hllratori"
  ~~c&i!l'l (tollJ~ ~Jr, p. 261h-a4'). 1114· pl't'e~ed by an elo'lu!!nt pr.e-
   (ace or epistle (p. 251-21i8), !Ie ·Calamitatibus Sicilhe. Falcaodol
  .1i\M'lteem I'yled the Il'acitUiI.of Bieily.; ,and, ~ ajllat,bnt illbmellse,
 .aba~lqCo~, tbe· twelfth ceq,ury, from a lenator to.
   monk, i would not strq, bim of Lili title: bis u!lrrative is rapid and
 . perspieuouI, 1M l~jltbOl. and 4ir.,aat, bis~fyatiIsiJ.ttt!6l: be bad
  """ied II*Ik'ad,.  ,lHI    feeb liu a man. J can QIIlyre,re~' the PU'r~1Ir
   and barren field o.n' whicb hil labours haTe been cut.
      .. !'fhl' laborious B~dictinel (I' Art 4e teriier lea 'Datel, p. 106)
   CI!e of qpinion, ,t;hat ,the H;ue lIaIIIe Sll .'aIClltdu., is ,FllleanduI, or
   Fouoault, According to thtm, Hugoes poucalllt. a Frenchman by
   birllf, and at Icngth abhot of o$t. Deny, bad followed .into Sicily his
   plttron StepkeD de la Perctie, ,unde ·to tbe mother of Witliam II.
   an-llbiajlop of Palrrmo, and ,reat chancellor of the kingdom. Yet
   Falcandu. bal an tbe feclin" of aSrcDian; ,and the title. of .11.II1II•
 •whieb k4! bftto_ on b~K) a." in$c-.te, that Ile ,."" 'bora
  -or at leut educated,. in thc island.
      • Falcftnd. p.303 Richard dc St. Gl'rlllano begins his history from
.the dealilt lind "faiae&ofWiUiam II. After .•o".e.UPlIJeaoiQ, e.rtlietw,
 ,1ietlaDc.;nlinue., legis etjustitillB clIlluwtempore IUO Yigebat in regno;
. lul erat qnilibet forle contentus; (were they mortal.?) ubiqne pax,
dfY.·, nec latronum metnl'bat viator iDsidiu, Bee marla
. . . . o8'tndicula piratarum (Script. Rerum Ita!. tom. vi.i, p. 960).J _

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     324                       THE DECLINE AND J'ALL

       CHAP,   the laws ,vete revived; and from the manhood
         ~'"!.~:,.. to the premature death of that amiable prince,
     # ...

                Sicily enjoyed a short season of peace, justice,
                and happiness, whose value was enhanced by
                the remembrallce of .the past and the dread of
                futnrity, The legitimate male posterity of
                Tancred of "auteville was extinct in the per-
                SOil of the second William; but his aunt, the
                daughter of Roger, had married· the most
                powerful prince of the age; and Henry the
                sixth, the son of Frederic Barbarossa, descend-
                ed from the Alps, to claim the imperial crown
                and the inheritance of his wife. Against the \
                unanimous wish .of a free people, tbis inher~
                tance could only .~e acqu.ired by .arms; and I
                am pleased to transcribe the style and sense 01
                the historian FalcanduK, who writes at the mo-
                ment and on the spot, with the feelings of a
                patriot, and the prophetic eye of a statesman,
     ~:::!e:}a. "Constantia, the daughter of Sicily, nursed
     tbe. hi,-  "from· her cradle ill pleasures. and plenty,
     torlanl<'al.·,                                            •
     caUdill,   "and educated III .the arts and manners of this
                "fortunate isle,' departed long since to en-
                " rich the barbarians with our treasures, and
                "now returns with her Havage allies, to COD-
                " taminate the beauties of her venerable parent
                " Already I behold the swarms of angry bar-
                " barians: OUl' opulent cities, the places floll-
                " rishing in a long peace, are shaken with fear,
                " desolated by slaughter, consumed by rapine,
                "and polhlted by intempel'ance and lust. I
                " see the massacre 01' captivity of our citizens,
                " the rapes of our virgins and matrons,- In.this
                - C8IIltaOtia, primia a cuoabulla in .deliciarum tuarum afBaeDti&
                 . .                  .'    '.                  .          diu'"

                                                       Digitized by   Google
                    OF THt ROMAN EMPIRE.                                         3~5

.. extremity (he interrogates a friend) how iuust c~~r'
" the Sicilians act? By tbe unanimous elec- ._u~                                 ...     #

" tion of-a king; of valourand experience,SidJy'
"' 'and Calabria inight .yet be preserved;P for 'in '
c, tbe levityoftbe Apulians, ever eager for new
H revolutions, 1 can repose. neither confidence"

"nor bope.q         Should Calabria be lost. the"
"lofty towers, the numerous youth, and'
"the naval strength, of Messina: 'might"
c. guard the passage against· a foreign ·inva-"
" del'.. If the savage' Germans coalesce with,
ce. the pirates 'of Messina; if they destroy
c, with fire the fruitful region, so often. wasted·
c~ by the fires of mount -LEtna: what resource '
c~ will be. left for the interior parts of the island,
" these noble cities which I!Ihould never-be 'vio-
.~ lated· by the hostile footsteps of a barbarian?'
" Catana has again beeu overwhelmed. by an
,~ earthquake: the ancient 'virtue of Syracuse
dintiul edaeata, tuisque iDltitutii, doctrini. et moribus iDformata. taD-
d~ ~pibu. tuil barbaroa delatura duceuit : et nunc cum inleotibua
copiil revertitor. Dt pulcherrima nutrici. omameDla barbaricA fClldi.
tate contamiDet ••.••• Intaeri mihi jam videor tarbulentu barba-
rOram aciea • • • • ch'itatel opalentaa et loca diatarala pace fiorentia,
metla concutere, cede vutare, rapinil atterere, et fo:dare luxaM:
hine cins aut lladiis intereepti, aut lenitute depresli,. vinginea con-
Itnprate, matrune, &c.                        . .                         ,
    , Cerle .i rClem non dnble .,irtnti. eleprint, Dec a Saracenu chris-
tiani dislentiant, poterit rex creatul rebul licet quasi delperatil ct               •
perditis lubnnire, et iDcunuI h06tiuDl, Ii pmdenter egerit, propulaare•
    • In Apuli., qui, lemper nOYitate graduentel, novarum rerDm .tudii.
agoDtnr, nihil arbitror .pei aut fidacie reponendum.           .
  • 1 Si civium luorum .irtutem et audaciam atteodu, • • • murorum

etam ambitium deusis tnrribu. drcamseptam.
    • Cum erudelitate piratiel Theutonum cooftigat atrocitas, et iDter
ambulto. lapides, et ..Elbn!B fiagraoti. iDcendia, &c.
    • Eam partem, quam nobiliaaimarom civitatum (ulgor mll&trat. qu.
et loti regno liugulari meruit priviJegio pr!Bminere, nt:fllrillm esset •••
Yel barbaromm iDgreldl polloi. I wisb to transcl'jbe hi' florid, but
cariOu., delcription of the palare, City, aJld luxriaDt plaill PalermCl.

                                                             Digitized by   Google
31e                             THE DXCLINB AND PAt.L
 CHAP.         "e'fpires ~ poverty and 801dud~ -: hlltPalar..
. LVI.     "ID0        is stm crowned with a diadem, aDd hel'
...., ...,..., " triple w,a1ls· inc:~e the active multitudes sf
               " chri.tians ~nd Saracens. If the twa natiOlM,
               " ll_er ope king, can u.nite (Of thf}iJ: cOIPmQD
               " safety, they lIJay lU6b on the bar*ifq4. wi~
               " jDyiooible armil. Butif. Saracens; (atigQ~
               " h1are;eti..tiou ofinj:.ries, s.ulqoowietireawl
               " rebel; if they shoultLoccupy tbt ca••left oCtile
               "mountain:! aad sea-ooast, th«t wadfo.tunate
               " cfu'listm"ns, exposed *Q. a. tlou.ble;tck,. aDd
               " ptaeed as it were' between the a_mer aDd
               " the. anvil, mue1i resign themeebtes. tn. hopeless
               " aod inevitable s~ittlde."& We lIIai/t nat f.-
               get, that a priest h~ prefers his (tountry to MS
               religiOD; and that the MosleRlS,. "._e aUiaJice
               he seeks. wef.e still numerous and powerful
               in.thestMe of Sieily
 COD'Iuelt        The hopes, OJ.'! a.i leasi the wishes, of: Palcao-
 o! tile       d us, were at first gratified by the free and un-
 ofSicily by ammon! eI '
 klbgdom.                    ectIon 0 f T ancre. t he grandSOD 0 f
 ~~eHe:~:!: the ~r8t king~ whos~ birth was illegitimate, but
 6.. D.ll04. whose civil and military virtues shone without

                  ,; VireillOD IIIppetunt, et collatul moe tam iaop'. ciYiam, '1-
               paucitas bcllatorum elidont.
                  ~ At V ~ro, qaia di1licile et christiaDol iD taQto rem. turbine, lOb
               Jato regis timore SanceDOI DOD opprimere••i SaraceDi iujuriil fatipd
               ab eil, cooperiat dillidere, elt casteDa forte maritima vel mODtaDu
               munitioDel occupaverint; at hiDc cam 1'b,eutoDieil lumma virtote pal'
               DaDdum illinc Saraceni. crebri. iDswtibm occorreadum, quid potu
               actari lunt Sicoli iDter hal depreui angastias, ct velat inter malleum
               et iDcadem multo. cum discrimiDe cou.titnti i hoc utique !IIeut qaod
          .. , poteruDt, lit Ie barbaris mi.erabili cODditioDe dedentes" in eorum 18
         . ,,- conferalll poteltatem. 0 utiDam plebia et procerum, christianorum
               et Saracenornm vota cODYcDiaDt; lit regem libi cODcorditer eligcnta,
               barbaro. 't~tiJ viribuI, toto conaDime, totia'lue deaideriia proturbm
               coDteDdant.· The Normaua aad>Siciliaua appellt; to be cODfou..ded.
                         ("..                             .


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                   01' THE 1l0HAlf BHPIRL                                      32~
Ii blemish.    During four years, tbe teml o.f hi. c~¢r'
life and reign, he stood in arms on the farthest ......,.,...
verge of the Apulian fr.ontier. against th~ powers
of Germany; and the restitution of a royal cap-
tife, of Constantia herself. without injury or
ransom, may appear to s:urp$5s th~ ~6St libel1l1
measure of policy or }'casOI}. After ~is decease,
the kingdom of his widow agd iB~~t !!lOU fell
with.out a struggle; and Henry pUl'.s;ued ~i~
victorious march froll! CaplJl10 tf) Pa1e.. qa~. Til.
political balance of Italy wa, de~trC)ye4 ~:y h~
suceess; and if the pope "<1 tl1e f~ ci~~~
had censulted their obvioos ~d ~al ~.tere~
they would have com bjned tlte p~~r$ qf e&:rtl\
and b4Bven to prevellt the dange.roq, \l~jon of
tile Ge~an empire with the kingdom pf $icily,
Bntthe subtle pNicy, for which th~. VaticaIJ.
has 10 often b.~n pra.ise~ or arraigoed,          OD        "'' $
this 'Occasion blind aJ;ld inactiye; and if it wer,
true that Celestjne the third had kicked "W.~
the imperial crOWD from the head of the p~
arate Beary," 8U~ all act of impotent prid,
could serve only to caqcel aft abligatj~n' aP4
provoke an enemy. Th.e Genoese who enjoy..
etl a belie'~ial taale and ntablishJnebt in Sicily,
list&ned to the promise of hill "oundles&. ,ratt-
tud~ alld 'Peedy departure,· their :Beet c~)Jn~
manded the sireights of Meslirina, and opeoed
the harbou.\' of Palermo: and the first act of hi.
  , The teatiJDoD)' of an EDgIi.bmu~ of Rocer de Hoveda \p. 680),
willliChtly we~h .gaiDat the .ileDce of German and Italian bistol'J
(Muratori~ ADnali d'ltalia, tom. lEo p. Jl6). '!be prie.ta and pilpima,
Who returned from Rome, exalted, by nery tale,. tb .. omnipoteDce of
the holy father
  • Ego enim in eo cam Teutonicia muere DOD debt! (Caft'ri. ADDai.
GeuueDlel. iD Mar.toii, Script. Rerum ItalicaJ'lllll, tom. ft. p. _ .

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328                          mE DECLINE AND FALL •
 CHAP.     government was- to aboHsh . the privileges, and
,.-.~~~:.~ to seize the property. of these imprudent allies.
           The last hope of }<'alcandns was defeated by
           the discord of the christians and Mahometans:
           they fought in the capital; seyeral thousPlld
           of the latter were slain; but their surviving bre-
           thren fortified th~ (llOuntains, and disturbed
           aboye thirty years the peace of the island. By
           the policy of Frederic the second, sixty thou-
           sand Saracens were transplanted to Nocera in
           Apul!a. In their wars against the Roman
           church, the einperor and his son Mainfroy were
           Itrengthened and disgraced' by the service
           of tbe enemies of Christ; and this national co-
           lony maintained their I"eligion and manners in
           th'e heart of Italy, till tbey were extirpated, at
           the end of the thirteenth cent'lry, by· the zeal
           and revenge of the h9use of Anjou.· All the
           calamities which thE' prophetic orator had de-
           plored were surpassed by the cruelty and ava
          rice of the German conqueror. He violated
          the royal sepulchres, and explored the secret
          treasures of the palace, Palermo, and the whole
          kingdom: the pearls and jewels, however pre-
          .cious, might be easily removed; bot one hun-
           dred. and sixty'horses were laden with the gold
             • For the lIaracenl of Sieiiy and Nocera, .ee the ~nala ofllll8ratorl
          (tom. x,' p. 14'. 'and .&.. iI.lm, 1241), Ginnone (tom •.ii, p. 185,) ....
          of tire originals. in Muntori'. collection. Richard de St. Germuo
         (tom. yii, p. 996) M.tteo Spinelli' de GioYeIllUlU (tom. Yii, p. 1064).
         ,Nichola. de JamliUa (tom. x. p. 494), and Matteo ViUani (tom. ai••
         I yii, p. 103). The lut of these inoiDuates,\ tbat iu redueiug tile Ra-
          racenl. of Nocrra, Charl"s II. of Alljou, cmployed rather artifice tbaa
         ,;o1e~~ci.                       . .   .    .


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                  0. THE RMAH EMPIRE.

 and silver .of Sicily.~ The young king, his mo- cr~i.'
 ther aod sIsters,' and the nobles of both sexes, ,u,o.,..,
 were separately confined in the fortresses of the
 Alps; and, on the s~ightest rumour of ,rebellion,
 -the captives were deprived of life, of their eyes,
 or of the hope of posterity. Constantia her-
 self was touched with sympathy for the miseries
 of her country; and the heiress of the Norman
 lioe might struggle to check her despotic hus-
 band, and to save the patrimony of her new
 born soo, of an emperor so famous in the next
 age, under the name of Frederic the second. I
 Ten years after this revo} ution, the French mo- ~nDc~i::of
'narchs annexed to their crown the duchy of                             ::n!:0r-
 Nor~andy: the sceptre,of her ancient dukes 4.».1204-
 had been transmitted, by a grand-daughter of
 William the conqueror, to the house of Planta-
 genet; and the adventurous Normans. who had
 ~ised so D)any trophies in France, Englaud,.
 and Ireland, in Apulia, Sicily, aud the E~t,.
 w~re lost, either in victory or servitude amo.,
 the vanquished oation&                           .
  • Mnratori .00 quote. a pUlage (rom Arnold o( Lub~ (I. iY, e •.
10): Reperit tbesauros abacoDditOl, et omoem lapidllm prrtiolorum et ;
Fmarom gloriam, ita ut oDeratia J60 lomariil, gloriole ad terram luam.
Frdierit. Roger de Hondeo, wbo mentions tbe yiolation o( tbe royal-
tomb aod torp.e., eompote. the spoil of Salerno at 2OO,OCOO onnCH
of gold (p. '146). On tbese ocea.ion., I am almost tempted to eulai..
with tbe' Hitenio, maid in La Fontaine... Je ,oudrola b;en BY.r ce
.ai IIlBoqae ~                                             .        .

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330                   THE DECLJJlE AND PALL

                          CHAP. LVII.

         Tile 'PfI!/~ of tit, Iaotue ./ &ljllh.-T!ltfIir , .
           11011 agaitut Mlklmlud, .o*fJW,-Or fIj' J&ul~IlDi.
           -Tog,...' 61tbdueli PerM, MIl JWoteeu ...
           caliphs.---Dljeae ItN eaplivily #if.llte Ernp.nw·
           Romanlt4 Di()gtMe' bl .Alp .A..rtla..-}JlMcr
           mit/ fIUIgftglel1MflJ (If M_k 8IIahr--CortfJY"I
           oj Alia Miner an" Sfria.-Stflle IIfWl t1pJJf'G-
           sicm of Jtr.salttn.--PilkriMtig'u ". tlte Itol,

 CHAP.   FROM the isle o(Sicify, tIre reader mast trans-
 LVII.   port himself beyond the CaMpiaa sea, to tbe
.;~;.-- Ot'iginal seat o( the Turks or TurklMns, agaiDSC·
Tva...   whom the first crusade "as principatly direct-
         ed. Tbeir Scythian empire of the sixth eentury
         was long since diss01ved; Imt the BaIDe W85
         still famous among the Greeks and orientals;
         and the fragments of the nation, each a power-
       . ful and independent people, were scattered
         over the desert from China to the OXU8 and
         Danube: the colony of Hungarians was ad-
         mitted into the republic of Europe, aod the
       . thrones of Asia were occupied by 51 aves aod
         soldiers of Turkish extraction. While Apulia
         and Sicily were subdued by the Normao lance,
         a swarm ofthese northern shepherds overspread
         the kingdoms of Persia: their princes of the
         race of Seljuk erected a splendid and solid em-

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                     o. THE     ROMAN EMP.ItL ,                                    331 .
 pitt from Sama.rcand to the confilWs' of Greece ClJ.:tL·
 aad. Egypt; and tbe Turks ha'fe maintained '~.• .,. . , #
 their dOlPiDiDn in Asia Minor, till the victorious
 crescent has been planted on the dOllle of ~t.
  Sopba                                                                        .
    One of the greatest Turkish princes                                waS'Mahmnd,
  Mahmood or Mahmud,· tH Gaznevide, who ~~~i~::­
  reign~d in the eastern provinces of Peria, one :ci:8.997-
  tho.sand years after tile birth of Christ. His
  father Sebectagi was tile slave of the slave ,of
  t~ l!aYe of tM CDlDIBander of tbe faithful. But
  in this delCent of lervitude,. the first degree was
  merely titular, since it w...s filJed by the sove-
  reign of Transoxiaa& aod Cborssanf w bo still
, paid a nominal allegiance to the caliph of Bag...
  dad. The secend, rank W3ia that of a minister
  of lState, a lieutenant of the Samoaoides,' w~~ .
  b.oHe,.•y iis revolt, tbe bo.I;ds of political 11a-
  'Very. .8u1I the third. atep was a state of real
  aad . domestic servitode in the family C)f that
  rebteli; which Sebectagi, by his courage
  and dexterity, ascended to tbe supreme com-
  mand O.f the eity and province of Gazf!a,c as
    .. I am indebted for hil character and hiltory to d'H~rbelot (Biblio-
 tJaecple Orientale, MIIAmud, p. 533-637), M. de Guign"s (Hiatoire
 de. Hu.u, tom. iii, p. 16t-I78), and our cOllntryman Colonel Alexan-
 dn Dew (YOI. i, P. 28-88). In the two firat YOlnOlel of his hiltory
 o( Hindolt!aD, he ,tyle. himlelf the tranalator of the Persian Feriahta t
 but in hi. florid te&t~ it is not CIU)' to dilli.,"iab the version and the
     ~ The dyn ..ty of the Samanidell continll~ 125 ),ean, A. D. 8'l4-
 OB9, nnder ten princel. See tllt'it Incceuion and ruin, in'the tabla
 of M. de Guignn (Hilt. del HIlOS, tom. i, p. (04-406). They were
 (oDoWl'd by tbe GaZ1leyid..s, .. I), 099-1183, (.toe tom. i, p. 239, 2(0),
 His divisioo of nation, ofteo d~lnrbl the leria of time and place.
     • Gunah bortol' non habet j elt emorillm et domicilium mercatura
  Indic.. Ablllfech. Reiske, tab. niii, p. Ug, d'Herbelot,
  p. 164. It bat not been vilited b)' ao)' model'D ttneller

                                                              Digitized by   Google
33i                        THE DECUNE AND FALL

  ~v~t· the son-in-law and successor of his grateful
..., -••• master. The falling dynasty;ortbeSamanides
           was at first protected, and at last oVE.>rthrown,
           by their servants; and, in the public disorders,
           the fortune of Mahmud cO,ntinually increased.
           For him, the title of sUlton·' was first invented;
           and his kingdom was' enlarged from Trans-
           oxiana to, the neighbourhood of Ispahan, from
           the shores of the Caspian to the mo~th of the
           Indus. But the principal source of his fame
           and riches was the holy war which' he waged
!~:~Iye a~aiDst the ~entoos ,of Hindostan. In tbis fo-
tJ~DI into reIgn narratIve I may not consume' a page; and
BlDdoalaD a voI Ulne wou Id scarceI y Sllwce torecapJtuI ate
                                         JJ:         . •

           the battles and sieges of his twelve expeditions.
           Never was the mussulman hero .dismayed by
           the'inclemency of the seasons, the height of the
           mountains, the breadth of the rivers, the barren-
           ness of the desert, the multitudes of the enemy,
           or the formidable array of their elephants of
           war: The sultan ofGazna surpassed the limits
           • By tbe amb...ador of tbe ealipb of Bagdad, wbo employed aD
        ~rabian   or Cbaldaic word tbat .ipifies lord aud """tr (d' Herbelot,
        p. 826). It is iDterpreted AlIT."'•.,." JIow,).a1/f B&n).Ioor, by the By_
        tine writen of the 'elnentb century; and tbe name .(JlIl.ftIMC, Sold.nUl) ,
        i. familiarly employed in the Greek and Latin laDguagel, after it bad
        passed from tbe Gallnevidel to tbe Seljllkides. and otber emin of
        Asia and Egypt. Ducange (Dissertation llYi, Inr JoinYille, p. 2SS-
        240. Giosi. Gnec. et Latin.) labours to fiod the title of sallaD in tbe
        great ancient kingdom of Persia I but his proora are mere ·shadow. ;
        a proper uame in the Tbemea of Conltantine (ii, 11), an anticipatioD
        of Zenar.., .!cr. and a mrdal of Kai Kbo(rou, not (as he believes) tbe
        S....uide of tbe sixtb, but tbe Seljnkide ofleoninm of tbetwelftb cea-
       .tury (de Gnignea, Hi,t. des HIIDS, tom. I, p. 246).
           • Ferisbta (apud Dow, Hiht. of HiDdostan, yol. i, p. 19) lMotions
        tbe "'port of a gull in the Indian army. Bnt as I aiD slow in be-
       Ueying this premature (A. D. 1008) nle of artillery, I mUlt de.ln: tf.
       Icrutinise fint the text, .nd tben tbe authority of Feri.bta, who IiYe~ in
        the MOlul court in tbe last century.' '

                                                       Digitized by   Google
                        OF THE ROMAN EIfPIRE.                                        3SS
  of the conquests of Alexander: after a march CHAP,
      three                    nver th4':        of Caz;zhmiz;z     Len.
  Thlbet, hn renched the faD:iWmi city of Kinnoge/
  on the Upper Ganges: and, in a naval combat
       ~m:? of thiY brnczcher             the JndTI4S,
        ,z;ziz;znspilishz;zd fnur thousand boats of the na-.
 tives. .Dehli, Lahor, and Multan; were co~
             to epez;z thz;zir                            kinddom'
  of .Guzarat attracted bis ambition andter;apted
 his' stay; and bis,narice indulged the: fruitless;
.              of dir~ovi>rind thn (rolden ilmd n.r(~¥iEl1SlltTI'~
 isles of the Southern ocean. On the payment
 of tribute, tbef'ojalu preserved their domi-.
  .           th€;? pneple, tbeir lil¥es
 to the religion of Hindostan, the zealous' mus:-.
 sulmen was cruel and inexorable.
d¥'>£zd                   or               wz;z:re levelled witt€;
the ground; many thousand idols were demo-.
lisbed; and tde servants of                        prophet Wez;ziz.
stimulz;ztell and rewarded                       preci:r&.&$.
rials of whicb they were composed. Tbepagoda.
of Smnnat was situatn on                          promnnt:tey
Gumed,                      neighl¥ouz;zl¥ood of I>h.¥,onuuft.J,u
last remaining possessions of the Portuguese.'
It wae endowud~rith the eO':veuue u,f hwo
    f Kinnonge, or Canonge (the old Palimbolhra), is marked in lali-
 tu,h, 27" iE', kmrilu€;:: 80"            d' Agivill,f (Anthffiuite de l'lode, €;.
60-(2), corrected by the "Jea, b.oowiJ'dge               MJbJ,r U*'''oeR (in hA::
ell.::.,:lIeul memoir on hi. Dlap o(HiodoOitan, p. 71-43): 300 jeweller.
IO,€;OO I"::p. the ::Jeca ::::1, 41;:,000 h::ndJ JfT mzgidaoJf      "e.    (Ahut.
fed. Gl'ograph. tab. ltV. !74. Dow, TOI. i, p. 16), will allow an ample
    • The idolaters of Eo rope, ..y. }o'erishta (Dow, vol. i, p. 66). Con'
Hit AbD:ifz:da                     Rz:z:neI'J map uf Hio;:¥z'z:tau'm
IJ&                    TaR DECLINB AND PALL
 CHAP.    lanti villages; . two tlloucabd BrahrniDs were
H~~J.':.. consecrated 10 the Qf tbe deity, whOUl
          the,. wuhed each rooming and tl'ening in water
          from the diatant Gaugles,: the subordinate mi-
          nisters con8isted of three h¥Gdred musicians,
          tMeebundred barbel'l,andftvebundred ~aDC..
          iug girls, COJIapiCBOU& Jt)r -their birth or beauty.
          Three sidet ofthetentpJe w~e protected by the
          6eean, the lI8I'row' isthmus wae; fortiAed by a
          _tura! 01' artitelal preetp~; .,.,ul the· city and
          adjacent tountry were 'peopled .by •. nation           or
          Ianatics. .They .con~ IIhelrios .ad t~ pun"
          iihment of K.i1tnrJge··and j)eltli; .but if the im-
          pious stranger' shenld ;p~s:utne to ~pprQach
          ,./uNr huty pr.ecincu, 'lie wOUld R     urelybe over-
          whelmed :by:a YastJOftbe divine vengeEln€le. ;By
          this challenge; the flith l(i)f l\{alllpu~ was ani-
          mated to:a.persomal trial of the str~qgth of thi8
          Incliu d1!itf.. Pift, thOllftnd C1f Iris worship-
          pers wbette pierne.i· by the ..pear ()f .tbe l\Ios-
          Iem_; the walla were scaled; the .t~u.'at,.
          wai JM'fdamed'~ BDcI fIhe eonqueror airn,e,l. blow
       , .of his :ironmace at the bead of the id91. The
          trembling Brahmins .re said to have oft'Qred
          ten 'mil'lions sterling 'for' hiS' ransom; and itwJ8
          urged by the wisest counsellors, that the de-
          struction of stone image 'Would 'not cllailge
          the hearts of the Gentoos;;and that such a sum
          might be dedicated to the ·relief of true be-
          lievers. "Your reasons," replied the Buitan',
          " are specious and strong; but never in theeyes
          " of posterity shall Mahmud appear as a mer·
          " chant of idols." He repeated his blows, and
          a trea8ure of pearls and rubies, concealed in the

                                             Digitized by   Google
               OF TBE ..OIlAN          I1I&
                                e. . . .

   belly of the statue, explaiaed. in -some ·41. . .· CRAP
   the devout prod·igality -d thee Brahmin,. Tile e.!:!!!;••
   fragments of the idol were dittribated to Ga••,
   Mecca, and Medina. Bq.d:ad list~1md to.abe
  edifying tale; and Mahrnud ~as saluted \>8 t}JOe
   caliph with the -title ofguar."~of tb~ IQrtUQe.
  and f8.itb or Mahomet. - _
   . Fr~ the patbs of ~lood,: encl esuch it\> tile -h~.~~~..
  tory 01 natiolHJ, -I cunot refuae to ttu;n- ~ •.
  to gather some Bowen of.: ·.,i'J¥)e :.or. v,ir-
  fue~    The Dame of Mahmud the G~:vjde
  ls"till venerahle in the -East: ,bMsubje~ts-.e~.,.
 joyed the blessitigs of prosperity 8Qcl .p~e.;,
 his· 'Vices 'Were: oonceated by· the. ~~il of religion,;
 and two familiar examples will testify nis jus,.
 flce and mapauimity. 1. As .he...~t iu. the di~
 Tan, 'an unhappy subject bo,w.ed .before th~
 throne te :aC'CUfe the insolence of a TUJ::kist\
 soldier w'ho had. driYen him from his h01~S~ ~nc;l
his . bed. "Suspend ,Your clamours,"s~d
 Mahmud, ",inform me of ~is next visit. an~
 fC: ourself in persor) will judge and punish the
 ,e offender." The suitan followed his guide,
 invested the house with his :guards, and extin-
 gaMhing the torches, pronounced the death of
 the ·criminal, who bad heen,seized in the act of
-rapilre 'Sod adultery. After the execution of his
sentence, tbe lights were ,rekindled, Mahmud
feJl prostrate in prayer, and rising from the
ground, demanded some homely fare, which
-he devoured with the voraciousness of hunger.
The poor man, whose injury he had avenged,
 was unable to suppress his astonishment and
 curiosity; and the courteous monarch 'Conde--
 Icended to explain the motives of this singular

                                              Digitized by   Google
                                THE DaCUNB AND Jo'ALL
                                      .     ,

 ~II./.r:      behaviour. "1 ba(l te.a$on to suspect tbat none
N#"....",. co     except one of my SOilS could dare to perpe-
               " trate sucb an outrage;, and I 'extinguished
               " tbe lights, that my ju&tic~ migbt be blind aDd
               "inexorable. . My prayer ."as·~ ~haDksgiving
              " on ·the disco\'e..y of the ·oifen.~er ; ,a~d so paiD
            . " ~ul ~as my anxiety, tbtlt.I.bQ.dp~j;ed· three.
              "days .without 'food :since.the fir,.st IqQment of
              ",' your . complaiDt~"': 1:1. The'.of GazDa
              lia«:i declared war: againat the dy.mLsty ·ofthe.
              Bowides,' the SovereignI of'the: w~ern Persi~':
              he was disarmed :by an epistle ortbe ~~~t8Da
              mother, and delayed his iovalilion ti'll the man-
              bood of hE'r 'son.· " Dnriog the life Qf my hus-.
              cr. band;" said ·the 'artfhl regent,':" I w,~ .ever.
             " appl'ehensiveof 'yoor . ambition: "I)e ·was .'"
             ,~ pljince, ab4 a soldie... ,worthy .of .y()ur~~ms.
             cc He is now DO more; his sceptre ha~ p~88ed
             Ut6 a woman and·child, and y.ou'dare not at,..
             " tack their infa~c1 aDdwe;lkness. - .Ho.w in-:
             " glorious would be your conquest, how shame-
             "ful your defeat! and yet the event of war is
             " in the hand ofibe Almighty." Aval'icewas
            .the only 'defect that tarnished the illustrious
             character of Mahmud; and never has that pas-
             sion been more richly satiated. The Orientals
            exceed the measure of credibility in the account
            of millions of gold arid silver, such as the avi-
            dity of man has never accumulatE'd; in the
            magnitude of pearls, diamonds, and rubies,
            such as have never been produced by the work-
              II D'Berbelot, Bib1iotJltqae OrieDtale, p.621.  Yet thelle letttl'l
            apothqma, &:c. are rarely the laagllage of the heart, or the motiy...
            of pablic aetioA.

                                                         Digitized by   Google
                      Of' THR ltOMAN _PUlL                                         337
 manship of nature.· Yet the soil' of Bindos~aD cev\~:
 is impregnated with precious minerals ; her '_n,n,...
 trade, in every age, has attracted tbe gold and
 silver of the world; and her virgin spoils were
 rifled' by the first of the Mahometanclm:querors.
 His behaviour, in the last days of his life; evinces
 the vanity of these possessions, so ' 'laboriously
 won~ so dangerously held, and so. inevitably
 lost. Be surveyed the vast, aQd various 'ch~m-
 b~rs of the treasury of Gazna ; : burst 'into: tears;
 and again closed the doors" without bellowing
 any portion of the wealth whicb he could no
longer hope to preserve. The"following day
he reviewed the state 'of his militaryforce; one
hundred thousand foot, fiftY-Dye thousand· horse,
and thirteen hundred elephants of battle." Be
again wepttheinstability of. human greatness;
and his grief was embittered by ~he ,hostile pro-
gress o(the Turkmabs; ,whopI:he'had introduc-
e~ into the heart of hisPel'sian kingdom.
; In'the modern depopulation of Asia, the re- Manner••
guIar operatIon 0 f government an d 'agncu1ture ,ration of
       '       .                             .         and em,.

is' confined to the neighbourhood Of cities; and the Turk.,
the distant country is abandoned to the pasto-
ral tribes Of Arabs, Curds, and TurkmGm. 1 Of
•   I For IDitance, a ruby o( fOllr hundred and fifty millr.all (Dow,
 'Vol. I; p. liS), or six pound three ounce.-~ the la rcnt In the treuury ~f
DeliU·_Ighe4ICvcoteen m!akall (VClyal.eJ:de Tavernier. pa.,ie ii, p.
 sao!). It I, tnae, that in the eal~ all coloured atonel are called rubiel
(p. 366), and that 1'avernier saw three larger and more 'precloD. amo";
 tbe jewel. de notre grand roi. Ie plUl pulllllllt et plul magnifique de
'tona In roi. de la tcne (p. 176)•
. .. Dow, vol. I, p. 65. Tbe 10'l'ereiga of KillDo,e !a said fobavepoa.
.e8S~d 2000 t-I .. phants (Ahlllfed. Geograph. tab. lIY, p. 274). ,FrOB!-
tbeae Indian atorits, thc reader may correct a Dote In illY Ws~ vohllne
(1" 'Sf, .38) ; , or from that note be may correct theae Itoriel,         ':
   I lee a jDst a natural picture of thfae paatorallD&Dllerl, iu the' bw.

   VOL. X.                         Z                                   tory

                                                                Digitized by   Google
338                          THE DltCLlNE AND FALl
 CHAP.    the last-mentioned people, two considerable
.. LVII. branches
or Turk- pian sea:
                     extended on either side of the Cas-
                     the western colony can only muster
~.:'iso- forty thousand soldiers; the eastern, less obvi-
1_.       oos to the traveller, but more strong and popu-
          lous, has increased to the number of one hun-
          dred thousand families. In the midst of dviliz-
          ed nations, they preserved the manners of the
          Scythian desert, remove their encalnpments
         with the chauge of seasons, and feed their cattle
         among the ruins of palaces and temples. Their
         flocks and herds are tbeir only riches; their
         tents, either black or white, according to the
         colour of the banner, are covered witkfelt, and
         of a circular form; tbeir winter apparel is a
         sh~p-skin; a robe.9f cloth or cotton their Bum
         mer garment: the features of tbe men are harsh
         and ferocious; .the countenance of their wo-
         men is soft and pleasing. Their wandering
         life maintains the spirit and exercise of arms;
         they fight on horseback; aJ;ld their courage is
        disp13.yed in frequent contests with each other
        and with their neighbours: For the licence of
        paHture they pay a slight tribute to the sovereign
        of the land; but the domestic jurisdiction is in
        the hands of the chiefs and elders. The first
        emigration of the eastern Turkmans, the most
        ancient, of their race, may be ascri'bed to the
        tenth century of the christian era. In the de-          M

         tory of William arcbbilbop of Tyre (I. i, c. yii, iu the Ge.ta Dei per
         I'nocOl, p. CIII, ON), and a ytluable Dote by the editor of the Bit-
         tolre Geoealogiqae det Tartan, p. 535-538.
           • The fint emlgratioDl or the TurkmBDI, Rod d.uhtf'al origia of the
         k1jukiaDa, may be traced iD tbe laboriODl bistory of the BUIll, .,
         H. de Gai. . . (tom. i, Tab!" Chl'oDoloCiquea, L y, tom. iii, I, yij, ilr,
                                                                        -       ala

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                    OF THB ROMAN EMPIRE-,

 eliDe ofthecalipba, and the weakness of their CHt P•
 lieutenants, the barrier of the Ja.xartes was of~ ....!:.~!;...
 ten violated: in each invasion, after the vidory
'or retreat of their countrymen, some wander-
 ing tribe, embracing the mahometan raitll, ob-
 tained a tree encampment in the spacious plains
 and pleasant climate of 'TransoxianR, aDd Ga~
 rizme. The Turkish slaves who aspired to the
 throneencoul'aged these emigrations, wlJich re-
 truited their armies, awed their subjects and
 rivals, and protected the fromier' against the
 wilder natives of Turkestan; and this po1icy
was. abused by Mahmud the Gaznevide beyond
 the example of former times. He' was admo-
 nished of his error by a chief of-the race of Sel-
juk, who dwelt in the territory of Bochara.
 The sultan had enquired whaisupply of lnen he
could furnish for military ser.vice. '" If you
 ~, send," replied Ismael, ff one of these arreW8
 ·'into our camp, fifty thousand of your servants'
 f' will mounton horseback." '·AmJ1f.thalnUm.-
,.. 'ber," continued MahrnutJ.. ~ should not be
 "sllfficient?" 4' Send this second arrow to the
'E~l horde ofBtilik, and you wilIfuld fifty thousand
~'IIWTe;lt ".But," said 1!ha Gaznevide; disselll-
'bUng his anxiety, " if I should stand ;in need of
<4' the whole force of your kindred tribes?"
 " Dispatch my bow," was the last reply ot',Is.
 mael, "and as it m    circulated· a:roun~; the sum-
,.'  mons will be, obeyed by tw.o hundred thou-
 " saud harite." The apprehension            such for-of
 it). ami tile BibHot~eque Orientale 0( d'Herbelot (p. 199-1102, -811'1-
,SUi), ~-hnacln (Hlst;Sanicen. p. 'SSI-S~8),., ad:_ Ablil.,........
 -1>)'II8st. P __ • .ttI)··                        .: , "      ," .

                                                            Digitized by   Google
340                            THE DECLINE AND }'ALL

 cl!':'~:      midable friendship induced Mah-Illud to trans-
' ••"u_ ..     port the most obnoxious tribes ipto the beart
               of. Chorasan, where they woql~: be separa~ed
               from their brethren by the riv~r O}4l1S, and, in-
               closed on all sides by 'the waHs of, obe«Jient
               cities. But the face of the country was ~n ob-
              ject of temptation rather than terror; and the
               vigour of gov~rnment was relaxed by the ab-
              sence and death of the sultan of .Gazna. Tbe
               shepherds were converted into r9bbers; ,the
               hands of robbers were collected into ~n army
               of'conquerors: ' as far as Ispahan and the Ti-
              gris, Persia was afflicted by their predatory in-
              roads; and tbe Turkmans were 'not ashamed or
              afraid to measure their courage and numbers
              .with: the proudest sovereign.. of Asia. Mas-
              ·soud, the son 'and ,successor of 'Mahmud, had
              long':neglec.ted the advice of hie wisestomrahs.
               " Your enemies," they repeatedly urged, "were
              ,~'in ,their origin a swarm of ants; they are now
             ." littJe sna,kes; an~; unless they be instantly
             ''':crushed, the,. will acquire the venom and
              " magnitude of serpents." After some,alterna-
             ;tivesoftruce and' hostility, after the repulse or
            ,partial 1!IUCCeS8 of his lieutenants; th~ sultan
            'm~rebed i~ person against the. ,Turkmans, who
            '~t.tatked him on all sides with barbarous shouts
            . and irregular: onset. ' '" 'l\f~ssoud," says tbe

            . ,Pe.rsian hi,storian: "plunged singly to oppose
              " tbe torrent of gleaming arms, exhibiting such
            -',', ,acts of gigantic force and valour as never king
            -,. ».ow,   Hilt. "t H;.odostan, yol. p.89, 11-111. I eopied dIia
            .......e !II • sPJ:ciIn~n of the persian manner; I b~t .aspect, that by
             lome odd fatality, the atyle of Ferilhta haa b,ee,D impnm:d hy tbt 01
             O..i..,                                                    ,

                                                       Digitized by   Google _
     --                OF TH~ RO~AN BMPht&',                                       34 J
  .. had before displayed. A few of his friends, CHAP
  " roused by his words and actions, and thatinnate ##~~~I.~##
  .. honour which inspires th'e brave, seconded They de.
 "thelr' )ord so we II, t I '
                            lat wheresoefer he turn- (pat the
 "e   d hIS f:ata I HWOrd, th"e' enemIes were mowed snbdue
          ·                                          vides aad

 "down , or retreated before him " But now •• D.IOI8.Penia,
 " when victory seemed to blow on his'standard
 ,~ misfortune was active behind it"; for when he
 " looked round, 'he, beheld almost his whole
 " army, excepting that body 'he commanded in'
 " per~on, dev«?uring the paths of flight.'" The
 Gazncvide was abandone~ by the cowardice'
 or treachery of some generals of Turkish race;
 and 'this memorable day of Zendecan° founded'
 in  Persia tlie dynasty of thesbepberd kings.'
     The victorious Turkmans imm"diately pro- Dyna~tyo(
ceeded to tbe election of a king; and, if the ~;:';~('Ijll'
probable tale 'of a Latin historian'! deserves any ~:i/2oaF.J.
credit" they determined by lot the choice of               .
their new master. A number of arrows were
successively inscribed with the name of a tribe,
a family, and candidate; they were drawn from
the bundle by the hand of a child; and' the im~
portant prize was obtained by Togrul Beg, the
   • 'lhe ZeadebD of d'Her"lot (p. 1028), tbe DiDdaka of Dow
(vol. i, p. 97), ia probaltly tbt' Daodanekan of Abulfeda (Geo,np.
p. S4~, Rr.iake), a email town of Choruao, two daya jouraey from
Maru, aDd l'1!IIowuecl tbroqh tlte Rut for the production and manu-
facture of cotton•
   • The By.atine lliatoriaol (CedrenuI, tom. ii, p. 166,161, Zona-
r.., tom. ii, p. 265. Nicepbom. BryuuiuI, p. 21) have' confounded,
in tbis revolntion, the trutb of tillle aud place, of nalll'" and ,e...IOIII,
.f caule. and, events. The ignonnre and erron of tb ..1e Gret:ka
 whleb I Iban not atop to naravel) ..ay bIIpire 101llt: distruat of tht:
Itory fit Cyuarea and Cyr..l, . . it it told by tbt:ir most "Io,,"('ut pre-
   • Willerm. Tyr. I. i, c. 1, p. 633. Tbe di.iualioD by arrowl ia ...
• ieDt aud famolll ia tho: Ealt.

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341                        THE DECUNB AND PALL.

 CHAP. "on of'Michael, the son of Seljuk, whose !!ur-
   Lvn.                .
...._ .... name was ImmortaI' d' t he great ness 0 f h'IS
                                 lse In
:'~~:Drd posterity. The sultan Mahmud, who valued
GfTOlr~ himself on his skill in uational genealogy, pro-
~.~:~ 1018 fessed his iguorance of the family of Seljuk;
-1061.     yet the father of that race appears to have been
           a chief of power and renown; For a daring
           intrusion into the baram of his prince, Seljuk
           was banished froin Turkestan; with a numer.
           ous tribe of his friends and vassals, he passed
           the Jaxartes, encamped in the neighbou~hood
           of Samarcand, embraced the religion of Ma-
           homet, and 8.cq liked the crown of martyrdom
           in a war against tbe infidels. His age, of an
           hundred and seven years, surpassed the life of
           his son, and Seljuk adopted the, care olbis two
           grandsons, Togrul an4 Jaafar; the eldest of
           whom, at the age of forty-five, was invested with
           the title of Hultan, in the royal city of Nishabur.
           The blind determination of chance was justifi-
           ed by the virtues of the successful candidate.
           It would be sU'perfiuous to praise the valQur
           ofa Turk; and the ambition of Togrul- was
           eq ual to his valour. 'By his arms; the Gazne-
          r D'Herbelot,p. 801. YehAer the'fOrtDae ofhil'p6Iterity,'8eijat
        became the thirty.fourth iD ,liDeai delicl:Ilt t'tom 'the . .at A&uiab,
        emperor of '1'ouraa (p.800). Tbt Tartar pedipee of·tbe IaoDie Of
        Zingi. gave a dUf'ereDt cast to SaUer, ad Mle; ad the:lriatorilll
        MirkhoDd derina the Seljokidea from Alaakayah, the_,~
        (p. SOl, col. J). If they be the nme .. tile Zlllllhef" ........_ . .
        hader Ithaa (Hilt. GeDealogiqae, p. 148), weqaOle iD their fay.., tile
        moat weighty evidence of a Tartar prince Itimself,the deKeDdaat of
        ZinRis, Alaukayah, or Alaaeu, aDd ~x'Kh.n.
           • By a alight corraption, TOln.1  Be,     ia the Taapoli pis 01 tile
        Greek.. Hi. reign aad charactt-r are faithfully exhibited bl d'¥el'be-
        lot (Blbliotheqoe OrieDtale. p. 1027 1028) aad de Guiluea (Hi4" del
        1I1I1I~. lOID iii, p. 18IMIOl).

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                or THB ]lOHAN EMPI",                   343
   vides were expelled from the eastern kingdoms CHAP.
   of Persia, and gradually driven to the banks .. };!1~:.,.
   of the Indus, in search of a softer and more,
  wealthy conquest. In the West he annihilalt:d
  the dyuasty of the Bowides; and the sceptre
   of Irak passed from the Persian to the Turk'ish
  nation. The princes \!ho had felt, or who fear-
  ed, the Seljukian ,arrows, bowed their heads in'
  the dust: by the conquests of Aderbijan. or
  Media, he approached the Roman confines;
  and the shepherd presumed to d.espatch an am-
  bassador, or herald, to demand the tribute and
  obedience of the emperor of Constantinople.' III
  his own dominions, Togrul was the father of
  his soldiers and' people: by a firm and equal
  administration. Persia was relieved from the
, evils of anarchy; and the same hands which had
  been imbrued in blood became the guardians
  of justice and the puhlic peace. The more rus-
  tic, perhaps the wisest, 'portion of the Turk-
  mans continued to dwell 'in the tents of their

  ancestors; and, from the OXU8 to the Eu phrates,
  these military colonies were protected and pr,o-
  pagated by their native princes. But theTurka
  of the court and city were refined by business

     Cedreau, tom. ii, p. 7'74, '17..  Zoaaru, tom. ii, p. U7'. ' W- ...
their ulllll ltDowled,e of erieutal d'ain, tbey deac:ribe the . .b...-
dor 81 a Miff, wbo, lilr.e the ')'BceUu of 'he patriarcll, wu the .icw
. .d eo_or of the eali,...                                 .
   • From William of Ty" I baYe borrowed tbil d"tinetioa of Tarkl
.nd T.rkmKDI, wbieb at leut ia popular aDd coanaieat. The namrt
are tbe lame, and tbe additioa of _ iI of the AllIe import ia the Per-
.ic and Teutonic idioma. Few critirt wiD adopt tb. el1moloc1 of
Jame. de Vitry (Hilt. RieroseL I. i, c. 11, p. 1881), of Turco.......
.....i 'l'tmIi el c.-i, a miud pe.ple. .

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344 -                       TH;£n!'a.nm AM» FALL'
   ,CHAP. and 'softened by pleasure:' they imitated the
     LVII. danguage, an manners, 0 f P"
~ ••"".,. ress,
                        id                                    .. ..I
              the royal palaces of Nishabur and Rei displayed
              the order and magnificence of a great monaro
              -chy. The most deserving of the Arabians and
               Persians were promoted to the honours of the
              state; and the whole body of the Turkish nation
              embraced with fervour and sincerity the religi,on
              of Mahomet. The northern swarms of bar                              J

              barians, who overspread both Europe and Asia,.

{             llave been irreconcilably separated by the coo-:
              sequences of a similar conduct. Among tbe
             'Moslems, a~ among the christians, their vague
              and local traditions have yielded to the reason:
              and authority of the prevailing system~ to the'
              fame of antiquity, and the consent of nations.
              But the triumph of the koran is more pure and.
              meritorious, \ as it was not assisted by any visi-
              ble splendour of worship w.hich might aUilre
              the pagani by some resemblance ;of ido~try.
              The first of the Seljukian sultans was conspi-
               cuous by his zeal and faith: each' day he ~
              peated the five prayers which are enjoyned to
               the true believers: of each week, the two first
              days were consecrated, by an extraordinary
              fut; and in every city a mosch was completed
              'hefore Togrul presumed to lay the ,foundations
         of      a palace."                                         .
~~d:~~           With the belief of the koran, the son of Sel-
'B'allpdh dO' juk imbil?ed a 'lively reverence (or the succes-
    .g a " h                                        .
 t.. ».1055. sor of t e prophet.     But that subhme charac-
          -;         .   .'

               ~i.t. G~aenle de. HUM. tom. iii, p. 185,   166, J67. II. deGalpa
         ,'Iotee  Abit~.hueD. aD hiltona. o[ E,.... t

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                        OF TFJE ltOMAN EMPIRE.                                846-
   ter was still disputed by the cali pbs of Bllgdad ('HAl',
   an d E gypt, an d eac Ilothe flva s was 601 " " ' ",• ., ••••
                            f                 ICltgU8 LVII,
   to prove bis title in the judgment of the s~fong,            .
  though illiterate, llarbarillns', Mahmud the
  Gaznevide bad declared himself in favour of
  the line of Abbas; and had treated wi~b indig.,
  nity the robe of honour which was presented by
  the Fatimite ambassador, Yet the ungrateful
 ,Hashemite had cbauged with, tbe change of
, fortune; he applauded the victory of Zellde-
  can, and named the Seljukian sultan his tem·
  poral vicegerent over the Moslem world. As
  Togrul executed and enlarged this important
  trust, he was. called to the deliverance of the'
  caliph Cay~m, and obeyed tbe holy. summons,
  which gave a new kingdom to his arms'. In
  the pal~ce of Bagdad, the commander of th~
  faithful still slumbered, a venerable phantom~
  His, s~rvant or master, the prince of the Bow-
  ides, could no longer protect him from tbe in~
  !folence of meaner tyrants; and tbe Euphrates
  and Tigris ;were. 'oppressed by the revolt of the
  Turkish and, ATabian emirs. The presence of
  a conqueror was' implored as a blessing ; and
  the transient mischiefs of tire and sword
  were' excused as the sharp ,but .salutary re·
  medies which alone could restore :the health of
  the republic. At the head of an irresistible force,
  the sultan of Persia marched from Hamadan:
  ~he proud were crushed, the prostrate were
                                            ~pared ;
  r CoDall the Bibliotbeqne Orientale, in the articles of the Abbauidn.
 Ccicr. anel CaiM, aDel the AnnaJa ofEhDacioftod Abulpharacius

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                               lR~frlE1rffiEC:LlilRE   frlND LALL
 LHAL~            ;            of thL BLliid¥lRS dilRappealf=
  LVII.    ed: the heads of the most obstinate rebels were
,,~~U.~~~. laid at the feet of Togru w; and
         ILlRsor& of                   OL thL pelf!ple nJ            anP
         Bagdad. After the chastisement of the guilty,
         and the restoration of peace, the royal sbep~
         hr&rd                 thr&              of bis              anb
         a solemn comedy represented the triumph of
~i' ius- religious prejudice over barb~rian pO'wnLr. ThL
titun.               lRu:ltar& eB:¥?banked on the Tig'wilR,
         ed at the gate of Racca, and made his public
         entry on borseback. At                    palaue-gute        rif;~
                       dismouuted, amf wLwked on                    dre~
         ceded by his emirs without arms. The calipb
         was              bLhind hi¥?                 veil: the
         ~lRlfme¥?t              Adban¥?idLL m'w,H Llf,st uveL biL
         shoulders, and he held in his hand the staff or
              apustJu of                The          !H~r!LL of the
         kilRsed thu grmmd, sb?od Lomu time                       a ino=
         dest posture, . and was led towards the throne
        bil thL           affiEd i¥::&.terdLetur            T!Lg"Tul had
         sL~Lted himself Oii a'wmthrr throLr, bis ro~
        mission wa~publicly read, which declared him
              teLlRpo¥?LI lieutunaLt of thu                  ob
         phet. Hu was successivelil invested with seven
        robes of bono.ur, and presented witb seven
                   thL nab veL of              LeVLP:k climatLs      thu
        Arabian empire. His mystic veil was perfunl.

                For !k!i. c",ioul ""r"m""y, "IB i"d"bted &0            de !E"ip"'! to",~
          iii, p. 191.198), and that learned author i. indebted to Bondari, WH
          c!!mpOI?',l in ,d,·"bic ide hi,£ory   tb" !:'=!lj"i!i!Ze. ('??m.   p.    ..
          8111 ignorant of hi. ale, country, and Chal'llcler.        ~
                  OF'THE ROMAN DlPIRE.

 cd'with'musk; two crowns were placed on his' CHAP.
                                .          18 ··d
 head ; two scymetarswere glrde d to, h' Sl e, u.,.-".....
as the symbols,of a double reign over the East.
 and West. Arter this inauguration, the sultan
was prevented from prostrating himself a second
time; but he twice kissed the hand of the com-
manderof the faithful, and his titles were pro-
claimed by the voice of' heralds and the ap-
plause of the Moslems. In a second visit to
Bagdad, the Seljukian prince again rescued
the caliph from his enemies; ,and devoutly, on
foot, led the bridle of his mule from ·the prison
to the palace. Their alliance 'was cemented by
the marriage of Togrul's sister with the succes-
sor of the prophet. Without reluctance he had
introduced a Turkish virgin into bis- haram ;
but Cayem proudly refused his daughter to the
sultan, ,disdained to mingle. the blood of the
Hashemites 'with 'the' blood of. aScythian shep-
herd; and protracted the negociation many
months, till the gradual diminution of. his reve- .
nue admonished' him that he 'Was HtIH in the
bands ,of a 11laster. 1'he royal nuptials were
followed by the deatb ofT.ogrulhimself.· As he IIDd delth. children, bis nephew Alp Arslan succeed- A. D. 10011.
ed to the title and prerogatives of Rultan; and .
his name, after thatof the caliph, was pronounced
i~ the public prayers of tbe Moslems. Yet in
this revolution, the Abbassides acquired a

   • Eodem luno (.l. B. 455) obiit princeps Togrulbecul ••• rex luit
eil:meus, pru}rus, et peritnl regnandl, cujns terror corda mortaliu.
inn.eraf, if a nt obedirent ei ngea atque ad ipsum IcribereDt. Elm..
:iD, Hiat.. SaraeeD. p. 342, Yen. ErpeDii.

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348                          THE DECLINE A)fD FALL
 CHAP.    larger measure of liberty and power.                            On the
••!;!!.~... throne of Asia, the Turkish monarchs were less
            jealoua of the domestic admiration of .Bagdad;
            and the commanders of the faithful were reliev-
            ed from the ignominious vexations to which they
            had been e~posed by the ·presence and poverty
            of the Persian dynasty.
TbeTurki       Since the fall of the caliphs, the discord and
iovade the                      S                          .
Romao       degeneracy of the araCeDS respected the ASl~
!~::r;0s0. tic provinces of Rome; which, by tbe victories
            of Nicephorus, Zimisces, and Basil, had been
            extended as far as Antioch arid.: the eastern
            boundaries of Armenia. Twenty-five years at
            ter the death of Basil, his successors were sud~
            denlyassaulted by an unknown race of bar-
           barians, who united the Scythian valour with
           the fanaticism of new proselytes, and the art
           and riches of a powerful monarchy.' The my-
           riadR of Turkish horse overspread a frontier of
           six hundred miles from Taurus to Arzeroum,
           and the blood of one hundred and thirty thou-
           sand christians was a grateful sacrifice to the
           Arabian prophet. Yet the arms of Togrul did
           not make any deep or lasting impression on the
           Greek empire. The torrent rolled away from
           the open country; the sultan retired witbout

            • For tbeae wan of the Turks aod Roman.,        I"   in geaeral tbe By'
         antioe bittories of Zonanl aod Cedrenlll, Scylitllt's the continuator of
         Cedrenlls, and Nicephorus Bryennills Czsar The two first of tbne
         wt're monka, the two latter at .. tesmeo; y.t lo('b wt're the Greeks, that
         t~e difference of Ityle and character is ficarcely discernible. For the
         .ri.-ntals, . I draw as 1I"lIal on the weallb of d'Hcrbt'lot (see tit~. of
         IIf.ljuk.ides) anti the accuracy of de Guigut'l (Hist: des HUDI, to•. iii,
         I. x).

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                             '()l' THE IWMAN EMPIRE.                                                  3.&9
  glory or ,success (rom the siege 'of an Armenian CHAP.
   't                        ')"              ,       LVIl~
  Cl y; th e 0 b scure h OStl Jtles were contlnuc'd ".",.,,,..
 or suspended with a vicissitude of events: and
 the bravery of the M'8.cedoniall I.~gions renewt;!d
 the fame of· the conqllerol' of Asia. The nanre ReigD of                 C

 of Alp Arslan, the valiant lion, i~ expres~ive of:r: An-
 the popular idea of the perfection of man; and ~l»or1~
 the successor of Togrul display~d the fierce-
 ness and generosity of the royal auimal. ,Ht;!
 poosed the Euphrates at thf! head of the Turkish
 cavalry, and entered C&!sarea, the metropolis
 1)( Cappadocia, to which he bad been attra~ted
 by the fame and ,wealth of the. temple Q(St".
 Basil. The solid structure resisted the .de~
stroyer: but he carried aw~y t~e rd~ors of the
shrine incrusted ,with gold and pearls, :and
profaned the relics of the tutelar saint, w.hos~
mortal frailties ~ere now covered by the vener-
able rust of antiqUity •. The final conquest of~~~!
Armenia and Georgia was achieved by Alp nia and'
 Arslari •. , In. Armenia, tbe title of a kingd~m, ~e:~~011
and the spirit of a nation, were annihilated: the -1068.
artificial fortifications were yielded by the mer-
cenaries of Constantinople; by strangers with.
out faith, l'eterans without payor arms, aud
recruits without experience or discipline. The
loss of this important frontier was the news o.f
a day; and the catholics were neither surprised
'nor dislpeased, that a people iilfected so deeply
   c   'l!1"fIT'   )"If IY T""'O'f AI)otf,   II(   II'   "'''P''fM'I'' .Il....("e.'.' .... Tv,....
"',.: ..... " f """"""'f    "".1"1111(, &"....,    d M...~"" 4~1~.'!COf       'x., .......("t'
n'er."   Cedrenos, tom. ii, p: 191. The credulity of tbe YDlgar ia al
ways probable; and the Turks bad learned from the Arabs the hi.
tory or lelcnd of Eseallder Duleamein (d'Herbelot, p. S11, "c.)

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330                             THE DECLlN~ AND PAI.L
CHAP.    with theNei9torian andEutychianerl'Ol's,had been
.*~~~~:., delivered by Christ and his mother into the
        hands of the infidels! The woods and valleys
        of mount Caucases were more strenuously de-
        fended by tlte nann Georgians· or Iberians:
        but the Turkil~h sUltan and his son Malek were
        indefatigable in this holy war; their captives
        were compelled to promise a spiritual as well
        as temporal obedience: and, instead of their
        coHars and bracelets, an iron horse-shoe, a
        badge of ignominy, WILlI imposed on the infidels
        who still adhered to the worabip or their fa~
        thers. The change, however, was not sincere
        Orunivenal; and, through·ages of servitude,
        the Georgians ·have maintained the succession
        uf their princes and bishops. But a race of
        men, whom nature has ·cut in her most perfect
        mould, is degraded by po-verty, ignorance, and
        vice; their profession, and .tiU more their
        practice of christianit1, is an empty name; and
        if they have emerged from heresy, it .is only
           • 0, _        ,If,,.., .... u -....1'II". . . . .11"_' _It· ..... _ r.a.-
        . . NIC"Ip'" _   .... ~ ep."_r,, .,,.,,,, (Scylitllea, ad calcem Ce-
         Alrrni. tom. ii, p. 834, whOle ambiguous tonltruction mall not t_pt
        ~ tb _peel ·that be ~fOUll_d .tbe NatCIriaJI Nld MoPOpb,.ite
         hn-eaiel).' He familiady &alka of. tbe./04"'f,, .",., Ell." qlllalitiea, ...
        J .bould apprehend, nry foreign to the perfect Being j 'bnt bil bigot..,.
        Ii forc"d to eOllfl!lI, that they were-IOOD .after,........ ,diac....~ GO tile
        .rtll.dox ,_ _...
          .• Had the name of Georgians been known to tbe Grerb (Iltritter.
         Memori;e Byzant, tom. iv, IIIerUtl), I lb••••,tieri,e- it r...- their api-
        ealture, u the %aU"" ~ of HerodotUi (I. iv, e. 28, p. 289, Nit.
         Wf'lSeling)_ 'But it appean onlY'linee the cr,naadea,alqOllg the Latina
        (Jac. a Vitriaco, Hilt. Hierosol. c.19, p. 10(6) aDd OrieDtaill (d'Rer-
         belot, p. (01), and wal dnoutl, borrowed frolll It. Geor,e of Cappa-

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                     OF THE IlOIrIAM EM,lRE.                                      3/S1
  ,because tbey are too illiterate to remember a CHAP.
   metaphysicaI creed.'                                ~L
      The false or genuine magnanimity .,f Mah- TheRempe-
                                                     ror 0 . . .-
   mud the Gaznevide was not imitated by Alp DUI Dio,e-
   ArHlan; and he attacked without scruple the :~-:'. 1068
   Greek empress Eudocia and her children. His -1071.
   alarming progress compelled her to give herself
   and her sceptre to the hand of a soldier ; and
   Romanus Diogenes was invested with the im-
   perial purple. His patriotism, and perhaps
   his pride, urged him from Constantinople with-
  in two months after his a~ces8ion; and the next
   campaign he most scandalously took the field
  during the holy festival of easter. In the pa-
  lace, 'Diogenes was no more than the husband
  of Eudocia: in the camp he was emperor of
  the Romans, and he sustainet( that character
  with feeble resources, and iavincible courage.
  ,By his spirit and success. the soldiers were
   taught to act, the subjects to hope, and the ene-
   mies to tear. The Turks bad penetrated iota
   the heart of Phrygia; but the SUltan himseli
   had resigned to his emirs th'e prosecntioB
   of the war; and their numerous detachments
   were scattered over Asia in the security con-               of
   quest. Laden with spoil and careless of dis-
   cipline, they were' separately surprised and
   defeated by the Greeks: the activity of the
   emperor seemed to mUltiply his presence; and
   while they heard of his expedition to Antioch,
      ,                                                                       .
   , MOlJaeim, Inltitut. Hi,t. Redel. p. GS2. See ill 'Cltafl1i,,', Trll-
 nil (tom. i. p. 171-114), tbe manners and religion of this llandsome
 OUt wortll.e., natioD. See tbe pedigree of their pthlcie. 'from Adam
 to the preaeat century, ia the table. of 1\01. cle Guignel (tom. i, p. '31

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36~                       THE DBCLlNE AND FALL
 CHAR     th., eh~my felt his sword on the hill~ of Treb;-
.. ..
 ~#~~~: zond. In three laborious ca.mpaigns, the Turks
          were. Qr.jven b~yond . the' Eu·phrates:. in the
         four,th a~d laId,' Roman liS undertook the deli~
        . verance of Armen~,.. The deMolation of the.
         land Qbliged him to tran'sport a supply of two
        .months provisionll; and he marc.hed forwards
        'to the siege of Malazkerd,' an important for-
          tress in. the midway ~etween the modem· cities .
          of ArzeorulIl and, Van. His army amounted r
          at the least, to one hundred thousand men.-
         The troops of Consta.ntinople were reiuforced
          by the disorderly multitudes of Phrygia ant..
'p~40cia;. but the real strength was com
          posed of the subjects and allies of Europe, the
          J~i()JtS. of Macedonia, and the 'squadrons of
          Bulgaria.; the Uzi, a ,Molqayian ,horde, who
          w~re them.elv~$, of, the Turkish race;~ and,
          above all, ·the, mercenary a'ld adventurous
          bands of French and N orm,ans. 'rheir lallces
          w~r~ commanded by the valiant Ursel of Ba-·
          HoI, the kinsman or father of the Scottish
          ~ings" and were allowed to ex'cel in the exer-

           • Thil city il mentioned by Constantine PorphyrorenitDl (de Ad·
        miniltrat. Imperii, I. ii, e. 44, p. 119), and the Byautillt'. of the e~
        venth century. onder the name of Mantakierte, and by lOme is co..
        founded with Throdoliopolil; but Delille, in iii. DOtel and mapa. hal
        Yery properly bed the lituktion. Abllifeda (Geolraph, tab. :niii, p.
        110) deleribe. Malalgerd al'a sman town, built with black Itone,         '.p"
        plied with water, without trees, .lie.
           • The Uzi of the Greekl '(Stritter, Meaor. Byan\. tom. iii, p. m..
        1(8) are the Gozr. etC thO! Orientall (Hilt. del Bunl,      t_.ii, p. III,
        tom. iii, p. 131, .lie., They appear on the Datlube and the "olp, ia
         Armema, Syria, and Cboraaao, and the Dame lerma, to
         ..xtended to the whole Tnrkman r a c e . ,
              I Vnelinl (the RUlaelilll of Zonaru) ~ diltinlniahed by Jeffry Ma-
            .                           , . '                              late~ .

                                                     Digitized by   Google
                        or THE      ROMAN EMPIRE.                                     31)3
     else of arms, Of, according to the Greek style, eM."}"                        LVII.
     ill the practice of the Pyrrhic dance.                                      ••••• ,.n-
      , On the report ~f this bold invasion, which Defl'l.t of
     t hreatened -IliS h ere(Iltary d "
                         ·                      omm,ons, A} p A rs- maDS,
                                                                    ~           the Ro-
     Ian flew to the scene of action at the head of~'u=~:~71,
     forty thousand horse." His rapid and skilful
    evolutions distressed and dismayed the supe-
    rior numbers of the Greeks; and ill the defeat
     of Basilacius, one of their principal genel'als,
    he displayed the ,first example,of his valour and
    clemency. The imprudence of the emperor
    had separated his forces after the reduction of
    Malazkerd; It was- ill vain that he attempted
    to recal tbe mercenary Franks: they I'efused
    to obey his summons; he disdained to await
    their return: the desertion of the Uzi filled his
    mind with anxiety and suspicion; and 'against
    the most salutary advi~e he rushed forwards to
    speedy and dechdve action, Had he Jist~ned
    to the fair proposals of the sultan, Romantls
    might have secur~d a ..ell·eat, perhaps a peace;
    but in these ovel·tUl'eS he supposed the fear or
#   weakness of the enemy, and his answer was
    conceived in the tone of insult and defiance.-
    " If the barbarian wishes for peace, Id him
    latura (I. i, c. II) among tbe Norman cOllquel'OfI of Sicily, and with
    the surname of Baliol: I.ud our own bistorian. will tell how the Ba·
    liols came frOID Normandy to nllrl;'.m, built Bernard'. caltlc on the
    Tees, married an heire•• of Scotland, &:: DUc&nge (Not. ad Nicephor.
    Byrl'nnium, I. ii. N°.4) hu laboured tbe subject in honour of the
    prelid4Pnt de- Bailleul, wbose latber bad excbanged the ,;lFord (or tbe
       " Elmacin [po US, S44) alligD. tbi. probable number, which il rl'o
    ducecl by Abllipharagilli to 15,000 (p. 221), and by d'Herbelot '(p.
    102) to 1:t,OOO barsI.'. Bllt tbe !ame mmacin givl's 100,000 Hlen to the
    emperor, of wllOm Allllipharagills says, r\l1D ("«'IItllm hominum millibul,
    multi'que I'qui. et magnl pompa initnlctll'. The Greekl ab.tain from
    any definition of numbrtl.
        VOL. X.                        A,a

                                                                    Digitized by   Google
3li4 .                      THE DECLINE AND FALL
  CHAP.    "evacuate the ground which he occupies for
-.-~.~"  .."the encampment of the Romans, and surren-
           " der his city and palac·e of Rei as a pledge of
           cc his sincerity:" Alp Arslan smiled at the va-
           nity of the demand, but he wept the death .of
           so many faithful moslems; and, after a devout
           prayer, proclaimed a free permission to all who
           were desirous of retiring {rom the field. With
           his own hands he tied up his horse's tail, ex-
          changed his bow and arrows (or a mace and
          scym,etar, clothed himself in a white gaJ:ment;
          perfumed his body with musk, and declared
          that if he were vanquished, that spot should be
          the place of his borial.1 The ,mltan himself
          had affected to cast away his missile weapons;
          but his hopes of victory were placed in the ar.
          rows of the Turkish cavalry, whose squadrons
          were loosely distributed in- the form of a cres-
          cent. Instead of the successive lines and re-
          serves of the Grecian tactics, Romanus led ·his
          army in a single and solid phalanx, and pres+
          fled with vigour and impatience the artful and
          yielding resistance of the barbarians. In tb.
          desultory and fruitless combat be wasted the
          greater part of a summer's day, till prudence
          and fatigue compelled him to return to his
          camp. But a retreat is always perilous in the
          face of an active foe; and no sooner had the
          standard been turDed to the rear tban the pha.
          lanx was broken by the base cowardice, or the
          baser jealousy, of Andronicns, a rival prince,
          who disgraced his birth and the purple of the
             TIle B,••DliDe writers do Dot .peak. 10 dilUDCtly or tile preaoee
          .fthe lultu ~ be eommitted bil for~cl to aD euueb, bad retired ...
          41i1tuacc, .c. II it iporaDce,II' ;....
                                              1"..... or tnatlal   -

                                                     Digitized by   Google
                or'TIm ItOBAK DlPJIlL                 366
 Cresars.~ The Turkish sq,uid~dn8' pOUTed ~a CHAP.
 cloud of ~rrows on this moment of confusion ....:~.
 an~ lassitude; ,and the horns of their formida~'         '
 hIe crescent were dosed in; 'the rear:lof' tlie'
 Greeks. 'In the destruction 'of the linil,. and'
 pillage of the camp, it 'would b~ needle~s ~o
 mention the number of the slain or captives.~'
 The Byzantine writers deplore the loss of an
 inestimable pearl: they forget to mention. that
 in this fatal day the Asiatic provinces of Rome
were   irretrievably ,sacrificed.
  'As long as a hope survived" RomatlUB at_Captivity
tempted to rally and 'save the relics of his ar- :~!~~~-ol
my.' When the centre~, the ilhper~al ~tation, :~.empeo
was left 'naked o~ all 'sides; and; en'compassed
by the victoriou's Tof,lis, ,he, stJU,', with despe-
rate courage, mairltained'ihe fight till the close
Of the d'~y, 'at the bead o.r'the brave and faith-
(ul subjects who' adhered' ,to his standard.-'
Tiley fell around him ;' ',hi!Shorse ~a's slain; the'
emperor was wounde~; yet he stood alone and
intrepid, till he was opposed and bound by the
strength of multitudes. , The glory of this i1-
l~strioul5 prize :waS disputed by' ~ ~Iave and a
soldier; a slave who had seen' him" ~n the
throne ,of Constantinople, arid a sdldier whose
extreme defO'rmity "bad 'been exeD sed on the
promise of some signal service. Despoiled of
his arms, his jewel&, and bis purple, Rornaous
apent, a dreary and perilous nig}!t 00 the field
   - He wa,1 the Ion or the Johu Ducal, brother of the emperor
Constantine tDut'angf',   ram.    Byzant. p. 1«15). Nieephorul Bryen:-
Dia~aud. his virtnes a1ld ntelMlatea hil (anIta (I. i, p. SO, S8, I. ii~
p. 6:') Yet he 0,,115 his enmity to Romanus, " ....'" a. tl1>jIfC 'X" "t'C
.....,..,.. Scylit%tl apea'" -.ore explicitly of hiUreuoll.

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36~                    TIlE D!;CLlNE_ AND FALL ,
CHAP,     of battle, amidst a disorderly ,crowd of the
 un                                        "
  . . meaner barbarians. In the morning the royal
'~II'II'. ~aptive was presented to Alp Arslan, who
          doubted of his fodune, till the identity of the
          person was ascertained by the repo'rt of,his am-
          ~assadors, and by the more pathelic evidence
          Qf Basilacius,' who embraced with tears the
          (eet of his unhappy sovereign. The successor
          of Constantine, in a plebeian ~~bit, was led in-
          to the Turkish divan, and commanded to kiss
          the ground before the lord of Asia. He reluc-
          tantly obeyed; and Alp Arslan, starting from
          Ilis throne, is said to have planted his foot on
          the neck of the R<>man emperor.- But the'fact
          is doubtful; and if, in this moment of inso-
          lence, the sultan complied with a national cus-
          tom, the rest of his conduct has extorted the
          praise of his bigotted foes, and may afford a
           lesson to the most civilized ages.,' He instant-
          ly raised the royal captive from the ground;
         ,and thrice clasping his hand with tender sym-
          pathy, assured him, that his life and dignity
          should be inviolate in the. hands of a prince who
          had learned to respect themaj~sty of his equals'
          a.nd the vicissitudes of fortune.' From the di-
           van, Romanus wQ.sconducted to an adjacent
          tent. where he was served with pomp and re-
           verence by the officers of the sultan, w~o, twice
          each day, seated him in the place of honour at
           bis own table. In a -free and familiar ,conver-
           sation of eight days, not a word, no't a look, of

         . • This cireumataDcr, which we read and doubt iD Scylibel and Coa.
        alaDtine Manule., II more prudeDtly omitted by Nicepboru IIlIl Zo-

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                           OF _·THE,ltOMAN_EMPIU.                                       36',
     insult, escaped' from the conqueror; but he se.. CHAP..
  o  verely censured the unworthy subjects who had '••~~!!:. . .
     deserted. their valiant prince in the' hour of
     danger, and gently admon'ished his antagonist
      of  some errors which he had committed in the
     management ofihe war. In the preliminaries
, . 'of 'negociation, Alp Arslan asked him what
     treatment he 'expected to receive, and the calm
     indifference of the emperor displays: the free
     doni' of his mind.' "If you are cruel/~ said het
     ~ you will take my life; if you listen to pride,
     '.'. you will drag me at your chariot wheels; if
     ".you consult y~:)Ur interest, you will accept                                 a
     "'ransom, and restore' me to my country."-
     " And what," continued the: sultan, "would
     " have been your own behaviour, had fortune
     "smiled on your, arms?" The reply' of the
     Greek betrays a sentiment, which prudence,
     and even gratitude, shou,d have taught him to
     suppress., "Had I vanquished," he fiercely:
     said,~" I would have inflicted on thy body'
     "many a stripe." The Turkish conqueror
     smiled· at the insolence of his captive; observed
     that the christian law inculcated the love of

     enemies and forgiveness of injuries; aud nobly
     declared, that he would not imitate an example
     which he condemned. After mature delibera-.
     tion, Alp Arslan dictated the terms of liberty
     and peace, a ransom of a million; an annual
     tribute of three hundred and sixty thousand
      pieces of gold,· the marriage of the royal chil-
        • The raDsom aDd trihute are attelted by realOD aDd the Oriental..
      The other Greeka are modl'ltly .ilent; bat Nicepboral Bryennilll
      dare. to ~ffirm, that the term. were "" ....£ ~ 'Pti/Atll.fI' -ex"_ aDd that
      the emperor would han p~e(erred deatJlto a abameful treat,..

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358                            :no: DECLINE AND P£u,
  CHAP. dren, and the delil'el'ance of all the moslems
 _~~!!;" who were in the power of the Greeks.· R~ma.
            'nus, with a sigh, sub8~ribed this treaty, IIQ .d....
            graceful to the majesty of the elDpil'e:. he w~.
            immediately inl'ested with a Turki.,h. r~. of
            honour; his nobles and patricians were I'es~or!"
            ad to their "Sovereign; and the sultan, ·aile, •
            courteous embrace. dilmis$ed him. with rich
            present. and a military guard. NO.sooDer did
            be 'reach the confines of the. empire, tban he
   .informed that the palace and provin~s
           ha.d disclaimed their allegiance to a captiYe: a
           ium of two hundred thousand pieces was pain-
           fully collected; and the fallen monarch traD~
           Jbitted this part of his TaDSOm, with a sad ~on­
           Cession of his impotence and . Tlle
           getrerosity, or perhaps the ambitiOll, of'the. ~ul·
           t~, prepared to espO\15e the. caule·of his ally.;
           hut his designs .wete pl"eYented by the def~t.­
           l~priBOnment, and death, of Romanus Dioge-
fl:!:r!' .: In th~ treaty of peMe, it .does not appear
:-;'.1072. that Alp Ars~an extorted any p~.()viDCe 01' city
           from thempllve emperor; and hUl reveDg~ was
           S'@.t.i'6fied .w.ith.the ·trophMs.'Of l.ii$ victory. aDd
           tfte spoif.s. of A natolia, .. fro. -Al).tiqC~ to the
           Biaeksea. The fairest put.oLA",,~ sll~
          , The   def~ and   ClapljyitJ of Ro_ans. D~~ .ma,be fOlll1d ill
        John Scylitzel ad ealcem Cedreni, tOIB. ii, p. BIG.S..&. Zonaru, tOIll.
        ji, p. 2Rl~284. N·icephorlfl Bryl'Dnius, 1. 'i, p. 25.12•. C11cu; p. U5.
        I"'. <O:o....ntlne MlinBlltl. p. It... Elmacll), Hiat. Sara~. p.....
        344. Abulpharag. Dynast p. 227. d'Herbl'lot, p. lOll, lOS. De
        Gllignes. tom. iii, p. 207·lIll. Besides myoId acquaintance Elmaem
        alld Abulpharagius, the historian oftbe HUllS has eOllllllted Abulfeda,
        and hi. t'pitomizer Ben5ehounah, a Chronicle of tbe CalipbJ, bl So,..
        eutbl, AlllIlmabUeD of Erypt, Ilud Novairi of Africa.

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             01' THE ROMAN   ~pml.                      869
jed to his laws: twelve hundred princes, or CHAP.
the SODS of princes, stood before his throne ; _~':~.
and two hundred thousand. soldiers marched
under his banners. The sultan disdained to
pursue the fugitive Greeks; but he meditated
the more glorious conquest of Turkestan, the
original seat of the house of Seljuk. He mov-
ed from Bagdad to the banks of the Oxus; a
bridge was thrown over the river; and twenty
days· were consumed in the passage of his
troops. But the progress of the great king
was retarded b}" t.he governor of Berzem; and
Joseph the Carizmian presumed to defend his
fortress against the powers of the East. When
he was produced a captive in the royal tent,
the sultan, instead of praising his valour, se-
..~rely reproached his obstinate fnllv; and the
insolent replies of the rebel provoked a sel':-
tence, that he should be fastened to four stakes,
and left to expire in that painful situation .....:.
At this command, the desperate Carizmian,
drawing a 4agger, rushed headlong towards
the throne : the guards raised their battle axes,
their zeal was checked by Alp Arslan, the
most skilful archer of the ;;\ge; he drew his
bow, but his fo.ot slipped, the arrOw glanced.
aside, and he received in his breast the dagger
or Joseph, who was instantly cut in pieces.-
The wound was mortal; .and the Turkish
prince bequeathed a dying admonition to the
pride of kings. "In my youth," said Alp Ars-
lan, "I was advised by a sage, to bumble D1y';'
 " self before God; to distru~t my own strength;
 " and never to despise the most contemptible
 u (oe.   1 have neglected these lessons; and

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300                                     THE DECLINE AND PALL

.Cl~ir"           niGglect               deiG~:rved        pU!m:hed~~
. .: . _ :.., Yesterday, as from an eminence, I beheld the

          "               thiG discTIdline,                spid!~ of
          " armies; the earth seemed to tremble under
          "      feiGt; aIL&d I said in           hes!i·t., sUidy
          " iGit thiG ding        the world, tha greetest
          " most in~incible of warriors. These armies
          " iGie DiG            miniG . and in           eonfidenciG fpf
          "IIDY personal strength, I now fall by the hand
          "     an ;eeeaSe&H."q dIp                    dosSiGeeed
          virtues of a Turk and a Mussulman; his voice
          aiGd stadu'e                            reVeiiGnCiG       m,m~
                                               with long whiskers;
                                           was fashioned in the
                  of CriG!iij.             r&,EKnaine iff          sultae
          were deposited in the tomb ofthe Seljukian dy-
                 ;              pasi'fElger Hlight eead iGnd
          ditate this useful inscription:' " o !Ie who have
          " iiin               ,if Alp             ezeded ti' the
          " Ven8, repair to lJfaru, and !l01t will behold it 00-
          " ned in the dust /" The annihilation (yf the .
          SiG!i          an,) the h?mb z:t(elf, :nFOre
          proclaims the instabi1ity of human greatness.
 Reim ;md' .            the        of 1p (ilan, his eldest
!;:~~:~y had been acknowledged as the future sultan of
..... D.  tl;~; Tur i•.
      lIe~i.·~     . ~         ~
                                 his f;;the~";(
                                   ~~              .~
                                                            th;;~ inh~~;·
                                                            ~..       .. ;   "~            ~   ~.

109a.    .tance was. disputed by an uncle, a COUSIn, and
         .a brothee· thiGg              thei.%~ s,tYlIR"§iGtars, iGnd

                  .:This interesting deatb is told by d'Herbelot (p. 103, 104), and M.
                ::,~~:~g:;:R;:::~~~~; 'm;~:r:;;d tde ~;i~' t,~t~J~::;:tal W;;it~:!t@"@".
                p. 344,345).
                   , A critic of high r;"mwn (th;; I;;te D," dohns;;;;;; who           su;;ml1V
                Icr;?%E;,ized ;;pitapd;; of l';;'l;c, migPR ;;;;vi.-i. ,Pis luPAi;;;;;; in.;;,*&d
                tiOD at tbe words, .. repair to Mara," liDce the reader mUlt already'"
                at HarD b~fore he could peruJe the iDicription.
                OF THE KO.IAN EMPUm;                  361
  sembled their followers'; and the triple victory 'CHAP.
  of Malek Shah" established his own reputation .,~!~,,_
  and the right of primogeniture. In every age;
  and more especially in Asia, the thirst of power
  has inspired the same passions'Hnd occasionE~d
  the same disorders; but, from the long series
-of civil war, it would not be easy to extract a
  sentiment more pure and magnaniOJous than is
  contained in the saying of the Turkish prince.
  On the eve of the battle, he performed his de-
 votions at Thous, before the tomb of the imam
 Riza. As the sultan rose from the ground, he
 asked his vizir Nizam, who had knelt beside
 him, what had been 'the object of his secret pe-
 tition: "That your arms may be crowned with
 " victory," was the prudent, and most proba-
 bly the sincere, answer of the minister•.. " For
 f.' my part," replied the generous Malek, " I
 " implored the Lord of hosts, that he. would
 " take 'from me my life and CroWD, if my bro-
ce ther be more worthy than myself to reign
"over the moslems." The favourable judg-
ment of heaven was ratified by the caliph; and
for the.first time, the sacred title of commander
of the. 'faithful was communicated to a barba-
rian. But 'thi~ barbarian, by his personal me-
rit,. a~d the eJi,~~l.~of his empire, was the great-
est prlDce of hiS        7e.After the settlement of
Persia and Syri~, he marched at the head of
innumerable armies, to achieve the conquest of
   • The Bibliotheqne Orientale hu ginn the text or the reign of M~
lek (p. 542,643,6«,664,665); aud the Hi.toire Genenle de. HIID.
(tom. iii, p. 2U.224),I••1 added the nAnal mea.are of ~petition. emeu-
dation, .Dd IlIpplement. With.lut thele two learned FRuehmeD, I
.bould be blind indeed in tbe Eutero world,

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361                      ,TIlE DECLINE AND ..ALL
 CHAP; TurkestaD~ which had:~n undertaken by his
•.~.~~~: •• father. In his passage of the Qxus, the boat-
             men, who had been employed in transporting
             some troops, complained, that their paymen~
             was assigned on the revenues of Antioch .. The
             sultan frowned at thjB preposterous choi~e,
             Dut he smiled at the artful fiatte~y of his vi~ir.
              ~, It .was not: to postpone tbeir reward, that I
             ~, selected those remote places, but to leave _
             " memorial to postedty, that, ~lI~der your reign,
             " Antioch and .the Oxus w~r~ subject to the
             " same lOy.eraign." But this description of hi,
             limits was unjust and p~rsimonioqs; beyond
             the OXllB. he r~duced to his obedience the ci-
             ties of Bochara, Carizma, and Samarcand,. and
             crushed eaeh rebellious s~ave, 'or ind~pendeDt
             savage, who dared to 'r~ist. Malek passed
             the Sihon or JaxarUls, th~ Jut boundary of
             Persian ci,iliza~oJl! the hordfS pf Turkestan
            yielded to his S:UPWIllQ#f; hjs name was in-
             serted on the coins. and ill ~ prayers .Qf.Cash..
             gar, a Tartar kingooll1 o~ the utreme oorder.
             oiChin:a. From tbe Cbib~e fr~n~ief, be stretch-
            ed his imtJiediaM juri$dictio') Gr feudatory
             sway to. t~W,eit ~ ~Q~h. ~8 far as the moun-
          , taiDS of Georgja" th~, Q~ighbDurh90d of COD:-
             .ntiI1Op~, tIl,e, htlly city ~ Jer~alelll, aDd the
             spicy grQle$.o( Arabia ~~liK. I~tead .of re-
            '8igtiog, hitlQself: tQ 'the lux,ury. of hi.s haralD, ,the
             shepherd king, both in peace and war, was in
             action and in the field. By the perpetual mo-
             tiOD of the royal camp, each province 'was suc-
             cessively blessed with his presence; al;ld he i8
             said to have perambulated twelve times the
             wide extent of his dominions, which surpassed

                                                Digitized by   Google
                     0., THE ROMAN DfPIIlL                                      S6S
the .Asiatic reign 'Of Cyrus llnd the caliphs.- CHAP.
Of these expeditions, the most pious and splen- .. :~~~_
did was the pilgrimage of Mecca: the freedom
and safety of the· caravans ,vere protected by
his arms; the' citizens ,and- pilgrims were en-
richedby the profusion of his alms; and the
desert was cheeJied by the pla'ces 'Of relief and
refreshment, which he instituted for the use of
his brethren. Hunting was the pleasure, and
even the passion of the sultan, and his train
consisted of forty-seven thousand horses; but
after the massacre of a Turkish chase, for each
piece of game, he bestowed a piece of gold on
the poor, a slight atonement, at the expence o(
the people, for the cost and mischief of the
amusement of kings. In the peaceful prospe-
rity of his reign, the cities at Asia were adorn-
ed with' palaces and hospitals~ with moschs
and colleges; few departed from his divan
without reward, and none without justice.
The language and literature of Persia re\'ived
under the 'house of Seljuk ;' and if Malek emu-
Ia.ted the liberality ora Turk less potent than
himself~· his palace might resound with the
songs of an hundred poets. The sultan be-
stowed a more serious 'and learned care on the
   • See aD eJIHIIeDt 'Iscourae ,at the end Q( ~ir WilHam JeBe.', hilto..,
of' Nadir Shall, aDd the articles of .the poets, Amak, AMari, Ruchadi,
&rc. in the BibJiolheque Orientale.
   I His Dame was EbecJer lUau. " Four lII".~Je ,placecl ronnd hi.

8Opha, and all be listened to the soug, be cast handful, of gold and ail-
yer to the poetl (d'Herbelot. p. 101). AI! this may be .true; but I do
Dot underatan4 how he could rdgn in Transoxiana iu tbe time of Ma-
Jell Sbah, and much 11.'11 bow Kheder eould Iurpal. bim in power and
, Isulpect that the berinniD" 'not tbe eDd, of tbe e1nendl
Celltur.)', iI the truc era of hil reiln.

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364                         TIm DECLINE ANl) PAW
 CHAP.      reformation of tbe calendar, which was effect-
.;:;. ~I:.. ed by a general    assembly of 'the astronomers
            of the East. By a law of the propbet, the mos-
            lems are confined to the irregular course of the
            lunar months; in Persia, since the ag~ of Zo·
            roaster,· the· revolution ,of the sun has been
            known and celebrated as an annual festival ;a,
            but after the fall of the .Maglan empire, the in-
            tercalation haeI been neglected; the fractions
           ~fminutes and hours were multiplied into days;
            and the date of the spring was removed from
            tbe sign of Aries to that of Pisces. The reign
           of Malek was illustrated by the Gelalaaa era;
           and all errors, either past or future, were cor-
           rected. bya comput~tion of time, which sur-
           passes the Julian, and. approaches the accUla~
           cy of the Gregori!).n, style.7
Hi.df'atb,    In a period ~hen Europe was plunged in
A. D.I092. the deepest barbarism, the light and splendour.
           of Asi~ may be ..ascribed·to the docility rather
           than .the knowledge of the Turkish conquerors.'
           An ample shlu~e of their wisdom and virtue is
           due to a Persian l'izir, who ruled the empire
           11I~der the re.igns of Alp ,Arslan and his son.
           Nizam, o~e of'the, most illustrious lIlinisters of
           the East, was honoured by the caliph as an
           oracle of religion and science; he was trusted
           by the sultan as the faithful vicegerent of his
           power and justice. After an'administration of
           thirty years, the fame of the vizir, his wealth,
            • Se~ Chardin, Voyagel en Perse, tom. ii,p. 1S5,
            T Tbe Gel,lzan era (Geladeddin, glory of the faith, was one of tbt
         nalnes or litlt's of Malek ~bah) is filled to the llilh of March, A, H
         411, A. D. 101St. Dr. Hyde hal producfd the original telti~onirl of
         tb., Penianl and Allthiani (de reli,ioDe vet~rilni Parsarum, c. 16, p'
         200 :.Ill).

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                    OF THE BOMAN. EMPIRJ.
 and even .his services, were transformed into CUAP.
 crime~. He. was,~verthrow~' by t~e insidious ...:~!!:...
 ~rts of a woman and a rival; and his. faU was
 ~astened by a rash declaration, that his cap and
 ink-horn, ·the badges of his office, .were con-
nected by the divine decree witli· the throne and '
diadem of the .sultan. At the age of ninety-
 three years, the venerable staiesman· was dis-
 missed. by his master, accused ·by his enemies.
 and murdered by a fanatic: the last words of·
 lSizam attested his innocence, and the remain- .
der of Malek's life wa!J short and inglorious.-
From Ispahan, the scene of this disgraceful.
transaction, the sultan moved to Bagdad, with
the design of transplanting ~he caliph, and of· ,
 ~xing his own residence in the capital of the
moslem world. The feeble successor of Ma-
homet obtllined a respite of ten days; and be-
 fore the expiration of the term, the barbarian
'.'Vas summoned by the angel of death. His
ambassadors at Constantinople had asked in
marriage a Roman princess; but the proposal
was decently eluded; and the daugllter of
Alexius, who might herself have been the vic-
tim, expresses her abhorrenc~ of this unnatu·
ral conjunction.. The daughter of the sultan
 was b.estowed .on the caliph MoCtadi. with the
fmperious condition, that, renouncing the so- .
ciefy of his wives and concubines, he should
for ever· confine himself to this honQurable al-
liance.                       .
  • She .peaks of this Penilln royalty as ........., ....... '... ,""at.--
Annll Comnena was only nine yeara old at the end of the reign of Ma-
lek Shah (A. D. 1092), aad when she lpeaka of bit ..~a••iDatioa....
coafoloDd. tbe BaiuD with the (Alexia., I. vi, p. 177, 17'8).

                                                            Digitized by   Google
366                              TIm 'DECUJrE AND PAU
  CHAP.           The greatness and unity or, the Turkish em.;
_:~~:_. pire expired in the person of Malek Shah.                                    Hi.
DiyiliOD     vacant thrQne was; disputed by his brother and
~ft~~ elll-
JuklanScI·   his four sons· and after a seriesf of 'civil wars,
                            "         .
piJ'~.       tlie treaty which recbnciled the silrviYib~ ean-
             didates confirmed a lasting separation in' the
             Persian dynasty, the emest and principal
           . branch of the', house of Seljuk: The three
             younger dynasties' were' those of K6N1Uln, of
             Syria, 'and of' Roui&:' the first 'Qf these com-
             manded an extensive, ' though 'obscure: domi-
             nion on the shores of the Indian ocean -!' the
             second expelled the Arabian princes' of Alep-
             po and Damascus; and the third, our peculiar
             care, invaded the Roman pro'finces 'of Asia
             Minor. The generous policy of Malek contri-
             buted to their elevation: he al~owed the prio
             ces' of his blood; even those whom 'he 'had· van
             quished in the' field, to seek new kingdom,;
             worthy of their ambition; nor was he displeased
             that they should draw away the more ardent
             spirits, who might have disturbed the tranquil
             lity of his reign. As the supreme bead of his
             family and nation, the great sultan of Persia
             commanded the obeclience and tribute of his
             royal brethren: tbe thrones of Kerman and
             Nice, of Aleppo and Damascus; 'the Atabeks.
             and emirs of Syria and Mesopotamia, erected
                 • So obscure, that the iDd1Btry of M. de GuipH coatd only copy
              (tolll. i. p. 2"4, tom. iii, part i, p. _ , &e.) the biltory, or radler liar,
              of the S~ljokidel of Kerman, in Bibliotheqoe OrieDtale. They were
              estiDloilhed before the end of the twelfth &!eDtory.
                 • Tueruier, perhapi the Conly tranller who bal vi.ited KermaD, d.
              Icribe. the capital a. a great ruinolla village, twenty.tin days journey
              (rom lapahan, and twentY·lenn from Ormul, in the mid., of A ftrtile
              UllDtry ( eD Tur'loi&! et iD Perle, p. 107,110'.

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                   Of' THE 'ROMAN EJlPIR'I. .                                 3(17
their standards under the sbadbw of his (!H4P.
scept re;• an d t h'e L· __.J, 0 f'T urk mans over••..,.,.,. •••
 .                     rroHJ'es.                          LVIl.

spread the plains -of tbe western Asia. After
the death o(Malek~ the bands of union and sub-
ordination wel'erel,axed and finally dissolved:
the indulgenCe of the house of 8eljuk invested
their slaves with the inheritance of kingdoms;
and, in the Oriental' style, a crowd of princes
a:tose ·ftom .the dItSt Of their feet."                 i

  . A prince bf tbe toyalline, Cutulmish, -the: Bon Conqu~.t
0; Izrait, the son of Se}juk~ had falleu ,in abat~ ~i::!2b)'
tIe against Alp Arslaft, and the hu'niane victor ~:elt~r:~
had dropt a tear over his grave. His five- 800S, '11084.
strong in'arms, ambitious of power, and eager
{or revenge, unsheathed their scymetars agatost
the son of Alp AlBIan. The two' armielC ex-
pected tbe signal, ,when the caliph, forgetful of
the majesty which secluded him from vulgar
eye8~ . interposed'. lIis venerable tnediation •......;
" Iil$tead of shedding the· blood of your bre-
" thren, 'jour btethren both in· destent and
" faith. anite your forces in an holy-war agaiost
". the Greeks~ tbe enemies of God and his apos-
". tie" They listened to his voice; the sultan
embraced his rebellious kinsmen; and the el-
dest, the valiant Sohman, accepted the royal
standard, which gave him the free conquelit aud
hereditary command of the provinces of the
ROlDan empire, from ArzerouDl to Constanti·
  • It appnrl from Anna Comnena, that the Turb of Aia l'tlinor
obeyed the lipet' and chiauf. of the great lultan (Alrxiu,b:. vi, p.
110); and that the two 10D. of Soliman were detailled in hi' court (p.
  • l'bi. expreaaion is quoted b)' Petit de la Croil! (Vie de OengilcaD,
p: ~Cll) from. lOme poet, mOlt probably a Perlian.

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388                          TUB MCLIN.. AND ,FALL ,
CHAP. nople, and the unknown regions of the West.'
_~~! Accompanied by his four brothers, he passed'
      the, Euphrates: the Turkish camp was soon
      seated in the neighbourhood of Kutaieh in
      Phrygia; and his flying cavalry laid waste the
      country as far as the Hellespont and the Black
      sea. Since the decline of the empire, th~ pen·
      insula of Asia Minor had been exposed to the
      transient, though destructive, inroads of the
      Persians 'and Saracens; but the fruits of a last.
      ing conquest were reserved for the ':furkish
      sultan; and his arms wE:re introduced by the
      Greeks, who aspired to reign on the ruins of
     their country. Since the captivity ofRQmanus,
      six years the feeble son of Eudocia had trem-
     bled under the weight of the imperial crown,
     till the provinces of the east and west were lost
     in the same month by a double rebellion; of
     either chiefNicephorus was the common Dame;
     but the surnames ofBryennius and Botoniates
     distinguish the European and Asiatic candi-
     dates. Their reasons, or rather their promises,
     were weighed in the divan; and, after some
     hesitation, Soliman declared himself in favour
     of Botoniates, opened a free passage to his
     troops in their march from Ahtiocb to Nice,
     and joined the banner of the crescent to that of
     the cross. After his any had ascended the
     throne of Constantinople, the .sultan was bos-
     pitably entertained in the suburb of Chrysopo-
           • Ou tbe cOllClnelt of Asia Minor, M. de Gnignes lias d..rivrd ao as-
        ,iltance from tbe Tllrkish or Arabian wrilen, \\'bo prodnce a naked
        lilt o(tbe 5eljukidet ofRoum. The Greeks art' IIl1willing to eSI'0~e
        their ,h...e, and we must extort lome hints from S<'ylitzea (p. 860,
        861), !ilcepborul Brienniul (p. 88, 91, 92,  "'c:.
                                                         103, 104), aud AD_
        ComneD. (Alexi .., p. 91, 92, "'c. IG8, "'c.)

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                OF THE ROHAN EMPJRR, ,                             369
   lis or Scutari " and a bodv, Of twotbousan·1 tHAi"_
                               ..,              "  ¥ LVII                ,
   Turks was transported into Europe;, to whose .............,,:~
   dexterity and cou;age the new ~mperor was              '.,
   indebted for the defeat and captivity of his ri-
   val Bryennius. But the conquest of ,Europe
, dearly purchased by the sacrifice of Asia':
   Constantinople wasdcpri\1ed of the ,obediell~e
   and revcnue ofthe provinces beyond the Bos-
  phorus and Hellespont; and -.the regular pro-
  gress of the Turkl:l, who fortified the passes of
  the', rive,rs and mountains, left not a hope of
  their retreat or expulsion. Auother candidate
  implored the aid of the sultan: Melissenus, in
  his purple robes and ted buskins, atteD~ed the
  motions, of the, Turkisb ' camp '; and ,,~e de-
  sponding cities were tempted by the summons
  of a Roman prince,' who immediately 'surren-
  dered them into the hands of the barbarians.-
  These acquisitions' were confirmed by a treaty
  of peace with the impcl'or Alexius; his fear of
  Robert compelled ·hlm to seek the friendship
  of Solim3.n; and it was not till after the sultan's
  death that he extended as far as Nicomedia,
  about sixty miles from Constantinoplf>, the' ea$-
  tern boundary of the, ROlDan world. TreLi-
  zond alone, ,defe,oded on ,either side by the sea
  and mountains, prelilerved at t\Ie extremity of
  th~ Euxine the, ancient character of a Greek
  colony, and the future destiny of a christian
     Since the first' conquests of the caliphs, the :rh~ Sell.
  establishment of the Turks ill Anatolia 01' Asja{'i~~d~m
  Minor was the most deplorable loss which the of ROil"
     VOl•• x.            ' B b                        '

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370                     TJD DECLINE A.ND FAIL
 OHAP :chut'ch ~ndeJbpire,had sustained., By the,pro-
,,:~~~;## pagation oftha,Moslein faith, Soliman deserved
           the name of, f:JtJliJi, -a holy champion; and hi8
         'new kingdom O:fthe Romans, or of Roum, was
          'added to the -tables of Oriental geography. It
          :is described as ,extending from ,the Euphrates
         :lo Constantinople,- from the Black sea to tbe
          'confines of Syria ; pregnant with mines of 'sil·
           ver and iron, of alum anq copper, fruitful in
         , corn and wine, and pr.oductive of cattle and
          -ex~ellent horses.' The wealth of Lydia, the
           arts of the; Greeks, the splend.our of the Augus-
         'tan age, existed oniy in·books and ruins, which
         'were equally 'obscure in· the eyes'of the'Scy-
           t'hian conquerors. Yet,itdhe:'present decay,
         •A natoHa still contains some' wealtby and 'popu-
         'lous Cities; and, ·under the ByzJlntine empire,
           they were far more 'flourishing in:numbers, size,
         'and opulence. By the choice of the sultan,
          Nice, the metropolis of Bithynia, was preferred
          for his palace and fortress: the seat. of the Sel-
          jukiap dynasty of Roum was planted one hun-
         ,dred miles from Constantinople; and the div'
          nity of Christ was denied and derided in the
           same terqple in which it had been pronounced
          by the first general synod of the· catholics.-
          The unity of God, and the mission of MaM-
          met, were preached in the' moschs; the A ra-
          bian learning was taught in tbe schools; the
           cadbis judged according to the law of the ko-
          ran; th~ Turkish manners and language pre-
         , Such i.the deacriptioa of Roum by Haiton ·the ArmeaiaD, whole
       Tartar hiatol')' may be found ia the collections of RamUlio ad IIerp
       .... (lee Abutfed., elimat. :l.Yii, p. 101-105).

                                                Digitized by   Google
                      OF THE BOMAN lWPlllE.                                     371
 vailed in the cities; and Turkmao eamps were CHAP.
 ffcattered over t~ plaj,ll~ and lnoulltaiol;ofAna.- U'll.
 talia. On the hard condition. of tribute: 8ud----
 seryitude, the Greek christians mighi.eojay: tbe
 exercise of their reJigio iq l}q t itbeirmost flol y
 ~hurche6 wereprofatted ;, dleir priests' .andbi-
shops were 'insulted;' tiley w~,e c():mpelled te
Butler the triumph of the pagans, and the apol~
tacy of their brethren; many 'thou.sand children
were marked by the knife of circumcision'; aud
many thou8a~d captiv~ were devoted to the
service or of their l)lasters,,1a After
the loss of Asia, AntlOch still maintained her
primitive allegiance .to Chrjst 8Dd emIRr; .but
the solitary province \Vas separated, frolll aU
-Roman aid, and surrounded on all sides by the
Mahometan powers. The cJespair of Philare-
tus, the 'governor, prepared the sacl'inceof his
:religion and loyalty, had nOt' his guilt been
prevented by his son, who hastened to the Ni-
cene palace, and offered' to deliver. this valua-
ble prize into the hands of 'Soliman. The' am-
bitious Sultan mounted on horseback, a~d in
twelve nights (for he repo~e« ~he day) per-
    • Dicit eOI qnendam .bllsioDe Sodo.utiea intervertille eplscopnm
(Guibert. Abbat. Hiat. Hiorosol. I. i, p.468) It i, o,dd enougbtb.,
we Ibonld find a pllrallel paliaCe of tbe same people ~n the preleut
age. "II u'elt poiut d'borreur que cel 'fllrci n'ayent coromis, et lem-
e<. blable. aux soldata effren~s, qUi dan. la sac d'I/lle ville nOD contenl
 .' de dilpoler de tOllt .. lenr rr~ pretend tnt eJ,leore aUl!: lueee. lei
U moius desirable..      Qlldque Sipabia ont port~ leun attentat. aur In
cc penoune du viellll: rabbi de la ..ynag~...,.e, et ceUe de l'Arc:hhAque
"Grec." (MemoirfS du Bal'on de 'I'ol'lom. ii, p. lOS).
    10 The .mperor, or abbot, drscribes the scenes of a 'l'urkish ramp u
if they bad h4!en preltnl. Matres eorreptle in eonspeetl\ filiarOID
B1ulti,lieiler repel ilia divenorum coilibus nubanlur; (i' tbat tbe
~rue readillJ l) cum filiae . .iatentea carmina proecinere .altaado coCt-
rentor. MOll: eadtm pallio ad filias, "'c,,

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37~                           THE DECLINE AND FALL
 CHAP.      formed a march of six hundred miles. AR-
  LVII..... tioch was oppressed by th~ speed and secrecy
            of his enterprise; and the dependant cities, as
            far as 'Laodicea and the confines of Aleppo,'
            obeyed the example of the metroJlo.lis. From
            Laodicea to the Thracian Bosph.orus, or arm
            of St. George, the conquests and I:eignof Soli-
            man exteuded thirty days journey in leugth;
            and in breadth about ten or fifte~tl, J>etween
            the rocks of Lycia and the Black sea.... The
           Turkish ignorance of navigation protected, (or
            a while,. the inglorious safety of the emperor;
           'but no sooner had a fleet of two hundred ships
            been constructed by the hands' of the captive
            Greeks, than Alexius trembled behind the walls
            of bis capital., His plaintive ,epistles ~e~e dis-
            persed o'ver Europe, to excite the compassion
            of the Latins, andto paint the.danger, the weak-
           ness, and the riches, ofthe city of Constantine.'
               But the most interesting' conquest of the Sel·
            jukian Turks,. was that of. Jerusa.,lem," wllich
           -8oon became the theatre of. nations; In their
             I See Antioch, and the death of Soliman, in Anoa CClmnena (Alex.
           lu, 1. fi, p. 168, U19), with the noteaof'DilClMIp,'
           , "William of Tyre (1. i, e. 9, 10, p. 616) ginl the mOitaulbeDtic ad
           deplorable account of thele Turkilh conque51l.
             I In hia .piltle to lbe eount of . Flanden, Alesiu'leeml to (aU too ,
           low beneath bil curaater and dignity; yet it il opposed by Dueallrie
           (Not. ad Alexia •• p. 135, &tc.), aod ..araphrued by thea~bot Guibert,
           • eonteJllporal'J bistorian. The Greek text DO louger t'Xist.; aDd
           each tranllator and .cribe might say with Guibert (p. (76), nrbia
           nltita meia, a privilege of mo.t inddinite latihide.
              • Our belt fuod for'the history of Jeruaalt·m. (rom Heracliul to the
           erlllades, il contained io two large aDd original pasaagea of WiIliUII
           archbishop of Tyre (I. i, c. 1.10. I. xviii, e. 6. 6). the principal author
           of the Geata Dei per Frallcol. M. de GlligDC' has composed a nry
           Jearned Memoirc sur Ie Commerce del Francoil danl Ie Lenot          .,,&at
           Ie. Croisades. oke. (Mem. de I'Academie-del InleriptiODI, tom.
           p.407.1i00).           .       ,        .

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                    OF'THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                       :J~3
   capitulation with Omar, the' inhabitants had ~~r
   stipulated the assurance of their religion and .....                      #<0 .... : • •

   property; but the articles were interpreted' by S!ate. aDd
  .a master agamst wh ' was d angerous to d' of JerUla-
                         .om It                    IS- pilgrimage
   pute; and' in the four 'hundred' years of the ~~. «i18
   reign of the caliphs, the political climate of Je- -1m.
   rusalem was exposed to the vicissitudes of
   storms and sunshine.- By the increase of pro- _
   selytes and population, the mahometans might
   eJCCUS6 their usurpation of three fourths of the·
  city: but a peculiar quarter was reserved ,far
   the: patriarch with his clergy and people; a
   tribute of. two pieces of gold was the price of
  pr.otection ; :'and the sepulchr.e 'of Chri~t, with ,
. the church·.ofth~ resurrectiop, was still left in
  the hands of his vptaries. ,Of. thes,e votaries, .
  the ,1110st num~rOllS and respectable p~rtion
  were strangers to Jerusalem: the pjlgrimages
  to th~ Holy' land had b~en stimulated, rather
  than suppressed, by the conquests of the
  Ar.abs; apd the enthusiaslJ,l which had always
  p.rompted these perilous journeys, was nourish-
  ed by the congenial passions of grief and indig-
  nation. A crowd of pilgrims from the East
  and West continued to visit the holy sepulchre,
  and the adjacent sanctuaries, more especially
  at the festival of Easter: and the Greeks and.
 Latins, the Nestorians and Jacobites. the Copts
 anel Abyssinians, the Armeniaos ~nd Geor.

  • Secundum DomiDorum di.,..itioaem pleru••ae lueida plerumqlle
nllbila rrct'pit iDte"aJla, et IIIgrotaatinm more temporam prll!aeDtium .
grayabatur ant reapirabat qualitate (I. i, Co I, p.610). The latinity of
William of Tyre is by DO meanl eODtemp.tible; but in his aecount of
400 yean, from tht' lOll to the rfconr), of Jerulalem, be exceeds tile
tnIe account by so ytal".

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374.                         THE DECLINE AND FALL
 CtiAP;   gians, maintained the cbape'ls, the clergy,~ and
_"",,..   t he poor 0 f' t hcu' respectIve commUDIons. '1'11e
                             .         .         .
          harmony of prayer in so many various tongues,
          the worship of so mauy nations in the common
          temple of their religion, might have affor~ed a
          spectacle of edification and peace; but the
          zeal of the christian sects 'Was embittered by
          hntredand revenge; and -h~ a kingdom of a
          sutferil1gMes~iah, -who had pardoped 1Iit; ene-·
          mie~,they aspiredtocommQftd lind persecute
          their spiritual brethren. The, ,pre-chninence
          was asserted by the spirit and numberS of the
          Franks:; ,and the greatness of Charlemagne-
          protected botIi-the! Latin pilgrims, and theca-
          tholics of the East. The poterty of Carthage,
          Alexandria, and· Jerdsalem, was relie'f'ed by
          the aIm. of that pioBs emperor; and IAany JIWIlw
          nasterie8 of Palestine were founded' or restored
           by, his liberal .re.otion. Harun AI~a.sbid, tbe
          greatest ofthe Abbasides, esteemed in,his chris.
          tian brother a slttnlar supremacy of genius and
          po",er:, th~ir friendsbip was cemented by a
          frequent intercourse of gifts aDd embassies;
          and ,the caliph" with~ut resigning the substan-
          tial dominion, presented the emperor with the
          keys of the holy HepillchTe, and p~rhaps of the
           city of Jerusalem. i In: the decline of the Car-
          lovingian monarchy, ,the r,epobJic       AmaJphi            of
          promoted the interest of trade and'religion in
          the East. Her vessels transported the Latin
          pilgrims to the coasts of ~gypt and' Palestme,

             o For the tranlaetiool of Charl~maroe with tile Holy IlIId, lee EciDo
          hard (de "ita Caroh Magni, e. 16, p.19·82), Cooliaotioe Porphyro,e-
          IIIIIIS (de Admioiatratiooe Imp~rii, I. ii, c. 26. p; &OJ, alld Pati. (Criti-
          n. 10m. iii. A. D. Il00, N°. 11,14,16).

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                      or TIlE ROMAN DlPJltlL                                         374-
  and deserved, by their useful imports, the fa- CHAP.'
 'Your and alliance of theF~timite caliphs:' an: ...:~~~;....
 anriual fair. was iUl!tit~ted on mount C~lval'Y ;'     .,
 and the Italian merchants founded th~ convent.
 and, hospital. of 'St. John: of' JQrusaleU};, the
 cradle of the monastic a.nd military order, whiclb
 has since reigned in· the isles' of Bl)odelS arid,
  Malta. Had· the chr.istian! pilgrims ,been, con-
 tent to revere tlie tomb of a prophet, the, dis-
  ciples of Mahomet, instead of bla.ming, 'w~uld,
 have imitated, their piety: btlHhese rigid unua-
 rians were scandalized by a 'w:omhip which re-
 presents the'birtb~ d-eath, and, 'resurrection, of
  a God; the catholic i.mages were ,br.aDded ·with,
  the naine of idols.;' and the Moslems ':&niiledt
  with indignationq. at the miraculous lame, w,hlch
. was kindled on the eve of Easter i~ tb~ 'lioly:
  sepulchre.r . This pious fraud; fi.rst devised. illl.
  the moth century,· was 'devoutly cberisMd ,by
  the Latir~ crusadel's, and is: annually. 'repeated!
  by the cte,rg~ ofthe Greek, Ai-memaa, _d;~ep~

 " p   n.e caJipb, graQted hl~ privileJe.; Am.aIp~itui, ,iri. al'lic~I,~t, uti.
 llum introductoribul (c;.Hta Dei, p.9~4). Tbe trade 0,£ Yent~e, to
 ElYpt aDd· Pal",tiaeC:lDnot produce 10 old a tid,., Dillbi""e adopt
 the laughable tranllation of a Freaehman who mistook the two me-
 tiOD' uf th~ cir~u., (Yeneti et Pr~ini) for Ihe Venetian',~bd Perilian••
     q An Arabic chronicle of Jerulall!m (apad Alsemll1l, BilJliot~Orte.t.
  tom. i, ..,. 628, tom. iv, 11' 368) alte.tlS the unbeiief of the ealiph IIDd
 the hislorian; yet Cantacll~ene presumes to appeal to tbe ~bome-
  tails ~1)l'msdves' fo'r thl. perpetual miracle..'               . "
     r In his dillertationl'on ec'cresiaatical hiltory, n.e learlied Mosheim
  has srparately diseulled thi. pretended'ioira«:le (tom. Ii, po'I14-106).
  de Illmille sancti l e p u l c h r i . ,                                   •
 , • William I?f' Malm.bury (I. iv, c. ii, p:'~O~)' qlloteR' the'Itinerary Clf
   ihe Monk Bernard, an eye wline ••, who visited Jerusa,lem A. D.870.
   The miracle is confirmed' by another pilgrim some yl'.ars oldl'r; and
   Mo~hf'im ascribes the invention to the Franb, .oon afttr the drce_
  of CharlemaCDe. "

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 CRAP. tic sects,t who impose on the credulous spec-
  Ull .                "
""....;, •• ta.tors for their own benefit, and that of their

           ·tyra.nts. In' every 'age, a principle of toleration
            has been fortified by a sense of interest; and
            the revenue of the prince and his emir was in-
            creased each year,by the expence and tribute
            of so many thousand strangers.
UD~er. the - The revolution which trarisferred the sceptre
caliphl, Irom t he Abh'des to t he F atlmltes was a be·
Fahullte J'.               aSS1
to:;. --    nefit, rather than an injury to the Holy land.
            A sovereign resident in Egypt was more sensi-
            ble of the importance of christian trade; and
            the, emirs of Palestine were less remotE~ from
            the justice and power of the throne. ,But the
            tbird of these Fatimite calipha was. the famous
            Hakem," a' frantic youth, who. waS: delivered by
            his i1npiety and despotism' from·,the fear either
            ofOod or man; and whose' reign was a wild
            mixture of vice and folly. ' Regardless of the,
           most ancient custom's of Egypt, he imposed 011
            t~e women an absolute confinem~nl: the re-
            straint excited the c1amours of both sexes;
            their clamours provoked his fury; a part of
            Old Cairo .was delivered to the flames; and

           ,      • Oar tranDen, Saady' (p. 114), Thevenot (p. 621 617), MaaadnH
               (p. N, 81i), &0.  dClcribe this extranpnt farce. Tke catholia are
               pawe. to decide"""" the miracle faded, and      the trick be....
                  • The Oritatali themaelnl con(e" the fraud, ad plead DeuNity
               aud edification (Memoins dll Chenliel' d'Arvieux, tOlD. ii, p.14O_
               Joltpll AbudaCDi, Bilt. Copt. c. 20); b~t I will not attempt, with
               Mosheim, to explain the mode. Our travellers han failed with the
               blood of St. JaDDarills at Naple..,          "
                  x See d'HerbeJot (BiblioL OrieDtale,' p. 411), ReDaadot (HilL Pa-
               triarch, Alex. p. 190,197.400,401), Elmacin (Hi.t. Saracen. p. lil-
               323), Aud Marei (p. 184-186), aD hiltoriaa of Egypt, tran.lated by
               Rei~ke from Arabic into Gt'fman, and 'fClbaU,. interpreted to all: by •
               ~~                        ,                                  .

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               or"'TBE ROMAN EMPlUo                  377
 the-gual'ds and citizens were engaged many _CHAP.
days in a bloody conflict. At first the caliph ....~::_..
declared himself a zealous mussulman, the
founder or benefactor of moschs and colleges:
twelve hundred and ninety copies of the koran
were transcribed at his expence in letters of
g9ld; and his edict extirpated the vineyards of
the Upper Egypt. But his vanity W'lLII soon
flattered by tbe hope of introducing a. new re-
ligion; he aspired above the faUle of a pro-
phet, and styled himself the visible image of
the most high God, who, after nine apparitions
on earth, was at kangth . ma~ifest in his
person. .At the name of Hakem, the lord- ·of
the living and the dead, every knee was bent
in .religious adoratipn: his mysteries were per-
formed . on a. mountain near C.airo: sixteen
thousand conyerts had signed his profession of
faith; and at the present hourr a free and war-
like people,: the Druses of m~unt LibanuB, are
persuaded of the life and divinity of a madman
and. tyrant.' In his divine character, Hakem
hated tb., Jews and christians, as the servants·
of his rivals; while some remains of prejudice
or prudence still pleaded in favour of the law
of Mahomet. Both· in Egypt and Palestiue,
bis cruel and wanton persecution made some

    , TIle religion of tb, Dru.e. i. eoaeffied by tht:ir iporuee aad
 .ypOenay. Their .eeret doctriae. are con6oe4 to the elect who pro-
 f" •• a eontemplati.e life; and tbe .ulgu Drlliel, tb. most iadift'.. rent
·.r meD, OC!CuioDally cunform to tbe wonhip of the .mahomcta." aad
 rbriltiao., of their ueicbbourhood. The little that ii, or deftrye. I.
 Ite bown, may he ...n in tbe tudultrioUi Nif'hhr (yoyarea, tom. IJ•
.1" 1M.1I1I1), aud the "cGnd voluAie of the rectnt and instrllctive Ira·
,,,ela cf M. de Voh.e,.

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378 '                     THE DECLINE AND           .au.
  CHAP. 'martyrs' and' many apostates: tile' common
_,...•.,..'rlgh ts, an d 'speclaI prlvl eges: 0 f tb'e sectanes
  LVII.     •                 .      "J
           were eq llally disregarded; and a general intel:-
           dict was laid on the devotioR of strangers, and.
~W~t~~, natives. The temple of the christian 'wo~ld,.
•• D 1009. the church .of the r.e&nrrection, was delll0 lisb..·

           ed to its foundations; ihe luminous prQdils1
           of Easier 'was interrupted, aDd: :..ucla JPIlOf8.ti.
           labour was exhar.r8ted'to cJ,'egtro¥
           the rock which properlycoiJstitutlfs' the :001,.,
           sepulchre. At'the repol't of tbis ~ril~e,.the~
          nations of Europe were· astonished' uel affiicfr
          ec} :' but insteadofarmiDg: ift tb. aefence; Di tJae
           Holy land, theY'contentedf ' themlelve8.witA
           burning or tJae Jews. as: tbe sec_
          advisers or tlie impious oorbaria.a Yet tht>
           calamities of Jerusalem were in some~ meas1JlIe
           alleviated by the inconstanoy or r.epeJitJaRce of
           Hakem himself; and the ra,ya..) , maudate was
           sealed for the restittl,tion o-fthe, ",hen
           the tyrant was assassinated by the. emi88aries
          of:his sister. The sllcceeding caJiplHne~med
          the maxims of religion aDd' ~li<!y ;' a. free to-
          leration was again granted ; :with the pieu. aid
          of the emperor of Constai11iittoPle. ,the boly se;.
          pu lchre arose from its- rDin,s'; aJld, ,a:fter a. shon
          abstir£ence, the pilgrims returRed with an itlP
          crease of appetite to the spiritual feast.- In
        . • See Glaber, I. iii, c. f, del tile annal. of BaroRiotand Pap, A. D.
        1009.        '
          a Per idem tempus ex aniveno orbe tam lnnllmerabili. mullitudo
        cepit eonftuere ad seplllchrllm Sdvatoris Hierosolymi•• ItUutll.
        aullul hominum priul aperare poterat, Ordo inferioril plebl •••••••
        mediocre••••••• r"ges et comites •••• pl'!rallies •••• molier". millie
        nobile. pauperioriblll •••• Pluribus enirn rrat mf'Dtu dealderi. .
        marl priolqu4m ad propria reverterl'n!ur (Glaber, I. iy, c. 6. Bou.uet.
        KiUorillnl of Fr.ance, tom. 1I, p, 50)

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                  OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.                                     370.
 the'sea-voyage of Palestine, the d'al1gers were' CHAP,,'
frequent, and the opportunities rare: but t-he~-!:~;....
conversion of Hungary opened a safe commu-'               '
nication between Germany and Greece. The
charity of St. Stephen, the apostle of his king.,
do~, relie'Yed and conducted his itinerant, bie..
thren,' and from Belgrade to Antioch, they tra:~ Ine~eu~
versed fifteen hundred miles of a christian em.::~:::cn­
pire. Among the Franks, the zeal' of pilgri~ ~~~.10M,
mage prevailed beyond the exam,ple of former
times ; and the roads were covered with mul-
titudes of either sex, and of every raDl. who'
professed their contempt of life, so soon as th-ey "
should have kissed the tomb their redeemer.           . '.
Princes and prelates abandoned the care of
their dominions;' and the numbers of thele
pious caravans were a prelude to the sr..
mies which marched in the- ensuing age
under the banner ot the cross.            About
thirty years before the first crusade, the
archbishop of Mentz, with the bishops of
Utrecht, Bamberg, and Ratisbon, undertook
this laborious journey from the Rhine to the
Jordan; and the multitude 01' their' foJlowen
amounted to seven thousand persons. At Con~
sb.ntinople, they were hospitably entertained
by the emperor; but the ostentatioll' 01 thei..
 wealth provoked the assault of the wild' Arab. ;
they drew their swords with scr1fpulous reh~
 tance, and sustained a siege in the village of
 Capernaum, till they were rescued by the venal
   , Glaber, 1. Hi, c:. I. Katena (Hilt. 'Critic. Regum " . i a , t_
i, p. 104..812) examinel whether St. Step__ (OIIudfd • mollalre., at

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380                      TUE:DECLINE, AND FALL'
  CHAP. protedion of the Fatimite emir. After visiting
__~;~~.... the holy places, they embarked for Italy, but
,           only a remnant of two thousand ~rrived in safe-
            ty in their native lan~ .. Iugulpbus, a secretary
          ,of Willi'ani the conqueror, was a c~mpanion of
            this'pilgrimage:' he observes that theY'sal,ied
          :f.rom Normandy, thirty stout and well-appoint-
           :00 horsemen; but that they repassed the Alps,:
       .. twenty miserable p~lmers; witb the staff ill.
            their hand, and the wanet at their back~c '
Con.ue.t ' After the defeat of the Romans, the tranquil-
~:':j,r;:elity of the Fatimite caliphs was invaded by the
!.u~~~07G- Turks! One of the lieutenants ofM,alek Shah,
18V6.      Atsiz the Carizmian, marched into Syria at the
           head of a powerful army, and reduced Damas-
           cus by famine and the sword. Hems, aDd tbe
           other· cities of the province, .ackn,o~ ledged the
           caliph of Bagdad and the sultan ~q>'ersia; ,and
           the victorious emir advan~ed without resista·nce
           to: ·th,e banks of the Nile: the J:atimite was
          'preparing to fiy into the, heart of Africa; but
          the ,negroes of his guardan4 the inhabitants or'
          Ca.iromade a desperate'Mal,ly, and repulsed the,
          Turk from the confines of Egypt. In, his re-
          treat, he iQdulged the license of slaughter and
          rapine: the judge and notaries of Jerusalem
          ,were invited to his camp; an~ their execution
          ,was followed by the massacre of three thou-
          »and citizens. The' cruelty or· the defeat of          I      .

          • Baronius (A. D. 18M, N-••"'6) hili tranlcribed the creater part
       of the original narrative. of Ingulpbul, Marianu., a~d Lambe~..
          • See £lmacin (Hist. Saracen. p. S49, 850), alld Abnlpba...... D,.
       aut. (p. i.f, ver•• Pocock). If.. de Guipea (HiaL dea Bona, t_.
       iii, ,a,t i, p •. i16. iIS) ucla the teatilllonirs, or rather the nama, of
       Abulfeda aud Noniri.

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                     0. THE, ROMAN DlPIlt'L '                                     381,
 Ataiz was soon punished by the sultan ~o.,..-, I~~r.                                  '
cush, the brother of Malek Shah, who, with a ......_"..
higher titJe and more formidable powers, as-
serted the dominion of Syria and Palestine.-
The hoose' of SeJjuk reignecl about twenty
years'in Jerusalem;· but the hereditary com-
mand of the holy city and territory was en-
trosted or abandoned to the emir Ortok, the
chief of: a tribe of Turkmans, whose children,
after their~expulsion ftoom Palestine, formf'fl two
dynasties on the borders of Armenia and AtoisY"l
ria.' 'The Oriental' christiaIls and the Latin
pilgrims deplored a' revolution, which, instead
of the regular government and old amalice of
the caliphs, 'imposed on their necks the iron
yoke of the strangers of the north.' In his
court and camp the great sultan had adopted
in some degree the art and manners of Persia;
 but the body of the Turkish nation, and more
especially the pastoral tribes, still breathed, the
fierceness of the desert. From Nice to Jeru-
 salem, the western countries' of As"ia were a
'scene ~f foreign and domestic ,hostility; and tbe
" • From tlleexpfditioa of lur At,i. (A. H. (69, A. D. 1076) t. tile
 expulsion of the OrlokidH (A. D. 1000). Vet William of 'J'yr~ (I. i.
 Co 6, p. 633) Bunll, that Jeraulem    11''   lliirly."igbtyt'ara in th" hanM
 of the Turk»; BIId an Arabic chronicle, qllott'd by Pagi (tom. Iv, p.
 J02), .0ppO.... I, tbat the city wa. r"dllt'rd by a Carizmian general to
 tb" obedience of the caliph ofB.gdad, A. H. 463,A. D '1070. Th"se
 early datH aJe Dot ul'J compatible with tbe general hi. tory of Alia;
 and I am IUrf', "that u late a. A. D. 1064, the r"gnnm Babylonic.-um
 (of Cairo) .till prnailedin Pale.line (BaroDilJ~. A. D. 1064. N°. 56).
      De Guipe., Hilt. de. Hunl, tom. i, p. 249·252.
    • Willerm. Tyr. I. i, c. 8, p. 634, wllo alrin. lIal'd to magDify tbe
 ellri.tian grinaDc",. The Turks exacted a.      a"reu.t  from eacb pilgrim!
 The IGJIAar of the Fraab is now !'ourteen dollar.; anti Europe do.
 Mt lomplaia of this nlautaQ tax.

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S8~                        -'l'lR""u~                      . . . nUl, &Ie .
CHAP.      shepherds ·of Paleltine, Who Rid. a :precari9uI
.;..~~~~;" sway ·(')n adoubtful frontier, laad neither 1~js1J;l'e
           Dor capa-city to await tbe sl61Vproits of com.
           mercial and .religious freedoin~ The pilgrim.
           who, thr&oghirmumerableperil$, had reached
           the gates of Jer.tiasalem, .. ere ttOe victims of pri..
           vate .rapine or public oppr~i8ioD, -and. often
           sunk ,under' the pressure of ·famineand disease,
           bef9~e they -were permitted 'to sal11te the holy
            sepulchre. A .pirit of nanRe :barbarism, or ra-
           cent zeal, prompted the TmikmaDs to insult
           the clergy of e,very seCt:::the patriarch was
           dragged by the ,hair along ,tire pavement, and
           cast into a dungeon, to extort a ransom from
           tbe ·sympathy of 'his Hock; aad the divine wor-
           ship in the church of the reaulTection was often
           disturbed by the savage rudale" of its masters.
           The patRetictale excited the' .millions of the
           West to march under the standard of the crosl
           to· the relief of the 'ooly l-.d : and yet how
           trifling is the sum of tbeselaoOUJDulated evils,
           jf compared with the single :e<:t -of the sacrilege
           of Hakem, which -had been·s() patiently endur~
           ed by the Latin Christians! A slighter provo-
          'cation inflamed the more irascible temper of
          .their descendants: a new spirit had arisen of
          'religious chivalry and papal dominion: a nerve
           was touched of exquisite feeling; and the sen-
           sation vibrated to the heart of Europe•
                     . END OF THE TENTH VOLUME.
                             r;!i.•~e r~ E:~~J~~r:;\?-...~_ ~::.:.~¢
                            ."( LAL'st'lrms: .I
                             t!'.il; il!V-u7-5"l'~~~~-~\"
                I'l_er aDd lIre.iI, I'rintels. UTe.Lalle, Little-F.utdleap. .

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