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					America Moves to the City

        Chapter 25
        AP Notes
• 1880 – 72% of the population lived on
• 1910 – 54% lived on farms
• Today – 3% live on farms
• 1880-1920 population shifted in the U.S.
  from primarily agrarian to urban
• This trend, coupled with increased
  immigration, greatly affected the cities
   Cause of internal migration
• Mechanization on the farms –
  men’s work
• Factories produced more goods
  that women once produced
• Rural women went to the cities to
  find work
        African Americans
• Began to migrate to southern urban
  centers from rural South
• Racial violence
• Segregation policies
• Boll weevil destroyed cotton crops
• Floods in Mississippi and Alabama
          How Cities Grew
• Before the Civil War people lived at or
  near their work – “walking cities”
• After the Civil War people began to use
  horse-drawn streetcars. Those who could
  afford to moved to the suburbs
• Movement out of the cities was helped by
  cable cars, electric trolleys, elevated
  trains, automobiles, and subways
• Before C.W. – no higher than 5 stories
• After C.W. – steam driven elevators and
  steel girders permitted the construction of
  sky scrapers
• Specialized areas – 1 area for banking,
  law offices, and government offices, 1
  area for retail, and 1 area for industrial
     Urban living conditions
• Slums, overcrowded, rats
• Poor sanitation and disease, soot
  (coal furnaces), open sewers,
  backyard privies
• Crime
• Neighborhoods declined
The Dumbbell Tenement
• Cholera, malaria, diphtheria, typhoid
• NYC tenements 6 out of 10 infants died
  in their 1st year
•   Buildings close
•   Coal furnaces
•   No fire safety
•   Chicago 1871
•   Boston 1872
• NY street gangs
• Crime flourished
• Poverty
• Sections of cities in which certain
  ethnic or racial groups lived
• By choice: immigrants sought to live
  with others from their same country
• Necessity: through threat or economic
  necessity – boundaries defined
• Real estate restrictions – covenants –
  can’t sell property to anyone from a
  certain racial or ethnic group
• People separated – widening
• Wealthy  suburbs
• Poor stayed behind
• Wealthy were not aware of the
          Political Divisions
• As cities expanded there was a need
  for more services (fire, police,
  hospitals, sanitation, water, health
  dept., electric, transportation, schools).
• Cities raised taxes and set up offices
• Remaining middle and upper classes
  struggled with working class for
• Old immigrants vs. new immigrants
          Political Machines
• Machines – unofficial-designed to keep a
  particular group or party in office
• Headed by a boss – who sometimes held
  public office – however, he usually picked
  others to run and helped them win.
• Ward leaders – administered a district –
  assisted the boss by handing out city jobs
  and contracts – did favors for the residents
• In return, residents supported the machine
  on election day
• Machines controlled jobs and city contract
  work (gave the leaders access to graft money
  under the table in return for favors)
• Immigrants voted for the boss and machine –
  made up for a lack of a welfare system
• William Marcy Tweed – Tammany Hall in NYC
  – amassed huge amounts of money through
  graft and corruption
     Controlling Immigration
• Some reformers felt that problems of
  the cities stemmed from the presence
  of immigrants – wanted to limit
• Others objected to certain habits or
  behaviors – wanted to change these
 Immigrants Came to the U.S.
• 1865-1920 – 30 million came to
• Dreams: make fortunes, free
  government lands, personal
  freedom, free public education, no
  conscription (draft), democratic
         How They Came
• Steamships made
  the voyage faster
• $15 ticket
• Steerage – large
  open area
  beneath the
  ship’s deck: no
  privacy, poor
  food, inadequate
  toilet facilities
            Ellis Island
• Opened in 1892
• Processing
  center for
        Arriving in America
• Had to be “fit”
• Physical exams
  for tuberculosis
  or trachoma,
  mental illness
• Make sure that
  they wouldn’t
  become a public
      Immigration patterns
• Old immigration – 1865 – 1890 –
  From Northern Europe (England
  and Germany)
• New immigration – 1890-1920 –
  From southern and eastern
  Europe and Middle East –
  Italians, Greeks, Slavs, Russian
  Jews, and Armenians
      Chinese Immigration
• ¼ million Chinese
• Recruited to work by RR companies
• Worked as indentured servants
• Victims of ethnic stereotyping and
• Unions wanted them kept out –
  accepted low wages
• Movement to restrict immigration
• Chinese Exclusion Act
• American Protection Society
 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
• Designed to keep Asians out of the
• Did not prevent entry to those who
  had previously established residence
  or who had family living in U.S.
• Angel Island: detention center off
  coast of San Francisco – 1910
    American Protection Society
•   Teach only American culture
•   Only English language in schools
•   Tighter rules for citizenship
•   Fanned the fear of “aliens”
•   Resent immigrants taking Am. Jobs
•   Limit immigration – Keep “unfit” out
•   Pass literacy test
•   Exclude new immigrants from S. and E.
• Temperance movement
• Opposed to drinking
• Drinking leads to personal tragedy
• Link between saloon, immigrants, and
  political bosses
• Saloons – “social clubs” where immigrants
  met and picked up information about jobs
  and socialized
           Purity Crusaders
• As urban populations grew – vice became
  big business
• Anthony Comstock – New York Society for
  the Suppression of Vice
• Comstock Law – prohibited sending through
  the mails materials deemed to be obscene
  (including birth control info.) – slowed the
  distribution of info for decades
• Attacked political machines- believed they
  controlled the police who profited from vice
         Helping the Needy
• Social conscience – religious idealism
• Middle and upper classes – felt they
  had a responsibility for poverty and to
  improve social conditions
• Charity organization movement
• Social Gospel Movement
• Settlement Movement
Charity Organization Movement
• Kept files on those who received help
• Make sure those who accepted aid
  were “worthy”
• Interfered in people’s lives
• Wanted immigrants to adopt American
   Social Gospel Movement
• Sought to apply gospel of
  Jesus directly to society
• Supported improved living
      Settlement movement
• Reform movement
• Live in poor neighborhoods to
  witness effects of poverty first
• Jane Addams and Helen Gates
  Starr founded Hull House in
Jane Addams
– Hull House
         Hull House services
• Cultural events
• Classes
• Child care center
• Clubs
• Summer camps
• Playgrounds
• Employment and
  legal aid
• Healthcare clinics
             Hull House
• Investigated city conditions –
  economic, political and health
• Foundation for future reform
• Workers – college educated women
• Contribution – widen people’s
  perspectives on social conditions and
  close the gap between divisions in
• First social workers

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