Page Intentionally Blank From the Administrator March 2011 Dear Members of the Aviation Community: The FAA made tangible and important NextGen progress in 2010. This was evident to me at the Experimental Aircraft Association’s AirVenture in Oshkosh, Wis., this past year. People were asking, “What does NextGen mean for me?” That’s significant. People are starting to see NextGen in action, and they want to know more about how the transformation of the National Airspace System (NAS) is going to enhance safety, increase access and efficiency, and improve aviation’s overall environmental footprint. NextGen is enjoying forward momentum right now, and that means all of us – the FAA and the entire aviation community – need to continue to work to sustain this exciting progress. That means more than new technology and procedures; it means a new approach to the way we do business in the NAS. Within the FAA, I’ve launched Destination 2025, a vision for both transforming our national aviation system and the agency responsible for making it happen. We’re taking a hard look at how we do things, and making changes to ensure the FAA can meet the demands of a new century of aviation. We’ve elevated the executive leadership of NextGen to the deputy administrator level. With his confirmation last June, Michael Huerta became the highest ranking official with overall responsibility for NextGen in the federal government. NextGen is helping usher in a new era of collaboration. We are building on the collaboration we began in 2009 through the RTCA task force with the newly established NextGen Advisory Committee, which Deputy Administrator Huerta is leading. Last April, the Department of Transportation chartered the Future of Aviation Advisory Committee, the membership of which spans the aviation community. Now, more than ever, the FAA and aviation stakeholders recognize that in order to succeed, NextGen must be a team effort. Everyone is being asked to make investments of time, money, equipage and human capital. I am encouraged that people from throughout the aviation community are doing their part. In 2010, we also successfully integrated our new satellite-based aircraft tracking system, Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Broadcast (ADS-B), into all four air traffic control automation platforms at key sites across the country. We cleared the way to begin integrating ADS-B into FAA air traffic control facilities nationwide, and to train our workforce. We also issued our ADS-B Out rule requiring aircraft operating in most controlled airspace to be equipped to broadcast their position to the ADS-B network by the start of 2020. This rule allows manufacturers to start mass-producing certified ADS-B avionics, which we believe will drive prices down, addressing a key concern of the operators. We have also been working hard at our nation’s airports to reduce delays and improve the environment with NextGen initiatives that help curb fuel burn and emissions by improving surface efficiencies. We move forward with these initiatives knowing we might have to make adjustments due to new information, program interdependencies, realignment of priorities and other changes that can’t always be anticipated as we pursue our mid-term operational vision. 2011 promises to be every bit as productive as last year. Design and implementation teams in Washington, D.C., and the Dallas area of north Texas will focus on streamlining arrival and departure traffic at clustered metroplex airports. Our work on Data Communications is setting the stage for the delivery of a NextGen technology that the 2009 RTCA task force identified as a priority. And the report of our ADS-B In rulemaking committee, due in September, will give us a clear indication of which cockpit-based ADS-B applications are most important to the aviation community. The foundation of NextGen is collaboration and communication. NextGen will provide technology and tools, but NextGen will be delivered and operated by people. The dedication of people at every level of the aviation community will determine its success. I am certain that together, we will continue to meet the challenge of giving the world new ways to fly. J. Randolph Babbitt FAA Administrator Page Intentionally Blank NextGen Implementation Plan Contents 5 Executive Summary 7 Introduction 19 NextGen Benefits 10 NextGen Today 26 NextGen: Operating in the Mid-Term 31 NextGen Ahead 38 Appendix A: NextGen Investments for 35 Challenges Operators and Airports 46 Appendix B: Delivering the Mid-Term Vision 93 Airport and Facility Identifiers 94 Acronyms NextGen Integration and Implementation Office 800 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20591 202-493-4939 www.faa.gov/nextgen Photographs provided by: ATO Communications Shutterstock Why NextGen Matters NextGen is a comprehensive overhaul of our National Airspace System to make air travel more convenient and dependable, while ensuring your flight is as safe, secure and hassle- free as possible. In a continuous roll-out of improvements and upgrades, the FAA is building the capability to guide and track air traffic more precisely and efficiently to save fuel and reduce noise and pollution. NextGen is better for our environment, and better for our economy. • NextGen will be a better way of doing business. Travel will be more predictable because there will be fewer delays, less time sitting on the ground and holding in the air, with more flexibility to get around weather problems. • NextGen will reduce aviation’s impact on the environment. Flying will be quieter, cleaner and more fuel-efficient. We’ll use alternative fuels, new equipment and operational procedures, lessening our impact on the climate. More precise flight paths help us limit the amount of noise that communities experience. • NextGen will help us be even more proactive about preventing accidents with advanced safety management to enable us, with other government agencies and aviation partners, to better predict risks and then identify and resolve hazards. • NextGen boils down to getting the right information to the right person at the right time. It will help controllers and operators make better decisions. This data will assist operators in keeping employees and passengers better informed. • Our nation’s economy depends on aviation. NextGen lays a foundation that will continually improve and accommodate future needs of air travel while strengthening the economy with one seamless global sky. • NextGen will help communities make better use of their airports. More robust airports can help communities attract new jobs, and help current employers expand their businesses. By doing this the U.S. will strengthen its economy and help communities realize all the benefits that aviation can bring. • NextGen will allow us to meet our increasing national security needs and ensure that travelers benefit from the highest levels of safety. Executive Summary The NextGen Implementation Plan provides an overview NExTGEN BENEFITS of the FAA’s ongoing transition to the Next Generation As airports and operators reap the benefits of the investments Air Transportation System. The Plan lays out the agency’s and deployments we are making today, the FAA continues vision for transforming the way things work in our nation’s to sharpen its projections of the benefits we expect NextGen skies and at our nation’s airports by the end of the mid-term. to provide during the mid-term. Our latest estimates, which The Plan further provides a status report on the NextGen are sensitive to traffic and fuel price forecasts, indicate that deployments, capabilities and benefits we have already by 2018, NextGen will reduce total delays (in flight and introduced into the National Airspace System (NAS), as on the ground) by about 35 percent compared with what well as the goals we have set and commitments we have would happen if we did nothing. That delay reduction will made in support of our mid-term vision. Additionally, the provide, through 2018, $23 billion in cumulative benefits to Plan addresses the harmonization work we are doing with aircraft operators, the traveling public and the FAA. In the the global aviation community to ensure aircraft operating process, we will save about 1.4 billion gallons of aviation globally receive the operational benefits in various fuel during this period, reducing carbon dioxide emissions international air traffic environments. by 14 million tons. The primary goals of NextGen are to enhance the safety and The FAA expanded the demonstration activities and trials reliability of air transportation, to improve efficiency in the we use to develop NextGen capabilities, and which provide NAS and to reduce aviation’s impact on our environment. direct benefits to the members of the aviation community who partner with the FAA to conduct those activities. In Memphis, Tenn., both FedEx and Delta have reported NExTGEN TODAy savings from technologies and operational practices aimed The FAA is continuing to achieve multiple critical NextGen at preventing long lines from forming at the end of the milestones. Our deployment of the ground infrastructure runway. Highly specialized Optimized Profile Descents that will support Automatic Dependent Surveillance- known as Initial Tailored Arrivals have proven so successful, Broadcast (ADS-B) surveillance is on time and on budget. they are moving from demonstration to operational use We are continuing to improve airspace efficiency and airport at airports in San Francisco, Los Angeles and Miami. In access. And we have enjoyed success in our early efforts addition to helping curb delays, surface management and to leverage surface data sharing in support of collaborative Initial Tailored Arrivals help the environment by reducing surface traffic management at select locations. fuel burn and emissions, and offering opportunities to manage noise. One of the FAA’s most important steps forward this year was its decision to approve the nationwide use of ADS-B NextGen technologies will work together to provide greater to separate suitably equipped aircraft in areas with ADS-B situational awareness both in the air and on the ground, coverage. Equally significant was our release of a final rule enhancing safety throughout the system. Likewise, our requiring aircraft operating in most controlled airspace to be efforts to collect, analyze and share information on aviation equipped to transmit their position to the ADS-B network trends will assist us in identifying and mitigating any by Jan. 1, 2020. potential risk associated with NextGen implementation. Maintaining and enhancing safety remains fundamental to all NextGen improvements, as does the FAA’s commitment to environmental stewardship. Airspace improvements NExTGEN: OPErATING IN ThE MID-TErM including Performance Based Navigation (PBN) are already In this update, the FAA reiterates its vision for the reducing fuel burn and emissions. A new, cleaner-burning operational capabilities we expect to have in place by the biofuel is expected to be approved for use by commercial end of the mid-term. That vision includes changes at every aircraft early this year. phase of flight, and it fundamentally revamps the way things We also are striving to streamline our own internal processes work in the NAS. Common weather and system status to ensure that the NextGen capabilities emerging from our information will dramatically improve flight planning. test beds and research centers begin producing operator Technologies such as ADS-B and Data Communications benefits as quickly and safely as possible. (Data Comm), combined with PBN, will increase safety and capacity and save time and fuel, decreasing carbon emissions and improving our ability to address noise. www.faa.gov/nextgen 5 With NextGen, we must continue to advance safety as we Over the next few years, we will be making more NAS look ahead at increasing air traffic and the introduction of systems compatible with the network structure that will very light jets, unmanned aircraft systems and commercial serve as the backbone for the digital exchange of NextGen space flights. To continue to minimize risk as we introduce information, and we expect to update our policies to leverage a wave of new NextGen capabilities over the next decade, satellite navigation technology to increase the capacity of the aviation community will continue to rely on Safety closely spaced parallel runways during poor visibility. Management Systems, integrated safety cases and other The FAA recognizes the magnitude of the effort necessary proactive forms of management that allow us to assess the to achieve our NextGen goals, and we have provided a safety risk of all the proposed changes. Policies, procedures highly effective, structured management and governance and systems on the ground and in the flight deck enable the architecture to ensure the timely, cost-effective delivery of mid-term system. We make the most of technologies and all NextGen capabilities. procedures that are in use today, as we introduce innovations that will fundamentally change air traffic automation, surveillance, communications, navigation and the way we ChAllENGES manage information. While the FAA remains confident we will achieve NextGen In addition to the advances we develop through the success, we recognize that many technical, programmatic NextGen transformational programs and implementation and organizational challenges lie ahead. NextGen success portfolios, the mid-term system depends on coordination depends on public and private stakeholder investments with and support from FAA specialists on safety, airports, moving forward together. Operators must equip to take the environment, policy development and the other advantage of the capabilities we provide. Additionally, we building blocks of modern air traffic management. FAA must contend with varying timelines and levels of maturity information and management systems must keep these among the incremental achievements that NextGen activities synchronized as we approach the mid-term, reach capabilities are built on. As we work to introduce new it and move forward. We will use a strategic Environmental equipment and procedures into a NAS that is active 24 Management System approach to integrate environmental hours a day, seven days a week, we face limitations in terms and energy objectives into the planning, decision making of how much change the system can accommodate at any and operation of NextGen. Under the Continuous Lower one time. Our key to successfully dealing with challenges Emissions, Energy and Noise program, we are targeting is to anticipate them and incorporate mitigation strategies partnerships with industry to advance noise and emissions into our NextGen planning. For example, we are studying reductions, while improving energy efficiency. We will a number of financial and operational incentives aimed at continue to accelerate the certification and implementation encouraging operator equipage. Further, we have taken an of sustainable alternative fuels for use by aircraft fleets. integrated portfolio management approach that recognizes the interdependent nature of NextGen, rather than trying to administer NextGen as a series of individual programs and NExTGEN AhEAD initiatives. Several milestones key to the NextGen mid-term vision are right around the corner. Why NExTGEN MATTErS This fall, an Aviation Rulemaking Committee is expected The advantages of NextGen will benefit almost everyone, to submit initial recommendations on how the aviation whether they frequently travel by air or never fly at all. community should move forward with the technology Those who do fly will enjoy fewer delays, the highest that brings ADS-B information into the cockpit (ensuring level of safety and more predictable trips. Many people compatibility with the ADS-B Out avionics detailed in who live in neighborhoods near airports will experience the 2010 final rule). We are also moving forward with the less aircraft noise and fewer emissions. And communities development of Data Comm, which is expected to provide will make better use of their airports, strengthening their initial tower capabilities in 2015. local economy. Our nation’s economy depends on a healthy aviation industry. 6 NextGen Implementation Plan Introduction The NextGen Implementation Plan is the FAA’s primary Similar fuel savings and reductions in emissions have outreach tool for communicating with the stakeholders and resulted from the use of precise, continuous descents into aviation partners working with us to develop and deploy Los Angeles and customized descents into San Francisco. the Next Generation Air Transportation System. The Plan Preliminary results from a surface management initiative is intended to provide stakeholders with an overview of in Boston point to a fuel savings of 5,100 gallons and a NextGen, including a status report on the deployments, reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of 50 tons during capabilities and benefits it has introduced into the National periods of heavy congestion. Shared surface surveillance Airspace System (NAS) to date. The Plan update, as data coupled with aircraft metering techniques are creating always, is consistent with budget assumptions that were taxi-out time savings of up to 7,000 hours a year at New current at the time of publication. The Plan underscores York’s John F. Kennedy airport and 5,000 hours a year at our unwavering focus on the mid-term system. It provides Memphis, Tenn. Equipped helicopters flying over the Gulf aviation community decision makers with up-to-date of Mexico are enjoying the safety and efficiency of radar- information about the investments operators and airports like coverage in poor weather conditions. And in Colorado, need to make to benefit from NextGen capabilities new surveillance technologies are enabling controllers (Appendix A). It also summarizes the milestones and to track aircraft flying through potentially treacherous critical work that will be ongoing in pursuit of our mid- mountain terrain. term goals (Appendix B). These are just a few examples of early NextGen successes. Users of our airspace won’t have to wait until the mid- In 2010, the FAA met 90 percent of our high-priority term to experience the advantages of NextGen. Across NextGen objectives. Many more benefits are still unfolding the country, operators are already reaping the benefits as the FAA and its partners continue to roll out new of NextGen capabilities. In Atlanta, arrivals making use policies, procedures and technologies as part of the largest of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) procedures transformation of the NAS in history. have saved hundreds of thousands of gallons of fuel and Since Congress passed the first NextGen budget thousands of tons of carbon dioxide and air pollutants. appropriation in 2007, the FAA has been working www.faa.gov/nextgen 7 aggressively with the broader aviation community to areas, and five additional study teams are being dispatched revolutionize the way things work at our nation’s airports this year. and in our nation’s skies. We are deploying innovative technologies and procedures that improve efficiency The NextGen success enjoyed by the FAA and its partners both on the ground and in the air, while offering greater has garnered the support of the White House and Congress. environmental protections. We are laying the groundwork Funding for NextGen has increased significantly since for the communications and information-sharing networks the first appropriation of $128 million in 2007. Today, that will enable the FAA to collaborate with its stakeholders our funding requests are approximately $1 billion. The to align their preferences with the overall needs of the White House and the U.S. Department of Transportation system. And we are working with our international partners have declared NextGen a top national transportation and to make sure it all works seamlessly beyond our borders. infrastructure priority. Our investment in that work is already There is good reason for that. Aviation paying dividends. Our deployment of is crucial to our nation’s economy. As Automatic Dependent Surveillance- Across the country, recently as 2009, civil aviation contributed Broadcast (ADS-B) ground stations operators are already $1.3 trillion annually to the national is on time and on budget. ADS-B, our economy, and constituted 5.2 percent of reaping the benefits of the gross domestic product. It generated satellite-based successor to radar, more accurately tracks traffic in areas such as NextGen capabilities. more than 10 million jobs, with earnings Philadelphia, Louisville, Ky., and Juneau, of $397 billion.2 Alaska, as well as the Gulf of Mexico. NextGen is vital to protecting those Operators of aircraft equipped with first-generation ADS-B contributions. The current system simply cannot avionics are singing the praises of the increased situational accommodate anticipated growth in the aviation industry. awareness offered by the free in-cockpit traffic and weather Congestion continues to increase at many of our nation’s information provided under the FAA’s Surveillance and busiest hub airports, a problem that will only be exacerbated Broadcast Services program. now that traffic levels are starting to rebound from the Operators also are benefiting from the increased runway impact of the economic recession. access enabled by new approaches the FAA has published NextGen has further provided additional opportunities for scores of runway ends throughout the country. These for environmental stewardship. Our efforts are enhancing approaches integrate several approach procedures with energy efficiency and reducing aviation’s environmental a common path over the ground. Each procedure allows footprint, while promoting increased energy security and a different level of access based on aircraft capability. diversity. Our plans promote the creation of green jobs, These approach procedures include Lateral Navigation and support our nation’s farmers through the creation of (LNAV), Lateral and Vertical Navigation (LNAV/VNAV), sustainable fuels. and Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV). Additionally, operators are taking advantage of PBN By providing greater safety, efficiency and environmental procedures that use satellite guidance to follow more performance, NextGen plays a critical role in protecting precise arrival and departure paths. PBN remains a key America’s economic and environmental health. component of our efforts to deconflict traffic flows over While the FAA and the aviation community can take pride in busy metroplex areas – metropolitan centers that contain all that NextGen has accomplished so far, we remain keenly multiple airports and municipalities, as well as a diverse set aware of the challenges that remain. The interdependence of aviation customers and stakeholders. of NextGen systems means that challenges faced by one Our metroplex work also goes to the heart of the partnerships program could create challenges for another. Some of forged between the FAA and the aviation community. In the capabilities deployed by the FAA will not be able to direct response to recommendations made in 2009 by provide benefits until sufficient numbers of operators have the RTCA1 NextGen Mid-Term Implementation Task equipped to take advantage of them. New procedures Force, two initial study sites – the Washington, D.C., and implemented by the FAA will have no impact if controllers north Texas areas – served as prototypes for the broader and pilots have not been trained in their proper execution. implementation of PBN procedures in critical metroplex The FAA has anticipated these challenges and developed 1 RTCA, Inc. is a private, not-for-profit corporation that develops consensus-based recommendations regarding communication, navigation, surveillance and air traffic management system issues. RTCA functions as a Federal Advisory Committee and includes roughly 400 industry and academic organizations from the United States and around the world. Members represent all facets of the aviation community, including government organizations, airlines, airspace users, and airport associations, labor unions, aviation services and equipment suppliers. 2 “The Economic Impact of Civil Aviation on the U.S. Economy,” FAA, March 2011. 8 NextGen Implementation Plan risk mitigation strategies to keep NextGen on track and agency’s detailed NAS Enterprise Architecture. The NAS sustain its momentum. Enterprise Architecture is a robust, comprehensive planning tool that the FAA uses to understand the interdependencies With the publication of this 2011 update to the NextGen of capabilities on systems, procedures and policies, and to Implementation Plan, the FAA once again affirms its ensure their alignment. While not a set of commitments commitment to delivering the capabilities and benefits that itself, the Enterprise Architecture serves as a cornerstone comprise our mid-term operational vision, first outlined in upon which the FAA bases many of the commitments 2009. At the same time, we remain focused on working with included in Appendix B. our partners to deliver early benefits leveraging existing aircraft capabilities. Key examples include our metroplex Our 2011 reporting does not end with the publication of this work, as well as our formation, in conjunction with the document. Throughout the year, you can access updated RTCA, of the NextGen Advisory Committee, a new senior- news and information at www.faa.gov/nextgen. The Web level advisory panel representing broad aviation community site offers access to additional FAA documents, including membership. This committee will focus on improvements NextGen-related fact sheets, the Enterprise Architecture and to safety, airports, the environment and air traffic, as well as last year’s FAA Response to the Recommendations of the global harmonization. It also will work in conjunction with RTCA NextGen Mid-Term Implementation Task Force. the FAA to develop performance metrics for measuring the The transformation of the NAS represents a monumental success of NextGen initiatives. One addition to this year’s task. The challenges are great, but the need and the payoffs Implementation Plan is a new chapter called NextGen are even greater. Buoyed by the NextGen success we have Ahead, in which we highlight some of the most significant achieved thus far, and backed by the confidence of our NextGen milestones included in Appendix B. stakeholders, Congress and the administration, the FAA As an overview document, the NextGen Implementation and the global aviation community are moving forward Plan both drives and draws upon many other NextGen plans together, giving the world new ways to fly. and documents from throughout the agency, including the www.faa.gov/nextgen 9 NextGen Today Deploying Operational Benefits During 2010, NextGen made flying safer by giving pilots Since maintaining and enhancing safety is fundamental to nearly total access to stabilized approach procedures everything we do, we introduced these improvements into with three-dimensional precision using Performance the NAS only after using a stringent process to ensure they Based Navigation (PBN). It made air transportation more are safe, will target key risk areas to reduce accidents and efficient by moving aircraft in and out of airports faster incidents, and limit environmental impact. We set robust and by making better use of airspace. It gave pilots and air standards for the capabilities and demonstrated that they traffic controllers new capabilities that will allow them to will provide the intended benefits. We collaborated with see the exact location of surrounding aircraft. It reduced our international counterparts to continue to harmonize our aviation’s environmental impact from some operations efforts so that aircraft will be able to operate using the same using capabilities that allow aircraft to burn less fuel, emit concepts, systems and procedures throughout the world. fewer greenhouse gases and reduce noise. Infrastructure helps us provide added benefits. In 2010, NextGen capabilities and technologies are strengthening we commissioned a new runway at Charlotte, N.C., which the National Airspace System (NAS) today even as the enables the airport to handle three independent instrument FAA and its partners collaborate on further improvements landings at once. Charlotte will accommodate 80,000 that will benefit our aviation stakeholders in the mid-term more annual operations, an increase of more than 15 and beyond. We made progress in many areas over the last percent, with an estimated delay reduction of 1.5 minutes year, including safety management, airport development, per flight, saving operators $41 million annually. We also environmental management, international harmonization, rehabilitated runways and taxiways at a number of other workforce engagement and training, regulation and policy airports. The map on page 17 highlights some of our 2010 making, and incorporating the action plans laid out in accomplishments. our response1 to the 2009 recommendations of the RTCA NextGen Mid-Term Implementation Task Force. 1 The full response to the task force is available at www.faa.gov/nextgen. 10 NextGen Implementation Plan BETTEr AWArENESS WITh ADS-B procedures will focus on those with the most significant benefit. One of the most significant developments in the last year was the FAA’s decision to approve the nationwide Of the 90 RNAV procedures published in fiscal year deployment of Automatic Dependent Surveillance- 2010, 10 were designed to accommodate an Optimized Broadcast (ADS-B). After extensive testing at four key Profile Descent (OPD) for appropriately equipped aircraft. sites, the FAA in September 2010 authorized air traffic Traditional arrival procedures have multiple segments of controllers to use the foundational, satellite-based NextGen level flight during the descent and each step down requires technology to separate suitably equipped aircraft in areas a change in power settings. OPD procedures enable arrival with ADS-B coverage. ADS-B will update activity on air aircraft to descend from cruise altitudes to final approach traffic controller displays more frequently and with greater with significantly fewer level-offs. Since aircraft can use accuracy, providing information such as aircraft type, call lower and steady power settings, OPD procedures result in sign, heading, altitude and speed. With ADS-B, controllers reduced fuel burn, lower emissions and reduced noise. can use airspace more efficiently. The nationwide ADS-B The various components of PBN facilitated more efficient ground infrastructure is expected to be completed in 2013. design of airspace and procedures. This resulted in improved In May 2010 we published a final rule that mandates aircraft safety, airspace access and predictability of operations; broadcast ADS-B information led to reduced delays; and in most airspace by Jan. 1, contributed to more efficient 2020. The FAA determined routes, reducing fuel use, that the 2020 timeframe emissions and noise. PBN is would give NAS users time to the cornerstone of the agency’s equip, with most air carriers metroplex effort, which seeks using regularly scheduled to deconflict traffic flows for maintenance to install or more efficient operations in upgrade equipment, and it busy metropolitan areas with also would provide sufficient multiple airports (see sidebar operational experience to on page 14). make ADS-B the primary Another type of OPD is source of surveillance. The the Initial Tailored Arrival standards in the ADS-B Out (ITA). This type of procedure avionics rule will ensure also saves fuel and reduces that aircraft are capable of emissions and noise. Aircraft providing air traffic control need to be equipped with Future automation platforms with the precise position data Air Navigation System (FANS) avionics to fly an ITA so necessary to support NextGen surveillance requirements. that the desired flight path can be sent to the flight deck In addition, research is being conducted into the appropriate as data just before descent. Most oceanic aircraft including role of ADS-B to contribute to the effort of safely Boeing, Airbus and some business jet models are equipped incorporating Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the with FANS. NAS and to improving capacity on closely spaced parallel ITAs will become operational at some international runways. A map of ADS-B surveillance coverage appears gateways including Miami, San Francisco and Los Angeles on page 16. beginning in spring 2011. Especially beneficial for smaller airports, where general ENhANCING PErFOrMANCE BASED NAVIGATION aviation aircraft often operate, are the RNAV Wide Area The FAA produced a significant number of PBN routes Augmentation System (WAAS) Localizer Performance and procedures, exceeding our fiscal year 2010 goal. PBN with Vertical Guidance (LPV) approach procedures. We procedures help reduce fuel use, emissions and miles flown published 500 WAAS LPVs in fiscal year 2010, bringing at high altitudes and while transitioning during the arrival the total to more than 2,300 throughout the NAS. With or departure phase of flight. These revisions could reduce LPVs, aircraft often can land in lower visibility conditions delays during inclement weather. We published 51 high- than with the previous approaches, providing more access altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) routes and 90 RNAV to those airports throughout the year. WAAS LPVs provide arrival and departure routes. We also published 59 Required satellite-based approaches primarily to airports and runways Navigation Performance Authorization Required (RNP where no ground-based instrument landing systems exist. AR) approach procedures. Production of additional RNP This means that aircraft can land at those airports even when visibility is limited, such as during poor weather. www.faa.gov/nextgen 11 Operators are realizing the benefits of PBN: 92 percent of (ASAP) and Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) U.S. scheduled air carriers are equipped for some level of programs, representing 80 percent of scheduled operations RNAV. About 53,000 general aviation aircraft are equipped in U.S. airspace. with the Global Navigation Satellite System to utilize LPV As of December 2010, more than 7 million FOQA flights, approach procedures and RNAV. 86,000 ASAP reports and 16,000 reports from the FAA’s non-punitive safety reporting system, the Air Traffic Safety ThE SAFETy FACTOr Action Program, were aggregated into ASIAS, where the data are analyzed to pinpoint trends. We plan to increase To reduce accident and incident rates, NextGen technologies participation in ASIAS by commercial carriers and also will target key risk areas, such as the compatibility between include domestic corporate general aviation, military and the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) helicopter operations. and future operations. Risk areas are identified through the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing In addition to implementing safety-enhancing technologies, system (ASIAS), a powerful tool for NextGen and Safety ensuring safety is fundamental to all of the improvements Management System (SMS) transformation. It enables planned in NextGen. Each of our initiatives is developed and better safety information management and data sharing as it analyzed to ensure that operational capabilities are inherently proactively extracts knowledge from public and non-public safe and that NextGen technologies and operations won’t be data sources throughout the NAS on subjects including contributing causes to accidents. The FAA’s SMS employs accidents, incidents, regulations, aircraft, aircraft operators, safety risk management, safety assurance, safety policy and voluntary reporting and statistics. ASIAS’s advanced data- safety promotion, which including our data-sharing efforts mining tools combined with system safety assessment are essential components of NextGen’s success and its analytical modeling and forecasting enable safety managers ability to properly manage risk. to identify and mitigate emerging risks. Because it operates under an SMS, the FAA identifies, We plan to increase the current 46 ASIAS safety databases assesses and manages the risks involved in changing the to 64 by 2013, resulting in expanded trend analysis on way we manage traffic in the NAS. Capabilities include critical risk factors as well as more in-depth hazard installing, modifying and removing equipment, modifying analysis capabilities. Thirty commercial carriers provide and implementing procedures and airspace changes, and data to ASIAS through Aviation Safety Action Program conducting demonstrations. As NextGen technologies are Collaboration Drives NextGen Progress The FAA’s ongoing effort to make sure NextGen is a we have developed and used a tracking mechanism collaborative endeavor with all of our stakeholders is that allows us to assess our progress against the task helping us provide early benefits with existing equipment force recommendations. as well as new capabilities with evolving technology. We have followed the same process to determine the We have spent the past year implementing the action plans business case for each of the new capabilities recommended that resulted from our work with the 2009 RTCA NextGen by the task force. Once we determine a business case Mid-Term Implementation Task Force, a consortium of exists for a recommended capability, we evaluate each more than 300 members from the aviation community. proposed location on a case-by-case basis. We will give Those action plans are fully integrated into the FAA’s priority to task force-recommended locations when NextGen work. We adjusted our budgets to accomplish determining a deployment rollout. work proposed in our response, which was published in The FAA will continue to collaborate with the aviation January 2010. Appendix B of this document, as it did last community while maintaining our responsibility to ensure year, includes activities in support of the task force’s that any work we undertake is fully vetted and tested, operational recommendations. meets all safety requirements, and is fiscally responsible. We have made tremendous advances in a short time in We have established the NextGen Advisory Committee, a implementing key recommendations on a wide range of broad-based, senior-level advisory panel to which we turn topics that include metroplex and Relative Position for expertise and guidance. One of the first actions we Indicator (RPI) demonstrations, progress cited elsewhere requested of this new committee is to form a working in this document. group to develop recommendations on outcome-based performance metrics and goals for NextGen. In our continuing approach to track progress, and as part of our NextGen portfolio management process, 12 NextGen Implementation Plan introduced in the NAS, teams of safety experts throughout 33 percent, to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by 60 the FAA ensure that potential risks due to system changes percent and to reduce aircraft noise levels by a cumulative are identified and adequately mitigated. 32 decibels. In fiscal year 2010, we awarded cost-share contracts to five companies to demonstrate technologies that will reduce subsonic commercial jet aircraft fuel ENVIrONMENTAl STEWArDShIP consumption, emissions and noise. Technologies include As we develop NextGen capabilities, the FAA is addressing sustainable alternative aviation fuels, lighter and more aviation’s environmental impact up front and early. efficient gas turbine engine components, noise-reducing Under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation engine nozzles, adaptable wing trailing edges, optimized Organization’s (ICAO) Committee on Aviation flight trajectories using onboard flight management systems Environmental Protection, the FAA continued to pursue and open rotor and geared turbofan engines. CLEEN will several measures to decrease aviation’s environmental accelerate development of this technology for potential footprint, including supporting development of an introduction into aircraft and engines beginning in 2015. international standard for aircraft carbon dioxide emissions We also are working to enable use of sustainable alternative levels. The committee is working toward a 2013 completion aviation fuels in concert with the Partnership for Aviation date for the standard. Noise and Emissions Reduction, the Commercial Aviation Through pilot studies and other Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI) stakeholder outreach, we worked to and the Transportation Research Board’s Airport Cooperative Research Program. refine the NextGen Environmental The FAA has begun Management System (EMS) framework. We are leveraging overall federal efforts designing integrated by partnering with the Environmental EMS allows the FAA to identify the environmental aspects and impacts of its airspace and new Protection Agency, NASA and the operations, assess current performance, procedures to deconflict U.S. departments of Defense, Energy and formulate targets and plans to and Agriculture to meet research arrivals and departures in and development goals and achieve achieve improvements. We use this strategic approach to integrate NextGen metroplexes, improvements consensus on environmental and fuel environmental and energy objectives recommended by the standards and deployment. into the planning, decision making rTCA NextGen Mid-Term In fiscal year 2010, we completed and operation of the NAS. The EMS Implementation Task Force. research with our CAAFI partners to framework is being coordinated among support the establishment of a standard the various FAA lines of business, and for biofuel (hydrotreated renewable jet, with other government agencies and HRJ). Qualification and certification aviation community stakeholders. testing is on track for approval of HRJ use in commercial A new tool, the Aviation Environmental Design Tool aircraft in early 2011. (AEDT), established regional modeling capabilities that We have launched the Aviation Climate Change Research will enable us to quantify the interdependencies of aircraft Initiative to better characterize aviation contributions fuel burn, noise and emissions in the review of airspace to climate change and qualify relative importance and redesign projects. We also began using AEDT to analyze tradeoffs among non-carbon-dioxide aircraft emissions to the environmental consequences of future NextGen determine options. scenarios in support of the Joint Planning and Development Office’s (JPDO) NextGen vision and NASA’s research into IMPrOVING APPrOVAl PrOCESSES advanced vehicle concepts. In response to recommendations from the RTCA task We started a new process using a noise screening software force, the FAA focused on a number of initiatives to tool to help mitigate the noise impacts of new PBN ensure consistent and efficient evaluations and approvals procedures. Noise screening saves us time and effort in of NextGen technologies and operations. With industry, complying with environmental regulations and standards. the total time from submission of an initial application for We made great strides in a number of partnership initiatives RNP Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required that focus on environmental and energy sustainability, (SAAAR) approaches dropped to a typical time of 45 days, including the Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and down from 18 months. This dramatic improvement is due to Noise (CLEEN) industry/government consortium. CLEEN increased maturity of the applications themselves, as well is a five-year effort to accelerate commercialization of as FAA improvements in standardizing and coordinating green technology to help achieve NextGen environmental the applications. The FAA instituted procedures to keep and energy goals. CLEEN seeks to reduce fuel burn by operators informed of the status of their RNP applications, www.faa.gov/nextgen 13 implemented a national tracking and data repository system Finally, the FAA continues to publish the plan for future for applications, and authorized two new RNP SAAAR NextGen standards (see Appendix A). This schedule provides consultancies with recognized expertise in helping operators transparency for manufacturers who are developing the comply with the criteria. equipment and operators who are interested in scheduling aircraft modifications to bundle the technologies and reduce The FAA has prioritized its resources on NextGen aircraft the overall cost of implementation. projects ahead of other non-safety aircraft changes. New coordination mechanisms will enable a more rapid transfer of responsibility from headquarters to field offices and VAlIDATING CONCEPTS early involvement from aviation safety representatives to Once a concept is developed, we use simulations and avoid later delays. demonstrations to pursue it further. The NextGen Integration Due to the criticality of enhancing PBN delivery, the FAA and Evaluation Capability (NIEC) made its debut in June completed a cross-agency navigation procedures project 2010 as an FAA research platform to explore, integrate and that was co-chaired by the FAA’s Office of Aviation Safety evaluate NextGen concepts through simulation activities. and the Air Traffic Organization. The project reviewed all Located at the FAA’s William J. Hughes Technical Center, policies and processes used to request, prioritize, process, the NIEC houses interconnected labs that represent every approve and implement operational air traffic navigation facet of the NAS, including UAS operations. Attention procedures. Resources are being identified to implement to human-automation interface issues during NextGen recommendations from the final report. Steps have already development is critical to good design and the orderly been taken to enhance the exchange of data, improve introduction of NextGen systems and procedures. database management and advance the environmental Research into human factors, and Human-in-the-Loop compliance process. testing and demonstrations, are essential tools to validate Easing Congestion in Metroplex Airspace The FAA is taking a major step to loosen key bottlenecks in full power of PBN to compound the benefits of individual metroplexes, the busy metropolitan areas where multiple routes by tackling entire areas or regions in an integrated airports and competing airspace lead to less-than-efficient manner. This approach will unlock new efficiencies in operations. these areas where several busy airports operate in close proximity, often with smaller general aviation and military We have begun designing integrated airspace and new airports in the vicinity. procedures to deconflict arrivals and departures in an initiative that will reach 21 such areas by 2016. The 2009 In 2010, we developed an integrated National Airspace and RTCA NextGen Mid-Term Implementation Task Force Procedures Plan to implement more-efficient operations recommended the concept, and the FAA included it in the in metroplex areas. Study teams with representatives of 2010 response to the task force. We aim to deliver NextGen the FAA, the National Air Traffic Controllers Association benefits to each area within three years of launching a and the aviation community will provide an expeditious study of potential improvements. but comprehensive, front-end strategic look at each metroplex. The improvements use existing aircraft equipment to enhance vertical profiles for descents and climbs, They will analyze operational challenges, assess current eliminating or reducing the need for airplanes to level off. and planned airspace and procedures efforts, and They decouple traffic better between airports used mainly explore new opportunities for solutions that are tailored by commercial airlines and airports frequented by general individually to each metroplex. Once a study team has aviation aircraft, provide more diverging departure paths come up with the right changes for its metroplex, a design that will get aircraft off the ground and heading toward and implementation team will develop the changes and their destination faster, and add more-direct high-altitude put them in place. Area Navigation (RNAV) routes between two or more metroplexes. We launched this process in September 2010 by creating prototype study teams for our first two metroplex projects, The metroplex project takes a systems approach to in the Washington, D.C., and north Texas areas. Working Performance Based Navigation (PBN) initiatives and with local facilities and stakeholders, the teams made the design of airspace, providing a geographic focus to recommendations in December that include converting problem solving. A primary objective is to harness the conventional procedures to PBN, removing level-offs on 14 NextGen Implementation Plan NextGen concepts. NIEC’s UAS integration simulations The FAA, Airservices Australia and Airways New Zealand and demonstrations were conducted in collaboration with established the Asia and Pacific Initiative to Reduce industry, government and academic partners. Emissions (ASPIRE) in 2008 to reduce the impact of aviation on the environment in those regions through technological In fiscal year 2010, the National Air Traffic Controllers innovation and best-practice air traffic management. The Association (NATCA) engaged the operational workforce effort includes demonstrations and implementation of key in participating in a number of research and demonstration NextGen technologies and practices, including reduced activities to validate NextGen concepts in real-world separation, more efficient flight profiles and Initial Tailored scenarios. Twelve NATCA controllers participated in a Arrivals. recent demonstration at a Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) tower to show how a new surveillance Through the Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce display called the Tower Flight Data Manager (TFDM) Emissions (AIRE), a joint project involving the FAA, the system would present surveillance, flight data, weather, European Commission, and U.S. and European airlines, airport configuration and other information critical to we conducted flight trials demonstrating how NextGen controller situational awareness in a consolidated manner technology and procedures increase fuel efficiency and on just two displays instead of up to a dozen different reduce emissions and noise. Those procedures included displays. The new surveillance display used Airport continuous climb and descent profiles, optimized oceanic Surface Detection Equipment-Model X data to show all routing and Initial Tailored Arrivals. Similarly, we aircraft operating on the surface at DFW and on short final completed two demonstration flights with our partners approach or departure. Data flowed between the TFDM from Japan and Singapore, who joined ASPIRE in 2009 surveillance display and the one carrying electronic flight and 2010, respectively. data, which is intended to replace the paper strips used by most U.S. towers today. arrivals, segregating arrival routes to deconflict flows, expediting departures and realigning airspace to support those changes. Following review and approval of these recommendations, design and implementation teams take over at each location. We expect to see operational change as early as March 2013. In parallel with the prototype study team effort, the FAA continued to work collaboratively with industry through the NextGen Advisory Committee to develop a transparent, repeatable prioritization process to determine the study order for the remaining metroplexes. Using the prioritization criteria, we have selected the next five sites for deployment of study teams. These sites are Atlanta, Houston, Southern California, Northern California and Charlotte, N.C. We are deploying study teams to all five sites this fiscal year. We expect to complete study team activities at all remaining metroplexes by 2013 and finish all implementation work by 2016. This effort will help us improve today’s busy metropolitan airspace by reducing route conflicts between airports, adding routes and avoiding reroutes, eliminating altitude restrictions and reducing restrictions due to special use airspace. www.faa.gov/nextgen 15 16 NextGen Implementation Plan www.faa.gov/nextgen 17 Collaboration with several other government agencies In June 2010, the FAA chartered an Aviation Rulemaking including NASA and the departments of Defense and Committee to provide a forum for the aviation community Homeland Security has helped us explore NextGen concepts. to define a strategy for incorporating ADS-B In technologies With NASA, we simulated implementing high-altitude into the NAS. airspace boundary changes in support of the NextGen Through the JPDO, we are working closely with our Flexible Airspace concept of operations and conducted interagency partners, NASA and the U.S. departments of human factors testing of high-altitude RNAV operations. Commerce, Defense and Homeland Security, to develop We also signed an interagency agreement with NASA to and deliver NextGen capabilities. develop UAS modeling and simulation capabilities. GIVING ThE WOrlD NEW WAyS TO Fly OPErATIONAl WOrkFOrCE The FAA continued to partner with its international The FAA launched a new effort to train the operational counterparts to ensure that NextGen concepts, systems workforce on NextGen capabilities as they are implemented. and procedures match those under development elsewhere. The technical controller training office is working with The goal is to provide safe, seamless, efficient and NextGen program offices and with the human factors group environmentally responsible operations worldwide. to ensure that controllers and technicians get the right training at the right time. Training for aviation inspectors, The FAA continues to work with ICAO, industry standard- engineers and flight test pilots is also being developed making bodies and international civil aviation authorities to ensure effective oversight of implementation. Early to harmonize standards for NextGen technologies and collaboration has ensured that the training development procedures. process will be streamlined to meet the NextGen The United States and the European Union also agreed implementation process. to improve interoperability of NextGen and its European In addition, a representative of NATCA was assigned to equivalent, the Single European Sky Air Traffic headquarters in fiscal year 2010 to enhance workforce Management Research (SESAR), by cooperating on engagement. This representative and additional labor civil aviation research and development through a new representatives will provide operational expertise in the memorandum of cooperation and associated annex for full cycle of development for NextGen concepts as well global interoperability. Future cooperation annexes may as guidance on optimal labor participation in NextGen include aviation research and alternative fuels. initiatives. The capabilities and technologies that the FAA developed and implemented in 2010 represent significant milestones STAkEhOlDEr COllABOrATION in the ongoing transformation of the NAS through NextGen. They pave the way for further progress in the NextGen is a collaborative endeavor, and the FAA is working coming year and in the mid-term. Our focus will continue with aviation community partners to lay the groundwork to be on mitigating risk to provide the safest possible air for successfully meeting our mid-term commitments. The traffic management system while working closely with our FAA initiated a community engagement strategy involving aviation community partners and international counterparts a new senior-level advisory panel, the NextGen Advisory to fully realize the benefits of NextGen. Committee, representing the broader aviation community on issues involving air traffic, safety, airports, the environment and international harmonization. 18 NextGen Implementation Plan NextGen Benefits Demonstrating Operational Savings and Improvements Today The FAA has greatly expanded its work on demonstrations, level analyses, estimating how integrated NextGen benefits trials and initial deployment of NextGen systems and will develop and grow over a period of years. This work procedures during the past year. National Airspace System draws on modeling and simulations of how NAS operations (NAS) operators and users – particularly participants in will change and what effects the changes will have. the demonstrations and trials – are benefiting from them. Second, we conduct a wide range of demonstrations But there is a chicken-and-egg nature to the economic and and operational trials of specific NextGen systems and policy decisions that will have the most influence over the procedures. These demonstrations, conducted in real-world extent and timing of future benefits. settings by operations and development personnel using On the one hand, achieving NextGen’s benefits depends prototype equipment, serve many purposes. They mitigate heavily on aircraft operators and other stakeholders investing program risks and show us whether we are on the right in the avionics, ground equipment, staffing, training and track in our technical approaches. They provide valuable procedures they will need to exploit the infrastructure that insight into how equipment should be designed for the FAA puts in place to transform the aviation system in operability, maintainability and a sound human-automation the coming decade and beyond. interface. And they are instrumental in advancing our understanding of the benefits to be gained from the On the other hand, the willingness of operators and other capabilities being demonstrated. stakeholders to make these investments depends critically on the business case for them – analyses of how valuable Each demonstration is specific to a time, place and set of these benefits will be, and a clear demonstration that the operating conditions. The demonstrations enable us to tally analyses will turn out to be valid. benefits in ways that consumers and the aviation community understand and value – increasing efficiency, saving time When costs are clear but benefits are even a little bit cloudy, and money, and reducing fuel consumption, greenhouse gas there is an information gap that the FAA must help fill. We emissions and noise. try to do this in two ways. First, we conduct broad, system- www.faa.gov/nextgen 19 This information from the demonstrations helps us refine SAFETy our models of NAS operations and how these operations will Many NextGen operational capabilities will make the NAS change, and thus our overall estimates of NextGen benefits. safer. For example, broadcast services will improve the Further, it provides direct measurements of the ways ability of appropriately equipped aircraft to display directly specific NextGen capabilities can benefit NAS stakeholders to the flight deck information about nearby traffic, weather and the public, enabling stakeholders to improve their own and flight-restricted areas. Automatic Dependent estimates of the benefits and costs of buying equipment for Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) improvements in NextGen, and to be more confident of their analyses. situational awareness – on the ground and in cockpits – Our latest estimates show that by 2018, NextGen air traffic will increase controllers’ and pilots’ individual and management (ATM) improvements will reduce total delays, combined ability to avoid potential danger and provide in flight and on the ground, about 35 percent compared with valuable time savings in search and rescue efforts. what would happen if we did nothing. The delay reduction More precise tracking and information-sharing will improve will provide $23 billion in cumulative benefits from 2010 the situational awareness of pilots, enabling them to plan through 2018 to aircraft operators, the traveling public and and carry out safe operations in ways they cannot do today. the FAA. We will save about 1.4 billion gallons of aviation Air traffic controllers will become more effective guardians fuel during this period, cutting carbon dioxide emissions by of safety through automation, implementation of the Safety 14 million tons. Management System (SMS) These estimates assume that process and simplification of their flight operations will increase as most routine tasks, coupled with projected in the FAA’s Aerospace better awareness of conditions in Forecast for Fiscal Years 2010- the airspace they control. 2030. The forecast depends in turn Advances in tracking and on economic growth projections managing operations on airport that may affect the demand for surfaces will make runway incursions air transportation and the price of less likely. Leveraging Airport fuel. Another assumption is that Surface Detection Equipment-Model operators will equip their aircraft X (ASDE-X) surface radar coverage gradually during the decade with ADS-B surveillance of aircraft to take advantage of NextGen and ground vehicles will increase capabilities. situational awareness, particularly We believe these benefit estimates when linked with runway status lights. are somewhat understated, and we Collaborative decision making will continue to refine them. These increase everyone’s understanding benefit models include major of what others are doing. NextGen air traffic management Starting with pre-takeoff improvements, major airport advisories, departure instructions infrastructure projects and the and reroutes for pilots, we will carbon dioxide emission reductions use data messages increasingly that result from our advanced instead of most voice communications between pilots systems and procedures. These models do not yet include other and controllers, reducing opportunities for error or environmental effects, emissions benefits from sustainable misunderstanding. Voice channels will be preserved for the alternative fuels, the fuel-efficiency benefits of airframe and most critical information exchange. engine improvements, security benefits and infrastructure projects at smaller airports. We will continue to update our integrated NextGen benefits estimates as we develop and ENVIrONMENT validate improved modeling capabilities, and as new economic As with safety, our work to enhance aviation’s influence on the or operational conditions warrant. environment also benefits – and is a beneficiary of – NextGen. Aviation safety, the environment and airport operations The operational improvements that reduce noise, carbon throughout the NAS will benefit greatly from NextGen dioxide and other greenhouse-gas emissions from aircraft are capabilities. At the same time, the FAA’s safety, environment the tip of the FAA’s environmental iceberg. Equally important and airports organizations, with industry and other are the other four-fifths of the agency’s environmental approach government partners, are contributing greatly to making – aircraft and engine technology advances, sustainable fuels, NextGen a reality. policy initiatives and advances in science and modeling. 20 NextGen Implementation Plan Environmental benefits of operational improvements are FlIGhT OPErATIONS simple and direct. When we improve efficiency in the NAS, All aircraft operators in the NAS will benefit from two most of the time we save time and fuel. Burning less fuel major categories of improvements – efficiency and capacity, produces less carbon dioxide and other harmful emissions. and access. Much of the time, efficiency and capacity go And some of our NextGen improvements, notably landing together. When we reduce the distance needed for the safe approaches in which aircraft spend less time maintaining separation of aircraft, reduce delays from weather and other level flight and thus can operate with engines at idle, reduce disruptions, and increase flight-path and procedures options ground noise too. But operational benefits go only so far; for controllers as they maintain the flow of traffic, we their net system-wide effect can be offset by growth of the improve capacity as well. Surface initiatives like the ones aviation system. we describe below make important contributions across the To accommodate system growth, we are looking to board – they improve situational awareness and safety, they develop aircraft, engine and fuel technology. In 2009, we reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions and established the Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and they reduce tarmac delays. And by improving the efficiency Noise program to bring promising new airframe and engine of surface operations, they increase capacity. technologies to maturity, ready to be applied to commercial Access issues center on runways at major airports, affecting designs, within five to eight years. Similarly, we are part of mainly airlines, and airports and airspace that lack radar a government-industry initiative, the Commercial Aviation coverage, a problem for general aviation. NextGen will Alternative Fuels Initiative, to develop sustainable low- improve efficiency in operations that involve closely spaced emission alternative fuels and bring them to market. parallel runways and converging and intersecting runways. We have developed and are using the NextGen Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Environmental Management System (EMS) to integrate Performance (RNP) will improve efficiency and capacity environmental protection objectives into NextGen in departures and approaches. For general aviation, ADS-B planning and operations. The EMS provides a structured will enable controllers to track properly equipped aircraft approach for managing our responsibilities to improve in non-radar areas covered by ADS-B ground stations. environmental performance and stewardship. We also are General aviation operators equipped for ADS-B In will analyzing the effect on aviation of environmental policy receive traffic and weather information directly in the and standards and of market-based measures, including cockpit, providing them with greater situational awareness. cap-and-trade proposals. LPV approach procedures will give properly equipped aircraft Instrument Landing System (ILS)-like capability at non-ILS airports. AIrPOrTS In the 2010 update of the NextGen Implementation Plan, Many airports will benefit from substantial improvements we surveyed a wide variety of demonstration programs and in efficiency, access, surveillance, environment and safety. operational trials that illustrated benefits to the NAS and its Surveillance, situational awareness and safety will improve stakeholders. For this year’s Plan, we will highlight surface at airports with air traffic control (ATC) radar services as collaboration and initial tailored arrivals, demonstration we deploy ADS-B ground stations across the NAS and programs that advanced significantly during 2010. update our automation systems, and as operators equip their aircraft for it. The FAA also plans to publish Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Localizer Performance SurFACE COllABOrATION with Vertical Guidance (LPV) approach procedures for all Getting aircraft into and out of our nation’s airports safely suitable runway ends by 2016. and efficiently is essential for smooth operations, and it Additional Performance Based Navigation capabilities in begins on the ground. Improving operations on runways, busy metroplex areas will provide efficiency and reliability taxiways and ramps is an important part of NextGen. improvements during inclement weather, and will relieve We have a number of efforts under way showing how better or eliminate conflicts among routes into or out of airports situational awareness and pacing on the ground will give that are close to one another. At the busiest airports, air operators and the traveling public more reliability and save traffic controllers, operators and airport personnel will them time, while also managing environmental impacts. share surface situational awareness information to reduce We can cut fuel consumption and emissions by reducing taxi times collaboratively. And NextGen will make the the time and number of aircraft idling on taxiways waiting entire system more flexible, enabling it to respond to for takeoff, or for open gate slots upon arrival. Also, we can changing demands on flight operations, including the reduce equipment wear – stop-and-go accelerations are hard continued evolution of space transportation operations, and on engines and other parts, and they also emit significant of unmanned aircraft systems operating in the NAS. additional amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. www.faa.gov/nextgen 21 A major success of the year was the minimal disruption N-Control is meant to be a relatively simple, low-cost that occurred during a four-month runway resurfacing and program for airports that may not require the highest widening project in one of the nation’s busiest airspaces. The CDQM capability, which entails more significant hardware/ longest runway at New York John F. Kennedy International software investments and depends on surface decision Airport (JFK) – 31L/13R, also known as the Bay Runway support systems and user data-sharing interfaces. We are – had to be expanded to accomodate new, larger aircraft. demonstrating such an advanced system at Memphis, where The project also included taxiway improvements and operators can manage their own takeoff slot allocations construction of holding pads for parking delayed aircraft through automated metering. The demonstration reduced and enabling other aircraft to move ahead for takeoff. fuel consumption and carbon emissions during periods of heavy departure demand. Surface management To minimize disruption during construction, JFK’s operators demonstrations are continuing at Memphis, where we turned to a collaborative effort using departure queue worked with Delta Air Lines as well as FedEx during metering, in which each departing aircraft from JFK’s many 2010, and Orlando, Fla. airlines was allocated a precise departure slot and waited for it at the gate rather than congesting taxiways. The procedure At JFK and Memphis, sharing surface surveillance data with limited delays so well, it was extended after the work on airlines has reduced taxi times by more than one minute per runway 31L/13R was completed. Preliminary estimates departure on average. Surface metering techniques being indicate that using this system could save 5 million gallons demonstrated at these facilities appear to shift an additional of fuel and 7,000 hours minute from the taxiways of taxi time a year. The to the gates, conserving runway improvements additional fuel. These are estimated to reduce results suggest that the flight delays by 10,500 combined annual savings hours a year. from increased data sharing and metering The JFK experience could be about 7,000 contributed to concepts hours of taxi time at of departure queue JFK and 5,000 hours at management. It drew Memphis. on experience in an FAA demonstration of For CDQM, the next Collaborative Departure step beyond Memphis Queue Management was Orlando, where (CDQM) in 2009 at we conducted field Memphis International evaluations in 2010. The Airport in Tennessee, environments of the two where we worked with FedEx. CDQM shares real-time data airports differ greatly, enabling us to concentrate on different about the location of all aircraft and other vehicles on the CDQM capabilities. At Memphis, FedEx conducts a massive airport surface among controllers, pilots, airline operations hub operation overnight, when it is the only carrier operating centers, airport operators and the FAA’s Air Traffic Control there. During the day, Delta is the hub airline, with two high- System Command Center. We took the success of the density departure pushes. Delta and its regional affiliates JFK system as a demonstration that CDQM will work in account for nearly 85 percent of passenger-carrier departures operations involving multiple airlines. at Memphis. By contrast, none of the airlines conduct hub operations at Orlando, and it takes the combined departures Another step toward CDQM is N-Control, a NextGen-funded of Orlando’s eight biggest airlines – of a total of 39 airlines initiative to reduce fuel burn, carbon dioxide emissions and that serve the airport – to account for as great a percentage taxi-out times by holding aircraft at the gate, as at JFK. While of departures as Delta’s at Memphis. metering operations at JFK dealt with a specific problem, N-Control is meant for business-as-usual situations, too. The In these differing environments, we have pursued different N in N-control refers to the maximum number of aircraft objectives. Memphis is a test for systems to reduce departure authorized to push back and enter an airport’s active movement queues in periods of high demand that involve essentially area during a set time period. The goal is to feed the runway a single airline. Delta’s and FedEx’s ramp towers handle constantly, without getting into stop-and-go movement of aircraft. their own flights. The Memphis tower handles access for Preliminary findings from a one-month demonstration at Boston the other airlines at the airport. Logan International Airport, conducted August-September At Orlando, the main focus of CDQM has been on 2010, indicate reductions of nearly 18 hours of taxi-out time, automated identification of departure queue management 5,100 gallons of fuel and 50 tons in carbon dioxide emissions. 22 NextGen Implementation Plan issues involving traffic management initiatives – including the foundation for the creation of electronic Airport Layout flights with new estimated departure control times, flights Plans (eALPs). ALPs are scaled drawings of existing and affected by departure miles-in-trail restrictions and flights proposed land and facilities needed to operate and develop needing or already assigned approval requests – as well the airport. They represent an understanding between as extended departure delays related to weather and other the airport owner and the FAA on the development and disruptions, and surface data integrity. operation of the airport. The eALP will be the basis for future collaborative decision making in airport development, and All the surface data-sharing capabilities we are for ensuring safety through the implementation of safety implementing support the development of the Tower management systems. Flight Data Manager (TFDM) system. TFDM will integrate a number of air traffic control tower systems and a suite of decision support tools, like CDQM, into a common INITIAl TAIlOrED ArrIVAlS information management platform and distribute the information on a common display platform. The various An Initial Tailored Arrival (ITA) is a pre-negotiated arrival capabilities will be made available like applications on path through airspace of multiple ATC facilities. The ITA a smartphone, adding up to support for trajectory-based limits vectoring and minimizes the time the aircraft spends operations on the surface. maintaining level flight during its descent. The concept has matured during four years of demonstrations, and we will Our goal is not only a collaborative surface traffic make the transition to normal operations this year. management system that maximizes efficiency in surface traffic flow. We also seek increased situational awareness The pilot initiates an ITA with a request to ATC while the for controllers and pilots to improve safety. aircraft still is in its cruise phase. If an ITA is available, the controller sends the pilot a clearance that includes a descent Surface safety will be enhanced when we leverage modern profile with speed and altitude restrictions, as applicable. ground-surveillance tools such as ASDE-X in combination The clearance is sent as data, which limits ITAs at present with NextGen capabilities. In to aircraft equipped with the Future particular, the surveillance and Better situational awareness Air Navigation System (FANS) for situational awareness capabilities offered by ADS-B will enable pilots and pacing on the ground will communications over oceans. The pilot loads the clearance directly and controllers to see properly give operators and the traveling into the aircraft’s flight management equipped ground vehicles as well as public more reliability and save system, which controls the descent. aircraft, even when weather reduces them time, while also managing visibility. Using ASDE-X’s detailed ITAs differ from other types of coverage of movement on runways environmental impacts. Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) and taxiways, controllers can detect in that they are assigned by controllers potential runway incursions. We have installed ASDE-X at to specific approaches and tailored to the characteristics of 32 commissioned airports, and we expect to add three more a limited number of FANS-equipped aircraft types – 747s, airports this year. 777s, A330s, A340s and A380s. They begin at the top of the descent and, when completed, control the aircraft all To further leverage ASDE-X surface-movement the way down to the runway. By contrast, other types of information, we have installed Data Distribution Units OPDs, such as RNAV arrival procedures, are published for (DDUs) at many ASDE-X locations. DDU data are shared all users and must serve a wide variety of aircraft types. through a nationwide network that will give operators access to surface-movement information from a single Controllers monitor ITAs throughout the aircraft’s descent. System Wide Information Management interface. In 2010, Traffic conflicts, unfavorable weather or other factors often we worked on policies for data rights and data release in cause them to discontinue an ITA while it is in progress, support of surface data-sharing goals, and we expect to converting it to a conventional arrival. Data show that even establish these policies in 2011. partial ITAs are beneficial to operators and the environment. A key feature of an ITA is that the aircraft descends from The FAA has established standards for a comprehensive its cruise altitude more continuously, with a minimal Geographic Information System (GIS) program for requirement to maintain level flight. If an aircraft needn’t collecting and maintaining safety-critical and facility data maintain level flight, its engines can be set at or near idle. for airports. Airport GIS is part of an FAA-wide initiative to This saves fuel and reduces emissions of carbon dioxide strengthen data quality, improve industry efficiencies and and other harmful gases. reduce data collection and management costs. It is a single, robust, Web-based system for airport-related data. We have conducted ITA flight demonstrations at San Francisco, Los Angeles and Miami, all in conjunction with Thirty-seven airports across the country are the first to our international green-aviation initiatives, the Asia and collect and input data into Airport GIS. These data are laying www.faa.gov/nextgen 23 Pacific Initiative to Reduce Emissions (ASPIRE) and the We also estimated benefits over the 20-year period, based Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions entirely on fuel savings. We did not try to put a value on the (AIRE). Last fall, we completed a rough-order-of- reduction in carbon dioxide emissions or noise. magnitude life cycle business case estimate using data from We found very high benefit-to-cost ratios – 44:1, 33:1 and 11,476 arrivals at San Francisco of 747-400 and 777-200 22:1, depending on whether growth in Data Communications aircraft between December 2007 and September 2010. avionics equipage over 2010 levels is high, moderate or We estimated that the 747s saved an average of 176 gallons zero. In each case the payback year is 2012. The benefit- of fuel per arrival in ITAs and 78 gallons per flight in partial to-cost ratios are unusually high because the main driver ITAs, compared with conventional approaches. For 777s, of benefits is avionics – FANS and an advanced flight the corresponding savings were 99 gallons in full ITAs and management system – and airlines already have incurred 43 gallons in partial ITAs. the cost of each. The remaining costs are very low relative to benefits. To assess the business case, we estimated the costs of establishing ITAs and operating them through 2030 at When ITAs are fully operational, they still will be 10 airports – the current three, plus Anchorage, Alaska; limited to aircraft with FANS. Also, ATC facilities still will Honolulu; Orlando, Fla.; Portland, Ore.; San Juan, Puerto need the Advanced Technologies and Oceanic Procedures Rico; Seattle-Tacoma, Wash.; and Travis Air Force Base in system, which is the only automated platform that can send California. Most Atlantic Coast airports are not near-term the ITA data messages. But all airlines with FANS-equipped candidates now because the ITA clearance would have to aircraft, not just the airlines involved in the demonstration be given in Canadian airspace. programs, will be able to use the procedure. And we will make it available at other international gateway airports. 24 NextGen Implementation Plan SURFACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Automation optimizes taxi routing. Provides controllers and pilots all equipped aircraft and vehicle positions on airport. Real-time surface tra c picture visible to airlines, controllers and equipped operators. Surface movement EFFICIENT CRUISE management linked to departure and arrival sequencing. RNAV, RNP and RVSM utilize reduced separation ADS-B and ASDE-X contribute to this function. Taxi times requirements increasing airspace capacity. Aircraft reduced and safety enhanced. y most optimal path using trajectory-based operations considering wind, destination, weather ENHANCED SURFACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT and tra c. Re-routes determined with weather INTEGRATED FLIGHT PLANNING fused into decision-making tools are tailored to Runway exit point, assigned gate and taxi each aircraft. Data Communications reduce route sent by Data Communications to Operators and tra c managers frequency congestion and errors. ADS-B pilots prior to approach. Pilot and controller have immediate access to STREAMLINED DEPARTURE MANAGEMENT supported routes available for equipped aircraft. workload reduced and safety improved. identical weather information through one data source. RNAV and RNP precision allow multiple departure paths from each STREAMLINED ARRIVAL MANAGEMENT runway. Departure capacity increased. ENHANCED SURFACE TRAFFIC OPERATIONS Arrival sequence planned hundreds of miles in advance. RNAV and RNP allow multiple precision Pilots and controllers talk less by radio. Data paths to runway. Equipped aircraft y precise Communications expedite clearances, horizontal and vertical paths at reduced power reduce communication errors. Pilot and from descent point to nal approach in almost all controller workloads reduced. types of weather. Time and fuel are saved. Emissions and holding are reduced. DOMESTIC/OCEANIC CRUISE F OF DE KE SC TA EN FLIGHT PLANNING / T/ PUSH BACK / TAXI FINAL APPROACH / LANDING v03-2011 NextGen PHASES OF FLIGHT Mid-Term www.faa.gov/nextgen 25 NextGen Operating in the Mid-Term This section describes how the FAA envisions airspace and international databases to monitor the effectiveness system operations in the mid-term by showing what an of safety enhancements and identify where new safety aircraft operator will experience through all phases of initiatives are warranted. flight. As we transition to this state over the next several years, operators and the flying public will continue to NextGen will accelerate efforts to improve aviation’s reap the benefits of NextGen, including improved safety, environmental and energy performance to be able to increased capacity and efficiency, and better environmental sustain growth and add capacity. A strategic Environmental performance. The mid-term system, in turn, will provide a Management System approach will be used to integrate foundation for a further evolution of the airspace system in environmental and energy objectives into the planning, the long term. decision making and operation of NextGen. We will realize emissions, energy and noise benefits from advanced systems With NextGen, we must continue to advance safety in and procedures, but more improvements will be needed the face of increasing traffic and the introduction of very than can be operationally achieved. A major NextGen light jets, unmanned aircraft systems and commercial initiative, the Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and space flights. Further reductions in the accident rate are Noise (CLEEN) program, helps accelerate the development essential as the overall traffic increases, and achieving and certification of promising new engine and airframe those reductions depends on focused safety initiatives and technologies and sustainable alternative fuels. Entry into a pervasive approach to safety that is formalized through service of successfully demonstrated CLEEN technologies the safety management system. is expected in the mid-term. We also expect that, aided by NextGen will take full advantage of proactive safety the government-industry Commercial Aviation Alternative management which allows us to analyze trends and Fuels Initiative, sustainable alternative fuels will supply uncover problems early on, so that preventive measures some of the civil jet fuel supply needs by the end of the are put in place before any accident can occur. Our safety mid-term, and this contribution will continue to increase information sharing and analysis tools will evaluate data in future years, improving air quality and reducing net from a variety of FAA systems, a multitude of operators, carbon dioxide emissions while striving to achieve carbon- 26 NextGen Implementation Plan neutral growth by 2020, using 2005 as the baseline. Key Ground Infrastructure FLIGHT PLANNING This mid-term system is enabled by policy, • Data Communications (Data Comm) procedures and systems both on the ground • En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) and on the flight deck. It makes the most • Modernized Aeronautical Information Management (AIM) of technologies and procedures that are in • NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW) use today, while introducing new systems • NextGen Weather Processor (NWP) and procedures that fundamentally change • System Wide Information Management (SWIM) air traffic automation, surveillance, • Tower Flight Data Manager (TFDM) communications, navigation and the way • Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) we manage information. In addition to the advanced systems and procedures we full picture of potential limitations, from ground operations develop through the NextGen transformational programs and to the intended flight trajectory. solution sets, the mid-term system depends on coordination An outcome of this planning process will be an electronic with and support from FAA specialists on safety, security, representation of the operator’s intended flight profile, airports, the environment, policy development and the other updated for changing conditions that might affect the flight’s building blocks of a modern air traffic management system. trajectory. Operators and air traffic management personnel FAA information and management systems must keep all will have common access to this real-time information, these activities synchronized as we approach the mid-term, shared via a secure network. This information will provide reach it and move on. each group with improved situational awareness for Key ground infrastructure and avionics are included here planning and for the ability to predict and resolve conflicts. in tables for each of the flight phases. A more detailed Improvements in calculated schedule arrival times will description of the mid-term system, including the FAA’s enhance system-wide planning processes. Accomplishing National Airspace System Enterprise Architecture and this will give controllers automated information on other documentation, is available on the FAA’s NextGen airport arrival demand and available capacity to improve Web site, www.faa.gov/nextgen. sequencing and the balance between arrival and departure rates. Later analysis of a substantial body of data – a full While operators who adopt related new avionics will receive day’s, or more – will enable managers to apply lessons the greatest benefit in this time frame, lesser-equipped learned to future operations. operators still will be accommodated. The investments for operators and airports to support these operations These advances will better accommodate operator are discussed in Appendix A. Through international preferences and improve the use of resources, even to the collaboration on standards, we make certain that avionics point of scheduling at the destination. For operators, they developed to take advantage of NextGen or other advanced will mean more efficient traffic management and enhanced infrastructures worldwide will be interoperable. environmental performance by improving the ability to fine- tune and adjust schedules during planning and throughout FlIGhT PlANNING the flight. For air traffic management, they will mean more comprehensive situational awareness, including user intent, Flight planners in the mid-term will have increased access and a capability to manage flights in groups as well as to relevant information on the status of the National individually. Airspace System through a shared network-enabled information source. Operators will have access to current PuSh BACk, TAxI AND DEPArTurE and planned strategies to deal with congestion and other airspace constraints. New information will include As the time for the flight approaches, the final flight path scheduled times of use for special activity airspace for agreement will be delivered to the flight crew as a data military, security or space operations. It will describe other message. Data communications will provide pre-departure airspace limitations, such as those due to current or forecast clearances that allow amendments to flight plans. When the weather or congestion. It also will show the status of aircraft taxis out, the flight crew’s situational awareness will properties and facilities, such as closed runways, blocked be improved by flight-deck displays that portray aircraft taxiways and out-of-service navigational aids. This shared movement on a moving map that indicates the aircraft’s information will enhance the ability of users to plan their position on the airport surface and, at busy airports, the flight operations according to their personal or business position of other aircraft and surface vehicles. In the tower, objectives. Updates will be available as individual flight- improved ground systems, such as surface-movement planning objectives are affected by changes in airspace displays, will enable controllers to manage the use of system conditions. Operators will plan their flights with a taxiways and runways more efficiently; choosing the best www.faa.gov/nextgen 27 their existing runways. Together, these Key Ground Infrastructure capabilities will enhance safety, improve environmental performance, and reduce • Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast operators’ delay and fuel costs. (ADS-B) ground stations • Airport Surface Detection Equipment-Model X (ASDE-X) Precise departure paths will optimize • Data Comm system operations for entire metropolitan PusH BAck, TAxI ANd dePArTure • Integrated Departure and Arrival Coordination System areas, reducing delays by allowing each • Modernized AIM airport to operate more independently. • NNEW This will better separate arrival and • NWP departure flows for airports in proximity • Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) to one another, which will provide more • Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS) efficient access to both commercial service enhancements and general aviation airports in congested • SWIM • TFDM metropolitan regions. These precise • TFMS departures also can be designed to support airports that are now limited by terrain and Avionics other obstacles or during periods of reduced visibility. Precise paths will reduce flight • ADS-B, Traffic Information Services-Broadcast (TIS-B), time, fuel burn and emissions. They may Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) also decrease the impact of aircraft noise • Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation to surrounding communities. Performance (RNP) • Data Comm ClIMB AND CruISE As the aircraft climbs into the en route runway and taxi paths based on the departing aircraft’s airspace, enhanced processing of surveillance data will intended flight path and the status and positions of all other improve position information and enable the flight crew aircraft on the airport surface and in the terminal area. and controllers to take advantage of reduced separation These flight deck and tower displays are important safety standards. Because the flight crew will be able to monitor tools that will improve our prevention of runway incursions the position of other aircraft from their own aircraft’s flight and other surface conflicts, especially when visibility deck, air traffic personnel will be able to assign spacing is low. More efficient management and the ability to responsibility to the flight crew as it climbs to its cruising revise departure clearances using data communications altitude. The aircraft will be able to merge into the overhead will mean fewer radio transmissions, shorter wait times, stream with a minimum of additional maneuvers. fewer departure delays and reduced fuel consumption and emissions. Weather information will be integrated into decision making for surface Key Ground Infrastructure management. Departure performance will be improved by • ADS-B ground stations using multiple precise departure paths from • Advanced Technologies and Oceanic Procedures • Data Comm each runway end through Area Navigation • ERAM (RNAV) and Required Navigation • NNEW cLImB ANd cruIse Performance (RNP) procedures. Multiple • NWP departure paths will enable controllers to • Time Based Flow Management (TBFM) place each aircraft on its own separate track, • TFMS avoiding known constraints, thunderstorms and other severe weather near the airport. Avionics The ability to operate simultaneously on closely spaced parallel runways – • ADS-B In and Out, with associated displays like Cockpit Display through increased accuracy in surveillance of Traffic Information • Data Comm, including integration with the Flight Management and navigation, and through improved System understanding of wake vortices – means • Future Air Navigation System in oceanic airspace airports in effect will gain capacity for • RNAV and RNP 28 NextGen Implementation Plan Data communications will provide routine and strategic will analyze flights approaching an airport from hundreds information to the flight crew and automate some of miles away, across facility boundaries, and will calculate routine tasks for both pilots and controllers. Controllers scheduled arrival times to maximize arrival performance. will be able to focus on providing more preferred and These advances will improve the flow of arrival traffic direct routes and altitudes, saving fuel and time. Fewer to maximize use of existing capacity. Improvements in voice communications also will reduce radio-frequency calculated schedule arrival times will enhance system- congestion and spoken miscommunication. When weather wide planning processes. Controllers will gain automated affects many flights, clearances for aircraft equipped for information on airport arrival demand and available data communications will be delivered automatically to the capacity, enabling them to improve sequencing and the controller and uplinked, increasing controller and operator balance between arrival and departure rates. efficiency. Information such as proposed arrival time, sequencing and If a potential conflict with other aircraft, bad weather, route and runway assignments will be exchanged with the homeland security interventions or other constraints aircraft via a data communications link to agree on a final develops along the aircraft’s planned path, automation will flight path. The final flight path will ensure that the flight identify the problem and provide recommended changes in has no potential conflicts, and that there is an efficient trajectory or speed to eliminate the conflict. If the aircraft is arrival to the airport, while maintaining overall efficiency equipped for data communications, the controller will send of the airspace operation. the pilot the proposed change via a data message. Pilot and With the improved precision of NextGen systems, controller will negotiate the change, in coordination with separation between aircraft can be reduced safely. Suitably the flight operations center. Agreed-on changes will be equipped aircraft will be able to fly precise vertical and loaded into both ground and aircraft systems. Improved horizontal paths, called Optimized Profile Descents, from weather information, integrated into controller decision cruise down to the runway. These precision paths, which support tools, will increase controllers’ efficiency and may include precise inter-arrival spacing by the aircraft, greatly reduce their workload during bad weather. will allow for more efficient transitions from cruise to At times, traffic delays, airspace restrictions or adverse the approach phase of flight into high-density airports. weather will require additional changes to the flight path Controllers will be able to use multiple precision paths agreement. When rerouting is needed, controllers will be that maintain flows to each runway, using RNAV and able to assign offsets to the published route. Tailored to RNP arrivals. Precise arrivals will save fuel and reduce each flight, these offsets will be a way of turning a single emissions. published route into a “multi-lane highway in the sky.” Use Today, the structure of arrival and departure routes does of offsets will increase capacity in a section of airspace. Since the final agreement will be reached via data messaging, complex Key Ground Infrastructure reroutes can be more detailed than those constrained by the limitations of voice • ADS-B ground stations communications and reduce one source of • ASDE-X error in communications. • Data Comm In oceanic operations, air traffic • Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) management personnel will provide aircraft • NNEW desceNT ANd APProAcH entering oceanic airspace with an optimized • NWP trajectory. Airspace entry will be specified by • SBAS track entry time and the intended trajectory. • STARS enhancements As weather and wind conditions change, • TBFM both individual reroutes and changes to the • TFDM entire route structure will be managed via • TFMS data communications. Avionics DESCENT AND APPrOACh NextGen capabilities will provide a number • ADS-B In and Out of improvements to terminal area operations • Data Comm that save fuel, reduce noise, increase • GBAS avionics predictability and minimize maneuvers • RNAV and RNP such as holding patterns and delaying • Vertical Navigation vectors. Enhanced traffic management tools www.faa.gov/nextgen 29 not allow for the most efficient use of airspace. By redesigning airspace, new Key Ground Infrastructure paths can be used to provide integrated arrival and departure operations. The FAA • ADS-B ground stations LANdING, TAxI ANd ArrIvAL will provide users with better options to • ASDE-X manage departure and arrival operations • Data Comm safely during adverse weather, maintaining • Integrated Departure and Arrival Coordination System capacity that otherwise would be lost. Poor- • Modernized AIM visibility conditions dramatically reduce the • NNEW capacity of closely spaced runways, and the • STARS enhancements capacity losses ripple as delays throughout • SWIM the airspace system. NextGen capabilities • TBFM will make it possible to continue using • TFDM those runways safely, by providing better- • TFMS defined path assignments and appropriate separation between aircraft. Avionics lANDING, TAxI AND ArrIVAl • ADS-B, TIS-B Before the flight lands, the assigned • Data Comm runway, preferred taxiway and taxi path to the assigned parking space or gate will be available to the flight crew via data communications. operations. This will reduce the potential for runway This capability will be enabled by a ground system that incursions. Appropriate surface and gate-area vehicle recommends the best runway and taxi path to controllers, movement information will be shared among air traffic based on the arriving aircraft’s type and parking assignment, control, flight operations centers and the airport operator. and the status and positions of all aircraft on the airport Airport and airline ramp and gate operations personnel will surface. know each inbound aircraft’s projected arrival time at the gate. Operators will be able to coordinate push backs and Flight deck and controller displays will monitor aircraft gate arrivals more efficiently. movement and provide traffic and incursion alerts, using the same safety and efficiency tools as during departure Existing runway capacity will increase through the mid-term with more precise routing and separation of departing and arriving aircraft. Throughput rates will be similar during all weather conditions. Updated procedures for AIrFIeLd ImProvemeNTs closely spaced parallel operations will allow simultaneous arrivals. Airports may be able to site new runways with greater flexibility and make better use of existing runways. Overall, airports will balance surface, gate and terminal capacity with the improved runway capacity afforded by NextGen. Planned airfield improvements that are expected to come online in the next several years include the following: NEW RUNWAYS RUNWAY EXTENSIONS AIRFIELD RECONFIGURATION • Chicago (ORD) • Anchorage (ANC) • Chicago (ORD) • Columbus (CMH) • Atlanta (ATL) • Philadelphia (PHL) • Fort Lauderdale (FLL) • San Antonio (SAT) 30 NextGen Implementation Plan NextGen Ahead Working Toward Tomorrow The FAA is moving forward in a coordinated, integrated data such as weather and Special Activity Airspace (SAA) manner to deliver the capabilities necessary to enable the information. The ARC is composed of about two dozen agency’s vision for NextGen. representatives from various aviation user groups, as well Several important milestones are right around the corner. as segments of industry and government. This section highlights a few of the key NextGen advances The ADS-B In ARC’s initial recommendations are due the FAA will be working on over the next couple years. to the FAA leadership in fall 2011. Those findings are Appendix B provides an overview of the FAA’s NextGen- expected to provide a clear definition on how the aviation related work activities between now and the mid-term. community should proceed with ADS-B In, while ensuring Also in this section, we offer a look at the governance compatibility with the ADS-B Out avionics standards structure the FAA has put in place to manage such a massive detailed in the ADS-B Out final rule published in May undertaking as NextGen, and ensure the timely, cost- 2010. Feedback provided by the aviation community in effective delivery of NextGen capabilities and benefits. response to those recommendations will be incorporated into an ARC final report due by June 2012 that will detail suggested next steps. ADS-B IN The ARC’s work will set the stage for future ADS-B In The FAA last year chartered an Aviation Rulemaking applications, such as spacing and merging aircraft using Committee (ARC) to provide a forum for the aviation flight deck interval management. This capability provides community to define a strategy for incorporating more precise aircraft-to-aircraft position information Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) to the flight deck, enabling flight crews to line up their In technologies into the National Airspace System (NAS). aircraft more efficiently on final approach, saving fuel ADS-B In capability, combined with a cockpit display, and maximizing runway capacity. The FAA is currently provides greater situational awareness to both high- and working with industry on the initial development of flight low-altitude operators by providing highly accurate traffic. deck interval management capabilities. ADS-B In further offers low-altitude users essential flight www.faa.gov/nextgen 31 DATA COMMuNICATIONS surface data via SWIM surface information in 2012. By 2013, the SWIM program expects to have standardized Data Communications (Data Comm) will enable digital air its core information delivery service, meaning that custom traffic control (ATC) information to be exchanged between interfaces will no longer have to be built for programs controllers and pilots, and auto-loaded directly into aircraft seeking SWIM compliance. flight management systems. This capability will decrease the reliance on voice communication and significantly reduce opportunities for error. On the ground, Data Comm SPECIAl ACTIVITy AIrSPACE will streamline departure clearances for aircraft sitting at The FAA is working closely with the Department of the gate, and provide the ability to transmit revisions to Defense (DoD) to improve information sharing on the those clearances. In the air, Data Comm will provide for status of Special Activity Airspace (SAA). Today, the DoD the digital transmission of airborne reroutes. On arrival reserves large sections of airspace for mission purposes. and landing, Data Comm will enable taxiway and gate Determining when that airspace is safely available for assignment information to be sent directly to the flight civilian use can be difficult. Being able to take advantage deck. of unused SAA offers the potential A final investment decision slated for to reduce congestion, particularly 2012 will enable us to contract with a at peak times. vendor to provide the VHF radio network Between now and 2014, the FAA that will carry Data Comm messages. will continue working with the We also are moving forward with the DoD and industry stakeholders development of Controller Pilot Data to leverage evolving digital Link Communications, the application communication capabilities that will facilitate the integration of Data to increase awareness and Comm into ATC automation platforms predictability of SAA usage. and the aircraft flight deck. Operators will be able to more Towers are expected to begin offering reliably plan and use flight routes departure clearances with revisions to that cross inactive SAA without Future Air Navigation System (FANS) affecting DoD mission needs. By 1/A+ equipped aircraft by 2015. En route 2014, we plan to have SAA status centers are expected to be able to start information integrated into air issuing airborne reroutes via Data Comm traffic decision support tools. in 2018. This planning date has been adjusted out two years as we continue to weigh the complexity of integrating ClOSEly SPACED PArAllEl OPErATIONS enhancements into the NAS as well as budget adjustments. Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) – dual SySTEM WIDE INFOrMATION MANAGEMENT independent approaches to runways spaced fewer than 4,300 feet apart – hold the promise of getting more aircraft System Wide Information Management (SWIM) is on the ground more quickly in adverse weather conditions. the network structure that will carry NextGen digital information. SWIM will enable cost-effective, real-time The FAA is taking a phased, incremental approach to data exchange and sharing among users of the NAS. CSPO. Over the next several years, we will be working to use existing technology and procedures to improve the In October 2010, the Corridor Integrated Weather System efficiency of closely spaced runways. As we move closer (CIWS) became the first ATC system to share information to the mid-term and beyond, we will work to leverage via the SWIM interface. SWIM compliance means the advanced technology and Performance Based Navigation. weather information provided by CIWS to en route center traffic management units can now be made available to In 2011, the FAA will complete the blunder analyses we external users, such as airline operations centers, to create began last year. A blunder occurs when an aircraft on an a common situational awareness. SWIM achieved the same approach to a parallel runway intrudes into the established milestone with the Integrated Terminal Weather System in safety buffer between the two runways. New data about January 2011. By 2015, all seven ATC systems targeted for actual blunder rates, as well as the angle at which those SWIM’s initial implementation phase are expected to be blunders occur, could establish the safety case for operating SWIM compliant. simultaneous, independent approaches with closer runway spacing than is currently allowed. Throughout 2011, the SWIM program will continue the development work necessary to gather and share airport 32 NextGen Implementation Plan Also this year, we will continue to conduct simulations and management structure, and the FAA has provided one. The analyses in support of allowing the use of satellite-based agency has taken a comprehensive, cross-agency portfolio procedures as an alternative to Instrument Landing System approach to NextGen implementation that recognizes the (ILS) approaches at airports that support such procedures. implementation of NextGen as an integrated effort, rather The option of satellite-based procedures would offer greater than a series of independent programs. The NextGen flexibility to both controllers and portfolio includes six transformational operators, and could potentially increase programs (ADS-B, Data Comm, SWIM, aircraft throughput under instrument The FAA is moving forward NextGen Network Enabled Weather, conditions. Further, runways without in a coordinated, integrated NAS Voice System, and Collaborative ILS would not need to qualify for manner to deliver the Air Traffic Management Technologies), simultaneous or dependent approaches seven solution sets and – new this year if satellite-based approaches were capabilities necessary to – a suite of implementation portfolios. available. By 2012, we expect to enable the agency’s The NextGen solution sets contain be able to update FAA policies to mid-term vision for NextGen. interdependent projects that work approve simultaneous independent together to provide capabilities to and dependent approaches to parallel targeted user groups and areas. The runways for any combination of Area Navigation (with solution sets constitute the primary construct for NextGen vertical navigation), Required Navigation Performance, pre-implementation budget development. Each solution set Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance, Ground is administered by a qualified manager who coordinates all Based Augmentation System Landing System and ILS. aspects of the projects that fall within his or her solution set, from concept to implementation readiness. MAkING IT hAPPEN To provide even greater detail on our implementation These advances, and the milestones and commitments such activities of the NextGen mid-term, the FAA has introduced as those documented in Appendix B, represent a complex a series of implementation portfolios that are detailed in set of interrelated undertakings. The management of Appendix B. such a massive endeavor calls for a highly effective www.faa.gov/nextgen 33 Two teams of FAA executives, the NextGen Management challenges posed by the breadth and magnitude of the Board and the NextGen Review Board, constitute a NextGen transformation, including varying maturity among governance structure that works to ensure that the interdependent systems and operator equipage rates. A capabilities that grow out of the NextGen portfolio are deeper examination of these challenges can be found in the delivered in a timely, coordinated and cost-effective next chapter. As new information emerges, and alternative manner. solutions arise from our various aviation community collaborations, our governance structure allows for course The NextGen Management Board is chaired by the shifts as necessary to ensure the most timely, cost-efficient deputy administrator, the federal official with overall delivery of NextGen capabilities and benefits. responsibility for NextGen. Composed of the heads of the FAA lines of business with primary responsibility for The NextGen progress made by the FAA, the goals delivering NextGen, the Management Board provides the agency has set for itself, and the work plan we have executive oversight of NextGen progress and performance committed to in pursuit of those goals are summarized metrics, and makes strategic policy decisions that drive in the document you are reading now, the NextGen implementation forward. The Management Board is Implementation Plan, which is updated annually. The Plan supported by the NextGen Review Board, which resolves pulls together NextGen information from a number of other cross-agency implementation issues and identifies and key FAA documents. The result is a high-level overview formulates positions on critical policy issues. of all the FAA’s NextGen planning and execution efforts in a plain-language document intended to inform a wide While we have crafted our governance structure to ensure audience of NextGen stakeholders. our NextGen plans remain on track, we have also built in flexibility and adaptability commensurate with the Integrating New Capabilities NextGen capabilities aren’t turned on all at once. Before the FAA can deliver each new capability, a myriad of activities has to be accomplished, some of which include: • safety management system and risk assessments; • environmental management system and impact assessments; • demonstrations to ensure the capability delivers its intended benefits; • tests to determine how the capability affects the workload of FAA technicians, air traffic controllers and pilots; • training so that controllers and operators know how to use the capability; • identification, development and installation of needed infrastructure and software; • development and installation of new aircraft equipment, if needed; and • changes to orders and policies to conform to federal and international standards. The development of NextGen capabilities is not carried out in a vacuum. Throughout the process, the FAA collaborates with aviation community stakeholders, including operators, equipment manufacturers, academia and other federal agencies. We work with the international community, including air navigation service providers, to make sure that equipped aircraft can take advantage of similar capabilities around the world. And we carefully plan how to integrate new capabilities into the airspace, which is active around the clock. 34 NextGen Implementation Plan Challenges Tackling a Complex Suite of Initiatives To accomplish an undertaking as large and complex community. If one of the major contributors falters in its as NextGen, the FAA must overcome many technical, commitment to NextGen, the effectiveness of the others’ programmatic and organizational challenges. Some are commitments could be at risk. In particular, achieving present from the start; others develop along the way. NextGen’s promise requires that operators equip their The key to success is to understand the many things aircraft to use the systems and procedures that NextGen NextGen depends on, anticipate the challenges and know delivers. For some capabilities, that means they also what to do about them. We must manage complexity and must invest in associated ground equipment, procedures uncertainty. development and personnel training. Taken together, FAA investments in NextGen will be The FAA is addressing this challenge in several ways. unprecedented, but this is only the beginning. Even with We are adhering to our schedules for deployment of unequivocal support for NextGen, budget constraints NextGen infrastructure, showing operators that they can will continue to place pressure on FAA’s funding levels. be confident that the capabilities for which they equip Our planning, as reflected in this plan, allows us to will be ready when their aircraft are ready. In support of remain on track to deliver the FAA’s core framework for the best-equipped, best-served concept, we are analyzing NextGen implementation, particularly the capabilities near-term opportunities that would provide meaningful requested by the aviation community. These core operational incentives to operators that adopt NextGen elements include improving surface operations, freeing avionics. We are exploring specific operational incentive up metroplex congestion and implementing ADS-B candidates based on situation, location and operational ground infrastructure, progress that focuses on delivering capability. Also, in collaboration with the Department capabilities to operators and benefits to the public. of Transportation and the White House, we continue to research potential mechanisms for financial incentives to Just as we rely on funding for our own work as a Department reduce equipage costs. of Transportation agency, we must synchronize our investments with those of other government agencies, Each of these measures is intended to improve the business airport authorities and the private-sector aviation case for investing in NextGen. Increasing benefits through www.faa.gov/nextgen 35 operational incentives would increase the value of planning tool, and the NextGen solution sets, which are investing. Financial incentives might reduce the cost or categories of interdependent operational changes across address other business risks. Demonstrations can clarify the NAS. As a technology matures, we apply it to NextGen NextGen capabilities, also reducing risk. programs that deliver advanced capabilities to the field. Capabilities, like investments, must be synchronized. Our approach to NextGen places many demands on the Each NextGen system and procedure depends on FAA workforce: previous or concurrent achievements, and each in turn • We must integrate the disciplines and skills of the helps establish a foundation for those that follow. It is an FAA’s core communities – acquisition, operations, integrated, interdependent structure, available in this Plan safety, environment, airports, international affairs, and on the FAA’s National Airspace System Enterprise regulation and certification – into our overall Architecture Web site, https://nasea.faa.gov. But its planning and management of NextGen development interdependencies and complexities entail a risk – when so and deployment. These disciplines all contribute to many capabilities depend on so many building blocks and NextGen throughout our management system, starting so much coordination, a single problem could reverberate with the NextGen Management Board. Working across the enterprise and require schedule changes or groups at all levels ensure that NextGen will reflect other adjustments. Proper recognition and management of all our institutional points of view. We have launched uncertainty is a central feature of the overall approach to an initiative to increase and improve the data we NextGen development and deployment. collect to measure and analyze the effectiveness of The En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) is NextGen systems and procedures. Recognizing that a case in point. We have taken longer than originally our implementation plans call for multiple, sometimes planned with activation and operational testing of ERAM simultaneous changes to the NAS, we have established at the en route centers. We can’t always predict that teams of safety experts from each FAA line of business schedule shifts will occur, so we must respond swiftly and to identify and mitigate cross-cutting safety risks. decisively when it does. The FAA is working to ensure we minimize the program risks as we move forward, and we • We must recruit, train, engage and retain employees are confident that our revised scheduled for ERAM will who have the capabilities we need, or acquire these allow us to remain on track to deploy the core NextGen capabilities by contracting with private companies. framework. Late in 2008, the National Academy of Public Bringing our technical concepts to maturity and Administration submitted recommendations on integrating them into functioning systems and procedures NextGen acquisition staffing needs that identified are challenging tasks. We are prepared for the possibility specific workforce skills that we should bolster. Since that not everything we conceptualize will work as then, we have developed and implemented – and initially planned, and that some of these pieces might we continue to develop – staffing plans that follow not work together easily. Only an incremental, adaptable the academy’s advice. We are actively working on implementation strategy can succeed over time. plans for training, development and human resources services throughout our workforce. For example, in We must also concern ourselves with implementation 2010 our safety organization issued a plan to sustain bandwidth, the organizational limits on our ability its standards, certification and inspection workforce to introduce multiple new equipment and procedures through retirements and attrition, and to accommodate into National Airspace System (NAS) operations increasing demands as NextGen proceeds. Also, simultaneously. We must consider how much equipment during 2010, we issued a series of systems engineering – ground and air, used by the FAA and operators – we can contracts to industry that, taken together, comprise the certify at once for safety and suitability. We must evaluate largest support program of this type the FAA has ever how many capability introductions we can accomplish in a undertaken. given time, considering our capacity to train our operating and supporting personnel to use them. We also have to • Attention to human-automation interface issues during weigh the implementation bandwidth of all the other development is critical to good design and the orderly NAS stakeholders. Here, too, our incremental approach introduction of NextGen systems and procedures into is vital. the NAS. Research into human factors, and Human- NextGen’s many interdependencies challenge us to manage in-the-Loop testing and demonstrations, are essential NextGen as a portfolio of programs and initiatives, not tools to achieving this. Operators face corresponding as a collection of separate efforts. Central to this concept challenges as they equip aircraft with cockpit systems is the Enterprise Architecture, which integrates the plans their crews will have to operate, and the FAA will and schedules of all NextGen acquisitions into a unified help them through standards and safety evaluations. 36 NextGen Implementation Plan The FAA will continue to involve operating personnel example, we will continue to extract position, navigation earlier in the acquisition process, to obtain their and timing services from the Global Positioning System, insights into system requirements and to improve the but we will retain all necessary backup capabilities. ability of field personnel to operate and maintain the equipment once it is developed and deployed. Similarly, we must develop and integrate NextGen capabilities into our air traffic facilities while still • We will adhere during NextGen deployment to our maintaining safe and reliable NAS operations. In 2010 we record of compliance with the National Environmental launched a dedicated program office to manage facilities Policy Act (NEPA), but many of NextGen’s operational transformation. Our goal is to align NextGen operational improvements will require major environmental capabilities with facilities requirements, and ensure reviews. In addition, emerging issues such as climate the safe transition between legacy and future services. and greenhouse gases raise new policy and analytical The program office will design fit-for-purpose facilities concerns. Some of our most valuable initiatives, such that fully realize NextGen concepts, improve employee as precision-navigation departures and approaches, working conditions, meet environmental goals and provide will have favorable impacts on greenhouse gases resilient services. In addition, we will deploy configurable but mixed results regarding noise. We are working automation systems and robust communications to ensure to increase our staff and develop analytical models service continuity. to deal with these issues. Also, we are researching planned NextGen The FAA will manage NAS operations To achieve global for many years when NextGen activities and the most efficient and capabilities are being introduced and effective approaches for completing aviation objectives deployed throughout the system, environmental reviews required under NEPA. and meet the needs of and when aircraft equipage for these airspace users around capabilities is mixed. We have always • Our workforce must adapt our the world, NextGen will accommodated aircraft of widely regulatory and administrative varying capabilities, and we will procedures to deliver NextGen have to be interoperable continue to do so where it does not initiatives incrementally, under a with corresponding compromise achieving our goals. This complex deployment schedule. We systems throughout the mixed equipage poses technical and must work with industry and our international community. operational challenges that we must global partners to develop timely overcome, due to the complexity of the standards, and continue to find mixed operation. A related challenge ways to streamline the approval of new systems and is the implementation of best-equipped, best-served procedures. Manufacturers of NextGen avionics and incentives that would result in net efficiency enhancements other products depend on us for the standards and but would disadvantage aircraft that are not equipped. certification processes they need to design and develop their equipment. To achieve global aviation objectives and meet the needs of airspace users around the world, NextGen must be interoperable with corresponding systems throughout One of the most difficult challenges is inserting all the the international community. Key strategic areas are the NextGen advances, from the simplest to the most complex, harmonization of global air traffic management initiatives into an aviation system that continues to function 24 as well as the harmonization of standards for technologies hours a day, 365 days a year. We cannot shut down the that support communication, navigation, surveillance and system while we upgrade it. When NextGen capabilities air traffic management. The FAA and the Single European go operational, we will work incrementally. No one will Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Joint throw a switch that turns on NextGen. Capabilities will Undertaking are collaborating on air traffic management come on line gradually. And we take a cautious approach research, development and validation for global to the infrastructure that enables NextGen advances. For interoperability. www.faa.gov/nextgen 37 Appendix A NextGen Investments for Operators and Airports NextGen system benefits depend on FAA ground-based Technical Standard Orders (TSOs). The enablers are linked systems, space-based systems, alternative fuels to reduce to operational improvements that provide benefits and build environmental impact, advanced avionics capabilities on capabilities already installed or available for today’s and airport infrastructure. aircraft. This appendix provides an This appendix outlines the overview of the major categories opportunities for investment of enablers for operators and by operators and airports. It airports. provides an overview of current Three different areas are targeted and planned capabilities and for aircraft operators: aircraft relates them to the benefits that avionics; flight planning and they enable. routing support systems; and fuels and engines. Airports also will be This appendix uses enablers an active participant in deployment – Automatic Dependent of some improvements. For other Su r veillance-Broadcast improvements, such as ADS-B in (ADS-B) Out or Localizer the terminal area, the deployment Performance with Vertical of the system will take place Guidance (LPV) avionics, without substantial actions by for example – to describe airports. the technologies required for an aircraft and operator, or an airport, to implement a NextGen capability. Each enabler is For each enabler, icons provide a quick look at key defined by a set of performance and functional requirements information, including: that allow market flexibility whenever possible. We guide operators in satisfying these requirements and deploying • Target Users: The target users for each enabler can the enablers through Advisory Circulars (ACs) and include air transport, business jet, general aviation 38 NextGen Implementation Plan Icon Legend enabler selected as a mandatory capability for all aircraft in a given airspace. It will be required in designated airspace Air Transport on Jan. 1, 2020. Target users In addition to expanding the scope of this appendix from Business Aviation last year’s plan, there are several changes in schedule, notably: General Aviation • Surface Indications and Alerts: Deferred in concept exploration due to technical challenges receiving the Rotorcraft ADS-B messages on the airport surface. • Deconfliction guidance: Deferred in concept exploration Nationwide due to need for further definition of the operational concept, including integration with trajectory operations. Target Areas Metroplex Areas or • Data Communications: Aligned the third version Major Airports of domestic data communications (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network Baseline 3) with European Oceanic plans. • Ground Based Augmentation System Landing System Available (GLS) III: Deferred in concept exploration due to operational challenges in fielding the Category I system maturity and the need to align the schedule with an aircraft In Development program. In Concept Exploration PErFOrMANCE BASED NAVIGATION Performance Based Navigation (PBN) encompasses a fixed-wing and rotorcraft. These categories of target set of enablers with a common underlying capability to users represent generalized modes of operation and may construct a flight path that is not constrained by the location not apply exactly to every civil or military operator. of ground navigation aids. There are varying performance The FAA does not limit the NextGen capabilities to and functional requirements in the PBN family, from the these targeted users groups. In addition to the specified 10 nautical mile (nm) course width accuracy and few user groups, some users may still find it worthwhile waypoints required by Required Navigation Performance to invest in a particular enabler in order to meet their (RNP) 10 to the 0.1 nm precision and curved paths of RNP specific operational objectives. 0.1 Authorization Required (AR) approaches. For oceanic en route navigation, RNP 10 and RNP 4 will continue to • Target Areas for Implementation: The general strategy be the standards. Domestically, Area Navigation (RNAV) 2 for deployment can include nationwide, in oceanic provides the required capability en route. areas or in metroplex terminal areas with large and RNAV 1 is the mainstay in the terminal area, except where medium hub airports and satellite airports. obstacles or airspace conflicts demand the improved performance provided by RNP 1. To achieve access to • Maturity: An enabler may already be available for runways during limited visibility (instrument conditions), operator investment, in development (including three capabilities offer different advantages and costs. standards development) or in concept exploration. The most basic, RNP 0.3, is a conventional non-precision approach capability that can be achieved with GPS alone. Tables throughout this appendix summarize the enablers. Vertical guidance can be added with either barometric A description of each enabler can be found in NextGen Vertical Navigation (VNAV), or with a Satellite Based Operator and Airport Enablers, a supplement to this Augmentation System (SBAS). A basic VNAV capability appendix that is available at www.faa.gov/nextgen. can be used with RNP 0.3, and tighter Lateral and Vertical Additional detail concerning the operational improvements, Performance can provide access to RNP AR approaches. and the FAA implementation plan for each improvement, is The lowest approach minima are typically offered by LPV, provided in Appendix B. ADS-B Out capability is the only which provides a satellite-based equivalent to conventional Category I Instrument Landing Systems (ILS). www.faa.gov/nextgen 39 Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers Avionics Aircraft and Operator Target Capability Overview Target Users Maturity Enablers Guidance Schedule Area Performance Based Navigation Order RNP 10 Complete Reduced oceanic separation 8400.12A Further reduced oceanic Order RNP 4 Complete separation (in conjunction with 8400.33 FANS 1/A) Ability to fly on more efficient RNAV 1, RNAV 2 AC 90-100A Complete routes and procedures Ability to precisely fly departure, RNP with Curved AC 90-105 Complete arrival and approach procedures Path including repeatable curved paths Vertical AC 90-105, Ability to fly defined climb and Complete Navigation AC 20-138A descent paths Improved access to many airports LPV AC 20-138B Complete in reduced visibility, with an approach aligned to the runway Improved access to airports RNP Approaches in reduced visibility with an (Authorization AC 90-101 Complete approach that can turn to the Required) runway; improved procedures to separate traffic flows The current aircraft fleet is well equipped with PBN infrastructure for navigation will not be fully replaced, so a capability. For example, in the air transport community, further incentive for PBN capability will come through the the heart of the PBN capability is the Flight Management reduction of services to the non-equipped aircraft. System (FMS). The FMS uses input from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) – either GPS or Wide AuTOMATIC DEPENDENT SurVEIllANCE- Area Augmentation System (WAAS) sensor – or multiple BrOADCAST Distance Measuring Equipment (DME). DME has coverage limitations, and will not be supported on every published There are many different ADS-B enablers, with different procedure. Most FMS installations can support RNAV cost and benefit implications. The most basic participation operations and RNP with curved path, but less than half with ADS-B is ADS-B Out, where the aircraft’s position can support RNP AR approaches. LPV requires a WAAS and certain other data are broadcast by avionics. Ground receiver and integration with the displays. receivers and other aircraft within range can receive these broadcasts and use them for their own applications. ADS-B In the general aviation community, the PBN enablers are Out enables the next generation of air traffic surveillance. typically implemented in a GNSS navigator installed in an Using ground receivers across the country, controllers will aircraft’s instrument panel. These systems have become receive and process precise ADS-B broadcasts to provide air increasingly complex and capable, integrating other types traffic separation and advisory services. of navigation, voice communication and uplinked weather information. Most of these installations can support RNAV, Building on the ADS-B Out capability, ADS-B avionics can and those equipped with WAAS can support LPV. Some be integrated with different controls and displays to implement of these configurations have fully implemented RNP with ADS-B In enablers. The most basic types of enablers provide curved path or RNP AR approach capability and others may enhanced situation awareness, improving the ability of the be upgradeable to RNP with curved path capability. flight crew to identify where aircraft are around them and the direction they are headed. This technology works in the The primary equipage strategy for the PBN enablers has air or on the ground, although the ground capability may be been operational incentives; aircraft that equip obtain a direct limited by coverage issues and the availability of quality efficiency and access benefit because of the new routes, airport surveys (see airport enhancements on page 44). This procedures and approaches. However, in some instances the basic type of display is referred to as a Cockpit Display of new route or procedure cannot be designed or used optimally Traffic Information (CDTI). A CDTI may be a new display, because of the need to accommodate traffic that is not or it may be integrated with a conventional Traffic Alert and equipped with these enablers. In addition, the legacy ground Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) traffic display. 40 NextGen Implementation Plan Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers Avionics Aircraft and Operator Target Capability Overview Target Users Maturity Enablers Guidance Schedule Area Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Enables improved air traffic ADS-B Out AC 20-165 Complete surveillance and automation processing Airborne/Ground AC 20-172, Improved awareness of other Complete CDTI (ADS-B In) TSO-C195 traffic Surface Displays and provides alerts Indications/Alerts AC, TSO 2014 based on non-normal traffic status (ADS-B In) In-Trail Policy Memo Complete Procedure (ITP) Oceanic in-trail climb/descent (ADS-B In) AC, TSO 2011 Interval Display of along-track guidance, Management AC, TSO 2012 control and indications, and alerts (ADS-B In) Airborne-CDTI Displays and alerts crew to with Conflict AC, TSO 2014 airborne conflicts independent of Detection TCAS alerting (ADS-B In) Paired Parallel Approach Guidance information for aircraft Guidance AC, TSO 2014 participating in paired approaches and Alerting to closely spaced runways (ADS-B In) Another set of ADS-B In enablers uses the ADS-B data for For general aviation operating below 18,000 feet, ADS-B speed or timing guidance, typically maintaining spacing can be implemented through the transponder or through a or separation from another aircraft. This includes both new radio, called the universal access transceiver (UAT). The algorithms for oceanic In-Trail Procedures (ITP) and display UAT also provides access to weather and other aeronautical of along-track guidance cues for interval management. data services provided by the FAA. ADS-B In capabilities Beyond these lie advanced alerting to improve airport are implemented in general aviation with displays similar safety and reduce the risk of collision for aircraft to those in use by air transport. without TCAS. Eventually, ADS-B integrated with other The FAA mandated ADS-B Out equipage in most controlled capabilities is expected to support all-weather access to airspace starting in 2020. The agency is encouraging closely spaced runways and to enable airspace with self- operators to equip portions of their fleets with ADS-B separation similar to visual operations today. before the nationwide rule goes into effect by providing The equipage for ADS-B is just beginning, with rule- early benefits. As the operators experience the operational compliant ADS-B equipment gaining approval in late benefits, they will have an incentive to accelerate and 2010. expand the ADS-B equipage to the rest of their fleet. In air transport aircraft, ADS-B is expected to be For air transport operators, this strategy uses memorandums implemented as upgrades to the Mode S transponder of agreement to accomplish this goal, where each party and aircraft displays. This equipment can be upgraded or provides in-kind contributions critical to the success of the replaced to support ADS-B as well as their original function. project. Each agreement is unique, reflecting the specific The various ADS-B In capabilities reflect different levels of operator’s business model, route structure and existing integration with the controls and displays in the cockpit. avionics infrastructure, among other factors. For general Situational awareness can be achieved with side-mounted aviation operators, deployment of Traffic Information displays that are not integrated, along-track guidance can Services-Broadcast (TIS-B) and Flight Information be implemented with front-mounted displays that are Services-Broadcast (FIS-B), uplinked over the UAT, will not integrated, and longer-term capabilities will require enhance benefits and motivation to equip. The FAA is also integration with other navigation data in front of the flight evaluating additional locations where surveillance may be crew. provided through ADS-B. www.faa.gov/nextgen 41 In 2010, the FAA convened an Aviation Rulemaking can be retrofitted into aircraft without modification of the Committee (ARC) to develop recommendations for the navigation system. The FAA plans to implement ATN implementation of ADS-B In capabilities. The ARC is Baseline 2 with a larger set of operational capabilities, such expected to complete a final report in 2012. as revised departure clearances, to provide greater incentive for retrofitting aircraft. DATA COMMuNICATIONS FANS 1/A for oceanic operations has already been adopted Data Communications were first deployed as part of the widely by the fleet of aircraft operating internationally. Future Air Navigation System (FANS) program. Boeing The implementation strategy for domestic ATC data and Airbus developed integrated communication and communications is primarily based on providing operational navigation capabilities (FANS 1 and FANS A, respectively), incentives to equipped operators. The FAA is evaluating providing a pilot-and-controller data link and the ability to potential scenarios for best-equipped, best-served in autonomously send some data from the aircraft to the air which aircraft with this capability may receive more traffic control (ATC) system through Automatic Dependent rapid or efficient reroutes during inclement weather. Surveillance-Contract (ADS-C). These new navigation and communication capabilities were primarily targeted to lOW-VISIBIlITy OPErATIONS oceanic airspace, where they provided the greatest initial The FAA is supporting several different capabilities benefits, enabling a safe reduction in separation between for operators who need to access an airport during low aircraft from 100 nm to as low as 50 nm. visibility – when the cloud ceiling is below 200 feet above As the FAA moves forward with deploying a domestic the runway or the visibility is less than one-half surface ATC data link system, it is important to make use of the mile. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVSs) provide the FANS capabilities already installed on many aircraft. As greatest level of access, enabling lower approach minima, such, the domestic program will use an adaptation of FANS regardless of the navigation aid or airport infrastructure, by appropriate for high-density, surveilled environments enabling the flight crew to literally see through the clouds through FANS 1/A+ over VHF Data Link (VDL) mode 2. using the EFVS technology. These aircraft will be able to receive departure clearances At many airports the FAA has approved the use of a heads- and airborne reroutes. up display (HUD) on a precision approach to lower minima. A newer capability, called the Aeronautical While this capability does not provide the ubiquitous access of Telecommunications Network (ATN), was developed EFVS, it can be implemented in many aircraft at lower cost. through the International Civil Aviation Organization Another enabler is GLS. This program is researching the (ICAO) to provide a more universally capable and reliable use of differential corrections to GPS to support Category ATC data communications system. The capability that will II and III approaches. This capability will be the same as be needed for full participation in NextGen in continental Category II and III ILS, without the need to restrict taxiing U.S. airspace will be the third version, called ATN Baseline aircraft near antennas and at reduced cost to the FAA. 3. The standards for this version are under development and are being harmonized internationally. EFVS has been adopted by the high-end business community, while HUD has begun to spread to the air Two earlier versions of ATN provide interim capabilities. carrier fleet. The GLS program is still in research and Europe has begun to implement ATN Baseline 1, which Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers Avionics Aircraft and Operator Target Capability Overview Target Users Maturity Enablers Guidance Schedule Area Data Communications Oceanic data communications FANS 1/A AC 20-140A, Complete and surveillance, transfer of (Satcom) AC 120-70B communications FANS 1/A+ AC 20-140A, Expansion of FANS to domestic Complete (VDL mode 2) AC 120-70B clearances AC 20-140B 2013 ATN Baseline 2 Clearances, terminal information AC 120-70C 2014 Expansion of ATN to trajectory ATN Baseline 3 AC 20-140C 2015 operations 42 NextGen Implementation Plan Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers Avionics Aircraft and Operator Target Capability Overview Target Users Maturity Enablers Guidance Schedule Area Low-Visibility Operations Reduced minima at qualifying HUD/ILS Order Complete runways Uses enhanced flight visibility AC 20-167, EFVS Complete to continue approach below AC 90-106 minimums Project GLS III specific 2014 Autoland in very low visibility policy Avionics Safety Enhancements TSO-C157, Weather and aeronautical FIS-B Complete TSO-C154c information in the cockpit development, but new aircraft are being manufactured with Jet A already are approved for commercial use by ASTM the basic capability to reduce the costs of transitioning from International. Blends of sustainable hydrotreated renewable ILS when GLS is mature. jet (HRJ) alternative fuels are expected to be approved for use in 2011. We are beginning to test additional advanced The low-visibility enablers are implemented through best- alternative fuels in support of eventual approval. Operator equipped, best-served incentives, so that aircraft with the investment is limited to purchasing alternative jet fuels capability can gain airport access when other operators and fuel blends as they become available in commercial cannot. quantities. Airlines already have signed agreements to do so. AVIONICS SAFETy ENhANCEMENTS Extensive research of unleaded aviation gasoline has not FIS-B provides ground-derived weather data to aircraft yet identified a drop-in replacement for leaded aviation gas. lacking airborne weather radar, and real-time National The deployment of new unleaded aviation gasolines may Airspace System (NAS) status information. These data require modifications to the existing fleet of reciprocating- are primarily intended to improve safety of operations for engine-powered aircraft. general aviation aircraft and are provided over the same UAT signals used for ADS-B. Current Equipage Levels of Available Enablers Enabler Air Transport General Aviation EquIPAGE lEVElS RNP 10 58% <5% The following table summarizes the current equipage levels RNP 4 58% <5% of the mature avionics enablers among civil operators. These estimates are based on coordination with air transport RNAV 1, RNAV 2 92% 80% operators and the annual FAA general aviation and air taxi RNP with RF 57% <5% survey. The high penetration of PBN enablers reflects the VNAV 45% 0% maturity of those capabilities, which have been delivered in various forms for over 10 years. Other enablers, such as LPV <5% 30% ADS-B Out, are only recently available and have not been RNP AR 36% <5% installed. ADS-B Out 0% 0% Airborne/Ground CDTI <5% <5% ENGINES AND FuEl TEChNOlOGIES ITP 0% 0% Alternative jet fuels research continues with the intent of FANS 1A (Satcom) 36% 0% approving a range of ASTM International-qualified “drop- in” fuels that reduce the carbon footprint of commercial FANS 1A+ (VDL mode 2) 12% 0% aircraft operations without compromising safety or requiring HUD/ILS 15% 0% changes in aircraft, engines or fuel supply infrastructure. EFVS 0% <5% Fischer Tropsch alternative fuels, made from a variety of FIS-B 0% <5% feedstocks including sustainable biomass, blended with www.faa.gov/nextgen 43 Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers Operator or Airport Target Enablers Capability Overview Target Users Maturity Guidance Schedule Area Engine and Fuel Technologies 2011 Expansion of jet fuel Drop-In Modified specification to allow production Renewable ASTM 2013 via alternative processes and Jet Fuel specification 2015 feedstocks Technology Engine technology demonstrated Engine available 2015 with lower fuel burn, noise and Efficiencies for aircraft emissions design Some airframe and engine technologies may be retrofitted PBN instrument flight procedures are a key component of on existing aircraft in order to speed technology insertion. NextGen because they can improve the efficiency of airport However, other technologies such as the high-bypass-ratio arrivals and departures. For general aviation operators and geared turbofan and open-rotor engines would only be some regional air carriers, WAAS/LPV approach procedures expected on future generations of aircraft. can provide near Category I minimums. Business jet operators and air carriers are more commonly equipped for FlIGhT OPErATIONS CENTErS RNAV and RNP, which can support Category I minimums. The FAA may opt for an incremental phaseout of the ILS Flight operations centers (FOCs) have a significant role in Category I installations by 2025, as both WAAS/LPV and Collaborative Air Traffic Management (CATM) initiatives. RNAV/RNP provide for more cost-effective and flexible The FOC could be specific to the operator (e.g., an airline) or instrument approach procedures. In addition, in 2012- a company providing value-added flight planning support. 2014 the FAA will decide on the deployment of GBAS To fully participate in CATM, FOCs need to develop and equipment, which is planned to provide Category II and maintain information technology systems to achieve three III capabilities. As such, GBAS could augment or replace basic objectives: data connectivity to the FAA through the existing ILS Category II and III installations at airports Collaborative Information Exchange (CIX), processing throughout the NAS. of aeronautical status and weather information in flight Airports have the key role of discussing with their users the planning software, and development of user-preferred need for new or additional PBN procedures. A hub airport routes. The FAA plans to implement a CIX to provide may serve air carriers that are actively seeking to expand the increased situational awareness and improved constraint use of RNAV or RNP procedures, while a general aviation prediction by incorporating data made available via System airport may benefit from a new WAAS/LPV approach Wide Information Management (SWIM) mechanisms. procedure. An airport can request that the FAA initiate Examples are Special Use Airspace (SUA) status and consideration and design of these procedures. Airports can surface event information. facilitate the aeronautical survey, and obstruction-mitigation In the near term, the Flight Planning Services software and runway-lighting actions that may be needed to achieve will be enhanced to generate a prioritized list of trajectory lower minimums. The surveys, obstruction mitigation and options for each flight. These lists will be used by the FAA’s runway lighting could be eligible for Airport Improvement Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) to ensure that Program (AIP) funds. operator priorities are appropriately considered. These Surface surveillance and management is another key trajectory option sets can be forwarded to the TFMS when area for airport involvement in NextGen. The FAA plans traffic management initiatives are issued due to volume to complete deployment of Airport Surface Detection or weather conditions. They can also be forwarded for Equipment-Model X (ASDE-X) at 35 airports by 2013. reconsideration whenever operator flight priorities change. Additionally, the agency aims to install enhancements to airport surface detection equipment at nine other airports AIrPOrT ENhANCEMENTS by 2015. At these facilities, airports can install ADS-B squitters on airport-owned vehicles that regularly operate in Airports are active participants in the implementation the movement area. The squitters would broadcast vehicle of NextGen across the NAS. While many investments in positions to ATC, aircraft equipped with ADS-B In and the NextGen technologies are the responsibility of FAA or airport operations center. This would improve situational aircraft operators, airports will also have opportunities to awareness and safety, particularly during construction advance NextGen. 44 NextGen Implementation Plan Overview of Airport Enablers Operator or Airport Guidance Target Avionics Enablers Capability Overview Target Users Maturity Area Guidance Schedule Airport Enhancements Geographic AC 150- Detailed geospatial data on Information 5300-16,-17, Ongoing airports and obstructions System -18 ADS-B squitter equipage for Airport rescue firefighting ADS-B for AC 2011 surface vehicles operating in the equipment, snowplows, Surface Vehicles movement area inspection trucks projects and winter weather events. AIP eligibility for the under NextGen. We plan to streamline the approval ADS-B squitters is being evaluated. processes to give aviation users access to NAS data through the new NAS Enterprise Services Gateway. With advance FAA continues to research the need and technology options coordination, vendor systems can be designed with an for non-movement area surface surveillance, particularly in architecture that is compatible with emerging FAA surface support of NextGen surface traffic management concepts operational plans. that are also still in development. For airports that will not receive ASDE-3/X, the FAA is also researching low- Because new runway and taxiway infrastructure is critical cost technologies and systems that could provide a surface to capacity and efficiency, the continued transition of airport surveillance capability. layout plans into the Airport Geographic Information Some airports have elected to install surveillance systems System application will improve the airport planning to complement ASDE-3/X and provide coverage of non- process. The FAA is also proceeding with research to movement areas. Because airports are able to monitor revise the separation standards for Closely Spaced Parallel operations on the airport surface more precisely, situational Operations (CSPO) on parallel runways. The revisions to awareness is improved. CSPO standards will be incremental throughout the mid- term and far-term periods to incorporate both existing The FAA recognizes and appreciates the efforts of airports and new technologies. An initial revision to the current and vendors to develop systems and tools to improve 4,300-foot minimum separation for independent arrivals is surface situational awareness. To date, the results show planned for 2012 as a result of revisions to blunder standards substantial promise, but challenges with data sharing and and with use of existing technologies such as Dual ILS. dependencies have emerged. As a result, the FAA requests Other revisions will follow and may be dependent on PBN that airports considering investments in surface surveillance and aircraft equipage. As revisions to CSPO standards technologies coordinate with us in advance on system become available, airports will be able to incorporate these design – particularly for vendor systems that rely on FAA improvements into their long-term planning. (Appendix B data sources such as ASDE-3/X. The FAA still is shaping highlights the FAA’s work on CSPO). the policy and processes to enable improved access to NAS data to support the emerging surface operational concepts www.faa.gov/nextgen 45 Appendix B Delivering the Mid-Term Vision This appendix provides a timeline and a summary of Each mid-term operational improvement, as identified the FAA’s key work plans in support of delivering the in the National Airspace System Enterprise Architecture operational improvements necessary to achieve our vision (NAS EA), has been broken down into a series of of operations for the NextGen mid-term. The integrated capabilities that can be deployed as they reach maturity. work plans developed by the agency to deliver the mid- In many cases, these capabilities provide immediate user term system support the required tracking, planning, benefits while contributing to the development of the reporting and execution needed to successfully implement operational improvements they support. The capabilities an integration project of the magnitude of NextGen. we expect to achieve operational status or be available to NAS users by the mid-term have been defined and This year we have chosen an operational orientation for are organized into the following nine implementation presenting the highlighted work activities that support portfolios: our mid-term vision, rather than the budget orientation we offered last year. Our work activity tables do, however, • Improved Surface Operations provide a reference to the funding mechanisms which • Improved Approaches and Low Visibility support those particular projects. • Closely Spaced, Parallel, Converging, and Intersecting Runway Operations • Performance Based Navigation • Time Based Flow Management • Collaborative Air Traffic Management • Automation Support for Separation Management • On-Demand NAS Information • Environment and Energy 46 NextGen Implementation Plan Additionally, our Common Services and Infrastructure that operational improvement or capability supports portfolio documents cross-cutting enablers that support the a recommendation of the RTCA NextGen Mid-Term capabilities included in the implementation portfolios. Implementation Task Force. Operational improvements and associated capabilities that In the next section, we provide timelines for the are still being clearly defined are included in our NextGen implementation of the operational improvements and Maturity and System Development portfolio. supporting capabilities. Capability timelines are color- coded to make it easier to discern when a project is in the As we continue our development work in support of those concept phase or the development phase, or when it will be later capabilities, we may need to make adjustments to our operational or available for use in the NAS. Operational portfolio structure as well as our schedules. A variety of improvement timelines illustrate the date range during factors such as program interdependencies, a realignment which the operational improvement will reach initial of priorities or other external drivers could potentially operational capability in the NAS. An arrow indicates that impact the assumptions under which this work plan has the improvement or capability continues in operation. been crafted. Finally, the bottom section lists selected elements of At the top of each portfolio is a visual representation of the work being done to achieve the NextGen mid-term the relationship between the operational improvements operational vision. It also indicates an activity’s budget and affected phases of flight. Below this graphic is the line as well as the activity’s relationship to the RTCA task list and description of the operational improvements force recommendations and to the NAS EA, as denoted and the supporting capabilities. Where appropriate, by the operational improvements (OIs). these descriptions include a reference to the supporting Common Services, as well as an indication as to whether www.faa.gov/nextgen 47 48 Improved Surface Operations 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 Phases of Flight 1 OI 104209: Initial Surface Traffic Management External Data Exchange The FAA will establish a data exchange infrastructure as well as integrated decision p q g g p g Departures are sequenced and staged to maintain throughput. Air Navigation Service NextGen Implementation Pla tools agreed to support tools, standards and processes that rely on agreed-to information exchange an Provider (ANSP) automation uses departure-scheduling tools to flow surface traffic at high- among stakeholders. density airports. Supported By: Aeronautical, Flight and Surveillance Common Services Task Force: Surface Task Force: Surface Situational Awareness Phase 1 (40), TFM Common Operational Picture (43), Surface Connectivity (38) and Surface Situational Airport Configuration Management Awareness Phase 2 (41) To improve responsiveness and effective use of airport resources, and rapidly coordinate airport configuration changes across multiple ANSP activities, this capability provides automation assistance for setting up assessing and changing the up, 2 OI 103207: Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Controllers airport configuration. At large airports, current controller tools provide surface displays and can alert controllers Supported By: Aeronautical and Surveillance Common Services when aircraft taxi into areas where a runway incursion could result. Additional ground- based capabilities will be developed to improve runway safety that include expansion of Runway Assignments runway surveillance technology (i.e., Airport Surface Detection Equipment-Model X To assist in efficient runway allocation and use, the automation assigns an aircraft to a (ASDE-X)) to additional airports. runway based on the flight’s departure fix and enables ANSP personnel to accept or Task Force: Surface modify the runway assignment. Supported By: Aeronautical and Surveillance Common Services ASDE-X to Additional Airports This increment enables air traffic control (ATC) to detect potential runway conflicts by Scheduling and Sequencing providing detailed coverage of movement on runways and taxiways. The capability displays the departure surface sequence and runway queues as a Supported By: Surveillance Common Service recommendation to the controller to improve throughput. The capability provides Task Force: Surface Situational Awareness, Phase 1 (40) Traffic Flow Management (TFM) constraints to tower controllers. The capability provides estimated flight-specific event times necessary to meet the departure surface 3 OI 103208: Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Pilots sequence and schedule These event times are shared with users schedule. users. Supported By: Aeronautical and Surveillance Common Services Runway safety operations are improved by providing pilots with improved awareness of their location on the airport surface as well as runway incursion alerting capabilities. Taxi Routing Additional enhancements may include the depiction of other traffic within the airport surface For improved taxi route efficiency, this capability provides dynamic information on environment. airport taxiways and runways integrated with controller displays. Supported By: Aeronautical and Surveillance Common Services Surface Indications and Alerts Surface Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) is a runway safety application for flight crews Departure Routing Depart re Ro ting f i ft ith C k it Di l f T ffi I f ti (CDTI)/T ffi I f ti of aircraft with Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI)/Traffic Information For improved departure operations, this capability provides tower controllers with Services-Broadcast (TIS-B)/Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), electronic flight data management and an interface to assessments of weather and where situations that may lead to or already represent a collision risk are highlighted Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) impacts on departure routes and associated on the moving map. Avionics for SURF IA are likely to require software and display flights. quality assurance levels higher than those for CDTI only. Supported By: Surveillance Common Service Moving Map with Own-Ship Position Cockpit displays, for instance Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs), may incorporate airport moving map displays that provide constantly changing views of an airport’s runways, taxiways and structures to help pilots identify the airplane’s location on the surface. Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service 3 Cont’d 4 OI 104207: Enhanced Surface Traffic Operations CDTI with TIS-B and ADS-B for Surface Terminal automation provides the ability to transmit automated terminal information, departure Surface traffic information for moving map displays is available via TIS-B and from clearances and amendments, and taxi route instructions via data communications, including p g pp aircraft operating with approved ADS-B capability. Using TIS-B and ADS-B, CDTI will p y g , hold-short instructions. provide a graphical depiction of ground and air traffic, which will improve situational Task Force: Cross-Cutting awareness for a variety of operations. Supported By: Surveillance Common Service Revised Departure Clearance via Data Comm A Revised Departure Clearance (DCL) Data Comm capability will allow the FAA to rapidly Enhanced Vision Systems (EVSs) for Taxi issue departure clearance revisions, due to weather or other airspace issues, to one or The FAA and industry are partnering to develop a taxi benefit for aircraft equipped with more aircraft equipped with Future Air Navigation System (FANS) waiting to depart. certified enhanced vision systems when ground visibility at a Part 139 airport is below Supported By: Communications Common Service minimum isibilit required surface operations, outlined the minim m visibility req ired for s rface operations as o tlined in the airport’s Force: Communications Revised Departure Clearance, Task Force Data Comm nications for Re ised Depart re Clearance Weather Surface Movement Guidance and Control System plan. Reroutes and Routine Communications (39) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 OI 104209: Initial Surface Traffic Management (2010-2017) Airport Configuration Management Runway Assignments Scheduling and Sequencing Taxi Routing Departure Routing External Data Exchange 2 OI 103207: Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Controllers (2012-2016) ASDE-X to Additional Airports (not part of NextGen budget) Enablers referenced in Appendix A: Airborne CDTI, 3 OI 103208: Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Pilots (2012-2016) Ground CDTI with Surface Indications and Alerts, and EFVS SURF IA Moving Map with Own-Ship Position CDTI with TIS-B and ADS-B for Surface EVSs for Taxi www.faa.gov/ Enablers referenced in Appendix A: ATN Baseline 4 OI 104207: Enhanced Surface Traffic Operations (2014-2018) 3 over VDL mode 2, ATN Baseline 2 over VDL mode /nextgen 2, and FANS 1/A+ (VDL mode 2) Revised Departure Clearance via Data Comm 49 Concept Development Operational Improved Surface Operations (cont’d) 50 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Arrivals/ 40 Trajectory Management - Focuses on the development 104209 Conducted field • Conduct field • Support technology transfer of mature surface Departures 43 Surface Tactical Flow of surface-based trajectory evaluation of Flight evaluations of 2D capabilities to Tower Flight Data Manager at High 38 operations and provides a Operation Surface Taxi Route (TFDM) system Density 41 roadmap for the development Application (FOSA) Generation, • Continue Surface Trajectory Based Operation Airports of a collaborative Surface version 2 and Departure Runway (STBO) field evaluations at Memphis and Traffic Management System. Collaborative Assignment, Airport Orlando Departure Queue Configuration, • Conduct Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation Management Departure of Collaborative Departure Scheduling NextGen Implementation Pla an (CDQM) version 2 Sequencing tools and • Conduct HITL simulation of Time-Based Taxi at Memphis and Deice Tool Route Generation Tool Orlando (11/30/10) • Begin HITL simulation of STBO Taxi Route Generation Arrivals/ 40 Trajectory Management - Establishes a net-centric 104209 Conducted • Add additional Departures Surface Tactical Flow - approach to deliver ASDE-X to operational airports to EDX at High Enhanced Data external aviation stakeholders. prototype with capability Density ASDE X data ready ASDE-X • Enhance Exchange (EDX) for Airports for external users Infrastructure to Airport Surface Data improve reliability Distribution Flexible 43 Flight and State Data Redefines and extends the 103207 • Conduct TFDM • Continue the development, installation, test Terminal 38 Management, TFDM and Arrival/Departure 104209 evaluations and and operation of a pre-production unit of Environment 9 Surface/Tower/Terminal Management Tool (A/DMT) 102406 demonstrations A/DMT with appropriate interfaces with En 41 concept of operations, funding g • Conduct HITLs to Route Automation Modernization Systems Engineering will be used to update current finalize TFDM (ERAM)/Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), analysis proposals and assess concept of use TFM/ Integrated Departure/Arrival Capability acquisition risks. (IDAC), TRACON, Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT) • Coordinate with an airport authority and aircraft/airlines at an operational site to support analysis and assessment of near-term benefits available from the A/DMT including: o Departure route assurance to reduce departure delays o Reduce departure queue lengths to reduce emissions/fuel burn o Taxi conformance monitoring to improve airport operations o Enhanced situational awareness to enhance airport safety p p p • Develop concept of operations for TFDM Phase 2 • Develop TFDM Phase 2 prototype • Conduct demonstrations of TFDM Phase 2 Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Arrivals/ j y Trajectory Management - g p Focuses on the potential 104209 Conducted second • Conduct third Surface g • Continue conducting Surface Conformance Departures Surface Conformance safety and workload benefits Surface Conformance (2D) (2D) HITL simulations at High Monitoring that can be achieved through a Conformance (2D) HITL simulations • Tech transfer of 2D Surface Conformance Density comprehensive taxi route HITL simulations Monitoring concept of use, requirements, ATC Airports management and using hold short Procedures to TFDM program conformance monitoring and give way • Initial HITL simulation of STBO Surface capability. instructions Conformance Monitoring • Update concept of use, requirements, ATC Procedures for STBO Surface Conformance Monitoring www.faa.gov/ 51 /nextgen 52 Improved Approaches and Low-Visibility Operations 7 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 Phases of Flight 1 OI 107119: Expanded Low-Visibility Operations Using Lower RVR Minima Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and RNP Authorization Required (AR) Approaches g y Lowering Runway Visual Range ( ) (or g (RVR) minima from 2,400 feet to 1,800 feet ( lower, curved, A key feature of RNP and RNP AR approaches is the ability to use curved guided path NextGen Implementation Pla an depending on the airport and requirement) at selected airports using RVR systems, aircraft segments (known as radius-to-fix, or RF; currently, an optional capability in aircraft flight capabilities, and procedural changes provides greater access to Operational Evolution management systems). Another important advantage of RNP AR approaches is the Partnership (OEP), reliever and feeder airports during low-visibility conditions. potential for decoupling operations associated with adjacent runways or airports. Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service Additional RVR Sensors Supported By: Aeronautical and Weather Common Services 4 OI 104124: Use Optimized Profile Descent 2 Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) permit aircraft to remain at higher altitudes on arrival to OI 107117: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Approach Operations the airport and use lower power settings during descent. The ability to complete approaches in low-visibility/ceiling conditions is improved for aircraft Task Force: Cross-Cutting equipped with some combination of navigation derived from augmented Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) or Instrument Landing System (ILS) and other cockpit-based OPDs Using RNAV and RNP STARs technologies or combinations of cockpit-based technologies and ground infrastructure. OPD procedures are being implemented as RNAV STARs (eventually as RNP STARs, where necessary) with vertical profiles that are designed to allow aircraft to descend Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) to 100 Feet g g p points along the using reduced or even idle thrust settings from the top of descent to p g The FAA is engaged in making new rules to enhance the benefits of having EFVS downwind or final approach. capability by allowing operators to dispatch and begin instrument approaches in more Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service weather conditions than currently authorized. Initial Tailored Arrivals (ITAs) Synthetic Vision System (SVS) for Lower Than Standard Approach Minima Operations ITAs are pre-planned, fixed routings assigned by oceanic air traffic control facilities and The FAA is evaluating various concepts for allowing SVS technology to be used to sent from the Oceanic Automation System (Ocean21) via data communications to conduct instrument approach procedures with lower than standard minima (e.g., Cat II, suitably equipped (i.e., FANS 1/A) aircraft as an arrival clearance into coastal airports. SA Cat I SA Cat II) or in lieu of certain ground infrastructure I, II), infrastructure. Supported By: Communications Common Service Task Force: Communications for Revised Departure Clearance, Weather Reroutes OI 107103: Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs), and Routine Communications (42a) 3 Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) and Approaches Task Force: NAS Access 5 OI 107107: Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) Precision Approaches Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) Approach Procedures GBAS support precision approaches to Category I and eventually Category II/III minimums, procedures, LPV approach procedures which are available to aircraft equipped with GPS/ Wide Area for properly equipped runways and aircraft. GBAS can support approach minimums at aircraft Augmentation System (WAAS), are more cost-effective to implement in comparison with airports with fewer restrictions to surface movement, and offers the potential for curved the installation of additional ground-based navigation aids (NAVAIDs) and the precision approaches. GBAS also can support high-integrity surface movement development of approach procedures for those NAVAIDs. In addition to LPV approach requirements. procedure implementation, the FAA will deliver LP approaches to runways that do not qualify for LPVs due to obstacles. GBAS Category I Non-Federal System Approval Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service GBAS Category I is being implemented as a non-federal system on a per-airport request Task Force: Implement LPV Approach Procedures to Airports without Precision p pp p basis. Approach Capabilities (22) GBAS Category II/III ICAO-compliant standards for operational use of GBAS Category II/III systems will be published by 2015. 6 OI 107118: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Landing Operations 7 OI 107115: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Take-off Operations The ability to land in low-visibility/ceiling conditions is improved for aircraft equipped with y y g p q pp Leveraging a combination of head-up g g g y , p guidance systems, EFVS, SVS, or advanced vision , , some combination of navigation derived from augmented GNSS or ILS, and head-up system capabilities will allow appropriately equipped aircraft to conduct takeoff operations with guidance systems, EFVS, SVS, advanced vision system, and other cockpit-based lower visibility minima. technologies that combine to improve human performance. EFVS for Takeoff EFVS to Touch down The FAA is evaluating the use of EFVS for low-visibility takeoff operations. The FAA is engaged in rulemaking that would permit EFVS to be used to touch down. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 OI 107119: Expanded Low-Visibility OI 107119: Expanded Low-Visibility 1 Operations Using Lower Operations Using Lower RVR RVR Enabler referenced in Appendix A: Heads-Up Display (HUD) Minima (2009-2011) Minima (2009-2011) Note: OI 107119 is ready for continued expansion. Additional RVR Sensors 2 OI 107117: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Approach Operations (2010-2015) Enabler referenced in Appendix A: EFVS EFVS to 100 Feet Note: EFVS to 100 feet is approved and ready for expansion. continued expansion SVS for Lower Than Standard Approach Minima Operations 3 OI 107103: RNAV SIDs, STARs and Approaches (2010-2015) Enablers referenced in Appendix A: RNAV, LPV Approach Procedures RNP with Curved Path, RNP AR Approaches, d and LPV RNP and RNP AR Approaches 4 OI 104124: Use OPD (2010-2018) OPDs Using RNAV and RNP STARs Enablers referenced in Appendix A: RNAV and ith Curved P th RNP with C d Path ITAs Enabler referenced in Appendix A: GBAS/GLS 5 OI 107107: GBAS Precision Approaches (2013-2018) GBAS Category I Non-Federal System Approval www.faa.gov/ GBAS Category II/III /nextgen Concept Development Operational 53 Improved Approaches and Low-Visibility Operations (cont’d) 54 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Enabler referenced in Appendix A: EFVS Low-Visibility/Ceiling (2015-2018) 6 OI 107118: Low Visibility/Ceiling Landing Operations (2015 2018) EFVS to Touch down Enabler referenced in Appendix A: EFVS 7 OI 107115: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Takeoff Operations (2015-2018) EFVS for Takeoff NextGen Implementation Pla an Concept Development Operational Selected Work Activities Task Budget Line Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Force Flexible Separation Begins implementation of GBAS 107107 Awarded Category II/III • Finalize Category III ground facility Terminal Management, at the nation’s busiest airports Local Area specification Environment Approaches, (OEP 35) to achieve capacity and Augmentation System • Award contract to validate Category efficiency benefits by integrating ground facility prototype III avionics standards and Ground Based RNAV and RNP capabilities with contract interoperability Augmentation the Category 1 GBAS Landing • Complete operational feasibility System (GBAS) System capability. determination Flexible Separation Develops and baselines 107119 Completed initial • Implement lower RVR • Complete initial concept of Terminal Management, specifications and initiates concept of operations minimums at: operations for Navigation Surface Environment Approaches, solution development including for navigation surface o Philadelphia (PHL) 27R Requirements acquisition and testing of requirements o San Francisco (SFO) • Based on the Flight Standards NAS- NextGen navigation aid equipment. 28L wide implementation schedule for Navigation o Denver (DEN) 16R terminal RNAV, devise the roll-out Initiatives o Houston International schedule for required navigation (IAH) 9 systems o Cleveland (CLE) 24L • Define current arrival variability, runway occupancy times (day/light, clear/low-visibility) as a baseline to improving exiting from the runway • Define a future set of taxi-out and taxi-in time-based performance requirements that reduce variability in surface operations. Use these requirements to assess the current performance at OEP airports to define how much change will be needed and the feasibility of those changes Task Budget Line Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Force Flexible p Separation Develops and baselines 107118 Completed Enhanced • Continue initial development • Complete MALSR LED/Infrared Terminal Management, specifications and initiates 107119 Low Visibility and design of Medium- lamps prototype design Environment Approaches, solution development including operational Intensity Approach Lighting • Complete functional configuration acquisition and testing of improvements System with Runway audit for LED PAPI Optimize Navigation navigation aid equipment. Alignment Indicator (MALSR) Technology Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Lamp Solution • Continue initial development and design of LED Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) System Solution Demonstrations 42a High Density Airport Makes arrivals to high density Continued TAs at LAX, Capacity and airports more efficient; it has SFO and MIA Efficiency several implications such as reduced time and distance of Improvement flights including the optimization Project of the lateral and vertical paths. www.faa.gov/ 55 /nextgen 56 Closely Spaced, Parallel, Converging and Intersecting Runway Operations 3 1 2 1 3 Phases of Flight OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using Area Navigation (RNAV) 3 OI 102141: Improved Parallel Runway Operations 1 and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) This improvement will explore concepts to recover lost capacity through reduced separation NextGen Implementation Pla trajectories Both RNAV and RNP will enable more efficient aircraft trajectories. RNAV and RNP t d d i d standards, increased applications of dependent and independent operations, enabled li ti fd d t di d d t ti bl d an combined with airspace changes, increase airspace efficiency and capacity. operations in lower visibility conditions and changes in separation responsibility between air Task Force: Runway Access traffic control (ATC) and the flight deck. Task Force: Runway Access Use Converging Runway Display Aid (CRDA) This increment will add CRDA functionality into terminal automation systems and Additional 7110.308 Airports expand its use at more airports, as well as leverage the arrival/departure window tool. This increment provides airports with maximum use of closely spaced parallel runways p y g p g g Task Force: Increase Capacity and Throughput for Converging and Intersecting g by authorizing participating aircraft to operate at reduced lateral and longitudinal Runways (9) spacing on dependent, instrument approach procedures to runways with centerline spacing less than 2,500 feet. This increment will expand the application of FAA Order OI 102140: Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD): 7110.308 beyond the locations and runway ends already approved. 2 Wind-Based Wake Procedures Task Force: Increase Use of Staggered Approaches (12) Procedures are developed at applicable locations based on the results of analysis of wake measurements and safety analysis using wake modeling and visualization. During peak Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals-Procedures (WTMA-P) for Heavy/757 Aircraft demand periods, these procedures allow airports to maintain airport departure throughput This increment expands the use of procedural dependent staggered approach during favorable wind conditions. ti t ll B i dh i ft t l d thi d separation to allow Boeing 757 and heavy aircraft to lead this procedure. WTMD Amend Independent and Dependent Runway Standards in Order 7110.65 (Including Procedures are developed through analysis of wake measurements and safety Blunder Model Analysis) analysis using wake modeling and visualization. During peak demand periods, these This increment amends runway spacing standards to achieve increased access to procedures allow airports to maintain airport departure throughput during favorable parallel runways with centerline spacing less than 4,300 feet and implements this wind conditions. A staged implementation of changes in procedures and standards, as change at approved locations. well as the implementation of new technology, will safely reduce the impact of wake technology Task Force: Revise the Blunder Assumptions (13) vortices on operations. This reduction applies to specific types of aircraft and is based on wind blowing an aircraft’s wake away from the parallel runway’s operating area. Implement SATNAV or ILS for Parallel Runway Operations This increment will enable policy, standards and procedures to allow use of Satellite Navigation (SATNAV) or Instrument Landing System (ILS) when conducting simultaneous independent and dependent instrument approaches, and implement this new capability at approved locations. Task Force: Implement CSPO: SATNAV or ILS (37a) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Enablers referenced in 1 OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP (2010-2014) Appendix A: RNAV and RNP with Curved Path Use CRDA 2 OI 102140: WTMD: Wind-Based Wake Procedures (2011-2016) WTMD Enabler referenced in Appendix A: 3 OI 102141: Improved Parallel Runway Operations (2012-2018) Paired Approach Guidance and Alerting Additional 7110.308 Airports y WTMA-P for Heavy/757 Aircraft Amend Independent and Dependent Runway Standards in Order 7110.65 (Including Blunder Model Analysis) Implement SATNAV or ILS for Parallel Runway Operations Concept Development Operational Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Collaborative Flight and State Data Develops a framework for 108209 • Initiate analysis of equipage • Conduct feasibility Air Traffic Management, Concept integrated National Airspace Design 102141 and avionics capabilities assessment of simultaneous Management Development for and Procedures planning, required through the mid- ILS, RNP AR descent enhancements to existing term to support best- • Conduct research and Integrated NAS Design infrastructure to support impact equipped, best-served analysis associated with the and Procedure Planning t assessments, and d l initial d develops i iti l feasibility of the elimination of concept for best-equipped, best- the requirement of 1,000 feet served. of altitude separation during simultaneous turn onto final approach Flexible Separation Evaluates WTMA feasibility 102141 • Complete WTMA feasibility • Complete WTMA concept Terminal Management, Wake prototype at a candidate airport. 102144 prototype evaluation using feasibility prototype evaluation Environment Turbulence Mitigation Concludes detailed benefit and p implementation on chosen in simulated candidate airport p safety assessments for the simulated automation environments for Arrivals (WTMA) implementation of WTMA system • Complete analyses and procedures. documentation of WTMA requirements • Evaluate wake mitigation technology solutions www.faa.gov/ 57 /nextgen Closely Spaced, Parallel, Converging and Intersecting Runway Operations (cont’d) 58 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Flexible Separation Management, Performs safety risk management 102141 Completed prototype of • Deliver demonstration to • Complete regional service center Terminal Wake Turbulence analysis, tests and evaluations of WTMD demonstration first site, Houston (IAH) engineering and installation of Environment Mitigation for Departures wake turbulence mitigation and system at William J. WTMD components in Memphis departure procedures. Hughes Technical (MEM) and San Francisco (SFO) (WTMD) Center ATC towers • Install data links necessary for WTMD operation at MEM and SFO NextGen Implementation Pla an • At IAH, MEM and SFO continue providing: WTMD software adaptation, software maintenance, hardware maintenance (preventive and corrective) on any WTMD unique system components, and daily service certification Flexible 37a Separation Management, Examines alternate proposals for 102141 Upgraded CSPO • Complete first stage • Conduct further Human-in-the- Terminal 13 Closely Spaced Parallel further reductions of separation modeling and simulation analyses to re-evaluate the Loop (HITL) tests to evaluate Environment Runway Operations standards in runway spacing, and tool with version 2 blunder model for CSPO operational application for Dual conducts simulator trials to collect software enhancements and determine the impact ILS/RNAV/ Precision Runway (CSPO) data and conduct analysis. on reducing lateral runway Monitor (PRM)/ separation standards Wake/Blunder/ADS-B • Develop Safety Management y q System requirements for approaches at reduced separation standards in runway spacing • Determine minimum spacing for simultaneous independent approaches • Conduct demonstrations to validate concept and i t d bt i buy-in requirements and obtain b i from stakeholders • Develop and coordinate Safety Risk Management Document (SRMD) for approaches at reduced separation standards for runway spacing • Continue CSPO blunder model enhancements • Continue HITL activities to support CSPO • Continue to implement procedures for CSPO at additional airports Performance Based Navigation 1 1 1 Phases of Flight 1 OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) can enable more efficient aircraft trajectories. RNAV and RNP, combined with airspace changes, increase airspace efficiency and capacity. Task Force: Metroplex, Cruise and Overarching Integrated Airspace and Procedures Tools/Automation Optimization of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Procedures Relative Position Indicator (RPI) Additional teams of stakeholders will be created to address short-term PBN procedures RPI is a tool that can assist both the controller and traffic management in managing the optimization. flow of traffic through a terminal area merge point. Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service Task Force: Optimize and Increase RNAV Procedures (32a and 29) Automated Terminal Proximity Alert (ATPA) ATPA is an air traffic control (ATC) automation tool that provides situational awareness and Large-Scale Redesign of Terminal and Transition Airspace Leveraging PBN alerts to controllers on color displays of Common Automated Radar Terminal System The Integrated Airspace and Procedures approach provides a geographic focus to problem (CARTS) and on Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS) displays. displays solving, with a systems view of PBN initiatives, to the design of airspace. Task Force: Achieving Existing 3- and 5-Mile Separation Standards Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service Task Force: Integrate Procedure Design to Deconflict Airport, Implement RNP with FMC Route Offset RF Capability, and Expand Use of Terminal Separation Rules (4, 21a and 32b), Automation provides controllers with support to amend an aircraft’s flight plan to indicate Increase Capacity and Throughput for Converging and Intersecting Runways (9) that it has been placed on, or has been taken off, a Flight Management Computer (FMC) lateral offset. Transition to PBN Routing for Cruise Operations Supported By: Flight Common Service This approach augments the conventional NAVAID-based Jet and Victor airways with RNAVs, including Q-routes and T-routes. PBN Route Eligibility Check Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service En Route Automation will check the eligibility of aircraft to operate on performance- Task Force: Develop RNAV-Based En Route System (30) restricted routes. Supported By: Flight Common Service Navigation System Infrastructure NextGen En Route Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Infrastructure Additional DME coverage over the continental United States is needed to optimize and expand RNAV routes by closing coverage gaps at and above Flight Level 240. www.faa.gov/ 59 /nextgen Performance Based Navigation (cont’d) 60 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 p y OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP ( y g ) (2010-2014) Enablers referenced in Appendix A: RNAV and en Optimization of PBN Procedures RNP with Curved Path Large-Scale Redesign of Terminal and Transition Airspace Leveraging PBN Transition to PBN Routing for Cruise Operations NextGen En Route DME Infrastructure NextGe Implementation Plan RPI ATPA FMC Route Offset PBN Route Eligibility Check Concept Development Operational Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Operations 4 New York/New Increases efficiency and reliability of the airspace Completed initial designs • Implement Stage 2A • Implement remaining stages 21a Jersey/ structure and ATC to accommodate growth while supporting Stage 2A • Complete airspace designs 32b Philadelphia enhancing safety, reducing delay and taking implementation decision for remaining stages advantage of new technologies. This project Metropolitan encompasses a complete redesign of the airspace in Area Airspace the New York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas. Redesign It capitalizes on PBN, higher downwind segments for arrival aircraft, unrestricted departure climbs, fanned departure headings and holding in terminal airspace. The four implementation stages started in December 2007 and are planned through 2012. Operations 4 Chicago Encompasses significant increases in en route Completed airspace • Initiate ZAU airspace • Implement Stage 3 21a Airspace departure throughput with several new departure design for Stage 3 High divestitures to Grissom Air (coincident with OMP runway 32b Project routes planned (east, west and south) and supports and Wide Reserve Base to enable a 10C/28C completion) the O’Hare Modernization Project (OMP) with new Completed 10-sector low altitude arrival routes and airspace to capitalize on the new environmental design redesign which will improve O Hare. runways at O’Hare. The project also includes review efficiency and reduce efficiencies for other airports in the Chicago area. complexity The three implementation stages started in March 2007 and are planned through 2013. Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force p Operations 4 Las Vegas g p Provides near-term modification of airspace and p Developed RNAV p • Complete Las Vegasg p g • Implement Las Vegas 21a Optimization procedures supporting the Las Vegas Valley. This procedures for optimization environmental procedure optimization Project effort is developing new PBN departure and arrival Henderson Executive assessment 32b routes and realigning airspace to increase efficiency Airport scheduled to be • Complete Henderson at McCarran International Airport and surrounding published in 2011 procedure optimization satellite airports. The implementation is planned to Modified 2 existing DME start in June 2011 and continue through 2013. to accommodate current DME operational requirement Operations 32a Metroplex Expedites versions of Integrated Airspace and Simulated study team Selected next 5 sites for • Continue 29 Optimization Procedures projects, but with an expedited life cycle process to identify deployment of study teams. design/implementation teams of Airspace of two to three years from planning to limitations and These sites are: Atlanta, to provide a systematic, implementation. The focus of these efforts is on recommend Houston, Southern effective approach to the and implementation of optimized PBN arrivals and modifications prior to California, Northern design, evaluation and Procedures departures and airspace changes to support optimal deployment of actual California and Charlotte, implementation of PBN- routings. This concept is based on a two-team study teams N.C. optimized airspace and approach: study teams and design/implementation Initiated 2 prototype • Initiate 2-3 design/ procedures teams. study teams in north implementation teams to Texas and Washington, provide a systematic, D.C., metroplexes effective approach to the design, evaluation and implementation of PBN- optimized airspace and procedures Operations O ti 32a 32 PBN Adds ffi i ith d Add efficiency with new PBN procedures and d Implemented a total of I l t d t t l f • C ti i t t d design Continue integrated d i Continue to implement user • C ti t i l t 29 Procedures optimizes existing initial capability PBN procedures. 200 PBN routes and and implementation of the requested PBN procedures Most of the procedures have proponents from procedures including 51 PBN procedures at Denver industry and/or ATC. These PBN procedures routes, 90 RNAV • Continue to implement PBN address location-specific safety issues and Standard Instrument routes and procedures in the efficiencies. Departures (SIDs) and NAS Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs), and 59 RNP Authorization Required approach procedures Developed initial PBN routes and procedures designs for integrated procedures and airspace project at Denver Operations 30 E Route PBN En R t Continues development and implementation of PBN Developed a draft • Finalize the Q route Q-route • Continue the Q route Q-route – Q-Routes Q-routes as the national routing infrastructure. Q-route implementation implementation plan and implementation plan plan initiate the implementation Initiated development of process Q-routes www.faa.gov/ 61 /nextgen Performance Based Navigation (cont’d) 62 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force en Operations National Airspace Represents the Published • Continue Airspace Management • Transition to Integrated Airspace and and Procedures agreements and Version 1 as Program legacy projects Procedures approach for airspace and PBN Plan commitments of the FAA the baseline of • Complete annual PBN procedure procedures efforts to modernize the airspace the current development goals; transition to • Use results of demonstration efforts and and procedures to solve NAS benefits-based service goals concept exploration experiments, which should problems in core areas. • Focus on optimal altitude procedures be available to inform decisions about inclusion Also, it includes of future concepts (e.g., Integrated evolutionary activities such y • Use metroplex teams to drive optimization and d i i ti i ti d decisions on Arrival/Departure Operations and High Altitude as concepts and Trajectory Based Airspace) demonstrations related to Integrated Airspace and Procedures NextGe Implementation Plan airspace and PBN. projects • Execute multi-year plan for Q-route development and implementation Trajectory Capacity Provides the necessary 108209 • Award contract • Develop recommendation on future program Based Management - equipment enhancements, plans based on FY 2010-2011 deliverables and Operations NextGen DME relocations, and associated requirements to fill the gaps to replacements to ensure enable Performance Based Navigation in the that DME facilities are high altitude route structure available in accordance • Deploy NextGen DME with the FAA's NextGen Implementation Plan. Flexible 9 Separation Performs analysis, 108209 Developed • Develop Prototype Terminal Management, systems engineering and demonstration/ demonstration/HITL consolidated Environment Enhancing support modifications and Human-in-the- Human in the report improvements to STARS Loop (HITL) • Conduct impact assessment – trade Terminals and and CARTS to support test plan study for HITL Airports - Terminal merging multiple RNAV Enhancements for routings in the terminal RNAV ATC environment. Separation Performs pre- 108209 Delivered • Continue development of PBN • Develop, evaluate and validate improvements Trajectory Management, g , implementation activities variable Conformance Monitor and Alert to the strategic conflict detection and prediction Based Modern necessary to transition separation algorithms, the trajectory model, and the Operations separation management concept of conflict alert algorithms Procedures automation enhancements operations • Develop, evaluate and validate the (Separation for implementation and requirements for flight data display Automation continued functionality for enhancements to support elimination of flight Enhancements, PBN route eligibility strips in non-surveillance airspace Data-Side and checking for inclusion in • Provide regulated access to specific aircraft Radar-Side) En Route Automation using dynamic special activity airspace to Modernization Release 3 3. promote fuller use of available airspace • Complete prototype development for FMC Route Offset Demonstration RNAV/RNP Demonstrates the safe and • Initiate RNAV/RNP terminal area • Conduct demonstrations and operational trials Demonstration effective integration of demonstration at a small/medium on technologies, supporting safety logic, air public RNP operations in a airport traffic management and aircraft performance to mixed-equipage traffic identify any uncertainty or deficiency (risks) to environment at a performance and/or to validate the integration ll/ di i small/medium airport. t d/ implementation of N tG and/or i l t ti f NextGen technologies, applications, procedures and/or standards Time Based Flow Management 1 3 1 4 2 4 1 2 4 4 Phases of Flight OI 104115: Current Tactical Management of Flow in the En Route 2 OI 104123: Time-Based Metering Using RNAV and RNP Route Assignments 1 for Arrivals/Departures Area Navigation (RNAV), Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Time-Based Proper spacing end sequencing of air traffic maximizes National Airspace System (NAS) Metering (TBM) provide efficient use of runways and airspace in high-density airport efficiency and capacity in the arrival and departure phases of flight. environments. Metering automation will manage the flow of aircraft to meter fixes, thus Task Force: Cruise permitting efficient use of runways and airspace. Advisor’s Implement Traffic Management Advisor s (TMA) Adjacent Center Metering (ACM) Use Route Data to Calculate Trajectories Used to Conduct U RNAV R t D t t C l l t T j t i U d t C d t TBM Operations O ti Capability at Additional Locations The Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) RNAV routes for both Standard To expand the benefits of time-based metering and Time Based Flow Management’s Instrument Departures (SIDs) and Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) will be (TBFM) other advanced flow management capabilities, ACM will be implemented at used to calculate the terminal component of aircraft trajectories. the following additional locations: LAX — ACM from ZAB and ZLA; SFO — ACM from Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service ZSE, ZOA, ZLA and ZLC; SAN — ACM from ZLA and ZOA; ATL — ACM from ZDC and ZHU; and IAD — ACM from ZNY. 3 OI 104120: Point-in-Space Metering Supported By: Weather and Flight Common Services T kF E dU f Ti B dM t i Task Force: Expand Use of Time-Based Metering (24) Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) uses scheduling tools and trajectory-based operations to assure smooth flow of traffic and increase the efficient use of airspace. Implement TMA at Additional Airports To expand the benefits of time-based metering and TBFM’s other advanced flow Extended Metering management capabilities, TBFM will be implemented at the following additional Will provide flow deconfliction for metered aircraft at the meter reference points locations: Baltimore, Md. (BWI); Cleveland, Ohio (CLE); Washington, D.C. (DCA); San (upstream from the meter fixes). Diego, Calif. (SAN); Morristown, N.J. (MMU); Teterboro, N.J. (TEB). Supported By: Weather and Flight Common Services Supported By: Weather and Flight Common Services Task Force: Expand Use of Time-Based Metering (24) 4 OI 104117: Improved Arrival, Surface, Departure, Flow Operations This integrates advanced arrival/departure flow management with advanced surface operation functions to improve overall airport capacity and efficiency. Integrated Departure/Arrival Capability (IDAC) Increases NAS efficiency and reduces delays by providing decision-making support capabilities for departure flows. IDAC automates the process of monitoring departure biliti f d t fl t t th f it i d t demand and identifying departure slots for tower personnel. Supported By: Weather and Flight Common Services www.faa.gov/ 63 /nextgen Time Based Flow Management (cont’d) 64 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 OI 104115: Current Tactical Management of Flow in the En Route for Arrivals/Departures (2010-2014) Implement TMA’s ACM Capability at Additional Locations Implement TMA at Additional Airports NextGen Implementation Pla an 2 OI 104123: Time-Based Metering Using RNAV and RNP Route Assignments (2012-2016) Enabler referenced in Use RNAV Route Data to Calculate Trajectories Used to Conduct TBM Operations Appendix A: RNAV 3 OI 104120: Point-in-Space Metering (2012-2016) Extended Metering OI 104117: Improved Arrival, Surface, Departure, 4 Flow Operations (2015-2018) IDAC Concept Development Operational Selected Work Activities Budget B d t T k Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Trajectory Trajectory Supports the FAA Air Traffic 104120 Completed TBFM concept of Based Management, En Organization mission by operations Operations Route increasing the efficiency of the air Developed coupled traffic operations and reducing scheduling design and (Point-in-Space users’ delays through the use of requirements documentation Metering) g) TBM TBM. Arrivals/ 7b Trajectory Provides a consistent flow of 104115 Developed TBFM business Departures at 8 Management – traffic to the runway using TBM. case documentation (shortfall High Density 46 Arrival Tactical TMA/TBFM is an Air Route analysis, concept of use, cost Airports 24 Traffic Control Center (ARTCC)- Rough Orders of Magnitude, Flow (TBO – based decision-support tool projected benefits, En Route designed to optimize the flow of architecture artifacts, Point-in-Space aircraft into capacity constrained implementation strategy) and Metering) areas. program b li baseline approval l Developed TBFM training requirements Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Time Based Time Based Flow Provides a consistent flow of 104115 p • Develop, test and deploy coupled p y p p p y • Develop, test and deploy Flow Management traffic to the runway using TBM. scheduling capability, extended metering, IDAC and Management (TBFM) TMA/TBFM is an ARTCC-based incorporating deconflicted the capability to apply RNAV decision-support tool designed to metering points in ARTCC routes to calculate trajectories optimize the flow of aircraft into airspace and enabling the • Deploy ACM and the TMA capacity constrained areas. subsequent extended metering capabilities to additional capability locations in the NAS • Initiate site survey and adaptation activities to implement ACM at additional locations and TMA at additional airports • Initiate development of detailed requirements analysis for the IDAC Flexible 43 Flight and State Redefines and extends the 104117 Completed TFDM • Conduct TFDM evaluations and • Develop concept of operations Terminal 38 Data Tower Flight Data Manager Investment Analysis demonstrations for TFDM Phase 2 Environment 9 Management, Management (TFDM) and Arrival/Departure Readiness Decision • Conduct Human-in-the-Loop tests Human in the Loop • Develop operation evaluation 41 Management Tool (A/DMT) to finalize TFDM concept of use model Surface/Tower/ concept of operations. Funding • Develop TFDM Phase 2 Terminal Systems will be used to update current prototype Engineering analysis proposals and assess • Conduct demonstrations of acquisition risks. TFDM Phase 2 Collaborative 35 Flight and State Addresses information and 104117 Developed concept of • Deliver digital airport structure • Develop concepts for common Air Traffic Data capability gaps within operations and Enterprise and configuration information to adaptation to support base Management Management, aeronautical information to Architecture for a national support situational awareness information for TBFM activities achieve NextGen shared Special Activity Airspace • Initiate limited deployment of Common Status situational awareness. standards-based common and Structure adaptation to NAS Data Demonstrations Demonstrations Tests and demonstrates Conducted 2D Aircraft and Infrastructure emerging technologies as they Flight Trial in Denver Development are developed to allow the FAA to meet the NextGen mid-term goals and objectives. www.faa.gov/ 65 /nextgen 66 Collaborative Air Traffic Management 3 1 2 3 3 Phases of Flight 1 OI 105302: Continuous Flight Day Evaluations 3 OI 105208: TMIs with Flight-Specific Trajectories Continuous (real-time) constraints are provided to Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) This capability will increase the agility of the NAS to adjust and respond to dynamically NextGen Implementation Pla t ffi management decision-support tools and the National Airspace S t traffic td i i tt l d th N ti l Ai System (NAS) users. h changing conditions such as impacting weather, congestion and system outages. i diti h i ti th ti d t t an Task Force: Integrated Air Traffic Management and Data Comm Enhanced Congestion Prediction The Enhanced Congestion Prediction increment provides improved capabilities to Basic Rerouting Capability assess the impact of a set of reroutes on the level of demand and other performance This capability is the means by which Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS)- metrics for a point of interest. generated reroutes are defined and transmitted via System Wide Information Supported By: Aeronautical and Weather Common Services Management (SWIM). Suppo ted y g t a d eat e Co o Se ces Supported By: Flight and Weather Common Services Automated Congestion Resolution The Automated Congestion Resolution increment recommends reroutes for flight- Delivery of Pre-Departure Reroutes to Controllers specific Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs). This allows the traffic manager to adjust This increment will give En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) additional the target parameters and evaluate the required trajectory adjustments. capabilities to receive amended routes pre-departure and provide updated flight data Supported By: Aeronautical and Weather Common Services to the tower. Supported By: Flight Common Service 2 Task Force: Improve CATM Automation to Negotiate User-Preferred Routes and g OI 101102: Provide Full Flight Plan Constraint Evaluation Alt t T j t i (7b d d Digital Air Traffic Control Alternate Trajectories (7b, 8 and 46) and Di it l Ai T ffi C t l Constraint information that impacts the proposed route of flight is incorporated into ANSP Communications for Revised Departure Clearances, Reroutes and Routine automation, and is available to users. Communications (39) Task Force: Integrated Air Traffic Management Electronic Negotiations The Electronic Negotiations increment provides flight planners with information about congestion along their intended routes and proposes flight-specific rerouting. Supported By: Weather Common Service Task Force: Integrated System-Wide Approach (CDM/TFM/ATC) (47) and Improve CATM Automation to Negotiate User-Preferred and Alternative Trajectories (7b, 8 and 46) 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 OI 105302: Continuous Flight Day Evaluations (2012-2018) Enhanced Congestion Prediction Automated Congestion Resolution 2 OI 101102: Provide Full Flight Plan Constraint Evaluation (2013-2018) g Electronic Negotiations OI 105208: TMIs with Flight- Specific 3 Trajectories (2014-2015) Basic Rerouting Capability Delivery of Pre-Departure Reroutes to Controllers Concept Development Operational Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Collaborative 7b Flow Control Refines active aircraft reroutes 105208 Developed concept of • Conduct analysis for • Conduct risk reduction Air Traffic 8 Management, concepts; develops active aircraft operations for airborne airborne reroute analysis and integration Management 46 St t i Flow Strategic Fl analyzes, reroute requirements; analyzes reroutes altitude reroutes, requirements engineering products for simulates and develops white modification, etc. strategic flow use of airborne Management papers on active aircraft reroutes. reroutes in support of Integration integrated arrival/departure (Integration management Execution of Flow • Implement pre-departure Strategies into reroutes in ERAM with no Controller Tools) automated coordination with Terminal and simulations of airborne reroute procedures Collaborative 47 Flow Control Refines concept of operations for 105208 Developed initial Traffic • Initiate demand and capacity • Develop more efficient and Air Traffic Management, strategic flow management, analysis 101102 Flow Management (TFM) balancing demonstration tailored combinations of traffic Management Strategic Flow and white paper of strategic flow concept of operations • Deliver report that evaluates management initiatives for management, and modeling and document the business logic for strategic flow management Management simulation. balancing capacity and through concept engineering, Enhancement demand predictions including prototypes traffic (Enhancing the Human in analysis tools and Human-in- Strategic Flow the-Loop (HITL) simulations Program) Collaborative 47 Flight and State Data Addresses information and capability 105302 Developed concept of • Deliver digital airport • Develop concepts for common Air Traffic Management, gaps within aeronautical information 105208 operations and Enterprise structure and configuration adaptation to support base Management Common Status and to achieve NextGen shared Architecture for a National information to support information for CATM activities situational awareness and Trajectory Special Activity Airspace situational awareness • Begin limited deployment of Structure Data Based Operations vision. standards-based common www.faa.gov/ d t ti to adaptation t NAS 67 /nextgen Collaborative Air Traffic Management (cont’d) 68 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Collaborative Flight and State Data Integrates weather into air traffic 105302 Developed requirement • Apply industry standards • Complete prototypes, Air Traffic Management, Advanced management (ATM); probabilistic 105208 recommendations for exchange formats for concepts of use and Management Methods TFM Area Flow Program will 101102 integrated weather in ATM inclusion in decision-support demonstrate unified flight develop advanced algorithms to tools planning and filing making use support the area flow support tool. of constraint management Creates a unified flight planning through a hypercube and filing by continuing assessment of supporting probabilistic TFM NextGen Implementation Pla f f d fuzzy performance and common d l ith integrated models with i t t d an reference to the ATM domain. weather Collaborative Flight and State Data Facilitates the sharing of common 101102 Hosted the Flight Object • Deliver the Flight Object • Continue to develop Flight Air Traffic Management, Flight flight information between systems Industry Day global flight identifier report Object Data Dictionary Management Object and enables collaboration using Completed development of • Deliver the high-level Flight • Continue to model Flight common reference framework. The an initial Flight Object Data Object benefit approach Object data Flight Object is an extensible and Dictionary y report p • Host joint Flight Object and dynamic collection of data elements aeronautical information that describes an individual flight Industry Days throughout its life cycle. It is the single common reference for all • Conduct international system information about that flight. demonstration of Flight Object It associates and merges disparate with Asia Pacific partners data into a cohesive picture of the flight. Authorized system stakeholders and the ANSP may electronically access consistent flight data that is tailored to their specific need and use. A Flight Object is created for each proposed flight. The Flight Object description does not include environment or weather information since these are system-wide elements which affect multiple flights. System ATM Requirements, Develops concepts 105302 Developed and delivered • Conduct airborne access to • Conduct airborne access to Development Airborne System Wide and requirements for an airborne initial airborne SWIM SWIM concept of use v2 SWIM laboratory simulations Information exchange of NAS information via concept of use (Industry Review) • Conduct airborne access to the SWIM network for flight, Developed white paper • Conduct airborne access to SWIM Initial Verification and Management (SWIM) aeronautical and weather identifying technical SWIM Operational and Validation information between aircraft and impacts to SWIM portals Technical Requirements ground-based FAA systems. Industry Day Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Collaborative Dynamic Airspace and Provides the tools to air traffic Developed multi-year • Develop preliminary ARMS • Develop ARMS evaluation Air Traffic Capacity Management managers to reconfigure airspace, program plan concept of operation model Management expand or contract control sectors document • Conduct demonstration of to match the overall level of activity • Deliver white paper on ARMS prototype in the facility’s airspace, and to ARMS functional description dynamically deactivate restrictions. The Airspace Resource Management System (ARMS) will provide the tools for controlling the reconfiguration of the NextGen networked communications infrastructure in response to an operational requirement for reconfigurable airspace. System ATC/Technical Centers on the human element in 101102 Developed initial • Develop NextGen common • Demonstrate Collaborative Air Development Operations Human the transformation of the NAS air/ground integration workstation demo display Traffic Management Factors Controller Factors, leading to the achievement of the simulation roadmap simulation efficiencies enabled by NextGen vision. common situational Efficiency/Air Ground awareness between flight Integration operators and controllers www.faa.gov/ 69 /nextgen 70 Automation Support for Separation Management 1 2 Phases of Flight 1 OI 102108: Oceanic In-Trail Climb and Descent 2 OI 102137: Automation Support for Separation Management g (ANSP) automation enhancements will take advantage of Air Navigation Service Provider ( ) g ANSP automation p g provides the controller with tools to manage aircraft in a mixed NextGen Implementation Pla an improved communication, navigation and surveillance coverage in the Oceanic domain. navigation and wake performance environment. When authorized by the controller, pilots of equipped aircraft use established procedures for climbs and descents. Aircraft-to-Aircraft Alerts for 3-nm Separation Areas En route conflict alert will be enhanced to support wake vortex separation Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract (ADS-C) Oceanic Climb/Descent requirements in 3-nm separation areas and transition airspace. Problem detection Procedure (CDP) and trial planning capabilities will also be enhanced to support aircraft-to-aircraft The ADS-C CDP (previously known as ADS-C In-Trail Procedure (ITP)) is a new alerts in 3-nm separation areas and transition airspace, to include alerts based on (e.g., concept that allows a properly equipped aircraft (e g Future Air Navigation System requirements. wake vortex separation requirements (FANS) 1/A equipage) to climb or descend through the altitude of another properly equipped aircraft with a reduced longitudinal separation distance (compared with the Wake Vortex Separation Indicator required longitudinal separation minima for same-track, same-altitude aircraft). This To support the en route controller in applying wake turbulence separation procedure allows more aircraft to reach their preferred altitude. standards, the radar display will indicate static wake vortex separation requirements for any given pair of aircraft. ADS-C Automation for Oceanic CDP p The automation enhancements to Ocean21 include capabilities to allow a controller to g Assisted Trial Planning Onto the Radar and Data Consoles select two aircraft and ensure they are eligible for ADS-C CDP, send concurrent on- Assisted Trial Planning will be integrated on the en route radar and the data demand position reports to two aircraft, determine if the minimum separation distance consoles. Integrating this capability into the consoles assists radar controllers in between the two aircraft is greater than the ADS-C CDP separation distance (e.g., determining possible problem-free flight plan changes without having to use the greater than 15 nautical miles (nm)), display the ADS-C CDP conflict probe results to a data consoles to create trial plans. A controller will also be able to use this controller, and build an uplink clearance message to the ADS-C CDP requesting aircraft capability to simultaneously examine the problem status of a set of possible and an uplink traffic advisory message to the blocking aircraft. clearances. Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS B) Oceanic ITP and Automation Non Surveillance Automation Support for Non-Surveillance Airspace The ADS-B ITP will enable aircraft equipped with ADS-B and appropriate onboard The en route automation will provide an indication of possible non-surveillance automation to climb and descend through altitudes where current non-ADS-B separation separation violations using a base set of non-surveillance separation rules. This standards would prevent desired altitude changes. capability will also utilize electronic flight data, eliminating the need for paper flight Supported By: Surveillance Common Service strips. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 OI 102108: Oceanic In-Trail Climb and Descent (2010-2013) Enablers referenced in Appendix A: ADS-B Out, In-Trail Procedure and FANS 1/A (Satcom) ADS-C Oceanic CDP ADS-C Automation for Oceanic CDP ADS-B Oceanic ITP and Automation OI 102137: Automation Support 2 for Separation Management (2014-2015) Aircraft-to-Aircraft Alerts for 3-nm Separation Areas Wake Vortex Separation Indicator Assisted Trial Planning onto the Radar and Data Consoles A t ti Support f N S Automation S ill Airspace t for Non-Surveillance Ai Concept Development Operational Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Trajectory Oceanic Tactical Addresses current performance gaps 102108 Delivered concept • Initiate planning for • Complete functional requirements for ADS-C Based Trajectory in the areas of capacity, productivity, of operations for In- 2012 operational climb and descent procedure Operations Management efficiency, safety and environmental Flight Operations trials • Complete preliminary requirements for pre- impacts in oceanic environment. Re-Profile Alert departure and Web-enabled Collaborative capab y capability ajec o y a g (CTP) Trajectory Planning (C ) • Conduct lab demonstration for pre-departure CTP • Initiate operational trial for Trajectory Feedback In-Flight Operations Demonstration International Air Contributes directly to NextGen Conducted joint • Conduct trans- • Conduct trans-oceanic optimization Traffic T ffi concepts and supports international gate to gate gate-to-gate oceanic demonstrations Interoperability collaboration and harmonization, thus demonstration with optimization • Deliver trans-oceanic demonstration report assisting the FAA and international Single European demonstrations • Deliver trans-oceanic demonstration metrics communities to validate 4D Trajectory Sky Air Traffic report Based Operations alternatives Management • Collaborate internationally (AIRE/ASPIRE). Research (SESAR) Trajectory Separation Develops a separation management 102137 Delivered • Initiate pre- • Develop, evaluate and validate improvements Based Management, Modern concept of operations. Develops initial separation implementation to the strategic conflict detection and Operations Procedures automation requirement to assist in management prototype prediction algorithms, the trajectory model, and separation of aircraft in traditional concept of development for the conflict alert algorithms (Separation traffic situations. operations Wake Vortex • Develop, evaluate and validate the Automation Separation and requirements for flight data display Enhancements, , www.faa.gov/ extend 3-nm enhancements to support elimination of flight Data-Side and separation strips in non-surveillance airspace Radar-Side), Vertical • Dynamic special activity airspace to promote Separation the fuller use of available airspace by providing /nextgen regulated access to specific aircraft 71 72 On-Demand NAS Information 1 2 1 2 Phases of Flight 1 OI 108212: Improved Management of Airspace for Special Use 2 OI 103305: On-Demand NAS Information Changes to status of airspace for special use are readily available for operators and Air NAS and aeronautical information will be available to users on demand. NAS and aeronautical NextGen Implementation Pla Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs). The status changes are transmitted to the flight information is consistent across applications and locations, and available to authorized an deck via voice or Data Communications. Flight trajectory planning is managed subscribers and equipped aircraft. Proprietary and security-sensitive information is not shared dynamically based on real-time use of air-space. with unauthorized agencies/individuals. ANSP Real-Time Status for Special Use Airspace (SUA) Broadcast Flight and Status Data to Pilots/Airline Operations Centers (AOCs) Airspace use is optimized and managed in real time, based on actual flight profiles This increment provides nationwide service coverage to deliver Traffic Information and real-time operational use parameters. Airspace reservations for military Services-Broadcast (TIS-B) for both Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) and 1090 MHz operations, flights re-entry operations unmanned aircraft systems flights, space flight re entry and restricted or ES) Mode S Extended Squitter (1090 ES). warning areas are managed on as-needed basis. Supported By: Surveillance and Weather Common Services Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service Provide Improved Flight Planning and In-Flight Advisories for Flight Operations Centers Special Activity Airspace (SAA) Forecast of Capacity Constraints (FOCs)/AOCs This increment translates the SUA activation schedule and knowledge of the This increment ensures that NAS and aeronautical information is consistent, allowing airspace configurations into predicted traffic flow constraints. users to subscribe to and receive the most current information from a single source. Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service Information is collected from ground systems and airborne users (via ground support services), aggregated and provided through system-wide information environment, Data Communications, or other means. Supported By: Aeronautical and Weather Common Services Provide NAS Status via Digital Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) This increment enables the issuance of Digital NOTAMs for those airspace constraints affecting a flight based on its trajectory. The initial implementation includes internal distribution within ANSP of those notices that would be distributed via the Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) service. Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 OI 108212: Improved Management of Airspace for 1 Special Use (2012-2014) ANSP Real-Time Status for SUAs p y SAA Forecast of Capacity Constraints Enabler referenced in Appendix A: FIS-B 2 OI 103305: On-Demand NAS Information (2013-2018) Broadcast Flight and Status Data to Pilots/AOCs Provide Improved Flights Planning and In-Flight Advisories for FOCs/AOCs Provide NAS Status via Digital NOTAMs Concept Development Operational Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Collaborative 35 Flight and State Data Addresses information and 103305 Conducted concept of • Deliver digital airport • Develop concepts for Air Traffic Management, Common capability gaps within aeronautical 108212 operations and Enterprise structure and configuration common adaption to support Management Status and Structure information to achieve NextGen Architecture for a National information to support base information for shared situational awareness. SAA situational awareness On-Demand NAS activities Data • Limited deployment of standards-based common adaptation to NAS Demonstration Joint Network Enabled Develops information exchange 108212 • Conduct initial program plan • Initiate concept of operations O Operations (NEO) ti protocol and architecture with f data exchange for d t h t f f l i or concept of use for applying Program interagency aviation stakeholders, demonstration combining net-centric concepts to UAS and conducts flight operational trials net-centric capabilities and • Initiate the development of a (Spiral 3) as needed. applications with Unmanned concept of operations Aircraft Systems (UAS) describing NEO operations in UAS environment • Initiate safety and hazard analysis • Initiate demonstration strategies • Conduct demonstration to illustrate NEO capabilities operating in UAS environment www.faa.gov/ 73 /nextgen On-Demand NAS Information (cont’d) 74 Selected Work Activities Task Budget Line Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Force System New Air Traffic Develops concepts 103305 Developed and delivered • Conduct airborne access to • Conduct airborne access to Development Management (ATM) and requirements for an airborne 108212 initial airborne SWIM SWIM concept of use v2 SWIM laboratory simulations Requirements, exchange of NAS information via concept of use (industry review) • Conduct airborne access to the SWIM network for flight, Developed white paper • Conduct airborne access to SWIM initial verification and Airborne System aeronautical and weather identifying technical SWIM Operational and validation Wide Information information between aircraft and impacts to SWIM portals Technical Requirements Management (SWIM) ground-based FAA systems. Industry Day NextGen Implementation Pla an Collaborative Flight and State Data Facilitates the sharing of common 103305 Hosted the Flight Object • Deliver the Flight Object • Continue to develop Flight Air Traffic Management, Flight flight information between systems Industry Day global flight identifier report Object Data Dictionary Management Object and enables collaboration using Completed development of • Deliver the high-level Flight • Continue to model Flight common reference framework. The an initial Flight Object Data Object benefit approach Object data Flight Object is an extensible and Dictionary report. • Host joint Flight Object and dynamic collection of data elements aeronautical information that describes an individual flight industry days g y throughout its life cycle. It is the single common reference for all Conduct international • C d ti t ti l system information about that flight. demonstration of Flight Object It associates and merges disparate with Asia Pacific partners data into a cohesive picture of the flight. Authorized system stakeholders and the ANSP may electronically access consistent flight data that is tailored to their ifi d d Flight specific need and use. A Fli ht Object is created for each proposed flight. The Flight Object description does not include environment or weather information since these are system-wide elements which affect multiple flights. Environment and Energy 5 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 5 1 5 Phases of Flight 1 OI 109309: Implement EMS Framework Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) – Regional Enable the use of the Environmental Management System (EMS) framework, including AEDT will provide capabilities for integrated environmental analysis at regional levels environmental goals and decision-support tools, to address, plan and mitigate for fuel burn, emissions and noise. environmental issues. Environmental Goals and Targets Performance Tracking System Environmental Policy A system will be established that will support the systematic identification of This increment will refine and formalize NextGen environmental and energy policy Thi i t ill fi df li N tG i t l d li environmental benefits across the National Airspace System (NAS), enabling the FAA including NextGen environmental goals. to measure progress toward achieving NextGen environmental goals. This system may include business practices, automation capabilities and interfaces with other Environmental Targets automation systems. This increment will explore, test and refine quantitative NextGen environmental targets for noise, air quality, climate, energy and water quality. NextGen EMS Frameworks and Stakeholder Collaboration Standardized approaches will be identified for aviation stakeholders (e.g., National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Strategy and Processes manufacturers airports, airlines and the FAA) to identify and address key manufacturers, airports This increment establishes effective strategic approaches for addressing the NEPA environmental issues critical to stakeholder environmental programs or EMSs. These requirements of NextGen improvements. approaches are intended to allow aviation stakeholders to collaborate and address cross-cutting environmental challenges. Decision Support Assessment This increment addresses mission-level NextGen decision support capabilities (e.g., AEDT – Airport capabilities that support FAA planning decisions such as those related to capacity AEDT will provide capabilities for integrated environmental analysis at airport levels for management) and operational-level capabilities (e.g., those related to flow contingency fuel burn, emissions and noise. t d trajectory fl ) management and t j t flow). 2 OI 109315: Implement NextGen Environmental Engine and Aircraft Technologies Improved Scientific Knowledge Reductions in aircraft noise, emissions and fuel burn through improvements in aircraft This increment will improve knowledge of aircraft source-level noise and emissions of engine and airframe technologies and alternative fuels. Technologies will be at sufficient air pollutants and greenhouse gases, their atmospheric evolution, and impacts on readiness levels to achieve the goals of the FAA’s Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions human health and welfare and climate change. and Noise (CLEEN) program. Analysis to Support International Environmental Standard Setting Standard-Setting Open Rotor O R t Analysis and benefit assessment will be performed to support the development and Twin Annular Premixing Swirler II Lean Combustor implementation of International Civil Aviation Organization environmental standards, Adaptive Trailing Edges such as for aircraft carbon dioxide emissions and more stringent noise levels. Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Blade Tracks Ceramic Matrix Composite Acoustic Nozzle Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool - Economics Engine Weight Reduction and High-Temperature Impeller Capabilities of the aviation environmental portfolio management tool will be enhanced Dual-Wall Turbine Blade continuously through 2015 to enable analysis of airline and aviation market responses g g y ( Flight Management System (FMS) - Air Traffic Management (ATM) Integration ) g ( ) g www.faa.gov/ t environmental mitigation and policy options, and for analyzing U.S. environmental to i t l iti ti d li ti df l i US i t l Ultra High-Bypass Ratio Geared Turbo Fan issues critical to NextGen under various fleet growth and evolution scenarios. 75 /nextgen Environment and Energy (cont’d) 76 3 OI 109316: Increased Use of Alternative Aviation Fuels 4 OI 109311: Environmentally and Energy Favorable En Route Operations Determine the feasibility and market viability of alternative aviation fuels for civilian aviation This will optimize en route operations to reduce emissions, fuel burn and noise. New use. Obtain ASTM certification of hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels from fossil and operational capabilities will be applied, such as advanced aircraft technologies, including renewable resources that are compatible with existing infrastructure and fleet thus meeting operations. capabilities for FMS and avionics to achieve more efficient en route operations Improved requirement to be a “drop-in” alternative fuel. efficiency in operations will provide system-wide benefits, including benefits to sensitive areas (e.g., national parks). Drop-In HRJ Blend Fuels This increment will result in ASTM approval in 2011 of a 50-50 blend of HRJ and Jet-A 5 OI 109313: Environmentally and Energy Favorable Terminal Operations alternative fuels. This increment also explores other blends for environmental and Optimize aircraft arrival, departure and surface operations to reduce emissions, fuel burn performance feasibility through air quality and life-cycle emissions analyses, engine and noise through the use of environmentally friendly procedures. Develop Standard performance evaluation, and ground tests and flight demonstrations by 2013. These Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) procedures that permit use of the Optimized Profile Descent NextGen Implementation Pla efforts will advance deployment of these sustainable alternative fuels, including ff t ill d d l t f th t i bl lt ti f l i l di an (OPD) technique (also known as Continuous Descent Arrival). Develop Area Navigation environmental acceptability and ASTM approval. (RNAV) Standard Instrument Departure (SID) procedures that minimize level segments on climb-out. Develop enhanced surface operation mechanisms and procedures to maximize Other Advanced Aviation Alternative Fuels airport throughput while further reducing aircraft fuel burn and emissions. This increment will explore and qualify additional classes of sustainable aviation alternative fuels blends that use novel feedstocks and conversion processes (e.g., advanced fermentation, alcohol oligomerization, pyrolysis, etc.). Efforts include life cycle environmental and performance feasibility through air quality and life-cycle emissions analyses, fuel properties analysis, engine performance evaluation, and ground tests and flight demonstrations by 2015. These efforts will advance deployment of these sustainable alternative fuels, including environmental acceptability and ASTM approval. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 OI 109309: Implement EMS Framework (2011) Note: Updates are planned to OI 109309 including extending Environmental Policy the implementation schedule through 2015 Environmental Targets NEPA Strategy and Processes Decision-Support Assessment Improved Scientific Knowledge Analysis to Support International Environmental Standard Setting Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool - Economics AEDT-Regional Environmental Goals and Targets Performance Tracking System NextGen EMS Frameworks and Stakeholder Collaboration AEDT-Airport 2 OI 109315: Implement NextGen Environmental Engine and Aircraft Technologies (2010-2015) Open Rotor Twin Annular Premixing Swirler II Lean Combustor Adaptive Trailing Edges Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Blade Tracks Ceramic Matrix Composite Acoustic Nozzle Engine Weight Reduction and High-Temperature Impeller Dual-Wall Turbine Blade FMS – ATM Integration Ultra High-Bypass Ratio Geared Turbo Fan 3 OI 09316: Increased Use of Alternative Aviation Fuels (2011-2015) Drop-In HRJ Blend Fuels Drop In Other Advanced Aviation Alternative Fuels 4 OI 109311: Environmentally and Energy Favorable En Route Operations (2015) 5 OI 109313: Environmentally and Energy Favorable Terminal Operations (2015) Note: Increments associated with OI 109311 and OI 109313 are addressed through other portfolios that affect operational efficiency, capacity and/or flexibility www.faa.gov/ Concept Development Operational 77 /nextgen Environment and Energy (cont’d) 78 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force System Environment and Manages environmental impacts of 109309 Developed report on EMS • Conduct EMS refinement • Research potential policies Development Energy-EMS and NextGen through EMS based on 109310 framework development; and pilot studies and procedures to reduce Advanced Noise and development and demonstration of 109311 activities of CLEEN • Test, demonstrate and environmental impacts solutions to mitigate noise and 109313 Consortium; metrics for evaluate NAS-wide beyond current set of Emission Reduction emissions as well as increasing fuel 109315 carbon dioxide emissions environmental benefits of operational procedures burn efficiency. Research, 109316 standard; and CLEEN aircraft and fuel • Finalize NextGen EMS development, demonstration and opportunities for technologies implementation in initial FAA testing help support operation operational procedures organizations NextGen Implementation Pla an implementation by 2015. • Assess the impacts on NAS- wide operations (including environmental performance) of aircraft standards for noise and emissions • Assess the NAS-wide benefits of CLEEN aircraft technologies and alternative fuels • Identify opportunities for environmental gains for taxi/ramp, terminal • Demonstrate environmental control algorithms used in taxi/ramp, terminal, and en route procedures • Perform analysis for EMS environmental impacts and metrics • Analyze NEPA compliance within the EMS framework Common Services and Infrastructure Phases of Flight Surveillance Common Service Flight Common Service New surveillance infrastructure, technologies and applications will be deployed to improve New Flight Information Management automation infrastructure will be acquired and situational awareness. implemented in a standardized enterprise-compliant fashion, providing a common interface among National Airspace System (NAS) automation systems, service providers and users. New Services: Surface Surveillance, Surface Sensors and Indicators, Surface Traffic Broadcast, Surface Automation Decision-Support Tools, Surface External Data Exchange New Services: Terminal Data Distribution, Flight Data Publication, Reroute Data Service, Surface Broadcast Flight and NAS Status Information to Pilots, Oceanic Automation Exchange, Flow Information Publication, Track Information Service Support for Separation Management Task Force: Cross-Cutting Task Force: NAS Access Communications Common Service Weather Common Service New International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)-compliant digital communications New weather infrastructure will provide improved weather information in a standard i f t t d technologies ill infrastructure and t h l i will provide a supplemental means f t id l t l h for two-way exchange enterprise-compliant fashion enterprise compliant fashion. between controllers and flight crews for air traffic control (ATC) clearances, instructions, New Services: Common Weather Picture, Net-centric Dissemination, Proactive Notification advisories, flight crew requests and reports. of Significant Weather Changes, Enhanced Forecasts for Aviation, Winds and Temperatures for Trajectory Modeling, Tailored Volumetric Retrievals of Forecast and New Services: Tower Data Communications for Revised Departure Clearances, Oceanic Observation Information, Characterizations of Potential Weather-Constrained Airspace Data Communications Task Force: Cross-Cutting Aeronautical Common Service New Aeronautical Information Management automation infrastructure will be acquired and implemented in a standardized enterprise-compliant fashion, providing a single authoritative source for aeronautical data management. Configuration, Information, Data, New Services: Airspace Configuration Status Information and Route/Procedures Data Static Airport Data Management, Digital Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) Task Force: Surface and Cruise www.faa.gov/ 79 /nextgen Common Services and Infrastructure (cont’d) 80 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force ADS-B 28 Automatic Provides highly accurate and more Completed In-Service • Continue to deploy • Complete NAS-wide deployment of ADS-B, Dependent comprehensive surveillance information Decision for Critical ADS-B ground Traffic Information Services-Broadcast (TIS-B) Surveillance- via a broadcast communication link. ADS- Services infrastructure and Flight Information Services-Broadcast B receives flight data from aircraft, via a Continued to deploy • Pursue ADS-B program (FIS-B) Broadcast (ADS-B) data link, derived from on-board position- ADS-B ground expansion to provide • Provide Initial Operating Capability for Surface NAS-wide fixing and navigational systems. Aircraft infrastructure surveillance services in Alerting Implementation position (longitude, latitude, altitude and Provided Initial non-radar airspace GPS, time) is determined using GPS an internal NextGen Implementation Pla Operating Capability: O i C bili an inertial navigational reference system, or other navigation aids. o Philadelphia o Juneau Published final ADS-B Out rule in Federal Register Completed Phase 1 of the Colorado Wide Area Multilateration System covering the En Route Services supporting Yampa Valley, Craig- Moffat, Steamboat Springs and Garfield County Regional airports Data 16 Data Implements Data Comm capabilities that • Release solicitation for • Deliver a final investment decision on Data Comm 17 Communications provide new methods for delivery of Data Comm Network Comm Segment 1 39 (Data Comm) departure clearances, revisions and taxi Service Provider • Initiate development of en route automation 44 instructions in the terminal environment, • Initiate development of enhancements 42 specifically in the tower. In the en route revised departure • Enable revised departure clearance capability environment, Segment 1 will provide the clearance capability in in the tower environment via VHF Data Link basic capabilities for controllers and flight tower (VDL) mode 2 for aircraft equipped with Future crews to transfer ATC clearances, , Air Navigation System (FANS) 1/A+ requests, instructions, notifications, voice frequency communications transfers and flight crew reports as a supplement to voice. Budget Task Activity Description FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force NVS NAS Voice System Provides the connectivity for efficient y Completed cost p p y • Initiate preliminary p • Achieve final JRC decision to proceed with (NVS) communications among air traffic analysis for business development of program controllers, pilots and ground personnel. It case analysis report documentation for JRC • Award production contract connects incoming and outgoing Completed required decisions • Install at key site communication lines via a switching matrix sections of to the controller’s workstation. implementation • Achieve Initial Operating Capability of systems strategy and planning document Completed business t l i t cost analysis report SWIM 40 System Wide Provides policies and standards to support Developed and tested Provided Corridor • Publish data for the following: 35 Information data management, secure its integrity, and the Aeronautical Integrated Weather o Pilot Weather Report Management control its access and use. Information System publication o TFM Management (AIM) • Provide reroute data (SWIM) o Flight Data portion of the Special exchange capability Use Airspace (SUA) o Runway Visual Range • Provide flight data publication initial flight y • Provide Terminal Data Distribution Capability data services • Provide Flight Data Services with • Provide Integrated Publish/Subscribe Terminal Weather System • Provide Flight Data Publication Host Air Traffic publication Management Data Distribution System/Flight Data Input/Output and AIM SUA Client CATMT 47 Collaborative Air Identifies cognitive support and displays Completed CATMT • Continue CATMT Work • Deploy CATMT Work Package 2 capabilities to Traffic change requirements necessary for a Work Package 1 with Package 3 concept include: Management transition t a hi h ltit d specialty th t t iti to high-altitude i lt that the development of the th d l t f th i i d l i engineering and planning o Arrival uncertainty management addresses the FAA’s Flight Plan goals for Impact Assessment to support the following Technologies o Weather integration capacity and organization excellence. and Resolution capabilities: (CATMT) capability o Collaborative airspace constraint resolution o Modernization of the Initiated the analysis decision-support tool o Airborne reroute execution necessary to develop suite • Upgrade the existing Traffic Flow Management the requirements o Collaborative System to include an initial electronic needed to implement information negotiation capability for more efficient flight proven decision decision- exchange h planning support tools and data- • Continue the analysis sharing capabilities necessary to develop the requirements needed to implement proven decision-support tools and data-sharing capabilities NNEW NextGen Network , Provides common, universal access to Conducted • Perform functional • Initial Investment Decision for NNEW Enabled Weather aviation weather data. demonstration to analysis Segment 1 (NNEW) validate interoperability • Develop alternative data standards and analysis report Web services with the development of the interagency 4D weather data cube Completed weather www.faa.gov/ data and design standards 81 /nextgen Common Services and Infrastructure (cont’d) 82 Selected Work Activities Task Budget Line Activity Description FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Force Demonstrations 28 Colorado Wide Supports the Denver Air Route • Approval of design covering critical and Area Traffic Control Center’s ability to multilateration Services for Colorado Multilateration provide en route air traffic Phase 2 Service Volumes separation services to the following Phase 2 Colorado airports: Durango, Gunnison, Montrose, Telluride. Networked Integration, Continues to enhance, operate and , p p pp Completed support to • Enhance and sustain the NextGen p p • Complete full initial capability of the NIEC y NextGen Implementation Pla an Facilities Development, maintain the operations analysis the Unmanned Integration and Evaluation Capability • Integrate cockpit simulator into the NIEC and Operations capability to support the Aircraft System (UAS) (NIEC) at the Technical Center • Continue to integrate additional capabilities development of iterative designs to initial NAS Integration • Focus on integrating new technologies into the NIEC display area Analysis evaluate concepts and alternatives. and Staffed NextGen into existing NIEC capabilities that will Capability This will provide for an integrated Tower studies enable the customer to: environment ranging from low- to o Iteratively evaluate design high-fidelity capabilities to support concepts and alternatives NextGen concept validation and o Determine quantitative metrics to i t hi h i d to requirements, which are required t define d lid t human d fi and validate h facilitate the transition of NextGen performance, usability, workload technologies in the NAS. and safety indicators o Design and conduct experiments to assess software, hardware and prototypes for research, system analyses and/or definition and refinement of requirements • Provide interfacility capabilities • Enhance NIEC data collection capabilities Networked NextGen Test Continues to expand the NextGen Supported Transform • Complete Florida Test Bed Segment 2 • Continue to expand NextGen Test Bed Facilities Bed/ Test Bed capabilities in Daytona Facilities Solution Set System Requirements Document capabilities in Florida to support future Demonstration Beach, Fla., and initiate planning Completed Florida demonstrations activities in Texas. This program Test Bed Segment 1 • Establish information exchange capabilities Sites will continue integration activities Implementation Plan, with other NextGen Test Bed and between the NextGen Test Beds Beds, site engineering/ stakeholder sites increase system capabilities and design package, • Initiate NextGen interactivity between Florida improve operational fidelity of the system delivery and and NASA North Texas Research Station for environment. The NextGen Test system capability enhanced terminal and surface capabilities Bed is a multi-domain briefing package • Expand telecommunication infrastructure to demonstration and testing facility allow improved live data capabilities that integrates individual airspace • Expand site integration capabilities among all domains and allows for end-to-end three sites , demonstrations, evaluations and • Establish telecommunication circuits for initial testing at one or more physical live data capability sites in line with the NextGen • Support standards and alternatives gate-to-gate concept. development Budget Task Activity Description FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Networked Future Facilities pp p Supports optimization of FAA’s air p • Prepare initial business case for Facilities Investment traffic service provider resources. segment 1 Planning Considers infrastructure alternatives and associated benefits which include improved work environment, reduced time and cost to train controllers, seamless information exchange, and reduced overall air traffic service provider t hil till increasing th l costs while still i i the levell of service. Airport Airfield Continues the development of new Conducted Future Airport Completed Portland International • Complete Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson Improvement Development runways and extensions to increase Capacity Task 2 (FACT2) runway 10L/28R Extension International runway 9L/27R extension Program* capacity and efficiency. next steps, including Completed Philadelphia International • Complete FACT3 and identify follow-on coordination of airport Environmental Impact Statement and strategic planning initiatives action plans signed a Record of Decision • Continue planning and environmental Completed Charlotte- • Begin FACT3 to identify capacity- projects Douglas International constrained airports in 2020 and 2030 • Complete San Antonio International runway 18R/36L • Complete Anchorage International runway 3/21 extension Completed runway 7R/25L extension • Complete Port Columbus International reconstruction of New • Continue New York JFK taxiway Airport runway 10R/28L relocation York JFK runway improvements • Complete Chicago O’Hare runway 13R/31L and associated • Complete Phase II of the San 10C/28C taxiway improvements Francisco Bay Area Regional Airport • Complete Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood Plan International Airport runway 9R/27L • Complete Phase II of the Atlanta Metropolitan Aviation Capacity Study • Continue surveys to support development of Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)/Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) approach procedures to increase access to p airports. Consider obstruction removal needs so that airports with LPV approach procedures can achieve lower minimums • Fund metro area airport infrastructure *Not considered improvements at other than OEP NextGen funding airports www.faa.gov/ 83 /nextgen 84 NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development 3 6 7 8 1 2 3 6 7 8 3 4 7 13 8 1 5 7 8 9 9 10 11 12 9 12 15 16 17 18 19 14 9 10 11 12 4 5 6 9 7 8 19 18 15 12 15 16 17 18 19 14 15 16 17 16 17 18 19 12 15 16 17 18 19 Phases of Flight 1 OI 102114: Initial Conflict Resolution Advisories OI 103116: Initial Improved Weather Information from Non-Ground-Based 7 Automation enables the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) to better accommodate Sensors non ground based (e g Additions to the sensor network from non-ground-based sensors (e.g., satellite and NextGen Implementation Pla detection, planning, pilot requests for trajectory changes by providing conflict detection trial flight planning an and development and rank-ordering of resolutions taking into account aircraft capabilities aircraft) provide operators and the ANSP with enhanced weather information to improve and pilot and ANSP preferences. flight and clearance planning, trajectory-based operations and flow management. 2 OI 102118: Delegated Responsibility for In-Trail Separation OI 103119: Initial Integration of Weather Information into National Airspace 8 System (NAS) Automation and Decision Making Enhanced surveillance and new procedures enable the ANSP to delegate aircraft-to- aircraft separation. Improved display avionics and broadcast positional data provide Advances in weather information content and dissemination provide users and/or their deck. detailed traffic situational awareness to the flight deck When authorized by the controller, controller dec s o support e ability o de y specific ea e pac s on operations (e.g., decision suppo with the ab y to identify spec c weather impacts o ope a o s (e g , pilots will implement delegated separation between equipped aircraft using established trajectory management and impacts on specific airframes, arrival/departure planning) to procedures. ensure continued safe and efficient flight. 3 OI 102123: Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Separation 9 OI 103206: Expanded Traffic Advisory Services Using Digital Traffic Data ANSP automation uses ADS-B in non-radar airspace to provide reduced separation and Equipped aircraft receive broadcasts and display traffic data to the flight crew. Ground- flight following. Improved surveillance enables ANSP to use radar-like separation based systems receive surveillance broadcast reports and provide them to the services standards and services. distribution. surveillance data network for distribution Task Force: NAS Access 10 OI 104122: Integrated Arrival/Departure Airspace Management OI 102144: Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals: Closely Spaced Parallel 4 Runways (CSPRs) New airspace design takes advantage of expanded use of terminal procedures and Changes to wake separation minima are implemented based on measured and predicted separation standards. This capability expands the use of terminal separation standards airport area winds. Supporting procedures, developed at applicable locations based on and procedures (e.g., 3 nm, degrees divergence) within the newly defined transition analysis of wake measurements and safety, allow more closely spaced arrival operations airspace. It extends further into current en route airspace (horizontally and vertically). increasing airport/runway capacity i I t i i i t/ it in Instrument M t l i l Conditions. t Meteorological C diti Task Force: Integrated ATM Task Force: Runway Access 11 OI 104128: Time-Based Metering in the Terminal Environment 5 OI 102406: Provide Full Surface Situation Information Aircraft are time-based metered inside the terminal environment, enhancing efficiency Surface Situation Information will complement visual observation of the airport through the optimal use of terminal airspace and surface capacity. This extends current surface. Decision support system algorithms will use enhanced target data to support metering capabilities into the terminal environment and furthers the pursuit of end-to-end identification and alerting of those aircraft at risk of runway incursion. metering and trajectory-based operations. Task Force: Surface Task Force: Integrated ATM T kF I t t d 6 OI 103104: Deploy Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Nationally 12 OI 106202: Enhance Emergency Alerting FIS-B weather processors generate graphical and textual products for broadcast to Controllers and search and rescue support, using ADS-B to provide location information equipped aircraft in coverage areas. FIS-B products include precipitation, convective and discrete aircraft identification, are able to quickly locate distressed or downed aircraft activity, in-flight icing, low-ceiling/visibility maps, turbulence information and site-specific without resorting to 1,200 beacon tracks and support from Civil Air Patrol search flights. weather reports and forecasts. 13 OI 107116: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Departure Operations OI 109304: Enhanced Aviation Safety Information and Analysis and Sharing 17 (ASIAS) Leverages augmented Global Navigation Satellite System capabilities to allow ASIAS will improve system-wide risk identification, integrated risk analysis and modeling, appropriately equipped aircraft to depart in low-visibility conditions. Due to onboard a d p e e a o of emergent s a age e and implementation o e e ge risk management. i i the i ft ill be bl to depart i l avionics th aircraft will b able t d i ibilit diti i Area N i ti t in low-visibility conditions using A Navigation (RNAV)/Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Standard Instrument Departures, Electronic Flight Vision System, Synthetic Vision System, or advanced vision systems. 18 OI 109305: Improved Safety for NextGen Evolution This OI mitigates safety risk associated with the evolution of NextGen by providing 14 OI 107202: Low-Visibility Surface Operations enhanced safety methods that support making changes to the air transportation system, Aircraft and ground vehicle movement on airports in low-visibility conditions is guided by including: advanced capabilities for integrated, predictive safety assessment; improved accurate location information and moving map displays. validation and verification processes supporting certification; an enhanced focus on safe Task Force: Surface T kF S f operation. operational procedures; and enhanced training concepts for safe system operation 15 OI 108206: Flexible Airspace Management 19 OI 109310: Implement Enhanced EMS Framework ANSP automation supports reallocation of trajectory information, surveillance, Further enable the use of the Environmental Management System (EMS) framework for communications, and display information to different positions or different facilities. subsequent applications, including refined environmental goals and decision-support tools, to address, plan and mitigate environmental issues through implementation of ongoing OI 109302: Security – Operational Capability for Threat Detection and EMS improvements and availability of enhanced environmental information. 16 T ki Impact A l i and Ri k B Tracking, NAS I dA Analysis d Risk-Based Assessment The Operational Security Personnel of the ANSP address NAS security threats by more effective and efficient prevention, protection, response and recovery based on net- enabled shared situational awareness and a risk-informed decision-making capability. Flight risk profiles are derived from trajectory-based risk assessment provided by the ANSP and risk levels provided by the Security Service Provider. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 1 OI 102114: Initial Conflict Resolution Advisories (2013-2017) Enablers referenced in Appendix A: 2 OI 102118: Delegated Responsibility for In-Trail Separation (2013-2018) Interval Management OI 102123: ADS-B 3 Separation Enabler referenced (2008-2010) in Appendix A: ADS-B Out OI 102144: Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals: CSPRs 4 (2015-2018) OI 102406: Provide Full Surface Enabler referenced in Appendix A: Ground Cockpit Display of Traffic 5 Situation Information Information (2016-2019) 6 OI 103104: Deploy FIS-B Nationally (2009-2013) p ( ) OI 103116: Initial Improved Weather Information from Non-Ground-Based Sensors (2013-2018) www.faa.gov/ 7 8 OI 103119: Initial Integration of Weather Information into NAS Automation and Decision Making (2011-2018) 85 /nextgen NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development (cont’d) 86 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 p OI 103206: Expanded Traffic Advisory Services 9 Using Digital Traffic Data (2009-2010) Enabler referenced in Appendix A: RNAV 10 OI 104122: Integrated Arrival/Departure Airspace Management (2016-2019) NextGen Implementation Pla an OI 104128: Time-Based Metering in the Terminal Environment 11 (2015-2018) 12 OI 106202: Enhance Emergency Alerting (2010-2016) OI 107116: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Departure Operations 13 (2015-2018) 14 OI 107202: Low-Visibility Surface Operations (2015-2018) 15 OI 108206: Flexible Airspace Management (2015-2018) OI 109302: Security – Operational Security Capability for Threat 16 Detection and Tracking, NAS Impact Analysis and Risk-Based Assessment (2015-2018) 17 OI 109304: ASIAS (2013-2014) OI 109305: Improved Safety for 18 NextGen Evolution ( ) (2016-2017) OI 109310: Implement EMS 19 Framework- Enhanced (2018-2018) (2018 2018) Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Collaborative Capacity Provides the tools to air traffic managers 108206 Initiated multi-year • Develop • Develop ARMS evaluation model Air Traffic Management, to reconfigure airspace to expand or program plan preliminary • Conduct demonstration of ARMS prototype Management Dynamic contract control sectors to match the ARMS concept overall level of activity in the facility’s of operation Airspace airspace and to dynamically deactivate document restrictions. The Airspace Resource p • Deliver white Management System (ARMS) will paper on ARMS provide the tools for controlling the functional reconfiguration of the NextGen description networked communications infrastructure in response to an operational requirement for reconfigurable airspace. Collaborative Flight and State Develops a framework for integrated 108209 • Initiate analysis • Adapt existing automation displays to provide Air Traffic Data National Airspace Design and of equipage and airport surface surveillance Management Management, Procedures planning, enhancements to avionics • Develop “blended airspace” procedures existing infrastructure to support impact capabilities Concept assessments, and develop initial concept required through Development for for best-equipped, best-served. the mid-term to Integrated NAS support best- Design and equipped, best- Procedure served Planning Arrivals/ 4 Capacity Provides an integrated approach to 104122 Completed a • Develop and mature initial automation, surveillance Departures at 21a Management - arrival and departure management preliminary and flight data requirements High Density 32b Integrated Arrival throughout the major metropolitan operational safety • Conduct technical transfer of automation, Airports airspace by incorporating terminal and assessment and an surveillance and flight data requirements and Departure transition airspace and procedures into assessment of • Support airspace design/analysis, transition Operations (Big one service volume. procedural changes Airspace) strategy plans and procedures development for needed to support initial selected locations this concept Arrivals/ Capacity Provides an integrated approach to 104122 Conducted pre- Departures at Management - arrival and departure management implementation High Density Integrated Arrival throughout the major metropolitan analyses on flight Airports airspace by incorporating terminal and data processing due and Departure transition airspace and procedures into to the large volume Control Service one service volume. of airspace and the integration of terminal, t t iti i l transition and overflight environments Trajectory Separation Identifies cognitive support and display 108209 Conducted Fast- • Conduct • Conduct concept validation activities to support Based Management, change requirements necessary for a Time Analyses for integrated refinement of high-altitude concept elements such Operations High Altitude transition to a high-altitude specialty that Trajectory Based Human-in-the- as generic airspace and flexible airspace addresses the FAA’s Flight Plan goals Operations (TBO) in Loop (HITL) • Refine the High-Altitude Research Management for capacity and organization excellence. high-altitude airspace simulation of Plan as required based on the findings of concept www.faa.gov/ high-altitude validation activities concept • Update the high-altitude concept of operations to reflect results of completed high-altitude /nextgen simulations, fast-time analyses and other research activities • Develop recommendations on future program 87 plans based on FY 2011-2012 findings NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development (cont’d) 88 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Flexible 25 Trajectory Evaluates the ability of Performed initial 4D Flight • Conduct RTA proof of • Perform initial 4D FMS TBO concept Terminal Management, aircraft to accurately meet Management System (FMS) concept demonstration validation and analyses of Environment Arrivals vertical constraints and time TBO concept validation and performance capabilities and of arrival. Evaluates the analysis of performance standards (RNAV/RNP) with advantages and capabilities and standards • Evaluate the ability of aircraft to 3D and Required disadvantages with imposing accurately meet vertical constraints Time of Arrival vertical constraints and RTA and required time of arrival ( (RTA)) in different congestion NextGen Implementation Pla Evaluate th d t • E l t the advantages and d an scenarios. Also evaluates disadvantages associated with Data Comm capabilities for imposing vertical constraints and aircraft messaging for RTA, required time of arrival in different and reroutes. congestion scenarios from the aircraft operator and air traffic management (ATM) perspectives • Evaluate Data Comm for aircraft RTA, messaging for RTA reroutes and waypoint verification data integrity • Evaluate ground merging and sequencing tools that will employ control by time of arrival (identify enabling requirements) • Conduct human factors analysis shifting to control by time of arrival through controller-in-the-loop simulations and field trials • Conduct analysis of human factors and flight deck automation requirements to minimize errors and provide integrity assurance Demonstration Unmanned Aircraft Proves the viability of UAS 102137 Conducted UAS demonstration • Initiate UAS demonstration • Demonstration 4: Conduct integrated y (UAS) Systems ( ) to operate safely in the NAS incorporating two NextGen that will explore NextGen operational UAS demonstration with Demonstration without undue risk. technologies, ADS-B and NAS 4D trajectory concepts 4DT FMS, ADS-B/Traffic Information Voice System (NVS), to mitigate Services-Broadcast (TIS-B)/FIS-B operational issues: and NVS-prototype Voice over o Enhanced traffic situational Internet Protocol awareness from a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) o Proof of concept for NVS Reduce Reduce Weather Provides improved weather Established NextGen Weather • Risk reduction activities • Initial investment analysis Weather Impact (NextGen observations and forecasts Processor test bed • Market survey for NextGen • Complete NextGen Weather Impact Weather Processor) and tailors weather data for Weather Processor Processor risk mitigation strategy integration into decision capabilities Phase 2 support tools for collaborative and dynamic NAS decision making Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force Safety, Security Integrated Finalizes the business case, Completed SITS concept • Develop an implementation • Award contract for SITS Security and T l Set (SITS) Tool S t safety management exploration and business case strategy and planning development and initiate development, Environmental document, NAS enterprise methodology/ analysis document development activities Performance architecture artifacts, and • Continue development of initial SITS requirements documents. capabilities • Transition to initial operational capability System Operational Conducts integrated Developed and applied models • Assess and integrate the • Develop, evaluate and implement Development Assessments assessments to ensure that to support the operational local, regional, NAS-wide further enhancements for the safety, environmental and performance, safety and analysis capability of NextGen local, regional, NAS-wide system performance environmental integrated Aviation Environmental scale analysis capability in the AEDT considerations are properly assessments of NextGen Design Tool (AEDT) and • Develop, evaluate and implement addressed throughout the airspace/procedure and system develop plans for further further enhancements for the integration and changes enhancements NextGen local, regional, NAS-wide NextGen. implementation of NextGen • Assess and integrate the scale analysis capability in the APMT local, regional, NAS-wide • Perform NextGen environmental analysis capability of analyses for fleet and operations Aviation Portfolio sequencing Management Tool (APMT) • Enhance safety model to support and develop plans for further NextGen operational assessments enhancements • Enhance operational performance • Develop options to integrate model to support NextGen environmental assessment operational assessments capability with NextGen NAS models • Develop NextGen NAS-wide environmental mitigation and cost-beneficial options for decision support • Enhance safety model to support NextGen operational assessments • Enhance operational performance model to support NextGen operational assessments System Air Traffic Control Conducts system Delivered initial NextGen • Develop common • Complete a strategic job analysis of Development (ATC)/Tech Ops engineering and other common workstation automation platform the new roles of air traffic service Human Factors technical support to fully requirements document requirements development providers using a highly automated integrate human factors Delivered initial human error and simulation system, sharing separation considerations into the safety analysis of mid-term • Develop Traffic Flow responsibilities with pilots, and NextGen portfolio and operations Management human factors moving toward performance-based conducts focused human Delivered initial tower operational sequences services factors studies in areas such workstation requirements • Develop air/ground • Demonstrate collaborative air traffic as controller workload and integration HITL simulation management efficiencies work station interfaces. plan • Demonstrate integration of air and ground functional capabilities www.faa.gov/ • Identify changes in controller procedures to support pilot separation responsibility when using cockpit display of traffic information /nextgen • Demonstrate controller use of NextGen concepts, capabilities and procedures supporting transition of 89 self separation responsibility to pilots NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development (cont’d) 90 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force System Systems Safety • Develops tools and supporting Began implementing ASIAS • Create policy, process Development Management processes leading to a enhanced ASIAS, • Provide capability across all commercial standards, risk Transformation comprehensive and proactive including the aviation nodes to fuse data from public assessment/management approach to aviation safety in selected support and non-public sources while tools, analysis infrastructure conjunction with implementation of architecture and maintaining data protection and rudimentary safety NextGen capacity and efficiency requirements for • Evolve more sophisticated text mining assurance framework capabilities. The implementation of information security, capabilities across data sources, • Demonstrate a national-level these capabilities will require real time near real-time operations, including flight operations SSA working prototype that NextGen Implementation Pla an changes in the process of safety operations and new maintenance, dispatch, ATC operations will proactively identify management, the definition and and expanded and aviation safety reporting system emerging risk across the implementation of risk management participants • Provide initial ability to automatically NextGen systems, and management of the monitor for unknown risk based on • Develop proof of concept for overall transformation process to complex text mining capabilities and NextGen SMS including a ensure that safety is not only seamless data sources prototype to implement on a maintained but improved. • Integrate data from at least one trial basis with selected • Develops and implements the additional class of operations in the participants that involve a ASIAS system, which provides the U.S. domestic airspace cross-section of air service capability to integrate data from • Conduct demonstration project with providers public and non-public sources limited set of Joint Planning and spanning commercial aviation, Development Office participants for while maintaining data protection. analysis of safety metrics and directed This capability and the use of studies advanced data mining tools allow the early identification and System Safety Assessment (SSA) mitigation of emerging risks to the • Develop user and system requirements aviation system. for system baseline risk estimation • Creates system-wide risk • Develop standard user requirements for baselines, and annual impact development and installation of a risk assessment of changes, including analysis function and application to NextGen, on safety risk. NextGen concept in surface operations • Ensures highly capable and into the operational ASIAS platform consistent risk assessment processes through Safety Risk SMS Management (SRM) processes and • Develop a method that can be used for taxonomy, analytical methods and continual surveillance of Design integrated evaluation applications. Approval Holder compliance with SMS • Develops new methods to ensure continual surveillance of Design SRM Approval Holder compliance with • Develop guidance on taxonomy, Safety Management System (SMS) analytical methods and integrated requirements. evaluation applications that ensure that consistent risk assessment processes are employed throughout the FAA Office of Aviation Safety Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force y System New ATM Conducts research across all Provided y g • Conduct system design for future y Terminal Collision Avoidance System Development Requirements solution sets, focused on recommendations for an air-ground data communications • Define baseline requirements for maturing concepts and aeronautical mobile requirements implementing flexible future Collision Avoidance Systems technologies targeting application airport communications airspace management • Develop an integrated approach toward the end of the NextGen system standard • Begin requirements definition for between separation assurance and mid-term. Defined baseline common trajectory implementation collision avoidance with special Requirements for Future • Conduct initial analysis of common attention to safety Traffic Alert and Collision trajectory needs and develop initial Avoidance System implementation strategy Trajectory Modeling Developed initial airborne • Conduct engineering trade study • Determine conflict resolution SWIM concept of use for weather radar replacement approaches using aircraft intent • Provide analysis, requirements, data pseudo-code-supports for effective • Develop evaluation model to collision risk safety net in an assess common trajectory environment of closely spaced • Develop NAS-wide trajectory parallel RNP route from top-of- prediction requirements in the mid- descent to the runway term p j • Develop common trajectory y message format and standard • Develop safety assessments Weather Radar Replacement • Complete technology demonstration development and conduct evaluations • Prototype demonstration System Operations Addresses developing and 108206 Generated Time Based • Develop draft 2nd level NextGen • Conduct HITL simulations of Development Concept validating future end-to-end Flow Management concept of operations for the NAS trajectory based operations for Validation, operational concepts with special (TBFM) transient analysis (2025) integrated TBFM emphasis on researching results on the • Validate concepts through detailed Validation changes in roles and effectiveness of various analyses including analytical Modeling responsibilities between the FAA alternatives to mitigate modeling, fast-time simulations, and airspace. the impact of transient and HITL simulations and events on TBFM demonstrations System Staffed Demonstrates the concept of, Conducted demonstration • Develop performance standards • Continue development of Development NextGen and develops the necessary activities and SNT alternatives standards and alternatives Towers (SNT) requirements, specifications and Continued detailed • Develop initial investment decision • Begin development of an supporting documentation for, engineering analysis and documentation including business implementation strategy for SNT SNT. SNT may allow for the cost- requirements validation case analysis report, • Conduct system design activities effective expansion of services to activities implementation strategy and including electronic data a larger number of airports, and planning, and basis of estimate distribution integration, Data Comm costs. reduce tower construction costs • Update Enterprise Architecture sub-system integration and sub system products and amendments engineering activities • Maintain SNT equipment at field • Procure and install Decision site (Dallas/Fort Worth) Support Tools (DST) for conformance monitoring, including hardware and software • Continue procurement and installation of DST pp p • Support the development of www.faa.gov/ concept of operations for flexible SNT and validation of flexible SNT 91 /nextgen NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development (cont’d) 92 Selected Work Activities Budget Task Activity Description OIs FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 – Mid-term Line Force System Wake Turbulence Develops new sets of tailored Developed • Determine optimal set of aircraft • Determine changes to FAA air Development Recategorization “leader aircraft” and “follower recommendation for an flight characteristics and weather traffic control systems that will be aircraft” wake separation alternative set of wake parameters for use in setting wake required in the ICAO standards whose application separation standards separation minimums implementation of the revised wake would depend on flight Provided • Develop metrics for setting tailored separation standards developed conditions and aircraft recommendation to leader/follower aircraft wake earlier by this program performance to enable International Civil Aviation mitigation separation standards • Develop a sample set of increased capacity of flights Organization (ICAO) for leader/follower aircraft wake NextGen Implementation Pla an into and out of airports to action mitigation separation standards accommodate future demands. • Determine the changes to FAA air traffic control systems required to implement the leader/follower tailored aircraft wake separation standards • Complete development of the leader/follower tailored aircraft wake separation standards along with the planning for implementing the associated procedures and processes • Continue development of wake separation processes that account dynamically for the wake generated by the lead aircraft • Develop enhancements to modeling that will enable their use in evaluating the proposed dynamic wake mitigation separation processes • Perform simulations to validate the operational feasibility of dynamic wake separation processes and procedures Airport and Facility Identifiers OEP AIrPOrTS OThEr AIrPOrTS ATL Atlanta ANC Anchorage BOS Boston CMH Columbus (Ohio) BWI Baltimore-Washington MMU Morristown (New Jersey) CLE Cleveland SAT San Antonio CLT Charlotte TEB Teterboro (New Jersey) CVG Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky DCA Washington National FAA FACIlITIES DEN Denver DFW Dallas/Fort Worth ZAB Albuquerque ARTCC ZAU Chicago ARTCC DTW Detroit ZDC Washington ARTCC EWR Newark ZDV Denver ARTCC FLL Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood ZHU Houston ARTCC HNL Honolulu ZLA Los Angeles ARTCC IAD Washington Dulles ZLC Salt Lake City ARTCC IAH Houston Intercontinental ZNY New York ARTCC JFK New York Kennedy ZOA Oakland ARTCC LAS Las Vegas ZSE Seattle ARTCC LAX Los Angeles LGA New York LaGuardia MCO Orlando MDW Chicago Midway MEM Memphis MIA Miami MSP Minneapolis-St. Paul ORD Chicago O’Hare PDX Portland (Oregon) PHL Philadelphia PHX Phoenix PIT Pittsburgh SAN San Diego SEA Seattle-Tacoma SFO San Francisco SLC Salt Lake City STL St. Louis TPA Tampa www.faa.gov/nextgen 93 Acronyms 2D Two-Dimensional CAAFI Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels 4D Four-Dimensional Initiative 4DT Four-Dimensional Trajectory CARTS Common Automated Radar Terminal System A/DMT Arrival/Departure Management Tool CATM Collaborative Air Traffic Management AC Advisory Circular CATMT Collaborative Air Traffic Management ACM Adjacent-Center Metering Technologies ADS-B Automatic Dependent CDM Collaborative Decision Making Surveillance-Broadcast CDP Climb/Descent Procedure ADS-C Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract CDQM Collaborative Departure Queue Management AEDT Aviation Environmental Design Tool CDTI Cockpit Display of Traffic Information AIM Aeronautical Information Management CIWS Corridor Integrated Weather System AIP Airport Improvement Program CIX Collaborative Information Exchange AIRE Atlantic Interoperability Initiative CLEEN Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions to Reduce Emissions and Noise ALP Airport Layout Plan CO2 Carbon Dioxide ANSP Air Navigation Service Provider CRDA Converging Runway Display Aid AOC Airline Operations Center CSPO Closely Spaced Parallel Operations APMT Aviation Portfolio Management Tool CSPR Closely Spaced Parallel Runways AR Authorization Required CTP Collaborative Trajectory Planning ARC Aviation Rulemaking Committee Data Comm Data Communications ARMS Airspace Resource Management DCL Departure Clearance System DDU Data Distribution Unit ARTCC Air Route Traffic Control Center DME Distance Measuring Equipment ASAP Aviation Safety Action Program DoD Department of Defense ASDE-3 Airport Surface Detection DST Decision Support Tool Equipment-Model 3 eALP Electronic Airport Layout Plan ASDE-X Airport Surface Detection EDX Enhanced Data Exchange Equipment-Model X EFB Electronic Flight Bag ASIAS Aviation Safety Information EFVS Enhanced Flight Vision System Analysis and Sharing EMS Environmental Management System ASPIRE Asia and Pacific Initiative to Reduce Emissions ERAM En Route Automation Modernization ASTM Standard-setting organization ES Extended Squitter (Mode S) ATC Air Traffic Control EVS Enhanced Vision System ATM Air Traffic Management FAA Federal Aviation Administration ATN Aeronautical Telecommunications FACT Future Airport Capacity Task Network FANS Future Air Navigation System ATPA Automated Terminal Proximity Alert FIS-B Flight Information Services-Broadcast 94 NextGen Implementation Plan FMC Flight Management Computer NM Nautical Miles FMS Flight Management System NNEW NextGen Network Enabled Weather FOC Flight Operations Center NOTAM Notice to Airmen FOQA Flight Operational Quality Assurance NVS NAS Voice System FOSA Flight Operator Surface Application NWP NextGen Weather Processor FY Fiscal Year Ocean21 Oceanic Automation System GBAS Ground Based Augmentation System OEP Operational Evolution Partnership GIS Geographic Information System OI Operational Improvement GLS GBAS Landing System OMP O’Hare Modernization Project GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System OPD Optimized Profile Descent GPS Global Positioning System PAPI Precision Approach Path Indicator HITL Human-in-the-Loop PBN Performance Based Navigation HRJ Hydrotreated Renewable Jet RAPT Route Availability Planning Tool HUD Heads-Up Display RF Radius-to-fix ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization RNAV Area Navigation IDAC Integrated Departure/Arrival Capability RNP Required Navigation Performance ILS Instrument Landing System RPI Relative Position Indicator ITA Initial Tailored Arrival RTA Required Time of Arrival ITP In-Trail Procedure RTCA Aviation industry group JPDO Joint Planning and Development Office RVR Runway Visual Range JRC Joint Resources Council RVSM Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum LAAS Local Area Augmentation System SAA Special Activity Airspace LED Light-Emitting Diode SAAAR Special Aircraft and Aircrew LNAV Laternal Navigation Authorization Required LP Localizer Performance Satcom Satellite Communications LPV Localizer Performance with SATNAV Satellite Navigation Vertical Guidance SBAS Satellite Based Augmentation System MALSR Medium-Intensity Approach Lighting SESAR Single European Sky Air Traffic System with Runway Alignment Indicator Management Research MHz Megahertz SID Standard Instrument Departure NAS National Airspace System SITS Security Integrated Tool Set NASA National Aeronautics and SMS Safety Management System Space Administration SNT Staffed NextGen Towers NAS EA National Airspace System Enterprise SRM Safety Risk Management Architecture SRMD Safety Risk Management Document NATCA National Air Traffic Controllers SSA System Safety Assessment Association STAR Standard Terminal Arrival Route NAVAID Navigation Aid STARS Standard Terminal Automation NEO Network Enabled Operations Replacement System NEPA National Environmental Policy Act STBO Surface Trajectory Based Operations NextGen Next Generation Air Transportation SUA Special Use Airspace System SURF IA Surface Indications and Alerts NIEC NextGen Integration and Evaluation Capability SVS Synthetic Vision System www.faa.gov/nextgen 95 SWIM System Wide Information Management TBFM Time Based Flow Management TBM Time Based Metering TBO Trajectory Based Operations TCAS Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System TFDM Tower Flight Data Manager TFM Traffic Flow Management TFMS Traffic Flow Management System TIS-B Traffic Information Services-Broadcast TMA Traffic Management Advisor TMI Traffic Management Initiative TRACON Terminal Radar Approach Control TSO Technical Standard Order UAS Unmanned Aircraft System UAT Universal Access Transceiver VDL VHF Data Link VHF Very High Frequency VNAV Vertical Navigation WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System WTMA Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals WTMA-P Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals-Procedures WTMD Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures If you would like to order additional copies, please send an email to NextGen@faa.gov. Please include: • Your Name • Your Company • Address • Telephone Number • Email • Number of Copies Requested 96 NextGen Implementation Plan Page Intentionally Blank Why NextGen Matters NextGen is a comprehensive overhaul of our National Airspace System to make air travel more convenient and dependable, while ensuring your flight is as safe, secure and hassle-free as possible. In a continuous roll-out of improvements and upgrades, the FAA is building the capability to guide and track air traffic more precisely and efficiently to save fuel and reduce noise and pollution. NextGen is better for our environment and better for our economy. • NextGen will be a better way of doing business. • NextGen will reduce aviation’s impact on the environment. • NextGen will help us be even more proactive about preventing accidents with advanced safety management. • NextGen will get the right information to the right person at the right time. • NextGen will lay a foundation to continually improve air travel and strengthen the economy. • NextGen will help communities make better use of their airports. • NextGen will enable us to meet our increasing national security and safety needs. • NextGen will bring about one seamless global sky. NextGen Integration and Implementation O ce 800 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20591 www.faa.gov/nextgen Is this the information you need? If you have a suggestion for how we can Feedback improve future editions, please visit our Web site at www.faa.gov/nextgen, and click on the icon.
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