FAAs NextGen Implementation Plan_ March 2011 by dfgh4bnmu

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From the Administrator
March 2011

Dear Members of the Aviation Community:

The FAA made tangible and important NextGen progress in 2010. This was evident
to me at the Experimental Aircraft Association’s AirVenture in Oshkosh, Wis., this
past year. People were asking, “What does NextGen mean for me?” That’s significant.
People are starting to see NextGen in action, and they want to know more about how
the transformation of the National Airspace System (NAS) is going to enhance safety,
increase access and efficiency, and improve aviation’s overall environmental footprint.

NextGen is enjoying forward momentum right now, and that means all of us – the FAA
and the entire aviation community – need to continue to work to sustain this exciting progress. That means more than new
technology and procedures; it means a new approach to the way we do business in the NAS. Within the FAA, I’ve launched
Destination 2025, a vision for both transforming our national aviation system and the agency responsible for making it
happen. We’re taking a hard look at how we do things, and making changes to ensure the FAA can meet the demands of
a new century of aviation. We’ve elevated the executive leadership of NextGen to the deputy administrator level. With his
confirmation last June, Michael Huerta became the highest ranking official with overall responsibility for NextGen in the
federal government.

NextGen is helping usher in a new era of collaboration. We are building on the collaboration we began in 2009 through the
RTCA task force with the newly established NextGen Advisory Committee, which Deputy Administrator Huerta is leading.
Last April, the Department of Transportation chartered the Future of Aviation Advisory Committee, the membership of
which spans the aviation community. Now, more than ever, the FAA and aviation stakeholders recognize that in order to
succeed, NextGen must be a team effort. Everyone is being asked to make investments of time, money, equipage and human
capital. I am encouraged that people from throughout the aviation community are doing their part.

In 2010, we also successfully integrated our new satellite-based aircraft tracking system, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-
Broadcast (ADS-B), into all four air traffic control automation platforms at key sites across the country. We cleared the way
to begin integrating ADS-B into FAA air traffic control facilities nationwide, and to train our workforce. We also issued
our ADS-B Out rule requiring aircraft operating in most controlled airspace to be equipped to broadcast their position to
the ADS-B network by the start of 2020. This rule allows manufacturers to start mass-producing certified ADS-B avionics,
which we believe will drive prices down, addressing a key concern of the operators.

We have also been working hard at our nation’s airports to reduce delays and improve the environment with NextGen
initiatives that help curb fuel burn and emissions by improving surface efficiencies. We move forward with these initiatives
knowing we might have to make adjustments due to new information, program interdependencies, realignment of priorities
and other changes that can’t always be anticipated as we pursue our mid-term operational vision.

2011 promises to be every bit as productive as last year. Design and implementation teams in Washington, D.C., and the
Dallas area of north Texas will focus on streamlining arrival and departure traffic at clustered metroplex airports. Our
work on Data Communications is setting the stage for the delivery of a NextGen technology that the 2009 RTCA task force
identified as a priority. And the report of our ADS-B In rulemaking committee, due in September, will give us a clear
indication of which cockpit-based ADS-B applications are most important to the aviation community.

The foundation of NextGen is collaboration and communication. NextGen will provide technology and tools, but NextGen
will be delivered and operated by people. The dedication of people at every level of the aviation community will determine
its success. I am certain that together, we will continue to meet the challenge of giving the world new ways to fly.




J. Randolph Babbitt
FAA Administrator
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                              NextGen Implementation Plan
                                                                         Contents




5    Executive Summary

7    Introduction
                         19   NextGen Benefits
10   NextGen Today
                         26   NextGen: Operating
                              in the Mid-Term

                         31   NextGen Ahead           38     Appendix A:
                                                             NextGen Investments for
                         35   Challenges                     Operators and Airports

                                                      46     Appendix B:
                                                             Delivering the Mid-Term Vision

                                                      93     Airport and Facility
                                                             Identifiers

                                                      94     Acronyms

                                           NextGen Integration and Implementation Office
                                                            800 Independence Avenue, SW
                                                                   Washington, DC 20591
                                                                           202-493-4939
                                                                   www.faa.gov/nextgen

                                                                    Photographs provided by:
                                                                       ATO Communications
                                                                               Shutterstock
Why NextGen Matters

 NextGen is a comprehensive overhaul of our National Airspace System to make air travel
 more convenient and dependable, while ensuring your flight is as safe, secure and hassle-
 free as possible.

 In a continuous roll-out of improvements and upgrades, the FAA is building the capability to
 guide and track air traffic more precisely and efficiently to save fuel and reduce noise and
 pollution. NextGen is better for our environment, and better for our economy.

  • NextGen will be a better way of doing business. Travel will be more predictable because
    there will be fewer delays, less time sitting on the ground and holding in the air, with more
    flexibility to get around weather problems.

  • NextGen will reduce aviation’s impact on the environment. Flying will be quieter, cleaner and
    more fuel-efficient. We’ll use alternative fuels, new equipment and operational procedures,
    lessening our impact on the climate. More precise flight paths help us limit the amount of
    noise that communities experience.

  • NextGen will help us be even more proactive about preventing accidents with advanced
    safety management to enable us, with other government agencies and aviation partners, to
    better predict risks and then identify and resolve hazards.

  • NextGen boils down to getting the right information to the right person at the right time. It
    will help controllers and operators make better decisions. This data will assist operators in
    keeping employees and passengers better informed.

  • Our nation’s economy depends on aviation. NextGen lays a foundation that will continually
    improve and accommodate future needs of air travel while strengthening the economy with
    one seamless global sky.

  • NextGen will help communities make better use of their airports. More robust airports can
    help communities attract new jobs, and help current employers expand their businesses. By
    doing this the U.S. will strengthen its economy and help communities realize all the benefits
    that aviation can bring.

  • NextGen will allow us to meet our increasing national security needs and ensure that
    travelers benefit from the highest levels of safety.
Executive Summary
The NextGen Implementation Plan provides an overview              NExTGEN BENEFITS
of the FAA’s ongoing transition to the Next Generation
                                                                  As airports and operators reap the benefits of the investments
Air Transportation System. The Plan lays out the agency’s
                                                                  and deployments we are making today, the FAA continues
vision for transforming the way things work in our nation’s
                                                                  to sharpen its projections of the benefits we expect NextGen
skies and at our nation’s airports by the end of the mid-term.
                                                                  to provide during the mid-term. Our latest estimates, which
The Plan further provides a status report on the NextGen
                                                                  are sensitive to traffic and fuel price forecasts, indicate that
deployments, capabilities and benefits we have already
                                                                  by 2018, NextGen will reduce total delays (in flight and
introduced into the National Airspace System (NAS), as
                                                                  on the ground) by about 35 percent compared with what
well as the goals we have set and commitments we have
                                                                  would happen if we did nothing. That delay reduction will
made in support of our mid-term vision. Additionally, the
                                                                  provide, through 2018, $23 billion in cumulative benefits to
Plan addresses the harmonization work we are doing with
                                                                  aircraft operators, the traveling public and the FAA. In the
the global aviation community to ensure aircraft operating
                                                                  process, we will save about 1.4 billion gallons of aviation
globally receive the operational benefits in various
                                                                  fuel during this period, reducing carbon dioxide emissions
international air traffic environments.
                                                                  by 14 million tons.
The primary goals of NextGen are to enhance the safety and
                                                                  The FAA expanded the demonstration activities and trials
reliability of air transportation, to improve efficiency in the
                                                                  we use to develop NextGen capabilities, and which provide
NAS and to reduce aviation’s impact on our environment.
                                                                  direct benefits to the members of the aviation community
                                                                  who partner with the FAA to conduct those activities. In
                                                                  Memphis, Tenn., both FedEx and Delta have reported
NExTGEN TODAy                                                     savings from technologies and operational practices aimed
The FAA is continuing to achieve multiple critical NextGen        at preventing long lines from forming at the end of the
milestones. Our deployment of the ground infrastructure           runway. Highly specialized Optimized Profile Descents
that will support Automatic Dependent Surveillance-               known as Initial Tailored Arrivals have proven so successful,
Broadcast (ADS-B) surveillance is on time and on budget.          they are moving from demonstration to operational use
We are continuing to improve airspace efficiency and airport      at airports in San Francisco, Los Angeles and Miami. In
access. And we have enjoyed success in our early efforts          addition to helping curb delays, surface management and
to leverage surface data sharing in support of collaborative      Initial Tailored Arrivals help the environment by reducing
surface traffic management at select locations.                   fuel burn and emissions, and offering opportunities to
                                                                  manage noise.
One of the FAA’s most important steps forward this year
was its decision to approve the nationwide use of ADS-B           NextGen technologies will work together to provide greater
to separate suitably equipped aircraft in areas with ADS-B        situational awareness both in the air and on the ground,
coverage. Equally significant was our release of a final rule     enhancing safety throughout the system. Likewise, our
requiring aircraft operating in most controlled airspace to be    efforts to collect, analyze and share information on aviation
equipped to transmit their position to the ADS-B network          trends will assist us in identifying and mitigating any
by Jan. 1, 2020.                                                  potential risk associated with NextGen implementation.
Maintaining and enhancing safety remains fundamental to
all NextGen improvements, as does the FAA’s commitment
to environmental stewardship. Airspace improvements               NExTGEN: OPErATING IN ThE MID-TErM
including Performance Based Navigation (PBN) are already          In this update, the FAA reiterates its vision for the
reducing fuel burn and emissions. A new, cleaner-burning          operational capabilities we expect to have in place by the
biofuel is expected to be approved for use by commercial          end of the mid-term. That vision includes changes at every
aircraft early this year.                                         phase of flight, and it fundamentally revamps the way things
We also are striving to streamline our own internal processes     work in the NAS. Common weather and system status
to ensure that the NextGen capabilities emerging from our         information will dramatically improve flight planning.
test beds and research centers begin producing operator           Technologies such as ADS-B and Data Communications
benefits as quickly and safely as possible.                       (Data Comm), combined with PBN, will increase safety
                                                                  and capacity and save time and fuel, decreasing carbon
                                                                  emissions and improving our ability to address noise.



                                                                                                        www.faa.gov/nextgen 5
With NextGen, we must continue to advance safety as we          Over the next few years, we will be making more NAS
look ahead at increasing air traffic and the introduction of    systems compatible with the network structure that will
very light jets, unmanned aircraft systems and commercial       serve as the backbone for the digital exchange of NextGen
space flights. To continue to minimize risk as we introduce     information, and we expect to update our policies to leverage
a wave of new NextGen capabilities over the next decade,        satellite navigation technology to increase the capacity of
the aviation community will continue to rely on Safety          closely spaced parallel runways during poor visibility.
Management Systems, integrated safety cases and other
                                                                The FAA recognizes the magnitude of the effort necessary
proactive forms of management that allow us to assess the
                                                                to achieve our NextGen goals, and we have provided a
safety risk of all the proposed changes. Policies, procedures
                                                                highly effective, structured management and governance
and systems on the ground and in the flight deck enable the
                                                                architecture to ensure the timely, cost-effective delivery of
mid-term system. We make the most of technologies and
                                                                all NextGen capabilities.
procedures that are in use today, as we introduce innovations
that will fundamentally change air traffic automation,
surveillance, communications, navigation and the way we         ChAllENGES
manage information.                                             While the FAA remains confident we will achieve NextGen
In addition to the advances we develop through the              success, we recognize that many technical, programmatic
NextGen transformational programs and implementation            and organizational challenges lie ahead. NextGen success
portfolios, the mid-term system depends on coordination         depends on public and private stakeholder investments
with and support from FAA specialists on safety, airports,      moving forward together. Operators must equip to take
the environment, policy development and the other               advantage of the capabilities we provide. Additionally, we
building blocks of modern air traffic management. FAA           must contend with varying timelines and levels of maturity
information and management systems must keep these              among the incremental achievements that NextGen
activities synchronized as we approach the mid-term, reach      capabilities are built on. As we work to introduce new
it and move forward. We will use a strategic Environmental      equipment and procedures into a NAS that is active 24
Management System approach to integrate environmental           hours a day, seven days a week, we face limitations in terms
and energy objectives into the planning, decision making        of how much change the system can accommodate at any
and operation of NextGen. Under the Continuous Lower            one time. Our key to successfully dealing with challenges
Emissions, Energy and Noise program, we are targeting           is to anticipate them and incorporate mitigation strategies
partnerships with industry to advance noise and emissions       into our NextGen planning. For example, we are studying
reductions, while improving energy efficiency. We will          a number of financial and operational incentives aimed at
continue to accelerate the certification and implementation     encouraging operator equipage. Further, we have taken an
of sustainable alternative fuels for use by aircraft fleets.    integrated portfolio management approach that recognizes
                                                                the interdependent nature of NextGen, rather than trying to
                                                                administer NextGen as a series of individual programs and
NExTGEN AhEAD
                                                                initiatives.
Several milestones key to the NextGen mid-term vision are
right around the corner.                                        Why NExTGEN MATTErS
This fall, an Aviation Rulemaking Committee is expected         The advantages of NextGen will benefit almost everyone,
to submit initial recommendations on how the aviation           whether they frequently travel by air or never fly at all.
community should move forward with the technology               Those who do fly will enjoy fewer delays, the highest
that brings ADS-B information into the cockpit (ensuring        level of safety and more predictable trips. Many people
compatibility with the ADS-B Out avionics detailed in           who live in neighborhoods near airports will experience
the 2010 final rule). We are also moving forward with the       less aircraft noise and fewer emissions. And communities
development of Data Comm, which is expected to provide          will make better use of their airports, strengthening their
initial tower capabilities in 2015.                             local economy. Our nation’s economy depends on a healthy
                                                                aviation industry.




6 NextGen Implementation Plan
Introduction
The NextGen Implementation Plan is the FAA’s primary            Similar fuel savings and reductions in emissions have
outreach tool for communicating with the stakeholders and       resulted from the use of precise, continuous descents into
aviation partners working with us to develop and deploy         Los Angeles and customized descents into San Francisco.
the Next Generation Air Transportation System. The Plan         Preliminary results from a surface management initiative
is intended to provide stakeholders with an overview of         in Boston point to a fuel savings of 5,100 gallons and a
NextGen, including a status report on the deployments,          reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of 50 tons during
capabilities and benefits it has introduced into the National   periods of heavy congestion. Shared surface surveillance
Airspace System (NAS) to date. The Plan update, as              data coupled with aircraft metering techniques are creating
always, is consistent with budget assumptions that were         taxi-out time savings of up to 7,000 hours a year at New
current at the time of publication. The Plan underscores        York’s John F. Kennedy airport and 5,000 hours a year at
our unwavering focus on the mid-term system. It provides        Memphis, Tenn. Equipped helicopters flying over the Gulf
aviation community decision makers with up-to-date              of Mexico are enjoying the safety and efficiency of radar-
information about the investments operators and airports        like coverage in poor weather conditions. And in Colorado,
need to make to benefit from NextGen capabilities               new surveillance technologies are enabling controllers
(Appendix A). It also summarizes the milestones and             to track aircraft flying through potentially treacherous
critical work that will be ongoing in pursuit of our mid-       mountain terrain.
term goals (Appendix B).
                                                                These are just a few examples of early NextGen successes.
Users of our airspace won’t have to wait until the mid-         In 2010, the FAA met 90 percent of our high-priority
term to experience the advantages of NextGen. Across            NextGen objectives. Many more benefits are still unfolding
the country, operators are already reaping the benefits         as the FAA and its partners continue to roll out new
of NextGen capabilities. In Atlanta, arrivals making use        policies, procedures and technologies as part of the largest
of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) procedures                transformation of the NAS in history.
have saved hundreds of thousands of gallons of fuel and
                                                                Since Congress passed the first NextGen budget
thousands of tons of carbon dioxide and air pollutants.
                                                                appropriation in 2007, the FAA has been working

                                                                                                   www.faa.gov/nextgen 7
aggressively with the broader aviation community to                                        areas, and five additional study teams are being dispatched
revolutionize the way things work at our nation’s airports                                 this year.
and in our nation’s skies. We are deploying innovative
technologies and procedures that improve efficiency                                        The NextGen success enjoyed by the FAA and its partners
both on the ground and in the air, while offering greater                                  has garnered the support of the White House and Congress.
environmental protections. We are laying the groundwork                                    Funding for NextGen has increased significantly since
for the communications and information-sharing networks                                    the first appropriation of $128 million in 2007. Today,
that will enable the FAA to collaborate with its stakeholders                              our funding requests are approximately $1 billion. The
to align their preferences with the overall needs of the                                   White House and the U.S. Department of Transportation
system. And we are working with our international partners                                 have declared NextGen a top national transportation and
to make sure it all works seamlessly beyond our borders.                                   infrastructure priority.

Our investment in that work is already                                         There is good reason for that. Aviation
paying dividends. Our deployment of                                            is crucial to our nation’s economy. As
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-                  Across the country,         recently as 2009, civil aviation contributed
Broadcast (ADS-B) ground stations                operators are already         $1.3 trillion annually to the national
is on time and on budget. ADS-B, our                                           economy, and constituted 5.2 percent of
                                                reaping the benefits of the gross domestic product. It generated
satellite-based successor to radar, more
accurately tracks traffic in areas such as       NextGen capabilities.         more than 10 million jobs, with earnings
Philadelphia, Louisville, Ky., and Juneau,                                     of $397 billion.2
Alaska, as well as the Gulf of Mexico.                                         NextGen is vital to protecting those
Operators of aircraft equipped with first-generation ADS-B    contributions. The current system simply cannot
avionics are singing the praises of the increased situational accommodate anticipated growth in the aviation industry.
awareness offered by the free in-cockpit traffic and weather  Congestion continues to increase at many of our nation’s
information provided under the FAA’s Surveillance and         busiest hub airports, a problem that will only be exacerbated
Broadcast Services program.                                   now that traffic levels are starting to rebound from the
Operators also are benefiting from the increased runway       impact of the economic recession.
access enabled by new approaches the FAA has published                                     NextGen has further provided additional opportunities
for scores of runway ends throughout the country. These                                    for environmental stewardship. Our efforts are enhancing
approaches integrate several approach procedures with                                      energy efficiency and reducing aviation’s environmental
a common path over the ground. Each procedure allows                                       footprint, while promoting increased energy security and
a different level of access based on aircraft capability.                                  diversity. Our plans promote the creation of green jobs,
These approach procedures include Lateral Navigation                                       and support our nation’s farmers through the creation of
(LNAV), Lateral and Vertical Navigation (LNAV/VNAV),                                       sustainable fuels.
and Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV).
Additionally, operators are taking advantage of PBN                                        By providing greater safety, efficiency and environmental
procedures that use satellite guidance to follow more                                      performance, NextGen plays a critical role in protecting
precise arrival and departure paths. PBN remains a key                                     America’s economic and environmental health.
component of our efforts to deconflict traffic flows over                                  While the FAA and the aviation community can take pride in
busy metroplex areas – metropolitan centers that contain                                   all that NextGen has accomplished so far, we remain keenly
multiple airports and municipalities, as well as a diverse set                             aware of the challenges that remain. The interdependence
of aviation customers and stakeholders.                                                    of NextGen systems means that challenges faced by one
Our metroplex work also goes to the heart of the partnerships                              program could create challenges for another. Some of
forged between the FAA and the aviation community. In                                      the capabilities deployed by the FAA will not be able to
direct response to recommendations made in 2009 by                                         provide benefits until sufficient numbers of operators have
the RTCA1 NextGen Mid-Term Implementation Task                                             equipped to take advantage of them. New procedures
Force, two initial study sites – the Washington, D.C., and                                 implemented by the FAA will have no impact if controllers
north Texas areas – served as prototypes for the broader                                   and pilots have not been trained in their proper execution.
implementation of PBN procedures in critical metroplex                                     The FAA has anticipated these challenges and developed


1
    RTCA, Inc. is a private, not-for-profit corporation that develops consensus-based recommendations regarding communication, navigation, surveillance and air traffic
    management system issues. RTCA functions as a Federal Advisory Committee and includes roughly 400 industry and academic organizations from the United States and
    around the world. Members represent all facets of the aviation community, including government organizations, airlines, airspace users, and airport associations, labor
    unions, aviation services and equipment suppliers.
2
    “The Economic Impact of Civil Aviation on the U.S. Economy,” FAA, March 2011.


8 NextGen Implementation Plan
risk mitigation strategies to keep NextGen on track and            agency’s detailed NAS Enterprise Architecture. The NAS
sustain its momentum.                                              Enterprise Architecture is a robust, comprehensive planning
                                                                   tool that the FAA uses to understand the interdependencies
With the publication of this 2011 update to the NextGen
                                                                   of capabilities on systems, procedures and policies, and to
Implementation Plan, the FAA once again affirms its
                                                                   ensure their alignment. While not a set of commitments
commitment to delivering the capabilities and benefits that
                                                                   itself, the Enterprise Architecture serves as a cornerstone
comprise our mid-term operational vision, first outlined in
                                                                   upon which the FAA bases many of the commitments
2009. At the same time, we remain focused on working with
                                                                   included in Appendix B.
our partners to deliver early benefits leveraging existing
aircraft capabilities. Key examples include our metroplex          Our 2011 reporting does not end with the publication of this
work, as well as our formation, in conjunction with the            document. Throughout the year, you can access updated
RTCA, of the NextGen Advisory Committee, a new senior-             news and information at www.faa.gov/nextgen. The Web
level advisory panel representing broad aviation community         site offers access to additional FAA documents, including
membership. This committee will focus on improvements              NextGen-related fact sheets, the Enterprise Architecture and
to safety, airports, the environment and air traffic, as well as   last year’s FAA Response to the Recommendations of the
global harmonization. It also will work in conjunction with        RTCA NextGen Mid-Term Implementation Task Force.
the FAA to develop performance metrics for measuring the
                                                                   The transformation of the NAS represents a monumental
success of NextGen initiatives. One addition to this year’s
                                                                   task. The challenges are great, but the need and the payoffs
Implementation Plan is a new chapter called NextGen
                                                                   are even greater. Buoyed by the NextGen success we have
Ahead, in which we highlight some of the most significant
                                                                   achieved thus far, and backed by the confidence of our
NextGen milestones included in Appendix B.
                                                                   stakeholders, Congress and the administration, the FAA
As an overview document, the NextGen Implementation                and the global aviation community are moving forward
Plan both drives and draws upon many other NextGen plans           together, giving the world new ways to fly.
and documents from throughout the agency, including the




                                                                                                       www.faa.gov/nextgen 9
NextGen Today                                                     Deploying Operational Benefits


During 2010, NextGen made flying safer by giving pilots                        Since maintaining and enhancing safety is fundamental to
nearly total access to stabilized approach procedures                          everything we do, we introduced these improvements into
with three-dimensional precision using Performance                             the NAS only after using a stringent process to ensure they
Based Navigation (PBN). It made air transportation more                        are safe, will target key risk areas to reduce accidents and
efficient by moving aircraft in and out of airports faster                     incidents, and limit environmental impact. We set robust
and by making better use of airspace. It gave pilots and air                   standards for the capabilities and demonstrated that they
traffic controllers new capabilities that will allow them to                   will provide the intended benefits. We collaborated with
see the exact location of surrounding aircraft. It reduced                     our international counterparts to continue to harmonize our
aviation’s environmental impact from some operations                           efforts so that aircraft will be able to operate using the same
using capabilities that allow aircraft to burn less fuel, emit                 concepts, systems and procedures throughout the world.
fewer greenhouse gases and reduce noise.
                                                                               Infrastructure helps us provide added benefits. In 2010,
NextGen capabilities and technologies are strengthening                        we commissioned a new runway at Charlotte, N.C., which
the National Airspace System (NAS) today even as the                           enables the airport to handle three independent instrument
FAA and its partners collaborate on further improvements                       landings at once. Charlotte will accommodate 80,000
that will benefit our aviation stakeholders in the mid-term                    more annual operations, an increase of more than 15
and beyond. We made progress in many areas over the last                       percent, with an estimated delay reduction of 1.5 minutes
year, including safety management, airport development,                        per flight, saving operators $41 million annually. We also
environmental management, international harmonization,                         rehabilitated runways and taxiways at a number of other
workforce engagement and training, regulation and policy                       airports. The map on page 17 highlights some of our 2010
making, and incorporating the action plans laid out in                         accomplishments.
our response1 to the 2009 recommendations of the RTCA
NextGen Mid-Term Implementation Task Force.

1
    The full response to the task force is available at www.faa.gov/nextgen.


10 NextGen Implementation Plan
BETTEr AWArENESS WITh ADS-B                                     procedures will focus on those with the most significant
                                                                benefit.
One of the most significant developments in the last
year was the FAA’s decision to approve the nationwide           Of the 90 RNAV procedures published in fiscal year
deployment of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-                 2010, 10 were designed to accommodate an Optimized
Broadcast (ADS-B). After extensive testing at four key          Profile Descent (OPD) for appropriately equipped aircraft.
sites, the FAA in September 2010 authorized air traffic         Traditional arrival procedures have multiple segments of
controllers to use the foundational, satellite-based NextGen    level flight during the descent and each step down requires
technology to separate suitably equipped aircraft in areas      a change in power settings. OPD procedures enable arrival
with ADS-B coverage. ADS-B will update activity on air          aircraft to descend from cruise altitudes to final approach
traffic controller displays more frequently and with greater    with significantly fewer level-offs. Since aircraft can use
accuracy, providing information such as aircraft type, call     lower and steady power settings, OPD procedures result in
sign, heading, altitude and speed. With ADS-B, controllers      reduced fuel burn, lower emissions and reduced noise.
can use airspace more efficiently. The nationwide ADS-B         The various components of PBN facilitated more efficient
ground infrastructure is expected to be completed in 2013.      design of airspace and procedures. This resulted in improved
In May 2010 we published a final rule that mandates aircraft    safety, airspace access and predictability of operations;
broadcast ADS-B information                                                                 led to reduced delays; and
in most airspace by Jan. 1,                                                                 contributed to more efficient
2020. The FAA determined                                                                    routes, reducing fuel use,
that the 2020 timeframe                                                                     emissions and noise. PBN is
would give NAS users time to                                                                the cornerstone of the agency’s
equip, with most air carriers                                                               metroplex effort, which seeks
using regularly scheduled                                                                   to deconflict traffic flows for
maintenance to install or                                                                   more efficient operations in
upgrade equipment, and it                                                                   busy metropolitan areas with
also would provide sufficient                                                               multiple airports (see sidebar
operational experience to                                                                   on page 14).
make ADS-B the primary                                                                       Another type of OPD is
source of surveillance. The                                                                  the Initial Tailored Arrival
standards in the ADS-B Out                                                                   (ITA). This type of procedure
avionics rule will ensure                                                                    also saves fuel and reduces
that aircraft are capable of                                                                 emissions and noise. Aircraft
providing air traffic control                                                                need to be equipped with Future
automation platforms with the precise position data             Air Navigation System (FANS) avionics to fly an ITA so
necessary to support NextGen surveillance requirements.         that the desired flight path can be sent to the flight deck
In addition, research is being conducted into the appropriate   as data just before descent. Most oceanic aircraft including
role of ADS-B to contribute to the effort of safely             Boeing, Airbus and some business jet models are equipped
incorporating Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the          with FANS.
NAS and to improving capacity on closely spaced parallel        ITAs will become operational at some international
runways. A map of ADS-B surveillance coverage appears           gateways including Miami, San Francisco and Los Angeles
on page 16.                                                     beginning in spring 2011.
                                                                Especially beneficial for smaller airports, where general
ENhANCING PErFOrMANCE BASED NAVIGATION                          aviation aircraft often operate, are the RNAV Wide Area
The FAA produced a significant number of PBN routes             Augmentation System (WAAS) Localizer Performance
and procedures, exceeding our fiscal year 2010 goal. PBN        with Vertical Guidance (LPV) approach procedures. We
procedures help reduce fuel use, emissions and miles flown      published 500 WAAS LPVs in fiscal year 2010, bringing
at high altitudes and while transitioning during the arrival    the total to more than 2,300 throughout the NAS. With
or departure phase of flight. These revisions could reduce      LPVs, aircraft often can land in lower visibility conditions
delays during inclement weather. We published 51 high-          than with the previous approaches, providing more access
altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) routes and 90 RNAV              to those airports throughout the year. WAAS LPVs provide
arrival and departure routes. We also published 59 Required     satellite-based approaches primarily to airports and runways
Navigation Performance Authorization Required (RNP              where no ground-based instrument landing systems exist.
AR) approach procedures. Production of additional RNP           This means that aircraft can land at those airports even
                                                                when visibility is limited, such as during poor weather.

                                                                                                   www.faa.gov/nextgen 11
Operators are realizing the benefits of PBN: 92 percent of         (ASAP) and Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA)
U.S. scheduled air carriers are equipped for some level of         programs, representing 80 percent of scheduled operations
RNAV. About 53,000 general aviation aircraft are equipped          in U.S. airspace.
with the Global Navigation Satellite System to utilize LPV
                                                                   As of December 2010, more than 7 million FOQA flights,
approach procedures and RNAV.
                                                                   86,000 ASAP reports and 16,000 reports from the FAA’s
                                                                   non-punitive safety reporting system, the Air Traffic Safety
ThE SAFETy FACTOr                                                  Action Program, were aggregated into ASIAS, where the
                                                                   data are analyzed to pinpoint trends. We plan to increase
To reduce accident and incident rates, NextGen technologies
                                                                   participation in ASIAS by commercial carriers and also
will target key risk areas, such as the compatibility between
                                                                   include domestic corporate general aviation, military and
the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
                                                                   helicopter operations.
and future operations. Risk areas are identified through
the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing               In addition to implementing safety-enhancing technologies,
system (ASIAS), a powerful tool for NextGen and Safety             ensuring safety is fundamental to all of the improvements
Management System (SMS) transformation. It enables                 planned in NextGen. Each of our initiatives is developed and
better safety information management and data sharing as it        analyzed to ensure that operational capabilities are inherently
proactively extracts knowledge from public and non-public          safe and that NextGen technologies and operations won’t be
data sources throughout the NAS on subjects including              contributing causes to accidents. The FAA’s SMS employs
accidents, incidents, regulations, aircraft, aircraft operators,   safety risk management, safety assurance, safety policy and
voluntary reporting and statistics. ASIAS’s advanced data-         safety promotion, which including our data-sharing efforts
mining tools combined with system safety assessment                are essential components of NextGen’s success and its
analytical modeling and forecasting enable safety managers         ability to properly manage risk.
to identify and mitigate emerging risks.
                                                                   Because it operates under an SMS, the FAA identifies,
We plan to increase the current 46 ASIAS safety databases          assesses and manages the risks involved in changing the
to 64 by 2013, resulting in expanded trend analysis on             way we manage traffic in the NAS. Capabilities include
critical risk factors as well as more in-depth hazard              installing, modifying and removing equipment, modifying
analysis capabilities. Thirty commercial carriers provide          and implementing procedures and airspace changes, and
data to ASIAS through Aviation Safety Action Program               conducting demonstrations. As NextGen technologies are


Collaboration Drives NextGen Progress
The FAA’s ongoing effort to make sure NextGen is a                 we have developed and used a tracking mechanism
collaborative endeavor with all of our stakeholders is             that allows us to assess our progress against the task
helping us provide early benefits with existing equipment          force recommendations.
as well as new capabilities with evolving technology.
                                                                   We have followed the same process to determine the
We have spent the past year implementing the action plans          business case for each of the new capabilities recommended
that resulted from our work with the 2009 RTCA NextGen             by the task force. Once we determine a business case
Mid-Term Implementation Task Force, a consortium of                exists for a recommended capability, we evaluate each
more than 300 members from the aviation community.                 proposed location on a case-by-case basis. We will give
Those action plans are fully integrated into the FAA’s             priority to task force-recommended locations when
NextGen work. We adjusted our budgets to accomplish                determining a deployment rollout.
work proposed in our response, which was published in
                                                                   The FAA will continue to collaborate with the aviation
January 2010. Appendix B of this document, as it did last
                                                                   community while maintaining our responsibility to ensure
year, includes activities in support of the task force’s
                                                                   that any work we undertake is fully vetted and tested,
operational recommendations.
                                                                   meets all safety requirements, and is fiscally responsible.
We have made tremendous advances in a short time in                We have established the NextGen Advisory Committee, a
implementing key recommendations on a wide range of                broad-based, senior-level advisory panel to which we turn
topics that include metroplex and Relative Position                for expertise and guidance. One of the first actions we
Indicator (RPI) demonstrations, progress cited elsewhere           requested of this new committee is to form a working
in this document.                                                  group to develop recommendations on outcome-based
                                                                   performance metrics and goals for NextGen.
In our continuing approach to track progress, and as
part of our NextGen portfolio management process,


12 NextGen Implementation Plan
introduced in the NAS, teams of safety experts throughout      33 percent, to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by 60
the FAA ensure that potential risks due to system changes      percent and to reduce aircraft noise levels by a cumulative
are identified and adequately mitigated.                       32 decibels. In fiscal year 2010, we awarded cost-share
                                                               contracts to five companies to demonstrate technologies
                                                               that will reduce subsonic commercial jet aircraft fuel
ENVIrONMENTAl STEWArDShIP
                                                               consumption, emissions and noise. Technologies include
As we develop NextGen capabilities, the FAA is addressing      sustainable alternative aviation fuels, lighter and more
aviation’s environmental impact up front and early.            efficient gas turbine engine components, noise-reducing
Under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation         engine nozzles, adaptable wing trailing edges, optimized
Organization’s (ICAO) Committee on Aviation                    flight trajectories using onboard flight management systems
Environmental Protection, the FAA continued to pursue          and open rotor and geared turbofan engines. CLEEN will
several measures to decrease aviation’s environmental          accelerate development of this technology for potential
footprint, including supporting development of an              introduction into aircraft and engines beginning in 2015.
international standard for aircraft carbon dioxide emissions
                                                           We also are working to enable use of sustainable alternative
levels. The committee is working toward a 2013 completion  aviation fuels in concert with the Partnership for Aviation
date for the standard.                                     Noise and Emissions Reduction, the Commercial Aviation
Through pilot studies and other                                                Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI)
stakeholder outreach, we worked to                                             and the Transportation Research Board’s
                                                                               Airport Cooperative Research Program.
refine the NextGen Environmental                The FAA has begun
Management System (EMS) framework.                                             We are leveraging overall federal efforts
                                               designing integrated            by partnering with the Environmental
EMS allows the FAA to identify the
environmental aspects and impacts of its         airspace and new              Protection Agency, NASA and the
operations, assess current performance,      procedures to deconflict          U.S. departments of Defense, Energy
and formulate targets and plans to                                             and Agriculture to meet research
                                            arrivals and departures in and development goals and achieve
achieve improvements. We use this
strategic approach to integrate NextGen
                                           metroplexes, improvements consensus on environmental and fuel
environmental and energy objectives           recommended by the               standards and deployment.
into the planning, decision making           rTCA NextGen Mid-Term                  In fiscal year 2010, we completed
and operation of the NAS. The EMS          Implementation Task Force.               research with our CAAFI partners to
framework is being coordinated among                                                support the establishment of a standard
the various FAA lines of business, and                                              for biofuel (hydrotreated renewable jet,
with other government agencies and                                                  HRJ). Qualification and certification
aviation community stakeholders.                               testing is on track for approval of HRJ use in commercial
A new tool, the Aviation Environmental Design Tool             aircraft in early 2011.
(AEDT), established regional modeling capabilities that        We have launched the Aviation Climate Change Research
will enable us to quantify the interdependencies of aircraft   Initiative to better characterize aviation contributions
fuel burn, noise and emissions in the review of airspace       to climate change and qualify relative importance and
redesign projects. We also began using AEDT to analyze         tradeoffs among non-carbon-dioxide aircraft emissions to
the environmental consequences of future NextGen               determine options.
scenarios in support of the Joint Planning and Development
Office’s (JPDO) NextGen vision and NASA’s research into
                                                               IMPrOVING APPrOVAl PrOCESSES
advanced vehicle concepts.
                                                               In response to recommendations from the RTCA task
We started a new process using a noise screening software
                                                               force, the FAA focused on a number of initiatives to
tool to help mitigate the noise impacts of new PBN
                                                               ensure consistent and efficient evaluations and approvals
procedures. Noise screening saves us time and effort in
                                                               of NextGen technologies and operations. With industry,
complying with environmental regulations and standards.
                                                               the total time from submission of an initial application for
We made great strides in a number of partnership initiatives   RNP Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required
that focus on environmental and energy sustainability,         (SAAAR) approaches dropped to a typical time of 45 days,
including the Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and           down from 18 months. This dramatic improvement is due to
Noise (CLEEN) industry/government consortium. CLEEN            increased maturity of the applications themselves, as well
is a five-year effort to accelerate commercialization of       as FAA improvements in standardizing and coordinating
green technology to help achieve NextGen environmental         the applications. The FAA instituted procedures to keep
and energy goals. CLEEN seeks to reduce fuel burn by           operators informed of the status of their RNP applications,

                                                                                                   www.faa.gov/nextgen 13
implemented a national tracking and data repository system     Finally, the FAA continues to publish the plan for future
for applications, and authorized two new RNP SAAAR             NextGen standards (see Appendix A). This schedule provides
consultancies with recognized expertise in helping operators   transparency for manufacturers who are developing the
comply with the criteria.                                      equipment and operators who are interested in scheduling
                                                               aircraft modifications to bundle the technologies and reduce
The FAA has prioritized its resources on NextGen aircraft
                                                               the overall cost of implementation.
projects ahead of other non-safety aircraft changes. New
coordination mechanisms will enable a more rapid transfer
of responsibility from headquarters to field offices and       VAlIDATING CONCEPTS
early involvement from aviation safety representatives to
                                                               Once a concept is developed, we use simulations and
avoid later delays.
                                                               demonstrations to pursue it further. The NextGen Integration
Due to the criticality of enhancing PBN delivery, the FAA      and Evaluation Capability (NIEC) made its debut in June
completed a cross-agency navigation procedures project         2010 as an FAA research platform to explore, integrate and
that was co-chaired by the FAA’s Office of Aviation Safety     evaluate NextGen concepts through simulation activities.
and the Air Traffic Organization. The project reviewed all     Located at the FAA’s William J. Hughes Technical Center,
policies and processes used to request, prioritize, process,   the NIEC houses interconnected labs that represent every
approve and implement operational air traffic navigation       facet of the NAS, including UAS operations. Attention
procedures. Resources are being identified to implement        to human-automation interface issues during NextGen
recommendations from the final report. Steps have already      development is critical to good design and the orderly
been taken to enhance the exchange of data, improve            introduction of NextGen systems and procedures.
database management and advance the environmental              Research into human factors, and Human-in-the-Loop
compliance process.                                            testing and demonstrations, are essential tools to validate


Easing Congestion in Metroplex Airspace
The FAA is taking a major step to loosen key bottlenecks in    full power of PBN to compound the benefits of individual
metroplexes, the busy metropolitan areas where multiple        routes by tackling entire areas or regions in an integrated
airports and competing airspace lead to less-than-efficient    manner. This approach will unlock new efficiencies in
operations.                                                    these areas where several busy airports operate in close
                                                               proximity, often with smaller general aviation and military
We have begun designing integrated airspace and new            airports in the vicinity.
procedures to deconflict arrivals and departures in an
initiative that will reach 21 such areas by 2016. The 2009     In 2010, we developed an integrated National Airspace and
RTCA NextGen Mid-Term Implementation Task Force                Procedures Plan to implement more-efficient operations
recommended the concept, and the FAA included it in the        in metroplex areas. Study teams with representatives of
2010 response to the task force. We aim to deliver NextGen     the FAA, the National Air Traffic Controllers Association
benefits to each area within three years of launching a        and the aviation community will provide an expeditious
study of potential improvements.                               but comprehensive, front-end strategic look at each
                                                               metroplex.
The improvements use existing aircraft equipment
to enhance vertical profiles for descents and climbs,          They will analyze operational challenges, assess current
eliminating or reducing the need for airplanes to level off.   and planned airspace and procedures efforts, and
They decouple traffic better between airports used mainly      explore new opportunities for solutions that are tailored
by commercial airlines and airports frequented by general      individually to each metroplex. Once a study team has
aviation aircraft, provide more diverging departure paths      come up with the right changes for its metroplex, a design
that will get aircraft off the ground and heading toward       and implementation team will develop the changes and
their destination faster, and add more-direct high-altitude    put them in place.
Area Navigation (RNAV) routes between two or more
metroplexes.                                                   We launched this process in September 2010 by creating
                                                               prototype study teams for our first two metroplex projects,
The metroplex project takes a systems approach to              in the Washington, D.C., and north Texas areas. Working
Performance Based Navigation (PBN) initiatives and             with local facilities and stakeholders, the teams made
the design of airspace, providing a geographic focus to        recommendations in December that include converting
problem solving. A primary objective is to harness the         conventional procedures to PBN, removing level-offs on


14 NextGen Implementation Plan
NextGen concepts. NIEC’s UAS integration simulations            The FAA, Airservices Australia and Airways New Zealand
and demonstrations were conducted in collaboration with         established the Asia and Pacific Initiative to Reduce
industry, government and academic partners.                     Emissions (ASPIRE) in 2008 to reduce the impact of aviation
                                                                on the environment in those regions through technological
In fiscal year 2010, the National Air Traffic Controllers
                                                                innovation and best-practice air traffic management. The
Association (NATCA) engaged the operational workforce
                                                                effort includes demonstrations and implementation of key
in participating in a number of research and demonstration
                                                                NextGen technologies and practices, including reduced
activities to validate NextGen concepts in real-world
                                                                separation, more efficient flight profiles and Initial Tailored
scenarios. Twelve NATCA controllers participated in a
                                                                Arrivals.
recent demonstration at a Dallas/Fort Worth International
Airport (DFW) tower to show how a new surveillance              Through the Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce
display called the Tower Flight Data Manager (TFDM)             Emissions (AIRE), a joint project involving the FAA, the
system would present surveillance, flight data, weather,        European Commission, and U.S. and European airlines,
airport configuration and other information critical to         we conducted flight trials demonstrating how NextGen
controller situational awareness in a consolidated manner       technology and procedures increase fuel efficiency and
on just two displays instead of up to a dozen different         reduce emissions and noise. Those procedures included
displays. The new surveillance display used Airport             continuous climb and descent profiles, optimized oceanic
Surface Detection Equipment-Model X data to show all            routing and Initial Tailored Arrivals. Similarly, we
aircraft operating on the surface at DFW and on short final     completed two demonstration flights with our partners
approach or departure. Data flowed between the TFDM             from Japan and Singapore, who joined ASPIRE in 2009
surveillance display and the one carrying electronic flight     and 2010, respectively.
data, which is intended to replace the paper strips used by
most U.S. towers today.




arrivals, segregating arrival routes to deconflict flows,
expediting departures and realigning airspace to support
those changes.

Following review and approval of these recommendations,
design and implementation teams take over at each
location. We expect to see operational change as early as
March 2013.

In parallel with the prototype study team effort, the
FAA continued to work collaboratively with industry
through the NextGen Advisory Committee to develop a
transparent, repeatable prioritization process to determine
the study order for the remaining metroplexes. Using the
prioritization criteria, we have selected the next five sites
for deployment of study teams. These sites are Atlanta,
Houston, Southern California, Northern California and
Charlotte, N.C.

We are deploying study teams to all five sites this
fiscal year. We expect to complete study team activities
at all remaining metroplexes by 2013 and finish all
implementation work by 2016.

This effort will help us improve today’s busy metropolitan
airspace by reducing route conflicts between airports,
adding routes and avoiding reroutes, eliminating altitude
restrictions and reducing restrictions due to special use
airspace.


                                                                                                     www.faa.gov/nextgen 15
16 NextGen Implementation Plan
www.faa.gov/nextgen 17
Collaboration with several other government agencies              In June 2010, the FAA chartered an Aviation Rulemaking
including NASA and the departments of Defense and                 Committee to provide a forum for the aviation community
Homeland Security has helped us explore NextGen concepts.         to define a strategy for incorporating ADS-B In technologies
With NASA, we simulated implementing high-altitude                into the NAS.
airspace boundary changes in support of the NextGen
                                                                  Through the JPDO, we are working closely with our
Flexible Airspace concept of operations and conducted
                                                                  interagency partners, NASA and the U.S. departments of
human factors testing of high-altitude RNAV operations.
                                                                  Commerce, Defense and Homeland Security, to develop
We also signed an interagency agreement with NASA to
                                                                  and deliver NextGen capabilities.
develop UAS modeling and simulation capabilities.

                                                                  GIVING ThE WOrlD NEW WAyS TO Fly
OPErATIONAl WOrkFOrCE
                                                                  The FAA continued to partner with its international
The FAA launched a new effort to train the operational
                                                                  counterparts to ensure that NextGen concepts, systems
workforce on NextGen capabilities as they are implemented.
                                                                  and procedures match those under development elsewhere.
The technical controller training office is working with
                                                                  The goal is to provide safe, seamless, efficient and
NextGen program offices and with the human factors group
                                                                  environmentally responsible operations worldwide.
to ensure that controllers and technicians get the right
training at the right time. Training for aviation inspectors,     The FAA continues to work with ICAO, industry standard-
engineers and flight test pilots is also being developed          making bodies and international civil aviation authorities
to ensure effective oversight of implementation. Early            to harmonize standards for NextGen technologies and
collaboration has ensured that the training development           procedures.
process will be streamlined to meet the NextGen                   The United States and the European Union also agreed
implementation process.                                           to improve interoperability of NextGen and its European
In addition, a representative of NATCA was assigned to            equivalent, the Single European Sky Air Traffic
headquarters in fiscal year 2010 to enhance workforce             Management Research (SESAR), by cooperating on
engagement. This representative and additional labor              civil aviation research and development through a new
representatives will provide operational expertise in the         memorandum of cooperation and associated annex for
full cycle of development for NextGen concepts as well            global interoperability. Future cooperation annexes may
as guidance on optimal labor participation in NextGen             include aviation research and alternative fuels.
initiatives.                                                      The capabilities and technologies that the FAA developed
                                                                  and implemented in 2010 represent significant milestones
STAkEhOlDEr COllABOrATION                                         in the ongoing transformation of the NAS through
                                                                  NextGen. They pave the way for further progress in the
NextGen is a collaborative endeavor, and the FAA is working
                                                                  coming year and in the mid-term. Our focus will continue
with aviation community partners to lay the groundwork
                                                                  to be on mitigating risk to provide the safest possible air
for successfully meeting our mid-term commitments. The
                                                                  traffic management system while working closely with our
FAA initiated a community engagement strategy involving
                                                                  aviation community partners and international counterparts
a new senior-level advisory panel, the NextGen Advisory
                                                                  to fully realize the benefits of NextGen.
Committee, representing the broader aviation community on
issues involving air traffic, safety, airports, the environment
and international harmonization.




18 NextGen Implementation Plan
NextGen Benefits                                    Demonstrating Operational Savings and Improvements Today


The FAA has greatly expanded its work on demonstrations,          level analyses, estimating how integrated NextGen benefits
trials and initial deployment of NextGen systems and              will develop and grow over a period of years. This work
procedures during the past year. National Airspace System         draws on modeling and simulations of how NAS operations
(NAS) operators and users – particularly participants in          will change and what effects the changes will have.
the demonstrations and trials – are benefiting from them.
                                                                  Second, we conduct a wide range of demonstrations
But there is a chicken-and-egg nature to the economic and
                                                                  and operational trials of specific NextGen systems and
policy decisions that will have the most influence over the
                                                                  procedures. These demonstrations, conducted in real-world
extent and timing of future benefits.
                                                                  settings by operations and development personnel using
On the one hand, achieving NextGen’s benefits depends             prototype equipment, serve many purposes. They mitigate
heavily on aircraft operators and other stakeholders investing    program risks and show us whether we are on the right
in the avionics, ground equipment, staffing, training and         track in our technical approaches. They provide valuable
procedures they will need to exploit the infrastructure that      insight into how equipment should be designed for
the FAA puts in place to transform the aviation system in         operability, maintainability and a sound human-automation
the coming decade and beyond.                                     interface. And they are instrumental in advancing our
                                                                  understanding of the benefits to be gained from the
On the other hand, the willingness of operators and other
                                                                  capabilities being demonstrated.
stakeholders to make these investments depends critically
on the business case for them – analyses of how valuable          Each demonstration is specific to a time, place and set of
these benefits will be, and a clear demonstration that the        operating conditions. The demonstrations enable us to tally
analyses will turn out to be valid.                               benefits in ways that consumers and the aviation community
                                                                  understand and value – increasing efficiency, saving time
When costs are clear but benefits are even a little bit cloudy,
                                                                  and money, and reducing fuel consumption, greenhouse gas
there is an information gap that the FAA must help fill. We
                                                                  emissions and noise.
try to do this in two ways. First, we conduct broad, system-



                                                                                                    www.faa.gov/nextgen 19
This information from the demonstrations helps us refine          SAFETy
our models of NAS operations and how these operations will
                                                                  Many NextGen operational capabilities will make the NAS
change, and thus our overall estimates of NextGen benefits.
                                                                  safer. For example, broadcast services will improve the
Further, it provides direct measurements of the ways
                                                                  ability of appropriately equipped aircraft to display directly
specific NextGen capabilities can benefit NAS stakeholders
                                                                  to the flight deck information about nearby traffic, weather
and the public, enabling stakeholders to improve their own
                                                                  and flight-restricted areas.        Automatic Dependent
estimates of the benefits and costs of buying equipment for
                                                                  Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) improvements in
NextGen, and to be more confident of their analyses.
                                                                  situational awareness – on the ground and in cockpits –
Our latest estimates show that by 2018, NextGen air traffic       will increase controllers’ and pilots’ individual and
management (ATM) improvements will reduce total delays,           combined ability to avoid potential danger and provide
in flight and on the ground, about 35 percent compared with       valuable time savings in search and rescue efforts.
what would happen if we did nothing. The delay reduction
                                                                  More precise tracking and information-sharing will improve
will provide $23 billion in cumulative benefits from 2010
                                                                  the situational awareness of pilots, enabling them to plan
through 2018 to aircraft operators, the traveling public and
                                                                  and carry out safe operations in ways they cannot do today.
the FAA. We will save about 1.4 billion gallons of aviation
                                                                  Air traffic controllers will become more effective guardians
fuel during this period, cutting carbon dioxide emissions by
                                                                  of safety through automation, implementation of the Safety
14 million tons.
                                                                                              Management System (SMS)
These estimates assume that                                                                   process and simplification of their
flight operations will increase as                                                            most routine tasks, coupled with
projected in the FAA’s Aerospace                                                              better awareness of conditions in
Forecast for Fiscal Years 2010-                                                               the airspace they control.
2030. The forecast depends in turn
                                                                                             Advances in tracking and
on economic growth projections
                                                                                             managing operations on airport
that may affect the demand for
                                                                                             surfaces will make runway incursions
air transportation and the price of
                                                                                             less likely. Leveraging Airport
fuel. Another assumption is that
                                                                                             Surface Detection Equipment-Model
operators will equip their aircraft
                                                                                             X (ASDE-X) surface radar coverage
gradually during the decade
                                                                                             with ADS-B surveillance of aircraft
to take advantage of NextGen
                                                                                             and ground vehicles will increase
capabilities.
                                                                                             situational awareness, particularly
We believe these benefit estimates                                                           when linked with runway status lights.
are somewhat understated, and we                                                             Collaborative decision making will
continue to refine them. These                                                               increase everyone’s understanding
benefit models include major                                                                 of what others are doing.
NextGen air traffic management
                                                                                           Starting     with      pre-takeoff
improvements, major airport
                                                                                           advisories, departure instructions
infrastructure projects and the
                                                                                           and reroutes for pilots, we will
carbon dioxide emission reductions
                                                                                           use data messages increasingly
that result from our advanced
                                                                  instead of most voice communications between pilots
systems and procedures. These models do not yet include other
                                                                  and controllers, reducing opportunities for error or
environmental effects, emissions benefits from sustainable
                                                                  misunderstanding. Voice channels will be preserved for the
alternative fuels, the fuel-efficiency benefits of airframe and
                                                                  most critical information exchange.
engine improvements, security benefits and infrastructure
projects at smaller airports. We will continue to update our
integrated NextGen benefits estimates as we develop and           ENVIrONMENT
validate improved modeling capabilities, and as new economic      As with safety, our work to enhance aviation’s influence on the
or operational conditions warrant.                                environment also benefits – and is a beneficiary of – NextGen.
Aviation safety, the environment and airport operations           The operational improvements that reduce noise, carbon
throughout the NAS will benefit greatly from NextGen              dioxide and other greenhouse-gas emissions from aircraft are
capabilities. At the same time, the FAA’s safety, environment     the tip of the FAA’s environmental iceberg. Equally important
and airports organizations, with industry and other               are the other four-fifths of the agency’s environmental approach
government partners, are contributing greatly to making           – aircraft and engine technology advances, sustainable fuels,
NextGen a reality.                                                policy initiatives and advances in science and modeling.


20 NextGen Implementation Plan
Environmental benefits of operational improvements are           FlIGhT OPErATIONS
simple and direct. When we improve efficiency in the NAS,
                                                                 All aircraft operators in the NAS will benefit from two
most of the time we save time and fuel. Burning less fuel
                                                                 major categories of improvements – efficiency and capacity,
produces less carbon dioxide and other harmful emissions.
                                                                 and access. Much of the time, efficiency and capacity go
And some of our NextGen improvements, notably landing
                                                                 together. When we reduce the distance needed for the safe
approaches in which aircraft spend less time maintaining
                                                                 separation of aircraft, reduce delays from weather and other
level flight and thus can operate with engines at idle, reduce
                                                                 disruptions, and increase flight-path and procedures options
ground noise too. But operational benefits go only so far;
                                                                 for controllers as they maintain the flow of traffic, we
their net system-wide effect can be offset by growth of the
                                                                 improve capacity as well. Surface initiatives like the ones
aviation system.
                                                                 we describe below make important contributions across the
To accommodate system growth, we are looking to                  board – they improve situational awareness and safety, they
develop aircraft, engine and fuel technology. In 2009, we        reduce fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions and
established the Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and           they reduce tarmac delays. And by improving the efficiency
Noise program to bring promising new airframe and engine         of surface operations, they increase capacity.
technologies to maturity, ready to be applied to commercial
                                                                 Access issues center on runways at major airports, affecting
designs, within five to eight years. Similarly, we are part of
                                                                 mainly airlines, and airports and airspace that lack radar
a government-industry initiative, the Commercial Aviation
                                                                 coverage, a problem for general aviation. NextGen will
Alternative Fuels Initiative, to develop sustainable low-
                                                                 improve efficiency in operations that involve closely spaced
emission alternative fuels and bring them to market.             parallel runways and converging and intersecting runways.
We have developed and are using the NextGen                      Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation
Environmental Management System (EMS) to integrate               Performance (RNP) will improve efficiency and capacity
environmental protection objectives into NextGen                 in departures and approaches. For general aviation, ADS-B
planning and operations. The EMS provides a structured           will enable controllers to track properly equipped aircraft
approach for managing our responsibilities to improve            in non-radar areas covered by ADS-B ground stations.
environmental performance and stewardship. We also are           General aviation operators equipped for ADS-B In will
analyzing the effect on aviation of environmental policy         receive traffic and weather information directly in the
and standards and of market-based measures, including            cockpit, providing them with greater situational awareness.
cap-and-trade proposals.                                         LPV approach procedures will give properly equipped
                                                                 aircraft Instrument Landing System (ILS)-like capability at
                                                                 non-ILS airports.
AIrPOrTS
                                                                 In the 2010 update of the NextGen Implementation Plan,
Many airports will benefit from substantial improvements         we surveyed a wide variety of demonstration programs and
in efficiency, access, surveillance, environment and safety.     operational trials that illustrated benefits to the NAS and its
Surveillance, situational awareness and safety will improve      stakeholders. For this year’s Plan, we will highlight surface
at airports with air traffic control (ATC) radar services as     collaboration and initial tailored arrivals, demonstration
we deploy ADS-B ground stations across the NAS and               programs that advanced significantly during 2010.
update our automation systems, and as operators equip their
aircraft for it. The FAA also plans to publish Wide Area
Augmentation System (WAAS) Localizer Performance                 SurFACE COllABOrATION
with Vertical Guidance (LPV) approach procedures for all         Getting aircraft into and out of our nation’s airports safely
suitable runway ends by 2016.                                    and efficiently is essential for smooth operations, and it
Additional Performance Based Navigation capabilities in          begins on the ground. Improving operations on runways,
busy metroplex areas will provide efficiency and reliability     taxiways and ramps is an important part of NextGen.
improvements during inclement weather, and will relieve          We have a number of efforts under way showing how better
or eliminate conflicts among routes into or out of airports      situational awareness and pacing on the ground will give
that are close to one another. At the busiest airports, air      operators and the traveling public more reliability and save
traffic controllers, operators and airport personnel will        them time, while also managing environmental impacts.
share surface situational awareness information to reduce        We can cut fuel consumption and emissions by reducing
taxi times collaboratively. And NextGen will make the            the time and number of aircraft idling on taxiways waiting
entire system more flexible, enabling it to respond to           for takeoff, or for open gate slots upon arrival. Also, we can
changing demands on flight operations, including the             reduce equipment wear – stop-and-go accelerations are hard
continued evolution of space transportation operations, and      on engines and other parts, and they also emit significant
of unmanned aircraft systems operating in the NAS.               additional amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.


                                                                                                      www.faa.gov/nextgen 21
A major success of the year was the minimal disruption               N-Control is meant to be a relatively simple, low-cost
that occurred during a four-month runway resurfacing and             program for airports that may not require the highest
widening project in one of the nation’s busiest airspaces. The       CDQM capability, which entails more significant hardware/
longest runway at New York John F. Kennedy International             software investments and depends on surface decision
Airport (JFK) – 31L/13R, also known as the Bay Runway                support systems and user data-sharing interfaces. We are
– had to be expanded to accomodate new, larger aircraft.             demonstrating such an advanced system at Memphis, where
The project also included taxiway improvements and                   operators can manage their own takeoff slot allocations
construction of holding pads for parking delayed aircraft            through automated metering. The demonstration reduced
and enabling other aircraft to move ahead for takeoff.               fuel consumption and carbon emissions during periods
                                                                     of heavy departure demand. Surface management
To minimize disruption during construction, JFK’s operators
                                                                     demonstrations are continuing at Memphis, where we
turned to a collaborative effort using departure queue
                                                                     worked with Delta Air Lines as well as FedEx during
metering, in which each departing aircraft from JFK’s many
                                                                     2010, and Orlando, Fla.
airlines was allocated a precise departure slot and waited for
it at the gate rather than congesting taxiways. The procedure        At JFK and Memphis, sharing surface surveillance data with
limited delays so well, it was extended after the work on            airlines has reduced taxi times by more than one minute per
runway 31L/13R was completed. Preliminary estimates                  departure on average. Surface metering techniques being
indicate that using this system could save 5 million gallons         demonstrated at these facilities appear to shift an additional
of fuel and 7,000 hours                                                                                 minute from the taxiways
of taxi time a year. The                                                                                to the gates, conserving
runway improvements                                                                                     additional fuel. These
are estimated to reduce                                                                                 results suggest that the
flight delays by 10,500                                                                                 combined annual savings
hours a year.                                                                                           from increased data
                                                                                                        sharing and metering
The JFK experience
                                                                                                        could be about 7,000
contributed to concepts
                                                                                                        hours of taxi time at
of departure queue
                                                                                                        JFK and 5,000 hours at
management. It drew
                                                                                                        Memphis.
on experience in an
FAA demonstration of                                                                                       For CDQM, the next
Collaborative Departure                                                                                    step beyond Memphis
Queue        Management                                                                                    was Orlando, where
(CDQM) in 2009 at                                                                                          we conducted field
Memphis International                                                                                      evaluations in 2010. The
Airport in Tennessee,                                                                                      environments of the two
where we worked with FedEx. CDQM shares real-time data               airports differ greatly, enabling us to concentrate on different
about the location of all aircraft and other vehicles on the         CDQM capabilities. At Memphis, FedEx conducts a massive
airport surface among controllers, pilots, airline operations        hub operation overnight, when it is the only carrier operating
centers, airport operators and the FAA’s Air Traffic Control         there. During the day, Delta is the hub airline, with two high-
System Command Center. We took the success of the                    density departure pushes. Delta and its regional affiliates
JFK system as a demonstration that CDQM will work in                 account for nearly 85 percent of passenger-carrier departures
operations involving multiple airlines.                              at Memphis. By contrast, none of the airlines conduct hub
                                                                     operations at Orlando, and it takes the combined departures
Another step toward CDQM is N-Control, a NextGen-funded
                                                                     of Orlando’s eight biggest airlines – of a total of 39 airlines
initiative to reduce fuel burn, carbon dioxide emissions and
                                                                     that serve the airport – to account for as great a percentage
taxi-out times by holding aircraft at the gate, as at JFK. While
                                                                     of departures as Delta’s at Memphis.
metering operations at JFK dealt with a specific problem,
N-Control is meant for business-as-usual situations, too. The        In these differing environments, we have pursued different
N in N-control refers to the maximum number of aircraft              objectives. Memphis is a test for systems to reduce departure
authorized to push back and enter an airport’s active movement       queues in periods of high demand that involve essentially
area during a set time period. The goal is to feed the runway        a single airline. Delta’s and FedEx’s ramp towers handle
constantly, without getting into stop-and-go movement of aircraft.   their own flights. The Memphis tower handles access for
Preliminary findings from a one-month demonstration at Boston        the other airlines at the airport.
Logan International Airport, conducted August-September
                                                                     At Orlando, the main focus of CDQM has been on
2010, indicate reductions of nearly 18 hours of taxi-out time,
                                                                     automated identification of departure queue management
5,100 gallons of fuel and 50 tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

22 NextGen Implementation Plan
issues involving traffic management initiatives – including        the foundation for the creation of electronic Airport Layout
flights with new estimated departure control times, flights        Plans (eALPs). ALPs are scaled drawings of existing and
affected by departure miles-in-trail restrictions and flights      proposed land and facilities needed to operate and develop
needing or already assigned approval requests – as well            the airport. They represent an understanding between
as extended departure delays related to weather and other          the airport owner and the FAA on the development and
disruptions, and surface data integrity.                           operation of the airport. The eALP will be the basis for future
                                                                   collaborative decision making in airport development, and
All the surface data-sharing capabilities we are
                                                                   for ensuring safety through the implementation of safety
implementing support the development of the Tower
                                                                   management systems.
Flight Data Manager (TFDM) system. TFDM will integrate
a number of air traffic control tower systems and a suite
of decision support tools, like CDQM, into a common                INITIAl TAIlOrED ArrIVAlS
information management platform and distribute the
information on a common display platform. The various              An Initial Tailored Arrival (ITA) is a pre-negotiated arrival
capabilities will be made available like applications on           path through airspace of multiple ATC facilities. The ITA
a smartphone, adding up to support for trajectory-based            limits vectoring and minimizes the time the aircraft spends
operations on the surface.                                         maintaining level flight during its descent. The concept has
                                                                   matured during four years of demonstrations, and we will
Our goal is not only a collaborative surface traffic               make the transition to normal operations this year.
management system that maximizes efficiency in surface
traffic flow. We also seek increased situational awareness     The pilot initiates an ITA with a request to ATC while the
for controllers and pilots to improve safety.                  aircraft still is in its cruise phase. If an ITA is available, the
                                                               controller sends the pilot a clearance that includes a descent
Surface safety will be enhanced when we leverage modern        profile with speed and altitude restrictions, as applicable.
ground-surveillance tools such as ASDE-X in combination        The clearance is sent as data, which limits ITAs at present
with NextGen capabilities. In                                                             to aircraft equipped with the Future
particular, the surveillance and            Better situational awareness                  Air Navigation System (FANS) for
situational awareness capabilities
offered by ADS-B will enable pilots
                                            and pacing on the ground will communications over oceans. The
                                                                                          pilot loads the clearance directly
and controllers to see properly give operators and the traveling into the aircraft’s flight management
equipped ground vehicles as well as public more reliability and save system, which controls the descent.
aircraft, even when weather reduces them time, while also managing
visibility. Using ASDE-X’s detailed                                                       ITAs differ from other types of
coverage of movement on runways                 environmental impacts.                    Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs)
and taxiways, controllers can detect                                                      in that they are assigned by controllers
potential runway incursions. We have installed ASDE-X at       to specific approaches and tailored to the characteristics of
32 commissioned airports, and we expect to add three more      a limited number of FANS-equipped aircraft types – 747s,
airports this year.                                            777s, A330s, A340s and A380s. They begin at the top of
                                                               the descent and, when completed, control the aircraft all
To further leverage ASDE-X surface-movement                    the way down to the runway. By contrast, other types of
information, we have installed Data Distribution Units         OPDs, such as RNAV arrival procedures, are published for
(DDUs) at many ASDE-X locations. DDU data are shared           all users and must serve a wide variety of aircraft types.
through a nationwide network that will give operators
access to surface-movement information from a single           Controllers monitor ITAs throughout the aircraft’s descent.
System Wide Information Management interface. In 2010,         Traffic conflicts, unfavorable weather or other factors often
we worked on policies for data rights and data release in      cause them to discontinue an ITA while it is in progress,
support of surface data-sharing goals, and we expect to        converting it to a conventional arrival. Data show that even
establish these policies in 2011.                              partial ITAs are beneficial to operators and the environment.
                                                               A key feature of an ITA is that the aircraft descends from
The FAA has established standards for a comprehensive          its cruise altitude more continuously, with a minimal
Geographic Information System (GIS) program for                requirement to maintain level flight. If an aircraft needn’t
collecting and maintaining safety-critical and facility data   maintain level flight, its engines can be set at or near idle.
for airports. Airport GIS is part of an FAA-wide initiative to This saves fuel and reduces emissions of carbon dioxide
strengthen data quality, improve industry efficiencies and     and other harmful gases.
reduce data collection and management costs. It is a single,
robust, Web-based system for airport-related data.             We have conducted ITA flight demonstrations at San
                                                               Francisco, Los Angeles and Miami, all in conjunction with
Thirty-seven airports across the country are the first to      our international green-aviation initiatives, the Asia and
collect and input data into Airport GIS. These data are laying

                                                                                                         www.faa.gov/nextgen 23
Pacific Initiative to Reduce Emissions (ASPIRE) and the            We also estimated benefits over the 20-year period, based
Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions           entirely on fuel savings. We did not try to put a value on the
(AIRE). Last fall, we completed a rough-order-of-                  reduction in carbon dioxide emissions or noise.
magnitude life cycle business case estimate using data from
                                                                   We found very high benefit-to-cost ratios – 44:1, 33:1 and
11,476 arrivals at San Francisco of 747-400 and 777-200
                                                                   22:1, depending on whether growth in Data Communications
aircraft between December 2007 and September 2010.
                                                                   avionics equipage over 2010 levels is high, moderate or
We estimated that the 747s saved an average of 176 gallons         zero. In each case the payback year is 2012. The benefit-
of fuel per arrival in ITAs and 78 gallons per flight in partial   to-cost ratios are unusually high because the main driver
ITAs, compared with conventional approaches. For 777s,             of benefits is avionics – FANS and an advanced flight
the corresponding savings were 99 gallons in full ITAs and         management system – and airlines already have incurred
43 gallons in partial ITAs.                                        the cost of each. The remaining costs are very low relative
                                                                   to benefits.
To assess the business case, we estimated the costs of
establishing ITAs and operating them through 2030 at               When ITAs are fully operational, they still will be
10 airports – the current three, plus Anchorage, Alaska;           limited to aircraft with FANS. Also, ATC facilities still will
Honolulu; Orlando, Fla.; Portland, Ore.; San Juan, Puerto          need the Advanced Technologies and Oceanic Procedures
Rico; Seattle-Tacoma, Wash.; and Travis Air Force Base in          system, which is the only automated platform that can send
California. Most Atlantic Coast airports are not near-term         the ITA data messages. But all airlines with FANS-equipped
candidates now because the ITA clearance would have to             aircraft, not just the airlines involved in the demonstration
be given in Canadian airspace.                                     programs, will be able to use the procedure. And we will
                                                                   make it available at other international gateway airports.




24 NextGen Implementation Plan
                                                  SURFACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
                                                    Automation optimizes taxi routing. Provides controllers
                                                    and pilots all equipped aircraft and vehicle positions on
                                                    airport. Real-time surface tra c picture visible to airlines,
                                                    controllers and equipped operators. Surface movement                        EFFICIENT CRUISE
                                                    management linked to departure and arrival sequencing.                       RNAV, RNP and RVSM utilize reduced separation
                                                    ADS-B and ASDE-X contribute to this function. Taxi times                     requirements increasing airspace capacity. Aircraft
                                                    reduced and safety enhanced.                                                   y most optimal path using trajectory-based
                                                                                                                                 operations considering wind, destination, weather        ENHANCED SURFACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
                                                                                                                                 and tra c. Re-routes determined with weather
                         INTEGRATED FLIGHT PLANNING                                                                              fused into decision-making tools are tailored to                Runway exit point, assigned gate and taxi
                                                                                                                                 each aircraft. Data Communications reduce                        route sent by Data Communications to
                          Operators and tra c managers                                                                           frequency congestion and errors. ADS-B                       pilots prior to approach. Pilot and controller
                          have immediate access to                                     STREAMLINED DEPARTURE MANAGEMENT          supported routes available for equipped aircraft.                workload reduced and safety improved.
                          identical weather information
                          through one data source.                                      RNAV and RNP precision allow
                                                                                        multiple departure paths from each                                             STREAMLINED ARRIVAL MANAGEMENT
                                                                                        runway. Departure capacity increased.
                               ENHANCED SURFACE TRAFFIC OPERATIONS                                                                                                Arrival sequence planned hundreds of miles in
                                                                                                                                                              advance. RNAV and RNP allow multiple precision
                                 Pilots and controllers talk less by radio. Data                                                                                   paths to runway. Equipped aircraft y precise
                                 Communications expedite clearances,                                                                                              horizontal and vertical paths at reduced power
                                 reduce communication errors. Pilot and                                                                                        from descent point to nal approach in almost all
                                 controller workloads reduced.                                                                                                         types of weather. Time and fuel are saved.
                                                                                                                                                                             Emissions and holding are reduced.




                                                                                                                    DOMESTIC/OCEANIC CRUISE
                                                                                                             F
                                                                                                           OF                                                        DE
                                                                                                      KE                                                               SC
                                                                                                   TA                                                                    EN
                   FLIGHT PLANNING                                            /                                                                                            T/
                                                             PUSH BACK / TAXI                                                                                                 FINAL APPROACH / LANDING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        v03-2011




                              NextGen PHASES OF FLIGHT Mid-Term




www.faa.gov/nextgen 25
NextGen                     Operating in the Mid-Term

This section describes how the FAA envisions airspace          and international databases to monitor the effectiveness
system operations in the mid-term by showing what an           of safety enhancements and identify where new safety
aircraft operator will experience through all phases of        initiatives are warranted.
flight. As we transition to this state over the next several
years, operators and the flying public will continue to        NextGen will accelerate efforts to improve aviation’s
reap the benefits of NextGen, including improved safety,       environmental and energy performance to be able to
increased capacity and efficiency, and better environmental    sustain growth and add capacity. A strategic Environmental
performance. The mid-term system, in turn, will provide a      Management System approach will be used to integrate
foundation for a further evolution of the airspace system in   environmental and energy objectives into the planning,
the long term.                                                 decision making and operation of NextGen. We will realize
                                                               emissions, energy and noise benefits from advanced systems
With NextGen, we must continue to advance safety in
                                                               and procedures, but more improvements will be needed
the face of increasing traffic and the introduction of very
                                                               than can be operationally achieved. A major NextGen
light jets, unmanned aircraft systems and commercial
                                                               initiative, the Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions and
space flights. Further reductions in the accident rate are
                                                               Noise (CLEEN) program, helps accelerate the development
essential as the overall traffic increases, and achieving
                                                               and certification of promising new engine and airframe
those reductions depends on focused safety initiatives and
                                                               technologies and sustainable alternative fuels. Entry into
a pervasive approach to safety that is formalized through
                                                               service of successfully demonstrated CLEEN technologies
the safety management system.
                                                               is expected in the mid-term. We also expect that, aided by
NextGen will take full advantage of proactive safety           the government-industry Commercial Aviation Alternative
management which allows us to analyze trends and               Fuels Initiative, sustainable alternative fuels will supply
uncover problems early on, so that preventive measures         some of the civil jet fuel supply needs by the end of the
are put in place before any accident can occur. Our safety     mid-term, and this contribution will continue to increase
information sharing and analysis tools will evaluate data      in future years, improving air quality and reducing net
from a variety of FAA systems, a multitude of operators,       carbon dioxide emissions while striving to achieve carbon-

26 NextGen Implementation Plan
neutral growth by 2020, using 2005 as the
baseline.                                                         Key Ground Infrastructure




                                                FLIGHT PLANNING
This mid-term system is enabled by policy,                        •   Data Communications (Data Comm)
procedures and systems both on the ground                         •   En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM)
and on the flight deck. It makes the most                         •   Modernized Aeronautical Information Management (AIM)
of technologies and procedures that are in                        •   NextGen Network Enabled Weather (NNEW)
use today, while introducing new systems                          •   NextGen Weather Processor (NWP)
and procedures that fundamentally change                          •   System Wide Information Management (SWIM)
air traffic automation, surveillance,                             •   Tower Flight Data Manager (TFDM)
communications, navigation and the way                            •   Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS)
we manage information.
In addition to the advanced systems and procedures we                        full picture of potential limitations, from ground operations
develop through the NextGen transformational programs and                    to the intended flight trajectory.
solution sets, the mid-term system depends on coordination                   An outcome of this planning process will be an electronic
with and support from FAA specialists on safety, security,                   representation of the operator’s intended flight profile,
airports, the environment, policy development and the other                  updated for changing conditions that might affect the flight’s
building blocks of a modern air traffic management system.                   trajectory. Operators and air traffic management personnel
FAA information and management systems must keep all                         will have common access to this real-time information,
these activities synchronized as we approach the mid-term,                   shared via a secure network. This information will provide
reach it and move on.                                                        each group with improved situational awareness for
Key ground infrastructure and avionics are included here                     planning and for the ability to predict and resolve conflicts.
in tables for each of the flight phases. A more detailed                     Improvements in calculated schedule arrival times will
description of the mid-term system, including the FAA’s                      enhance system-wide planning processes. Accomplishing
National Airspace System Enterprise Architecture and                         this will give controllers automated information on
other documentation, is available on the FAA’s NextGen                       airport arrival demand and available capacity to improve
Web site, www.faa.gov/nextgen.                                               sequencing and the balance between arrival and departure
                                                                             rates. Later analysis of a substantial body of data – a full
While operators who adopt related new avionics will receive                  day’s, or more – will enable managers to apply lessons
the greatest benefit in this time frame, lesser-equipped                     learned to future operations.
operators still will be accommodated. The investments
for operators and airports to support these operations                       These advances will better accommodate operator
are discussed in Appendix A. Through international                           preferences and improve the use of resources, even to the
collaboration on standards, we make certain that avionics                    point of scheduling at the destination. For operators, they
developed to take advantage of NextGen or other advanced                     will mean more efficient traffic management and enhanced
infrastructures worldwide will be interoperable.                             environmental performance by improving the ability to fine-
                                                                             tune and adjust schedules during planning and throughout
FlIGhT PlANNING                                                              the flight. For air traffic management, they will mean more
                                                                             comprehensive situational awareness, including user intent,
Flight planners in the mid-term will have increased access                   and a capability to manage flights in groups as well as
to relevant information on the status of the National                        individually.
Airspace System through a shared network-enabled
information source. Operators will have access to current                    PuSh BACk, TAxI AND DEPArTurE
and planned strategies to deal with congestion and other
airspace constraints. New information will include                           As the time for the flight approaches, the final flight path
scheduled times of use for special activity airspace for                     agreement will be delivered to the flight crew as a data
military, security or space operations. It will describe other               message. Data communications will provide pre-departure
airspace limitations, such as those due to current or forecast               clearances that allow amendments to flight plans. When the
weather or congestion. It also will show the status of                       aircraft taxis out, the flight crew’s situational awareness will
properties and facilities, such as closed runways, blocked                   be improved by flight-deck displays that portray aircraft
taxiways and out-of-service navigational aids. This shared                   movement on a moving map that indicates the aircraft’s
information will enhance the ability of users to plan their                  position on the airport surface and, at busy airports, the
flight operations according to their personal or business                    position of other aircraft and surface vehicles. In the tower,
objectives. Updates will be available as individual flight-                  improved ground systems, such as surface-movement
planning objectives are affected by changes in airspace                      displays, will enable controllers to manage the use of
system conditions. Operators will plan their flights with a                  taxiways and runways more efficiently; choosing the best


                                                                                                                   www.faa.gov/nextgen 27
                                                                                                                    their existing runways. Together, these
                                 Key Ground Infrastructure                                                          capabilities will enhance safety, improve
                                                                                                                    environmental performance, and reduce
                                 • Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast                                       operators’ delay and fuel costs.
                                   (ADS-B) ground stations
                                 • Airport Surface Detection Equipment-Model X (ASDE-X)                             Precise departure paths will optimize
                                 • Data Comm                                                                        system operations for entire metropolitan
 PusH BAck, TAxI ANd dePArTure




                                 • Integrated Departure and Arrival Coordination System                             areas, reducing delays by allowing each
                                 • Modernized AIM                                                                   airport to operate more independently.
                                 • NNEW                                                                             This will better separate arrival and
                                 • NWP                                                                              departure flows for airports in proximity
                                 • Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS)                                       to one another, which will provide more
                                 • Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS)
                                                                                                                    efficient access to both commercial service
                                   enhancements
                                                                                                                    and general aviation airports in congested
                                 • SWIM
                                 • TFDM                                                                             metropolitan regions. These precise
                                 • TFMS                                                                             departures also can be designed to support
                                                                                                                    airports that are now limited by terrain and
                                 Avionics                                                                           other obstacles or during periods of reduced
                                                                                                                    visibility. Precise paths will reduce flight
                                 • ADS-B, Traffic Information Services-Broadcast (TIS-B),                           time, fuel burn and emissions. They may
                                   Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B)                                    also decrease the impact of aircraft noise
                                 • Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation                                   to surrounding communities.
                                   Performance (RNP)
                                 • Data Comm                                                                        ClIMB AND CruISE
                                                                                                                     As the aircraft climbs into the en route
runway and taxi paths based on the departing aircraft’s
                                                                                                   airspace, enhanced processing of surveillance data will
intended flight path and the status and positions of all other
                                                                                                   improve position information and enable the flight crew
aircraft on the airport surface and in the terminal area.
                                                                                                   and controllers to take advantage of reduced separation
These flight deck and tower displays are important safety                                          standards. Because the flight crew will be able to monitor
tools that will improve our prevention of runway incursions                                        the position of other aircraft from their own aircraft’s flight
and other surface conflicts, especially when visibility                                            deck, air traffic personnel will be able to assign spacing
is low. More efficient management and the ability to                                               responsibility to the flight crew as it climbs to its cruising
revise departure clearances using data communications                                              altitude. The aircraft will be able to merge into the overhead
will mean fewer radio transmissions, shorter wait times,                                           stream with a minimum of additional maneuvers.
fewer departure delays and reduced fuel consumption and
emissions. Weather information will be
integrated into decision making for surface          Key Ground Infrastructure
management.
Departure performance will be improved by                                               •   ADS-B ground stations
using multiple precise departure paths from                                             •   Advanced Technologies and Oceanic Procedures
                                                                                        •   Data Comm
each runway end through Area Navigation
                                                                                        •   ERAM
(RNAV) and Required Navigation                                                          •   NNEW
                                                                     cLImB ANd cruIse




Performance (RNP) procedures. Multiple                                                  •   NWP
departure paths will enable controllers to                                              •   Time Based Flow Management (TBFM)
place each aircraft on its own separate track,                                          •   TFMS
avoiding known constraints, thunderstorms
and other severe weather near the airport.                                              Avionics
The ability to operate simultaneously
on closely spaced parallel runways –                                                    • ADS-B In and Out, with associated displays like Cockpit Display
through increased accuracy in surveillance                                                of Traffic Information
                                                                                        • Data Comm, including integration with the Flight Management
and navigation, and through improved
                                                                                          System
understanding of wake vortices – means
                                                                                        • Future Air Navigation System in oceanic airspace
airports in effect will gain capacity for                                               • RNAV and RNP



28 NextGen Implementation Plan
Data communications will provide routine and strategic                                will analyze flights approaching an airport from hundreds
information to the flight crew and automate some                                      of miles away, across facility boundaries, and will calculate
routine tasks for both pilots and controllers. Controllers                            scheduled arrival times to maximize arrival performance.
will be able to focus on providing more preferred and                                 These advances will improve the flow of arrival traffic
direct routes and altitudes, saving fuel and time. Fewer                              to maximize use of existing capacity. Improvements in
voice communications also will reduce radio-frequency                                 calculated schedule arrival times will enhance system-
congestion and spoken miscommunication. When weather                                  wide planning processes. Controllers will gain automated
affects many flights, clearances for aircraft equipped for                            information on airport arrival demand and available
data communications will be delivered automatically to the                            capacity, enabling them to improve sequencing and the
controller and uplinked, increasing controller and operator                           balance between arrival and departure rates.
efficiency.
                                                                                      Information such as proposed arrival time, sequencing and
If a potential conflict with other aircraft, bad weather,                             route and runway assignments will be exchanged with the
homeland security interventions or other constraints                                  aircraft via a data communications link to agree on a final
develops along the aircraft’s planned path, automation will                           flight path. The final flight path will ensure that the flight
identify the problem and provide recommended changes in                               has no potential conflicts, and that there is an efficient
trajectory or speed to eliminate the conflict. If the aircraft is                     arrival to the airport, while maintaining overall efficiency
equipped for data communications, the controller will send                            of the airspace operation.
the pilot the proposed change via a data message. Pilot and
                                                                                      With the improved precision of NextGen systems,
controller will negotiate the change, in coordination with
                                                                                      separation between aircraft can be reduced safely. Suitably
the flight operations center. Agreed-on changes will be
                                                                                      equipped aircraft will be able to fly precise vertical and
loaded into both ground and aircraft systems. Improved
                                                                                      horizontal paths, called Optimized Profile Descents, from
weather information, integrated into controller decision
                                                                                      cruise down to the runway. These precision paths, which
support tools, will increase controllers’ efficiency and
                                                                                      may include precise inter-arrival spacing by the aircraft,
greatly reduce their workload during bad weather.
                                                                                      will allow for more efficient transitions from cruise to
At times, traffic delays, airspace restrictions or adverse                            the approach phase of flight into high-density airports.
weather will require additional changes to the flight path                            Controllers will be able to use multiple precision paths
agreement. When rerouting is needed, controllers will be                              that maintain flows to each runway, using RNAV and
able to assign offsets to the published route. Tailored to                            RNP arrivals. Precise arrivals will save fuel and reduce
each flight, these offsets will be a way of turning a single                          emissions.
published route into a “multi-lane highway in the sky.” Use
                                                                Today, the structure of arrival and departure routes does
of offsets will increase capacity in a section
of airspace. Since the final agreement will
be reached via data messaging, complex                Key Ground Infrastructure
reroutes can be more detailed than those
constrained by the limitations of voice                • ADS-B ground stations
communications and reduce one source of                • ASDE-X
error in communications.                               • Data Comm
In       oceanic operations, air traffic                                   •   Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS)
management personnel will provide aircraft                                 •   NNEW
                                                    desceNT ANd APProAcH




entering oceanic airspace with an optimized                                •   NWP
trajectory. Airspace entry will be specified by                            •   SBAS
track entry time and the intended trajectory.                              •   STARS enhancements
As weather and wind conditions change,                                     •   TBFM
both individual reroutes and changes to the                                •   TFDM
entire route structure will be managed via                                 •   TFMS
data communications.
                                                                           Avionics
DESCENT AND APPrOACh
NextGen capabilities will provide a number                                 •   ADS-B In and Out
of improvements to terminal area operations                                •   Data Comm
that save fuel, reduce noise, increase                                     •   GBAS avionics
predictability and minimize maneuvers                                      •   RNAV and RNP
such as holding patterns and delaying                                      •   Vertical Navigation
vectors. Enhanced traffic management tools
                                                                                                                           www.faa.gov/nextgen 29
not allow for the most efficient use of
airspace. By redesigning airspace, new                                                     Key Ground Infrastructure
paths can be used to provide integrated
arrival and departure operations. The FAA                                                  •   ADS-B ground stations




                                                               LANdING, TAxI ANd ArrIvAL
will provide users with better options to                                                  •   ASDE-X
manage departure and arrival operations                                                    •   Data Comm
safely during adverse weather, maintaining                                                 •   Integrated Departure and Arrival Coordination System
capacity that otherwise would be lost. Poor-                                               •   Modernized AIM
visibility conditions dramatically reduce the                                              •   NNEW
capacity of closely spaced runways, and the                                                •   STARS enhancements
capacity losses ripple as delays throughout                                                •   SWIM
the airspace system. NextGen capabilities                                                  •   TBFM
will make it possible to continue using                                                    •   TFDM
those runways safely, by providing better-
                                                                                           •   TFMS
defined path assignments and appropriate
separation between aircraft.
                                                                                           Avionics
lANDING, TAxI AND ArrIVAl                                                                  • ADS-B, TIS-B
Before the flight lands, the assigned                                                      • Data Comm
runway, preferred taxiway and taxi path
to the assigned parking space or gate will
be available to the flight crew via data communications.                                              operations. This will reduce the potential for runway
This capability will be enabled by a ground system that                                               incursions. Appropriate surface and gate-area vehicle
recommends the best runway and taxi path to controllers,                                              movement information will be shared among air traffic
based on the arriving aircraft’s type and parking assignment,                                         control, flight operations centers and the airport operator.
and the status and positions of all aircraft on the airport                                           Airport and airline ramp and gate operations personnel will
surface.                                                                                              know each inbound aircraft’s projected arrival time at the
                                                                                                      gate. Operators will be able to coordinate push backs and
Flight deck and controller displays will monitor aircraft
                                                                                                      gate arrivals more efficiently.
movement and provide traffic and incursion alerts, using
the same safety and efficiency tools as during departure




                         Existing runway capacity will increase through the mid-term with more precise routing and separation of departing
                         and arriving aircraft. Throughput rates will be similar during all weather conditions. Updated procedures for
 AIrFIeLd ImProvemeNTs




                         closely spaced parallel operations will allow simultaneous arrivals. Airports may be able to site new runways
                         with greater flexibility and make better use of existing runways. Overall, airports will balance surface, gate and
                         terminal capacity with the improved runway capacity afforded by NextGen. Planned airfield improvements that
                         are expected to come online in the next several years include the following:

                          NEW RUNWAYS                                          RUNWAY EXTENSIONS                             AIRFIELD RECONFIGURATION
                          • Chicago (ORD)                                      • Anchorage (ANC)                             • Chicago (ORD)
                          • Columbus (CMH)                                     • Atlanta (ATL)                               • Philadelphia (PHL)
                                                                               • Fort Lauderdale (FLL)
                                                                               • San Antonio (SAT)




30 NextGen Implementation Plan
NextGen Ahead                                   Working Toward Tomorrow


The FAA is moving forward in a coordinated, integrated         data such as weather and Special Activity Airspace (SAA)
manner to deliver the capabilities necessary to enable the     information. The ARC is composed of about two dozen
agency’s vision for NextGen.                                   representatives from various aviation user groups, as well
Several important milestones are right around the corner.      as segments of industry and government.
This section highlights a few of the key NextGen advances      The ADS-B In ARC’s initial recommendations are due
the FAA will be working on over the next couple years.         to the FAA leadership in fall 2011. Those findings are
Appendix B provides an overview of the FAA’s NextGen-          expected to provide a clear definition on how the aviation
related work activities between now and the mid-term.          community should proceed with ADS-B In, while ensuring
Also in this section, we offer a look at the governance        compatibility with the ADS-B Out avionics standards
structure the FAA has put in place to manage such a massive    detailed in the ADS-B Out final rule published in May
undertaking as NextGen, and ensure the timely, cost-           2010. Feedback provided by the aviation community in
effective delivery of NextGen capabilities and benefits.       response to those recommendations will be incorporated
                                                               into an ARC final report due by June 2012 that will detail
                                                               suggested next steps.
ADS-B IN
                                                               The ARC’s work will set the stage for future ADS-B In
The FAA last year chartered an Aviation Rulemaking             applications, such as spacing and merging aircraft using
Committee (ARC) to provide a forum for the aviation            flight deck interval management. This capability provides
community to define a strategy for incorporating               more precise aircraft-to-aircraft position information
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)             to the flight deck, enabling flight crews to line up their
In technologies into the National Airspace System (NAS).       aircraft more efficiently on final approach, saving fuel
ADS-B In capability, combined with a cockpit display,          and maximizing runway capacity. The FAA is currently
provides greater situational awareness to both high- and       working with industry on the initial development of flight
low-altitude operators by providing highly accurate traffic.   deck interval management capabilities.
ADS-B In further offers low-altitude users essential flight

                                                                                                 www.faa.gov/nextgen 31
DATA COMMuNICATIONS                                              surface data via SWIM surface information in 2012. By
                                                                 2013, the SWIM program expects to have standardized
Data Communications (Data Comm) will enable digital air
                                                                 its core information delivery service, meaning that custom
traffic control (ATC) information to be exchanged between
                                                                 interfaces will no longer have to be built for programs
controllers and pilots, and auto-loaded directly into aircraft
                                                                 seeking SWIM compliance.
flight management systems. This capability will decrease
the reliance on voice communication and significantly
reduce opportunities for error. On the ground, Data Comm         SPECIAl ACTIVITy AIrSPACE
will streamline departure clearances for aircraft sitting at
                                                                 The FAA is working closely with the Department of
the gate, and provide the ability to transmit revisions to
                                                                 Defense (DoD) to improve information sharing on the
those clearances. In the air, Data Comm will provide for
                                                                 status of Special Activity Airspace (SAA). Today, the DoD
the digital transmission of airborne reroutes. On arrival
                                                                 reserves large sections of airspace for mission purposes.
and landing, Data Comm will enable taxiway and gate
                                                                 Determining when that airspace is safely available for
assignment information to be sent directly to the flight
                                                                 civilian use can be difficult. Being able to take advantage
deck.
                                                                                           of unused SAA offers the potential
A final investment decision slated for                                                     to reduce congestion, particularly
2012 will enable us to contract with a                                                     at peak times.
vendor to provide the VHF radio network
                                                                                          Between now and 2014, the FAA
that will carry Data Comm messages.
                                                                                          will continue working with the
We also are moving forward with the
                                                                                          DoD and industry stakeholders
development of Controller Pilot Data
                                                                                          to leverage evolving digital
Link Communications, the application
                                                                                          communication         capabilities
that will facilitate the integration of Data
                                                                                          to increase awareness and
Comm into ATC automation platforms
                                                                                          predictability of SAA usage.
and the aircraft flight deck.
                                                                                          Operators will be able to more
Towers are expected to begin offering                                                     reliably plan and use flight routes
departure clearances with revisions to                                                    that cross inactive SAA without
Future Air Navigation System (FANS)                                                       affecting DoD mission needs. By
1/A+ equipped aircraft by 2015. En route                                                  2014, we plan to have SAA status
centers are expected to be able to start                                                  information integrated into air
issuing airborne reroutes via Data Comm                                                   traffic decision support tools.
in 2018. This planning date has been adjusted out two years
as we continue to weigh the complexity of integrating
                                                                 ClOSEly SPACED PArAllEl OPErATIONS
enhancements into the NAS as well as budget adjustments.
                                                                 Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) – dual
SySTEM WIDE INFOrMATION MANAGEMENT                               independent approaches to runways spaced fewer than
                                                                 4,300 feet apart – hold the promise of getting more aircraft
System Wide Information Management (SWIM) is
                                                                 on the ground more quickly in adverse weather conditions.
the network structure that will carry NextGen digital
information. SWIM will enable cost-effective, real-time          The FAA is taking a phased, incremental approach to
data exchange and sharing among users of the NAS.                CSPO. Over the next several years, we will be working
                                                                 to use existing technology and procedures to improve the
In October 2010, the Corridor Integrated Weather System
                                                                 efficiency of closely spaced runways. As we move closer
(CIWS) became the first ATC system to share information
                                                                 to the mid-term and beyond, we will work to leverage
via the SWIM interface. SWIM compliance means the
                                                                 advanced technology and Performance Based Navigation.
weather information provided by CIWS to en route center
traffic management units can now be made available to            In 2011, the FAA will complete the blunder analyses we
external users, such as airline operations centers, to create    began last year. A blunder occurs when an aircraft on an
a common situational awareness. SWIM achieved the same           approach to a parallel runway intrudes into the established
milestone with the Integrated Terminal Weather System in         safety buffer between the two runways. New data about
January 2011. By 2015, all seven ATC systems targeted for        actual blunder rates, as well as the angle at which those
SWIM’s initial implementation phase are expected to be           blunders occur, could establish the safety case for operating
SWIM compliant.                                                  simultaneous, independent approaches with closer runway
                                                                 spacing than is currently allowed.
Throughout 2011, the SWIM program will continue the
development work necessary to gather and share airport


32 NextGen Implementation Plan
Also this year, we will continue to conduct simulations and  management structure, and the FAA has provided one. The
analyses in support of allowing the use of satellite-based   agency has taken a comprehensive, cross-agency portfolio
procedures as an alternative to Instrument Landing System    approach to NextGen implementation that recognizes the
(ILS) approaches at airports that support such procedures.   implementation of NextGen as an integrated effort, rather
The option of satellite-based procedures would offer greater than a series of independent programs. The NextGen
flexibility to both controllers and                                              portfolio includes six transformational
operators, and could potentially increase                                        programs (ADS-B, Data Comm, SWIM,
aircraft throughput under instrument       The FAA is moving forward NextGen Network Enabled Weather,
conditions. Further, runways without      in a coordinated, integrated NAS Voice System, and Collaborative
ILS would not need to qualify for              manner to deliver the             Air Traffic Management Technologies),
simultaneous or dependent approaches                                             seven solution sets and – new this year
if satellite-based approaches were           capabilities necessary to           – a suite of implementation portfolios.
available. By 2012, we expect to               enable the agency’s
                                                                                 The NextGen solution sets contain
be able to update FAA policies to mid-term vision for NextGen.
                                                                                 interdependent projects that work
approve simultaneous independent
                                                                                 together to provide capabilities to
and dependent approaches to parallel
                                                                                 targeted user groups and areas. The
runways for any combination of Area Navigation (with
                                                             solution sets constitute the primary construct for NextGen
vertical navigation), Required Navigation Performance,
                                                             pre-implementation budget development. Each solution set
Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance, Ground
                                                             is administered by a qualified manager who coordinates all
Based Augmentation System Landing System and ILS.
                                                             aspects of the projects that fall within his or her solution set,
                                                             from concept to implementation readiness.
MAkING IT hAPPEN
                                                                 To provide even greater detail on our implementation
These advances, and the milestones and commitments such          activities of the NextGen mid-term, the FAA has introduced
as those documented in Appendix B, represent a complex           a series of implementation portfolios that are detailed in
set of interrelated undertakings. The management of              Appendix B.
such a massive endeavor calls for a highly effective


                                                                                                     www.faa.gov/nextgen 33
Two teams of FAA executives, the NextGen Management              challenges posed by the breadth and magnitude of the
Board and the NextGen Review Board, constitute a                 NextGen transformation, including varying maturity among
governance structure that works to ensure that the               interdependent systems and operator equipage rates. A
capabilities that grow out of the NextGen portfolio are          deeper examination of these challenges can be found in the
delivered in a timely, coordinated and cost-effective            next chapter. As new information emerges, and alternative
manner.                                                          solutions arise from our various aviation community
                                                                 collaborations, our governance structure allows for course
The NextGen Management Board is chaired by the
                                                                 shifts as necessary to ensure the most timely, cost-efficient
deputy administrator, the federal official with overall
                                                                 delivery of NextGen capabilities and benefits.
responsibility for NextGen. Composed of the heads of
the FAA lines of business with primary responsibility for        The NextGen progress made by the FAA, the goals
delivering NextGen, the Management Board provides                the agency has set for itself, and the work plan we have
executive oversight of NextGen progress and performance          committed to in pursuit of those goals are summarized
metrics, and makes strategic policy decisions that drive         in the document you are reading now, the NextGen
implementation forward. The Management Board is                  Implementation Plan, which is updated annually. The Plan
supported by the NextGen Review Board, which resolves            pulls together NextGen information from a number of other
cross-agency implementation issues and identifies and            key FAA documents. The result is a high-level overview
formulates positions on critical policy issues.                  of all the FAA’s NextGen planning and execution efforts
                                                                 in a plain-language document intended to inform a wide
While we have crafted our governance structure to ensure
                                                                 audience of NextGen stakeholders.
our NextGen plans remain on track, we have also built
in flexibility and adaptability commensurate with the




Integrating New Capabilities

NextGen capabilities aren’t turned on all at once. Before the FAA can deliver each new capability, a myriad of activities
has to be accomplished, some of which include:
   • safety management system and risk assessments;
   • environmental management system and impact assessments;
   • demonstrations to ensure the capability delivers its intended benefits;
   • tests to determine how the capability affects the workload of FAA technicians, air traffic controllers and pilots;
   • training so that controllers and operators know how to use the capability;
   • identification, development and installation of needed infrastructure and software;
   • development and installation of new aircraft equipment, if needed; and
   • changes to orders and policies to conform to federal and international standards.

The development of NextGen capabilities is not carried out in a vacuum. Throughout the process, the FAA collaborates
with aviation community stakeholders, including operators, equipment manufacturers, academia and other federal agencies.
We work with the international community, including air navigation service providers, to make sure that equipped aircraft
can take advantage of similar capabilities around the world. And we carefully plan how to integrate new capabilities into
the airspace, which is active around the clock.



34 NextGen Implementation Plan
Challenges                         Tackling a Complex Suite of Initiatives

To accomplish an undertaking as large and complex             community. If one of the major contributors falters in its
as NextGen, the FAA must overcome many technical,             commitment to NextGen, the effectiveness of the others’
programmatic and organizational challenges. Some are          commitments could be at risk. In particular, achieving
present from the start; others develop along the way.         NextGen’s promise requires that operators equip their
The key to success is to understand the many things           aircraft to use the systems and procedures that NextGen
NextGen depends on, anticipate the challenges and know        delivers. For some capabilities, that means they also
what to do about them. We must manage complexity and          must invest in associated ground equipment, procedures
uncertainty.                                                  development and personnel training.
Taken together, FAA investments in NextGen will be            The FAA is addressing this challenge in several ways.
unprecedented, but this is only the beginning. Even with      We are adhering to our schedules for deployment of
unequivocal support for NextGen, budget constraints           NextGen infrastructure, showing operators that they can
will continue to place pressure on FAA’s funding levels.      be confident that the capabilities for which they equip
Our planning, as reflected in this plan, allows us to         will be ready when their aircraft are ready. In support of
remain on track to deliver the FAA’s core framework for       the best-equipped, best-served concept, we are analyzing
NextGen implementation, particularly the capabilities         near-term opportunities that would provide meaningful
requested by the aviation community. These core               operational incentives to operators that adopt NextGen
elements include improving surface operations, freeing        avionics. We are exploring specific operational incentive
up metroplex congestion and implementing ADS-B                candidates based on situation, location and operational
ground infrastructure, progress that focuses on delivering    capability. Also, in collaboration with the Department
capabilities to operators and benefits to the public.         of Transportation and the White House, we continue to
                                                              research potential mechanisms for financial incentives to
Just as we rely on funding for our own work as a Department
                                                              reduce equipage costs.
of Transportation agency, we must synchronize our
investments with those of other government agencies,          Each of these measures is intended to improve the business
airport authorities and the private-sector aviation           case for investing in NextGen. Increasing benefits through

                                                                                                www.faa.gov/nextgen 35
operational incentives would increase the value of             planning tool, and the NextGen solution sets, which are
investing. Financial incentives might reduce the cost or       categories of interdependent operational changes across
address other business risks. Demonstrations can clarify       the NAS. As a technology matures, we apply it to NextGen
NextGen capabilities, also reducing risk.                      programs that deliver advanced capabilities to the field.
Capabilities, like investments, must be synchronized.          Our approach to NextGen places many demands on the
Each NextGen system and procedure depends on                   FAA workforce:
previous or concurrent achievements, and each in turn           • We must integrate the disciplines and skills of the
helps establish a foundation for those that follow. It is an      FAA’s core communities – acquisition, operations,
integrated, interdependent structure, available in this Plan
                                                                  safety, environment, airports, international affairs,
and on the FAA’s National Airspace System Enterprise
                                                                  regulation and certification – into our overall
Architecture Web site, https://nasea.faa.gov. But its
                                                                  planning and management of NextGen development
interdependencies and complexities entail a risk – when so
                                                                  and deployment. These disciplines all contribute to
many capabilities depend on so many building blocks and
                                                                  NextGen throughout our management system, starting
so much coordination, a single problem could reverberate
                                                                  with the NextGen Management Board. Working
across the enterprise and require schedule changes or
                                                                  groups at all levels ensure that NextGen will reflect
other adjustments. Proper recognition and management of
                                                                  all our institutional points of view. We have launched
uncertainty is a central feature of the overall approach to
                                                                  an initiative to increase and improve the data we
NextGen development and deployment.
                                                                  collect to measure and analyze the effectiveness of
The En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) is                   NextGen systems and procedures. Recognizing that
a case in point. We have taken longer than originally             our implementation plans call for multiple, sometimes
planned with activation and operational testing of ERAM           simultaneous changes to the NAS, we have established
at the en route centers. We can’t always predict that             teams of safety experts from each FAA line of business
schedule shifts will occur, so we must respond swiftly and        to identify and mitigate cross-cutting safety risks.
decisively when it does. The FAA is working to ensure we
minimize the program risks as we move forward, and we           • We must recruit, train, engage and retain employees
are confident that our revised scheduled for ERAM will            who have the capabilities we need, or acquire these
allow us to remain on track to deploy the core NextGen            capabilities by contracting with private companies.
framework.                                                        Late in 2008, the National Academy of Public
Bringing our technical concepts to maturity and                   Administration submitted recommendations on
integrating them into functioning systems and procedures          NextGen acquisition staffing needs that identified
are challenging tasks. We are prepared for the possibility        specific workforce skills that we should bolster. Since
that not everything we conceptualize will work as                 then, we have developed and implemented – and
initially planned, and that some of these pieces might            we continue to develop – staffing plans that follow
not work together easily. Only an incremental, adaptable          the academy’s advice. We are actively working on
implementation strategy can succeed over time.                    plans for training, development and human resources
                                                                  services throughout our workforce. For example, in
We must also concern ourselves with implementation                2010 our safety organization issued a plan to sustain
bandwidth, the organizational limits on our ability               its standards, certification and inspection workforce
to introduce multiple new equipment and procedures                through retirements and attrition, and to accommodate
into National Airspace System (NAS) operations                    increasing demands as NextGen proceeds. Also,
simultaneously. We must consider how much equipment               during 2010, we issued a series of systems engineering
– ground and air, used by the FAA and operators – we can          contracts to industry that, taken together, comprise the
certify at once for safety and suitability. We must evaluate      largest support program of this type the FAA has ever
how many capability introductions we can accomplish in a          undertaken.
given time, considering our capacity to train our operating
and supporting personnel to use them. We also have to           • Attention to human-automation interface issues during
weigh the implementation bandwidth of all the other               development is critical to good design and the orderly
NAS stakeholders. Here, too, our incremental approach             introduction of NextGen systems and procedures into
is vital.                                                         the NAS. Research into human factors, and Human-
NextGen’s many interdependencies challenge us to manage           in-the-Loop testing and demonstrations, are essential
NextGen as a portfolio of programs and initiatives, not           tools to achieving this. Operators face corresponding
as a collection of separate efforts. Central to this concept      challenges as they equip aircraft with cockpit systems
is the Enterprise Architecture, which integrates the plans        their crews will have to operate, and the FAA will
and schedules of all NextGen acquisitions into a unified          help them through standards and safety evaluations.

36 NextGen Implementation Plan
   The FAA will continue to involve operating personnel       example, we will continue to extract position, navigation
   earlier in the acquisition process, to obtain their        and timing services from the Global Positioning System,
   insights into system requirements and to improve the       but we will retain all necessary backup capabilities.
   ability of field personnel to operate and maintain the
   equipment once it is developed and deployed.               Similarly, we must develop and integrate NextGen
                                                              capabilities into our air traffic facilities while still
 • We will adhere during NextGen deployment to our            maintaining safe and reliable NAS operations. In 2010 we
   record of compliance with the National Environmental       launched a dedicated program office to manage facilities
   Policy Act (NEPA), but many of NextGen’s operational       transformation. Our goal is to align NextGen operational
   improvements will require major environmental              capabilities with facilities requirements, and ensure
   reviews. In addition, emerging issues such as climate      the safe transition between legacy and future services.
   and greenhouse gases raise new policy and analytical       The program office will design fit-for-purpose facilities
   concerns. Some of our most valuable initiatives, such      that fully realize NextGen concepts, improve employee
   as precision-navigation departures and approaches,         working conditions, meet environmental goals and provide
   will have favorable impacts on greenhouse gases            resilient services. In addition, we will deploy configurable
   but mixed results regarding noise. We are working          automation systems and robust communications to ensure
   to increase our staff and develop analytical models        service continuity.
   to deal with these issues. Also, we
   are researching planned NextGen                                              The FAA will manage NAS operations
                                                To achieve global               for many years when NextGen
   activities and the most efficient and
                                                                                capabilities are being introduced and
   effective approaches for completing         aviation objectives              deployed throughout the system,
   environmental reviews required
   under NEPA.
                                            and meet the needs of               and when aircraft equipage for these
                                                airspace users around           capabilities is mixed. We have always
 • Our workforce must adapt our                 the world, NextGen will accommodated aircraft of widely
    regulatory      and     administrative                                      varying capabilities, and we will
    procedures to deliver NextGen
                                               have to be interoperable continue to do so where it does not
    initiatives incrementally, under a            with corresponding            compromise achieving our goals. This
    complex deployment schedule. We            systems throughout the mixed equipage poses technical and
    must work with industry and our international community. operational challenges that we must
    global partners to develop timely                                           overcome, due to the complexity of the
    standards, and continue to find                                             mixed operation. A related challenge
    ways to streamline the approval of new systems and       is the implementation of best-equipped, best-served
    procedures. Manufacturers of NextGen avionics and        incentives that would result in net efficiency enhancements
    other products depend on us for the standards and        but would disadvantage aircraft that are not equipped.
    certification processes they need to design and develop
    their equipment.                                         To achieve global aviation objectives and meet the needs
                                                             of airspace users around the world, NextGen must be
                                                             interoperable with corresponding systems throughout
One of the most difficult challenges is inserting all the    the international community. Key strategic areas are the
NextGen advances, from the simplest to the most complex,     harmonization of global air traffic management initiatives
into an aviation system that continues to function 24        as well as the harmonization of standards for technologies
hours a day, 365 days a year. We cannot shut down the        that support communication, navigation, surveillance and
system while we upgrade it. When NextGen capabilities        air traffic management. The FAA and the Single European
go operational, we will work incrementally. No one will      Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Joint
throw a switch that turns on NextGen. Capabilities will      Undertaking are collaborating on air traffic management
come on line gradually. And we take a cautious approach      research, development and validation for global
to the infrastructure that enables NextGen advances. For     interoperability.




                                                                                                  www.faa.gov/nextgen 37
Appendix A                          NextGen Investments for Operators and Airports

NextGen system benefits depend on FAA ground-based              Technical Standard Orders (TSOs). The enablers are linked
systems, space-based systems, alternative fuels to reduce       to operational improvements that provide benefits and build
environmental impact, advanced avionics capabilities            on capabilities already installed or available for today’s
and airport infrastructure.                                                             aircraft. This appendix provides an
This appendix outlines the                                                              overview of the major categories
opportunities for investment                                                            of enablers for operators and
by operators and airports. It                                                           airports.
provides an overview of current
                                                                                        Three different areas are targeted
and planned capabilities and
                                                                                        for aircraft operators: aircraft
relates them to the benefits that
                                                                                        avionics; flight planning and
they enable.
                                                                                        routing support systems; and fuels
                                                                                        and engines. Airports also will be
This appendix uses enablers
                                                                                        an active participant in deployment
– Automatic Dependent
                                                                                        of some improvements. For other
Su r veillance-Broadcast                                                                improvements, such as ADS-B in
(ADS-B) Out or Localizer                                                                the terminal area, the deployment
Performance with Vertical                                                               of the system will take place
Guidance (LPV) avionics,                                                                without substantial actions by
for example – to describe                                                               airports.
the technologies required for an aircraft and operator, or an
airport, to implement a NextGen capability. Each enabler is     For each enabler, icons provide a quick look at key
defined by a set of performance and functional requirements     information, including:
that allow market flexibility whenever possible. We guide
operators in satisfying these requirements and deploying         • Target Users: The target users for each enabler can
the enablers through Advisory Circulars (ACs) and                  include air transport, business jet, general aviation

38 NextGen Implementation Plan
                         Icon Legend                            enabler selected as a mandatory capability for all aircraft in
                                                                a given airspace. It will be required in designated airspace
                           Air Transport                        on Jan. 1, 2020.

          Target users                                          In addition to expanding the scope of this appendix from
                           Business Aviation                    last year’s plan, there are several changes in schedule,
                                                                notably:
                           General Aviation                      • Surface Indications and Alerts: Deferred in concept
                                                                   exploration due to technical challenges receiving the
                           Rotorcraft
                                                                   ADS-B messages on the airport surface.

                                                                 • Deconfliction guidance: Deferred in concept exploration
                           Nationwide                              due to need for further definition of the operational concept,
                                                                   including integration with trajectory operations.
          Target Areas




                           Metroplex Areas or                    • Data Communications: Aligned the third version
                           Major Airports                          of domestic data communications (Aeronautical
                                                                   Telecommunications Network Baseline 3) with European
                           Oceanic                                 plans.
                                                                 • Ground Based Augmentation System Landing System
                           Available                               (GLS) III: Deferred in concept exploration due to
                                                                   operational challenges in fielding the Category I system
          maturity




                                                                   and the need to align the schedule with an aircraft
                           In Development                          program.

                           In Concept Exploration
                                                                PErFOrMANCE BASED NAVIGATION
                                                                Performance Based Navigation (PBN) encompasses a
    fixed-wing and rotorcraft. These categories of target       set of enablers with a common underlying capability to
    users represent generalized modes of operation and may      construct a flight path that is not constrained by the location
    not apply exactly to every civil or military operator.      of ground navigation aids. There are varying performance
    The FAA does not limit the NextGen capabilities to          and functional requirements in the PBN family, from the
    these targeted users groups. In addition to the specified   10 nautical mile (nm) course width accuracy and few
    user groups, some users may still find it worthwhile        waypoints required by Required Navigation Performance
    to invest in a particular enabler in order to meet their    (RNP) 10 to the 0.1 nm precision and curved paths of RNP
    specific operational objectives.                            0.1 Authorization Required (AR) approaches. For oceanic
                                                                en route navigation, RNP 10 and RNP 4 will continue to
 • Target Areas for Implementation: The general strategy        be the standards. Domestically, Area Navigation (RNAV) 2
   for deployment can include nationwide, in oceanic            provides the required capability en route.
   areas or in metroplex terminal areas with large and          RNAV 1 is the mainstay in the terminal area, except where
   medium hub airports and satellite airports.                  obstacles or airspace conflicts demand the improved
                                                                performance provided by RNP 1. To achieve access to
 • Maturity: An enabler may already be available for            runways during limited visibility (instrument conditions),
   operator investment, in development (including               three capabilities offer different advantages and costs.
   standards development) or in concept exploration.            The most basic, RNP 0.3, is a conventional non-precision
                                                                approach capability that can be achieved with GPS alone.
Tables throughout this appendix summarize the enablers.         Vertical guidance can be added with either barometric
A description of each enabler can be found in NextGen           Vertical Navigation (VNAV), or with a Satellite Based
Operator and Airport Enablers, a supplement to this             Augmentation System (SBAS). A basic VNAV capability
appendix that is available at www.faa.gov/nextgen.              can be used with RNP 0.3, and tighter Lateral and Vertical
Additional detail concerning the operational improvements,      Performance can provide access to RNP AR approaches.
and the FAA implementation plan for each improvement, is        The lowest approach minima are typically offered by LPV,
provided in Appendix B. ADS-B Out capability is the only        which provides a satellite-based equivalent to conventional
                                                                Category I Instrument Landing Systems (ILS).

                                                                                                       www.faa.gov/nextgen 39
                                              Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers
      Avionics        Aircraft and Operator                                                                        Target
                                                       Capability Overview                   Target Users                    Maturity
      Enablers        Guidance      Schedule                                                                        Area

 Performance Based Navigation

                       Order
RNP 10                              Complete    Reduced oceanic separation
                      8400.12A

                                                Further reduced oceanic
                       Order
RNP 4                               Complete    separation (in conjunction with
                      8400.33
                                                FANS 1/A)

                                                Ability to fly on more efficient
RNAV 1, RNAV 2       AC 90-100A     Complete
                                                routes and procedures

                                                Ability to precisely fly departure,
RNP with Curved
                     AC 90-105      Complete    arrival and approach procedures
Path
                                                including repeatable curved paths

Vertical             AC 90-105,                 Ability to fly defined climb and
                                    Complete
Navigation           AC 20-138A                 descent paths

                                                Improved access to many airports
LPV                  AC 20-138B     Complete    in reduced visibility, with an
                                                approach aligned to the runway
                                                Improved access to airports
RNP Approaches                                  in reduced visibility with an
(Authorization       AC 90-101      Complete    approach that can turn to the
Required)                                       runway; improved procedures to
                                                separate traffic flows

The current aircraft fleet is well equipped with PBN                   infrastructure for navigation will not be fully replaced, so a
capability. For example, in the air transport community,               further incentive for PBN capability will come through the
the heart of the PBN capability is the Flight Management               reduction of services to the non-equipped aircraft.
System (FMS). The FMS uses input from the Global
Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) – either GPS or Wide                AuTOMATIC DEPENDENT SurVEIllANCE-
Area Augmentation System (WAAS) sensor – or multiple                   BrOADCAST
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME). DME has coverage
limitations, and will not be supported on every published              There are many different ADS-B enablers, with different
procedure. Most FMS installations can support RNAV                     cost and benefit implications. The most basic participation
operations and RNP with curved path, but less than half                with ADS-B is ADS-B Out, where the aircraft’s position
can support RNP AR approaches. LPV requires a WAAS                     and certain other data are broadcast by avionics. Ground
receiver and integration with the displays.                            receivers and other aircraft within range can receive these
                                                                       broadcasts and use them for their own applications. ADS-B
In the general aviation community, the PBN enablers are                Out enables the next generation of air traffic surveillance.
typically implemented in a GNSS navigator installed in an              Using ground receivers across the country, controllers will
aircraft’s instrument panel. These systems have become                 receive and process precise ADS-B broadcasts to provide air
increasingly complex and capable, integrating other types              traffic separation and advisory services.
of navigation, voice communication and uplinked weather
information. Most of these installations can support RNAV,             Building on the ADS-B Out capability, ADS-B avionics can
and those equipped with WAAS can support LPV. Some                     be integrated with different controls and displays to implement
of these configurations have fully implemented RNP with                ADS-B In enablers. The most basic types of enablers provide
curved path or RNP AR approach capability and others may               enhanced situation awareness, improving the ability of the
be upgradeable to RNP with curved path capability.                     flight crew to identify where aircraft are around them and
                                                                       the direction they are headed. This technology works in the
The primary equipage strategy for the PBN enablers has                 air or on the ground, although the ground capability may be
been operational incentives; aircraft that equip obtain a direct       limited by coverage issues and the availability of quality
efficiency and access benefit because of the new routes,               airport surveys (see airport enhancements on page 44). This
procedures and approaches. However, in some instances the              basic type of display is referred to as a Cockpit Display of
new route or procedure cannot be designed or used optimally            Traffic Information (CDTI). A CDTI may be a new display,
because of the need to accommodate traffic that is not                 or it may be integrated with a conventional Traffic Alert and
equipped with these enablers. In addition, the legacy ground           Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) traffic display.

40 NextGen Implementation Plan
                                              Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers

    Avionics          Aircraft and Operator                                                                     Target
                                                       Capability Overview                Target Users                   Maturity
    Enablers          Guidance     Schedule                                                                      Area

 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
                                                Enables improved air traffic
ADS-B Out            AC 20-165     Complete     surveillance and automation
                                                processing

Airborne/Ground      AC 20-172,                 Improved awareness of other
                                   Complete
CDTI (ADS-B In)      TSO-C195                   traffic

Surface
                                                Displays and provides alerts
Indications/Alerts    AC, TSO        2014
                                                based on non-normal traffic status
(ADS-B In)
In-Trail             Policy Memo   Complete
Procedure (ITP)                                 Oceanic in-trail climb/descent
(ADS-B In)            AC, TSO        2011
Interval
                                                Display of along-track guidance,
Management            AC, TSO        2012
                                                control and indications, and alerts
(ADS-B In)
Airborne-CDTI
                                                Displays and alerts crew to
with Conflict
                      AC, TSO        2014       airborne conflicts independent of
Detection
                                                TCAS alerting
(ADS-B In)
Paired Parallel
Approach                                        Guidance information for aircraft
Guidance              AC, TSO        2014       participating in paired approaches
and Alerting                                    to closely spaced runways
(ADS-B In)



Another set of ADS-B In enablers uses the ADS-B data for             For general aviation operating below 18,000 feet, ADS-B
speed or timing guidance, typically maintaining spacing              can be implemented through the transponder or through a
or separation from another aircraft. This includes both              new radio, called the universal access transceiver (UAT). The
algorithms for oceanic In-Trail Procedures (ITP) and display         UAT also provides access to weather and other aeronautical
of along-track guidance cues for interval management.                data services provided by the FAA. ADS-B In capabilities
Beyond these lie advanced alerting to improve airport                are implemented in general aviation with displays similar
safety and reduce the risk of collision for aircraft                 to those in use by air transport.
without TCAS. Eventually, ADS-B integrated with other
                                                                     The FAA mandated ADS-B Out equipage in most controlled
capabilities is expected to support all-weather access to
                                                                     airspace starting in 2020. The agency is encouraging
closely spaced runways and to enable airspace with self-
                                                                     operators to equip portions of their fleets with ADS-B
separation similar to visual operations today.
                                                                     before the nationwide rule goes into effect by providing
The equipage for ADS-B is just beginning, with rule-                 early benefits. As the operators experience the operational
compliant ADS-B equipment gaining approval in late                   benefits, they will have an incentive to accelerate and
2010.                                                                expand the ADS-B equipage to the rest of their fleet.
In air transport aircraft, ADS-B is expected to be                   For air transport operators, this strategy uses memorandums
implemented as upgrades to the Mode S transponder                    of agreement to accomplish this goal, where each party
and aircraft displays. This equipment can be upgraded or             provides in-kind contributions critical to the success of the
replaced to support ADS-B as well as their original function.        project. Each agreement is unique, reflecting the specific
The various ADS-B In capabilities reflect different levels of        operator’s business model, route structure and existing
integration with the controls and displays in the cockpit.           avionics infrastructure, among other factors. For general
Situational awareness can be achieved with side-mounted              aviation operators, deployment of Traffic Information
displays that are not integrated, along-track guidance can           Services-Broadcast (TIS-B) and Flight Information
be implemented with front-mounted displays that are                  Services-Broadcast (FIS-B), uplinked over the UAT, will
not integrated, and longer-term capabilities will require            enhance benefits and motivation to equip. The FAA is also
integration with other navigation data in front of the flight        evaluating additional locations where surveillance may be
crew.                                                                provided through ADS-B.


                                                                                                         www.faa.gov/nextgen 41
In 2010, the FAA convened an Aviation Rulemaking                   can be retrofitted into aircraft without modification of the
Committee (ARC) to develop recommendations for the                 navigation system. The FAA plans to implement ATN
implementation of ADS-B In capabilities. The ARC is                Baseline 2 with a larger set of operational capabilities, such
expected to complete a final report in 2012.                       as revised departure clearances, to provide greater incentive
                                                                   for retrofitting aircraft.
DATA COMMuNICATIONS
                                                                   FANS 1/A for oceanic operations has already been adopted
Data Communications were first deployed as part of the             widely by the fleet of aircraft operating internationally.
Future Air Navigation System (FANS) program. Boeing                The implementation strategy for domestic ATC data
and Airbus developed integrated communication and                  communications is primarily based on providing operational
navigation capabilities (FANS 1 and FANS A, respectively),         incentives to equipped operators. The FAA is evaluating
providing a pilot-and-controller data link and the ability to      potential scenarios for best-equipped, best-served in
autonomously send some data from the aircraft to the air           which aircraft with this capability may receive more
traffic control (ATC) system through Automatic Dependent           rapid or efficient reroutes during inclement weather.
Surveillance-Contract (ADS-C). These new navigation
and communication capabilities were primarily targeted to          lOW-VISIBIlITy OPErATIONS
oceanic airspace, where they provided the greatest initial
                                                                   The FAA is supporting several different capabilities
benefits, enabling a safe reduction in separation between
                                                                   for operators who need to access an airport during low
aircraft from 100 nm to as low as 50 nm.
                                                                   visibility – when the cloud ceiling is below 200 feet above
As the FAA moves forward with deploying a domestic                 the runway or the visibility is less than one-half surface
ATC data link system, it is important to make use of the           mile. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVSs) provide the
FANS capabilities already installed on many aircraft. As           greatest level of access, enabling lower approach minima,
such, the domestic program will use an adaptation of FANS          regardless of the navigation aid or airport infrastructure, by
appropriate for high-density, surveilled environments              enabling the flight crew to literally see through the clouds
through FANS 1/A+ over VHF Data Link (VDL) mode 2.                 using the EFVS technology.
These aircraft will be able to receive departure clearances
                                                                   At many airports the FAA has approved the use of a heads-
and airborne reroutes.
                                                                   up display (HUD) on a precision approach to lower minima.
A newer capability, called the Aeronautical                        While this capability does not provide the ubiquitous access of
Telecommunications Network (ATN), was developed                    EFVS, it can be implemented in many aircraft at lower cost.
through the International Civil Aviation Organization
                                                                   Another enabler is GLS. This program is researching the
(ICAO) to provide a more universally capable and reliable
                                                                   use of differential corrections to GPS to support Category
ATC data communications system. The capability that will
                                                                   II and III approaches. This capability will be the same as
be needed for full participation in NextGen in continental
                                                                   Category II and III ILS, without the need to restrict taxiing
U.S. airspace will be the third version, called ATN Baseline
                                                                   aircraft near antennas and at reduced cost to the FAA.
3. The standards for this version are under development and
are being harmonized internationally.                              EFVS has been adopted by the high-end business
                                                                   community, while HUD has begun to spread to the air
Two earlier versions of ATN provide interim capabilities.
                                                                   carrier fleet. The GLS program is still in research and
Europe has begun to implement ATN Baseline 1, which

                                             Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers
     Avionics        Aircraft and Operator                                                                      Target
                                                      Capability Overview                Target Users                    Maturity
     Enablers        Guidance     Schedule                                                                       Area

 Data Communications

                                               Oceanic data communications
 FANS 1/A          AC 20-140A,
                                  Complete     and surveillance, transfer of
 (Satcom)          AC 120-70B
                                               communications

 FANS 1/A+         AC 20-140A,                 Expansion of FANS to domestic
                                  Complete
 (VDL mode 2)      AC 120-70B                  clearances

                    AC 20-140B       2013
 ATN Baseline 2                                Clearances, terminal information
                    AC 120-70C       2014

                                               Expansion of ATN to trajectory
 ATN Baseline 3     AC 20-140C      2015
                                               operations

42 NextGen Implementation Plan
                                             Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers
    Avionics         Aircraft and Operator                                                                        Target
                                                      Capability Overview                  Target Users                     Maturity
    Enablers         Guidance      Schedule                                                                        Area

 Low-Visibility Operations

                                               Reduced minima at qualifying
HUD/ILS                Order       Complete
                                               runways

                                               Uses enhanced flight visibility
                    AC 20-167,
EFVS                               Complete    to continue approach below
                    AC 90-106
                                               minimums
                      Project
GLS III               specific       2014      Autoland in very low visibility
                       policy
 Avionics Safety Enhancements

                    TSO-C157,                  Weather and aeronautical
FIS-B                              Complete
                    TSO-C154c                  information in the cockpit


development, but new aircraft are being manufactured with            Jet A already are approved for commercial use by ASTM
the basic capability to reduce the costs of transitioning from       International. Blends of sustainable hydrotreated renewable
ILS when GLS is mature.                                              jet (HRJ) alternative fuels are expected to be approved for
                                                                     use in 2011. We are beginning to test additional advanced
The low-visibility enablers are implemented through best-
                                                                     alternative fuels in support of eventual approval. Operator
equipped, best-served incentives, so that aircraft with the
                                                                     investment is limited to purchasing alternative jet fuels
capability can gain airport access when other operators
                                                                     and fuel blends as they become available in commercial
cannot.
                                                                     quantities. Airlines already have signed agreements to do
                                                                     so.
AVIONICS SAFETy ENhANCEMENTS
                                                                     Extensive research of unleaded aviation gasoline has not
FIS-B provides ground-derived weather data to aircraft               yet identified a drop-in replacement for leaded aviation gas.
lacking airborne weather radar, and real-time National               The deployment of new unleaded aviation gasolines may
Airspace System (NAS) status information. These data                 require modifications to the existing fleet of reciprocating-
are primarily intended to improve safety of operations for           engine-powered aircraft.
general aviation aircraft and are provided over the same
UAT signals used for ADS-B.
                                                                              Current Equipage Levels of Available Enablers
                                                                                 Enabler          Air Transport    General Aviation
EquIPAGE lEVElS
                                                                      RNP 10                          58%                  <5%
The following table summarizes the current equipage levels            RNP 4                           58%                  <5%
of the mature avionics enablers among civil operators.
These estimates are based on coordination with air transport          RNAV 1, RNAV 2                  92%                  80%
operators and the annual FAA general aviation and air taxi            RNP with RF                     57%                  <5%
survey. The high penetration of PBN enablers reflects the             VNAV                            45%                  0%
maturity of those capabilities, which have been delivered
in various forms for over 10 years. Other enablers, such as           LPV                             <5%                  30%
ADS-B Out, are only recently available and have not been              RNP AR                          36%                  <5%
installed.                                                            ADS-B Out                       0%                   0%
                                                                      Airborne/Ground CDTI            <5%                  <5%
ENGINES AND FuEl TEChNOlOGIES
                                                                      ITP                             0%                   0%
Alternative jet fuels research continues with the intent of           FANS 1A (Satcom)                36%                  0%
approving a range of ASTM International-qualified “drop-
in” fuels that reduce the carbon footprint of commercial              FANS 1A+ (VDL mode 2)           12%                  0%
aircraft operations without compromising safety or requiring          HUD/ILS                         15%                  0%
changes in aircraft, engines or fuel supply infrastructure.           EFVS                            0%                   <5%
Fischer Tropsch alternative fuels, made from a variety of
                                                                      FIS-B                           0%                   <5%
feedstocks including sustainable biomass, blended with
                                                                                                           www.faa.gov/nextgen 43
                                              Overview of Aircraft Operator Enablers
                        Operator or Airport                                                                      Target
     Enablers                                          Capability Overview                Target Users                    Maturity
                      Guidance       Schedule                                                                     Area

 Engine and Fuel Technologies

                                      2011       Expansion of jet fuel
Drop-In                Modified
                                                 specification to allow production
Renewable               ASTM          2013
                                                 via alternative processes and
Jet Fuel             specification    2015       feedstocks

                     Technology
                                                 Engine technology demonstrated
Engine                 available
                                      2015       with lower fuel burn, noise and
Efficiencies          for aircraft
                                                 emissions
                        design


Some airframe and engine technologies may be retrofitted             PBN instrument flight procedures are a key component of
on existing aircraft in order to speed technology insertion.         NextGen because they can improve the efficiency of airport
However, other technologies such as the high-bypass-ratio            arrivals and departures. For general aviation operators and
geared turbofan and open-rotor engines would only be                 some regional air carriers, WAAS/LPV approach procedures
expected on future generations of aircraft.                          can provide near Category I minimums. Business jet
                                                                     operators and air carriers are more commonly equipped for
FlIGhT OPErATIONS CENTErS                                            RNAV and RNP, which can support Category I minimums.
                                                                     The FAA may opt for an incremental phaseout of the ILS
Flight operations centers (FOCs) have a significant role in          Category I installations by 2025, as both WAAS/LPV and
Collaborative Air Traffic Management (CATM) initiatives.             RNAV/RNP provide for more cost-effective and flexible
The FOC could be specific to the operator (e.g., an airline) or      instrument approach procedures. In addition, in 2012-
a company providing value-added flight planning support.             2014 the FAA will decide on the deployment of GBAS
To fully participate in CATM, FOCs need to develop and               equipment, which is planned to provide Category II and
maintain information technology systems to achieve three             III capabilities. As such, GBAS could augment or replace
basic objectives: data connectivity to the FAA through               the existing ILS Category II and III installations at airports
Collaborative Information Exchange (CIX), processing                 throughout the NAS.
of aeronautical status and weather information in flight
                                                                     Airports have the key role of discussing with their users the
planning software, and development of user-preferred
                                                                     need for new or additional PBN procedures. A hub airport
routes. The FAA plans to implement a CIX to provide
                                                                     may serve air carriers that are actively seeking to expand the
increased situational awareness and improved constraint
                                                                     use of RNAV or RNP procedures, while a general aviation
prediction by incorporating data made available via System
                                                                     airport may benefit from a new WAAS/LPV approach
Wide Information Management (SWIM) mechanisms.
                                                                     procedure. An airport can request that the FAA initiate
Examples are Special Use Airspace (SUA) status and
                                                                     consideration and design of these procedures. Airports can
surface event information.
                                                                     facilitate the aeronautical survey, and obstruction-mitigation
In the near term, the Flight Planning Services software              and runway-lighting actions that may be needed to achieve
will be enhanced to generate a prioritized list of trajectory        lower minimums. The surveys, obstruction mitigation and
options for each flight. These lists will be used by the FAA’s       runway lighting could be eligible for Airport Improvement
Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) to ensure that                 Program (AIP) funds.
operator priorities are appropriately considered. These
                                                                     Surface surveillance and management is another key
trajectory option sets can be forwarded to the TFMS when
                                                                     area for airport involvement in NextGen. The FAA plans
traffic management initiatives are issued due to volume
                                                                     to complete deployment of Airport Surface Detection
or weather conditions. They can also be forwarded for
                                                                     Equipment-Model X (ASDE-X) at 35 airports by 2013.
reconsideration whenever operator flight priorities change.
                                                                     Additionally, the agency aims to install enhancements to
                                                                     airport surface detection equipment at nine other airports
AIrPOrT ENhANCEMENTS                                                 by 2015. At these facilities, airports can install ADS-B
                                                                     squitters on airport-owned vehicles that regularly operate in
Airports are active participants in the implementation
                                                                     the movement area. The squitters would broadcast vehicle
of NextGen across the NAS. While many investments in
                                                                     positions to ATC, aircraft equipped with ADS-B In and the
NextGen technologies are the responsibility of FAA or
                                                                     airport operations center. This would improve situational
aircraft operators, airports will also have opportunities to
                                                                     awareness and safety, particularly during construction
advance NextGen.

44 NextGen Implementation Plan
                                                Overview of Airport Enablers
                       Operator or Airport
                          Guidance                                                                               Target
Avionics Enablers                                    Capability Overview                 Target Users                     Maturity
                                                                                                                  Area
                     Guidance      Schedule
 Airport Enhancements
Geographic            AC 150-
                                               Detailed geospatial data on
Information         5300-16,-17,   Ongoing
                                               airports and obstructions
System                  -18
                                               ADS-B squitter equipage for         Airport rescue firefighting
ADS-B for
                        AC           2011      surface vehicles operating in the    equipment, snowplows,
Surface Vehicles
                                               movement area                           inspection trucks


projects and winter weather events. AIP eligibility for the       under NextGen. We plan to streamline the approval
ADS-B squitters is being evaluated.                               processes to give aviation users access to NAS data through
                                                                  the new NAS Enterprise Services Gateway. With advance
FAA continues to research the need and technology options
                                                                  coordination, vendor systems can be designed with an
for non-movement area surface surveillance, particularly in
                                                                  architecture that is compatible with emerging FAA surface
support of NextGen surface traffic management concepts
                                                                  operational plans.
that are also still in development. For airports that will
not receive ASDE-3/X, the FAA is also researching low-
                                                                  Because new runway and taxiway infrastructure is critical
cost technologies and systems that could provide a surface
                                                                  to capacity and efficiency, the continued transition of airport
surveillance capability.
                                                                  layout plans into the Airport Geographic Information
Some airports have elected to install surveillance systems        System application will improve the airport planning
to complement ASDE-3/X and provide coverage of non-               process. The FAA is also proceeding with research to
movement areas. Because airports are able to monitor              revise the separation standards for Closely Spaced Parallel
operations on the airport surface more precisely, situational     Operations (CSPO) on parallel runways. The revisions to
awareness is improved.                                            CSPO standards will be incremental throughout the mid-
                                                                  term and far-term periods to incorporate both existing
The FAA recognizes and appreciates the efforts of airports
                                                                  and new technologies. An initial revision to the current
and vendors to develop systems and tools to improve
                                                                  4,300-foot minimum separation for independent arrivals is
surface situational awareness. To date, the results show
                                                                  planned for 2012 as a result of revisions to blunder standards
substantial promise, but challenges with data sharing and
                                                                  and with use of existing technologies such as Dual ILS.
dependencies have emerged. As a result, the FAA requests
                                                                  Other revisions will follow and may be dependent on PBN
that airports considering investments in surface surveillance
                                                                  and aircraft equipage. As revisions to CSPO standards
technologies coordinate with us in advance on system
                                                                  become available, airports will be able to incorporate these
design – particularly for vendor systems that rely on FAA
                                                                  improvements into their long-term planning. (Appendix B
data sources such as ASDE-3/X. The FAA still is shaping
                                                                  highlights the FAA’s work on CSPO).
the policy and processes to enable improved access to NAS
data to support the emerging surface operational concepts




                                                                                                          www.faa.gov/nextgen 45
Appendix B                         Delivering the Mid-Term Vision

This appendix provides a timeline and a summary of            Each mid-term operational improvement, as identified
the FAA’s key work plans in support of delivering the         in the National Airspace System Enterprise Architecture
operational improvements necessary to achieve our vision      (NAS EA), has been broken down into a series of
of operations for the NextGen mid-term. The integrated        capabilities that can be deployed as they reach maturity.
work plans developed by the agency to deliver the mid-        In many cases, these capabilities provide immediate user
term system support the required tracking, planning,          benefits while contributing to the development of the
reporting and execution needed to successfully implement      operational improvements they support. The capabilities
an integration project of the magnitude of NextGen.           we expect to achieve operational status or be available
                                                              to NAS users by the mid-term have been defined and
This year we have chosen an operational orientation for
                                                              are organized into the following nine implementation
presenting the highlighted work activities that support
                                                              portfolios:
our mid-term vision, rather than the budget orientation
we offered last year. Our work activity tables do, however,     • Improved Surface Operations
provide a reference to the funding mechanisms which             • Improved Approaches and Low Visibility
support those particular projects.                              • Closely Spaced, Parallel, Converging, and
                                                                  Intersecting Runway Operations
                                                                • Performance Based Navigation
                                                                • Time Based Flow Management
                                                                • Collaborative Air Traffic Management
                                                                • Automation Support for Separation Management
                                                                • On-Demand NAS Information
                                                                • Environment and Energy



46 NextGen Implementation Plan
Additionally, our Common Services and Infrastructure          that operational improvement or capability supports
portfolio documents cross-cutting enablers that support the   a recommendation of the RTCA NextGen Mid-Term
capabilities included in the implementation portfolios.       Implementation Task Force.
Operational improvements and associated capabilities that     In the next section, we provide timelines for the
are still being clearly defined are included in our NextGen   implementation of the operational improvements and
Maturity and System Development portfolio.                    supporting capabilities. Capability timelines are color-
                                                              coded to make it easier to discern when a project is in the
As we continue our development work in support of those
                                                              concept phase or the development phase, or when it will be
later capabilities, we may need to make adjustments to our
                                                              operational or available for use in the NAS. Operational
portfolio structure as well as our schedules. A variety of
                                                              improvement timelines illustrate the date range during
factors such as program interdependencies, a realignment
                                                              which the operational improvement will reach initial
of priorities or other external drivers could potentially
                                                              operational capability in the NAS. An arrow indicates that
impact the assumptions under which this work plan has
                                                              the improvement or capability continues in operation.
been crafted.
                                                              Finally, the bottom section lists selected elements of
At the top of each portfolio is a visual representation of
                                                              the work being done to achieve the NextGen mid-term
the relationship between the operational improvements
                                                              operational vision. It also indicates an activity’s budget
and affected phases of flight. Below this graphic is the
                                                              line as well as the activity’s relationship to the RTCA task
list and description of the operational improvements
                                                              force recommendations and to the NAS EA, as denoted
and the supporting capabilities. Where appropriate,
                                                              by the operational improvements (OIs).
these descriptions include a reference to the supporting
Common Services, as well as an indication as to whether




                                                                                                  www.faa.gov/nextgen 47
48
                                                                                             Improved Surface Operations

                                                                   1     2     3    4                                                                                                                               2     3        4

                                                                                                                        Phases of Flight


                               1    OI 104209: Initial Surface Traffic Management                                                 External Data Exchange
                                                                                                                                      The FAA will establish a data exchange infrastructure as well as integrated decision
                                 p              q             g                    g p             g
                              Departures are sequenced and staged to maintain throughput. Air Navigation Service




NextGen Implementation Pla
                                                                                                                                              tools                                       agreed to
                                                                                                                                      support tools, standards and processes that rely on agreed-to information exchange




                         an
                              Provider (ANSP) automation uses departure-scheduling tools to flow surface traffic at high-
                                                                                                                                      among stakeholders.
                              density airports.
                                                                                                                                      Supported By: Aeronautical, Flight and Surveillance Common Services
                              Task Force: Surface
                                                                                                                                      Task Force: Surface Situational Awareness Phase 1 (40), TFM Common
                                                                                                                                      Operational Picture (43), Surface Connectivity (38) and Surface Situational
                              Airport Configuration Management
                                                                                                                                      Awareness Phase 2 (41)
                                  To improve responsiveness and effective use of airport resources, and rapidly
                                  coordinate airport configuration changes across multiple ANSP activities, this
                                  capability provides automation assistance for setting up assessing and changing the
                                                                                        up,                                        2   OI 103207: Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Controllers
                                  airport configuration.                                                                          At large airports, current controller tools provide surface displays and can alert controllers
                                  Supported By: Aeronautical and Surveillance Common Services                                     when aircraft taxi into areas where a runway incursion could result. Additional ground-
                                                                                                                                  based capabilities will be developed to improve runway safety that include expansion of
                              Runway Assignments
                                                                                                                                  runway surveillance technology (i.e., Airport Surface Detection Equipment-Model X
                                 To assist in efficient runway allocation and use, the automation assigns an aircraft to a
                                                                                                                                  (ASDE-X)) to additional airports.
                                 runway based on the flight’s departure fix and enables ANSP personnel to accept or
                                                                                                                                  Task Force: Surface
                                 modify the runway assignment.
                                 Supported By: Aeronautical and Surveillance Common Services
                                                                                                                                  ASDE-X to Additional Airports
                                                                                                                                     This increment enables air traffic control (ATC) to detect potential runway conflicts by
                              Scheduling and Sequencing
                                                                                                                                     providing detailed coverage of movement on runways and taxiways.
                                 The capability displays the departure surface sequence and runway queues as a
                                                                                                                                     Supported By: Surveillance Common Service
                                 recommendation to the controller to improve throughput. The capability provides
                                                                                                                                     Task Force: Surface Situational Awareness, Phase 1 (40)
                                 Traffic Flow Management (TFM) constraints to tower controllers. The capability
                                 provides estimated flight-specific event times necessary to meet the departure surface
                                                                                                                                   3   OI 103208: Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Pilots
                                 sequence and schedule These event times are shared with users
                                                schedule.                                     users.
                                 Supported By: Aeronautical and Surveillance Common Services                                      Runway safety operations are improved by providing pilots with improved awareness of
                                                                                                                                  their location on the airport surface as well as runway incursion alerting capabilities.
                              Taxi Routing                                                                                        Additional enhancements may include the depiction of other traffic within the airport surface
                                  For improved taxi route efficiency, this capability provides dynamic information on             environment.
                                  airport taxiways and runways integrated with controller displays.
                                  Supported By: Aeronautical and Surveillance Common Services                                     Surface Indications and Alerts
                                                                                                                                      Surface Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) is a runway safety application for flight crews
                              Departure Routing
                              Depart re Ro ting                                                                                        f i     ft ith C k it Di l       f T ffi I f      ti (CDTI)/T ffi I f        ti
                                                                                                                                      of aircraft with Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI)/Traffic Information
                                 For improved departure operations, this capability provides tower controllers with                   Services-Broadcast (TIS-B)/Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B),
                                 electronic flight data management and an interface to assessments of weather and                     where situations that may lead to or already represent a collision risk are highlighted
                                 Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) impacts on departure routes and associated                       on the moving map. Avionics for SURF IA are likely to require software and display
                                 flights.                                                                                             quality assurance levels higher than those for CDTI only.
                                 Supported By: Surveillance Common Service
                                                                                                                                  Moving Map with Own-Ship Position
                                                                                                                                     Cockpit displays, for instance Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs), may incorporate airport
                                                                                                                                     moving map displays that provide constantly changing views of an airport’s runways,
                                                                                                                                     taxiways and structures to help pilots identify the airplane’s location on the surface.
                                                                                                                                     Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service
                       3    Cont’d                                                                                               4   OI 104207: Enhanced Surface Traffic Operations
                      CDTI with TIS-B and ADS-B for Surface                                                                  Terminal automation provides the ability to transmit automated terminal information, departure
                         Surface traffic information for moving map displays is available via TIS-B and from                 clearances and amendments, and taxi route instructions via data communications, including
                                   p      g       pp
                         aircraft operating with approved ADS-B capability. Using TIS-B and ADS-B, CDTI will
                                                                   p       y       g                   ,                     hold-short instructions.
                         provide a graphical depiction of ground and air traffic, which will improve situational             Task Force: Cross-Cutting
                         awareness for a variety of operations.
                         Supported By: Surveillance Common Service                                                           Revised Departure Clearance via Data Comm
                                                                                                                                 A Revised Departure Clearance (DCL) Data Comm capability will allow the FAA to rapidly
                      Enhanced Vision Systems (EVSs) for Taxi                                                                    issue departure clearance revisions, due to weather or other airspace issues, to one or
                         The FAA and industry are partnering to develop a taxi benefit for aircraft equipped with                more aircraft equipped with Future Air Navigation System (FANS) waiting to depart.
                         certified enhanced vision systems when ground visibility at a Part 139 airport is below                 Supported By: Communications Common Service
                             minimum isibilit required       surface operations,   outlined
                         the minim m visibility req ired for s rface operations as o tlined in the airport’s                           Force:       Communications        Revised Departure Clearance,
                                                                                                                                 Task Force Data Comm nications for Re ised Depart re Clearance Weather
                         Surface Movement Guidance and Control System plan.                                                      Reroutes and Routine Communications (39)


                                     2010                     2011                   2012                      2013                   2014                 2015                  2016                   2017

                               1    OI 104209: Initial Surface Traffic Management (2010-2017)

                                                                                                                                      Airport Configuration Management

                                                                                                                                                  Runway Assignments

                                                                                                                                            Scheduling and Sequencing

                                                                                                                                                          Taxi Routing

                                                                                                                                                     Departure Routing

                                                                                                                                               External Data Exchange



                                                                               2   OI 103207: Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Controllers (2012-2016)
                                                                                         ASDE-X to Additional Airports
                                                                                          (not part of NextGen budget)


                        Enablers referenced in Appendix A: Airborne CDTI,      3   OI 103208: Improved Runway Safety Situational Awareness for Pilots (2012-2016)
                        Ground CDTI with Surface Indications and Alerts, and
                        EFVS                                                                                                                                  SURF IA

                                                                                                          Moving Map with Own-Ship Position

                                                                                                                              CDTI with TIS-B and ADS-B for Surface

                                                                                                                                                         EVSs for Taxi




www.faa.gov/
                                                             Enablers referenced in Appendix A: ATN Baseline                 4       OI 104207: Enhanced Surface Traffic Operations (2014-2018)
                                                             3 over VDL mode 2, ATN Baseline 2 over VDL mode




           /nextgen
                                                             2, and FANS 1/A+ (VDL mode 2)                               Revised Departure Clearance via Data Comm




49
                                                                                         Concept                    Development                    Operational
                              Improved Surface Operations (cont’d)




50
                                                                                                Selected Work Activities
                               Budget       Task
                                                           Activity                  Description                 OIs           FY 2010                   FY 2011                        FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                Line        Force
                               Arrivals/     40     Trajectory Management -   Focuses on the development        104209    Conducted field        • Conduct field          • Support technology transfer of mature surface
                              Departures     43     Surface Tactical Flow     of surface-based trajectory                  evaluation of Flight     evaluations of 2D        capabilities to Tower Flight Data Manager
                               at High       38                               operations and provides a                    Operation Surface        Taxi Route               (TFDM) system
                               Density       41                               roadmap for the development                  Application (FOSA)       Generation,            • Continue Surface Trajectory Based Operation
                               Airports                                       of a collaborative Surface                   version 2 and            Departure Runway         (STBO) field evaluations at Memphis and
                                                                              Traffic Management System.                   Collaborative            Assignment, Airport      Orlando
                                                                                                                           Departure Queue          Configuration,         • Conduct Human-in-the-Loop (HITL) simulation
                                                                                                                           Management               Departure                of Collaborative Departure Scheduling




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                                                                                                           (CDQM) version 2         Sequencing tools and   • Conduct HITL simulation of Time-Based Taxi
                                                                                                                           at Memphis and           Deice Tool               Route Generation Tool
                                                                                                                           Orlando (11/30/10)                              • Begin HITL simulation of STBO Taxi Route
                                                                                                                                                                             Generation

                               Arrivals/     40     Trajectory Management -   Establishes a net-centric         104209    Conducted              • Add additional
                              Departures            Surface Tactical Flow -   approach to deliver ASDE-X to                operational              airports to EDX
                               at High              Enhanced Data             external aviation stakeholders.              prototype with           capability
                               Density                                                                                     ASDE X data ready
                                                                                                                           ASDE-X                 • Enhance
                                                    Exchange (EDX) for
                               Airports                                                                                    for external users       Infrastructure to
                                                    Airport Surface Data                                                                            improve reliability
                                                    Distribution

                                Flexible     43     Flight and State Data     Redefines and extends the         103207                            • Conduct TFDM           • Continue the development, installation, test
                               Terminal      38     Management,               TFDM and Arrival/Departure        104209                              evaluations and          and operation of a pre-production unit of
                              Environment     9     Surface/Tower/Terminal    Management Tool (A/DMT)           102406                              demonstrations           A/DMT with appropriate interfaces with En
                                             41                               concept of operations, funding
                                                                                                           g                                      • Conduct HITLs to         Route Automation Modernization
                                                    Systems Engineering
                                                                              will be used to update current                                        finalize TFDM            (ERAM)/Traffic Management Advisor (TMA),
                                                                              analysis proposals and assess                                         concept of use           TFM/ Integrated Departure/Arrival Capability
                                                                              acquisition risks.                                                                             (IDAC), TRACON, Route Availability Planning
                                                                                                                                                                             Tool (RAPT)
                                                                                                                                                                           • Coordinate with an airport authority and
                                                                                                                                                                             aircraft/airlines at an operational site to support
                                                                                                                                                                             analysis and assessment of near-term benefits
                                                                                                                                                                             available from the A/DMT including:
                                                                                                                                                                                o Departure route assurance to reduce
                                                                                                                                                                                   departure delays
                                                                                                                                                                                o Reduce departure queue lengths to
                                                                                                                                                                                   reduce emissions/fuel burn
                                                                                                                                                                                o Taxi conformance monitoring to improve
                                                                                                                                                                                   airport operations
                                                                                                                                                                                o Enhanced situational awareness to
                                                                                                                                                                                   enhance airport safety
                                                                                                                                                                                     p        p      p
                                                                                                                                                                           • Develop concept of operations for TFDM
                                                                                                                                                                             Phase 2
                                                                                                                                                                           • Develop TFDM Phase 2 prototype
                                                                                                                                                                           • Conduct demonstrations of TFDM Phase 2
                      Budget       Task
                                                  Activity                  Description                OIs          FY 2010               FY 2011                        FY 2012 – Mid-term
                       Line        Force
                       Arrivals/              j     y
                                           Trajectory Management -
                                                          g                          p
                                                                     Focuses on the potential         104209    Conducted second   • Conduct third Surface                          g
                                                                                                                                                              • Continue conducting Surface Conformance
                      Departures           Surface Conformance       safety and workload benefits                Surface              Conformance (2D)          (2D) HITL simulations
                       at High             Monitoring                that can be achieved through a              Conformance (2D)     HITL simulations        • Tech transfer of 2D Surface Conformance
                       Density                                       comprehensive taxi route                    HITL simulations                               Monitoring concept of use, requirements, ATC
                       Airports                                      management and                              using hold short                               Procedures to TFDM program
                                                                     conformance monitoring                      and give way                                 • Initial HITL simulation of STBO Surface
                                                                     capability.                                 instructions                                   Conformance Monitoring
                                                                                                                                                              • Update concept of use, requirements, ATC
                                                                                                                                                                Procedures for STBO Surface Conformance
                                                                                                                                                                Monitoring




www.faa.gov/
51         /nextgen
52
                                                                 Improved Approaches and Low-Visibility Operations

                                                                                              7                                                                          1
                                         2                                   1                                                                                                 2     3     4     5                           6

                                                                                                                           Phases of Flight

                                1   OI 107119: Expanded Low-Visibility Operations Using Lower RVR Minima                            Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and RNP Authorization Required (AR)
                                                                                                                                    Approaches
                                      g         y
                              Lowering Runway Visual Range (        )                                         (or
                                                            g (RVR) minima from 2,400 feet to 1,800 feet ( lower,                                                                                         curved,
                                                                                                                                       A key feature of RNP and RNP AR approaches is the ability to use curved guided path




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                              depending on the airport and requirement) at selected airports using RVR systems, aircraft               segments (known as radius-to-fix, or RF; currently, an optional capability in aircraft flight
                              capabilities, and procedural changes provides greater access to Operational Evolution                    management systems). Another important advantage of RNP AR approaches is the
                              Partnership (OEP), reliever and feeder airports during low-visibility conditions.                        potential for decoupling operations associated with adjacent runways or airports.
                                                                                                                                       Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service
                              Additional RVR Sensors
                              Supported By: Aeronautical and Weather Common Services
                                                                                                                                     4   OI 104124: Use Optimized Profile Descent

                               2                                                                                                    Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) permit aircraft to remain at higher altitudes on arrival to
                                    OI 107117: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Approach Operations
                                                                                                                                    the airport and use lower power settings during descent.
                              The ability to complete approaches in low-visibility/ceiling conditions is improved for aircraft      Task Force: Cross-Cutting
                              equipped with some combination of navigation derived from augmented Global Navigation
                              Satellite System (GNSS) or Instrument Landing System (ILS) and other cockpit-based                    OPDs Using RNAV and RNP STARs
                              technologies or combinations of cockpit-based technologies and ground infrastructure.                    OPD procedures are being implemented as RNAV STARs (eventually as RNP STARs,
                                                                                                                                       where necessary) with vertical profiles that are designed to allow aircraft to descend
                              Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) to 100 Feet                                                             g                                   g             p               points along the
                                                                                                                                       using reduced or even idle thrust settings from the top of descent to p           g
                                 The FAA is engaged in making new rules to enhance the benefits of having EFVS                         downwind or final approach.
                                 capability by allowing operators to dispatch and begin instrument approaches in more                  Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service
                                 weather conditions than currently authorized.
                                                                                                                                    Initial Tailored Arrivals (ITAs)
                              Synthetic Vision System (SVS) for Lower Than Standard Approach Minima Operations                           ITAs are pre-planned, fixed routings assigned by oceanic air traffic control facilities and
                                 The FAA is evaluating various concepts for allowing SVS technology to be used to                        sent from the Oceanic Automation System (Ocean21) via data communications to
                                 conduct instrument approach procedures with lower than standard minima (e.g., Cat II,                   suitably equipped (i.e., FANS 1/A) aircraft as an arrival clearance into coastal airports.
                                 SA Cat I SA Cat II) or in lieu of certain ground infrastructure
                                         I,       II),                            infrastructure.                                        Supported By: Communications Common Service
                                                                                                                                         Task Force: Communications for Revised Departure Clearance, Weather Reroutes
                                    OI 107103: Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs),                             and Routine Communications (42a)
                               3
                                               Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) and Approaches
                              Task Force: NAS Access                                                                                 5   OI 107107: Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS) Precision Approaches

                              Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) Approach Procedures                                GBAS support precision approaches to Category I and eventually Category II/III minimums,
                                                  procedures,
                                 LPV approach procedures which are available to aircraft equipped with GPS/ Wide Area               for properly equipped runways and aircraft. GBAS can support approach minimums at
                                                                                                                                                                          aircraft
                                 Augmentation System (WAAS), are more cost-effective to implement in comparison with                airports with fewer restrictions to surface movement, and offers the potential for curved
                                 the installation of additional ground-based navigation aids (NAVAIDs) and the                      precision approaches. GBAS also can support high-integrity surface movement
                                 development of approach procedures for those NAVAIDs. In addition to LPV approach                  requirements.
                                 procedure implementation, the FAA will deliver LP approaches to runways that do not
                                 qualify for LPVs due to obstacles.                                                                 GBAS Category I Non-Federal System Approval
                                 Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service                                                             GBAS Category I is being implemented as a non-federal system on a per-airport request
                                 Task Force: Implement LPV Approach Procedures to Airports without Precision
                                                   p                pp                         p                                       basis.
                                 Approach Capabilities (22)
                                                                                                                                    GBAS Category II/III
                                                                                                                                       ICAO-compliant standards for operational use of GBAS Category II/III systems will be
                                                                                                                                       published by 2015.
                       6    OI 107118: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Landing Operations                                                   7    OI 107115: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Take-off Operations
                      The ability to land in low-visibility/ceiling conditions is improved for aircraft equipped with
                                y                         y       g                 p                    q pp                     Leveraging a combination of head-up g
                                                                                                                                         g g                                        y       ,
                                                                                                                                                                       p guidance systems, EFVS, SVS, or advanced vision
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ,    ,
                      some combination of navigation derived from augmented GNSS or ILS, and head-up                              system capabilities will allow appropriately equipped aircraft to conduct takeoff operations with
                      guidance systems, EFVS, SVS, advanced vision system, and other cockpit-based                                lower visibility minima.
                      technologies that combine to improve human performance.
                                                                                                                                  EFVS for Takeoff
                      EFVS to Touch down                                                                                             The FAA is evaluating the use of EFVS for low-visibility takeoff operations.
                         The FAA is engaged in rulemaking that would permit EFVS to be used to touch down.



                                        2010                     2011                     2012                     2013                    2014                    2015                   2016                    2017

                                 OI 107119: Expanded Low-Visibility
                            OI 107119: Expanded Low-Visibility
                       1                    Operations Using Lower
                                       Operations Using Lower RVR RVR                        Enabler referenced in Appendix A: Heads-Up Display (HUD)
                                            Minima (2009-2011)
                                       Minima (2009-2011)                                     Note: OI 107119 is ready for continued expansion.
                                                    Additional RVR Sensors



                                  2    OI 107117: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Approach Operations (2010-2015)                                                                                                    Enabler referenced in
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Appendix A: EFVS
                                                                                                                                                            EFVS to 100 Feet
                       Note: EFVS to 100 feet is approved and ready for
                                 expansion.
                       continued expansion
                                                                                                                 SVS for Lower Than Standard Approach Minima Operations



                                  3    OI 107103: RNAV SIDs, STARs and Approaches (2010-2015)                                                                                                               Enablers referenced in
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Appendix A: RNAV,
                                                                                                                                                     LPV Approach Procedures                                RNP with Curved Path,
                                                                                                                                                                                                            RNP AR Approaches,
                                                                                                                                                                                                              d
                                                                                                                                                                                                            and LPV
                                                                                                                                                  RNP and RNP AR Approaches


                                  4    OI 104124: Use OPD (2010-2018)

                                      OPDs Using RNAV and RNP STARs                                                                                                                                         Enablers referenced in
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Appendix A: RNAV and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ith Curved P th
                                                                                                                                                                                                            RNP with C     d Path
                                                                                                  ITAs



                                                      Enabler referenced in Appendix A: GBAS/GLS             5    OI 107107: GBAS Precision Approaches (2013-2018)

                                                                                                    GBAS Category I Non-Federal System Approval




www.faa.gov/
                                                                                                                                                                     GBAS Category II/III




           /nextgen
                                                                                               Concept                     Development                    Operational




53
                              Improved Approaches and Low-Visibility Operations (cont’d)




54
                                             2010            2011            2012                      2013                  2014                        2015                    2016                    2017

                                                                                                 Enabler referenced in Appendix A: EFVS                         Low-Visibility/Ceiling                    (2015-2018)
                                                                                                                                                   6 OI 107118: Low Visibility/Ceiling Landing Operations (2015 2018)

                                                                                                                                             EFVS to Touch down


                                                                                                 Enabler referenced in Appendix A: EFVS            7   OI 107115: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Takeoff Operations (2015-2018)

                                                                                                                                                    EFVS for Takeoff




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                                                                  Concept                    Development                        Operational



                                                                                           Selected Work Activities
                                              Task
                              Budget Line                 Activity             Description                  OIs              FY 2010                            FY 2011                      FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                              Force
                                 Flexible             Separation      Begins implementation of GBAS        107107     Awarded Category II/III                                        • Finalize Category III ground facility
                                Terminal              Management,     at the nation’s busiest airports                 Local Area                                                       specification
                               Environment            Approaches,     (OEP 35) to achieve capacity and                 Augmentation System                                            • Award contract to validate Category
                                                                      efficiency benefits by integrating               ground facility prototype                                        III avionics standards and
                                                      Ground Based
                                                                      RNAV and RNP capabilities with                   contract                                                         interoperability
                                                      Augmentation    the Category 1 GBAS Landing                                                                                     • Complete operational feasibility
                                                      System (GBAS)   System capability.                                                                                                determination

                                 Flexible             Separation      Develops and baselines               107119     Completed initial               • Implement lower RVR          • Complete initial concept of
                                Terminal              Management,     specifications and initiates                     concept of operations             minimums at:                   operations for Navigation Surface
                               Environment            Approaches,     solution development including                   for navigation surface              o Philadelphia (PHL) 27R     Requirements
                                                                      acquisition and testing of                       requirements                        o San Francisco (SFO)      • Based on the Flight Standards NAS-
                                                      NextGen
                                                                      navigation aid equipment.                                                               28L                       wide implementation schedule for
                                                      Navigation                                                                                           o Denver (DEN) 16R           terminal RNAV, devise the roll-out
                                                      Initiatives                                                                                          o Houston International      schedule for required navigation
                                                                                                                                                              (IAH) 9                   systems
                                                                                                                                                           o Cleveland (CLE) 24L      • Define current arrival variability,
                                                                                                                                                                                        runway occupancy times (day/light,
                                                                                                                                                                                        clear/low-visibility) as a baseline to
                                                                                                                                                                                        improving exiting from the runway
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Define a future set of taxi-out and
                                                                                                                                                                                        taxi-in time-based performance
                                                                                                                                                                                        requirements that reduce variability
                                                                                                                                                                                        in surface operations. Use these
                                                                                                                                                                                        requirements to assess the current
                                                                                                                                                                                        performance at OEP airports to
                                                                                                                                                                                        define how much change will be
                                                                                                                                                                                        needed and the feasibility of those
                                                                                                                                                                                        changes
                                       Task
                      Budget Line                   Activity                    Description                 OIs            FY 2010                      FY 2011                      FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                       Force
                         Flexible                p
                                               Separation             Develops and baselines               107118    Completed Enhanced      • Continue initial development   • Complete MALSR LED/Infrared
                        Terminal               Management,            specifications and initiates         107119     Low Visibility            and design of Medium-            lamps prototype design
                       Environment             Approaches,            solution development including                  operational               Intensity Approach Lighting    • Complete functional configuration
                                                                      acquisition and testing of                      improvements              System with Runway               audit for LED PAPI
                                               Optimize Navigation
                                                                      navigation aid equipment.                                                 Alignment Indicator (MALSR)
                                               Technology                                                                                       Light-Emitting Diode (LED)
                                                                                                                                                Lamp Solution
                                                                                                                                              • Continue initial development
                                                                                                                                                and design of LED Precision
                                                                                                                                                Approach Path Indicator
                                                                                                                                                (PAPI) System Solution

                      Demonstrations    42a    High Density Airport   Makes arrivals to high density                 Continued TAs at LAX,
                                               Capacity and           airports more efficient; it has                 SFO and MIA
                                               Efficiency             several implications such as
                                                                      reduced time and distance of
                                               Improvement
                                                                      flights including the optimization
                                               Project                of the lateral and vertical paths.




www.faa.gov/
55         /nextgen
56
                                    Closely Spaced, Parallel, Converging and Intersecting Runway Operations

                                                                                            3
                                                                                  1    2                                                                                                                      1      3

                                                                                                                      Phases of Flight

                                   OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using Area Navigation (RNAV)                      3   OI 102141: Improved Parallel Runway Operations
                               1
                                              and Required Navigation Performance (RNP)
                                                                                                                                This improvement will explore concepts to recover lost capacity through reduced separation




NextGen Implementation Pla
                                                                                    trajectories
                              Both RNAV and RNP will enable more efficient aircraft trajectories. RNAV and RNP                    t d d i            d
                                                                                                                                standards, increased applications of dependent and independent operations, enabled
                                                                                                                                                            li ti      fd     d t di d        d t        ti         bl d




                         an
                              combined with airspace changes, increase airspace efficiency and capacity.                        operations in lower visibility conditions and changes in separation responsibility between air
                              Task Force: Runway Access                                                                         traffic control (ATC) and the flight deck.
                                                                                                                                Task Force: Runway Access
                              Use Converging Runway Display Aid (CRDA)
                                 This increment will add CRDA functionality into terminal automation systems and                Additional 7110.308 Airports
                                 expand its use at more airports, as well as leverage the arrival/departure window tool.           This increment provides airports with maximum use of closely spaced parallel runways
                                                           p    y              g p                g g
                                 Task Force: Increase Capacity and Throughput for Converging and Intersecting         g            by authorizing participating aircraft to operate at reduced lateral and longitudinal
                                  Runways (9)                                                                                      spacing on dependent, instrument approach procedures to runways with centerline
                                                                                                                                   spacing less than 2,500 feet. This increment will expand the application of FAA Order
                                   OI 102140: Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departures (WTMD):                                    7110.308 beyond the locations and runway ends already approved.
                               2
                                              Wind-Based Wake Procedures                                                           Task Force: Increase Use of Staggered Approaches (12)
                              Procedures are developed at applicable locations based on the results of analysis of wake
                              measurements and safety analysis using wake modeling and visualization. During peak               Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals-Procedures (WTMA-P) for Heavy/757 Aircraft
                              demand periods, these procedures allow airports to maintain airport departure throughput             This increment expands the use of procedural dependent staggered approach
                              during favorable wind conditions.                                                                           ti t ll      B i          dh       i    ft t l d thi         d
                                                                                                                                   separation to allow Boeing 757 and heavy aircraft to lead this procedure.

                              WTMD                                                                                              Amend Independent and Dependent Runway Standards in Order 7110.65 (Including
                                Procedures are developed through analysis of wake measurements and safety                       Blunder Model Analysis)
                                analysis using wake modeling and visualization. During peak demand periods, these                   This increment amends runway spacing standards to achieve increased access to
                                procedures allow airports to maintain airport departure throughput during favorable                 parallel runways with centerline spacing less than 4,300 feet and implements this
                                wind conditions. A staged implementation of changes in procedures and standards, as                 change at approved locations.
                                well as the implementation of new technology, will safely reduce the impact of wake
                                                                   technology                                                       Task Force: Revise the Blunder Assumptions (13)
                                vortices on operations. This reduction applies to specific types of aircraft and is based
                                on wind blowing an aircraft’s wake away from the parallel runway’s operating area.              Implement SATNAV or ILS for Parallel Runway Operations
                                                                                                                                    This increment will enable policy, standards and procedures to allow use of Satellite
                                                                                                                                    Navigation (SATNAV) or Instrument Landing System (ILS) when conducting
                                                                                                                                    simultaneous independent and dependent instrument approaches, and implement this
                                                                                                                                    new capability at approved locations.
                                                                                                                                    Task Force: Implement CSPO: SATNAV or ILS (37a)


                                            2010                   2011                    2012                  2013                2014                    2015                   2016                    2017

                                                                                                                                                           Enablers referenced in
                                      1    OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP (2010-2014)
                                                                                                                                                           Appendix A: RNAV and
                                                                                                                                                           RNP with Curved Path
                                                                                                                 Use CRDA
                                                        2    OI 102140: WTMD: Wind-Based Wake Procedures (2011-2016)

                                                                                                                                                               WTMD



                                      Enabler referenced in Appendix A:       3    OI 102141: Improved Parallel Runway Operations (2012-2018)
                                      Paired Approach Guidance and Alerting
                                                                                                                                          Additional 7110.308 Airports

                                                                                                                                                       y
                                                                                                                                        WTMA-P for Heavy/757 Aircraft

                                                        Amend Independent and Dependent Runway Standards in Order 7110.65 (Including Blunder Model Analysis)

                                                                                                             Implement SATNAV or ILS for Parallel Runway Operations




                                                                                         Concept                          Development             Operational



                                                                                                      Selected Work Activities
                       Budget            Task
                                                             Activity                       Description                      OIs           FY 2010                        FY 2011                     FY 2012 – Mid-term
                        Line             Force
                      Collaborative                 Flight and State Data         Develops a framework for                  108209                              • Initiate analysis of equipage   • Conduct feasibility
                       Air Traffic                  Management, Concept           integrated National Airspace Design       102141                                and avionics capabilities         assessment of simultaneous
                      Management                    Development for               and Procedures planning,                                                        required through the mid-         ILS, RNP AR descent
                                                                                  enhancements to existing                                                        term to support best-           • Conduct research and
                                                    Integrated NAS Design
                                                                                  infrastructure to support impact                                                equipped, best-served             analysis associated with the
                                                    and Procedure Planning                    t
                                                                                  assessments, and d       l    initial
                                                                                                     d develops i iti l                                                                             feasibility of the elimination of
                                                                                  concept for best-equipped, best-                                                                                  the requirement of 1,000 feet
                                                                                  served.                                                                                                           of altitude separation during
                                                                                                                                                                                                    simultaneous turn onto final
                                                                                                                                                                                                    approach

                        Flexible                    Separation                    Evaluates WTMA feasibility                102141                              • Complete WTMA feasibility       • Complete WTMA concept
                       Terminal                     Management, Wake              prototype at a candidate airport.         102144                                prototype evaluation using        feasibility prototype evaluation
                      Environment                   Turbulence Mitigation         Concludes detailed benefit and                                                    p
                                                                                                                                                                  implementation on chosen          in simulated candidate airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               p
                                                                                  safety assessments for the                                                      simulated automation              environments
                                                    for Arrivals (WTMA)
                                                                                  implementation of WTMA                                                          system                          • Complete analyses and
                                                                                  procedures.                                                                                                       documentation of WTMA
                                                                                                                                                                                                    requirements
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Evaluate wake mitigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                    technology solutions




www.faa.gov/
57         /nextgen
                              Closely Spaced, Parallel, Converging and Intersecting Runway Operations (cont’d)




58
                                                                                                    Selected Work Activities
                               Budget       Task
                                                            Activity                       Description                  OIs            FY 2010                       FY 2011                     FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                Line        Force
                                Flexible            Separation Management,      Performs safety risk management        102141    Completed prototype of    • Deliver demonstration to      • Complete regional service center
                               Terminal             Wake Turbulence             analysis, tests and evaluations of                WTMD demonstration          first site, Houston (IAH)       engineering and installation of
                              Environment           Mitigation for Departures   wake turbulence mitigation and                    system at William J.                                        WTMD components in Memphis
                                                                                departure procedures.                             Hughes Technical                                            (MEM) and San Francisco (SFO)
                                                    (WTMD)
                                                                                                                                  Center                                                      ATC towers
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Install data links necessary for
                                                                                                                                                                                              WTMD operation at MEM and
                                                                                                                                                                                              SFO




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                                                                                                                                                                            • At IAH, MEM and SFO continue
                                                                                                                                                                                              providing: WTMD software
                                                                                                                                                                                              adaptation, software
                                                                                                                                                                                              maintenance, hardware
                                                                                                                                                                                              maintenance (preventive and
                                                                                                                                                                                              corrective) on any WTMD unique
                                                                                                                                                                                              system components, and daily
                                                                                                                                                                                              service certification

                                Flexible     37a    Separation Management,      Examines alternate proposals for       102141    Upgraded CSPO             • Complete first stage          • Conduct further Human-in-the-
                               Terminal       13    Closely Spaced Parallel     further reductions of separation                  modeling and simulation     analyses to re-evaluate the     Loop (HITL) tests to evaluate
                              Environment           Runway Operations           standards in runway spacing, and                  tool with version 2         blunder model for CSPO          operational application for Dual
                                                                                conducts simulator trials to collect              software enhancements       and determine the impact        ILS/RNAV/ Precision Runway
                                                    (CSPO)
                                                                                data and conduct analysis.                                                    on reducing lateral runway      Monitor (PRM)/
                                                                                                                                                              separation standards            Wake/Blunder/ADS-B
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Develop Safety Management
                                                                                                                                                                                                y        q
                                                                                                                                                                                              System requirements for
                                                                                                                                                                                              approaches at reduced
                                                                                                                                                                                              separation standards in runway
                                                                                                                                                                                              spacing
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Determine minimum spacing for
                                                                                                                                                                                              simultaneous independent
                                                                                                                                                                                              approaches
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Conduct demonstrations to
                                                                                                                                                                                              validate concept and
                                                                                                                                                                                                   i      t    d bt i buy-in
                                                                                                                                                                                              requirements and obtain b i
                                                                                                                                                                                              from stakeholders
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Develop and coordinate Safety
                                                                                                                                                                                              Risk Management Document
                                                                                                                                                                                              (SRMD) for approaches at
                                                                                                                                                                                              reduced separation standards for
                                                                                                                                                                                              runway spacing
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Continue CSPO blunder model
                                                                                                                                                                                              enhancements
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Continue HITL activities to
                                                                                                                                                                                              support CSPO
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Continue to implement
                                                                                                                                                                                              procedures for CSPO at
                                                                                                                                                                                              additional airports
                                                                                Performance Based Navigation
                                                                                                                   1
                                                                                1                                                                             1


                                                                                                            Phases of Flight


                       1    OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP
                      Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) can enable more efficient aircraft trajectories. RNAV and RNP, combined with airspace changes, increase
                      airspace efficiency and capacity.
                      Task Force: Metroplex, Cruise and Overarching

                      Integrated Airspace and Procedures                                                               Tools/Automation
                      Optimization of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Procedures                                    Relative Position Indicator (RPI)
                          Additional teams of stakeholders will be created to address short-term PBN procedures            RPI is a tool that can assist both the controller and traffic management in managing the
                          optimization.                                                                                    flow of traffic through a terminal area merge point.
                          Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service
                          Task Force: Optimize and Increase RNAV Procedures (32a and 29)                               Automated Terminal Proximity Alert (ATPA)
                                                                                                                           ATPA is an air traffic control (ATC) automation tool that provides situational awareness and
                      Large-Scale Redesign of Terminal and Transition Airspace Leveraging PBN                              alerts to controllers on color displays of Common Automated Radar Terminal System
                          The Integrated Airspace and Procedures approach provides a geographic focus to problem           (CARTS) and on Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS) displays.   displays
                          solving, with a systems view of PBN initiatives, to the design of airspace.                      Task Force: Achieving Existing 3- and 5-Mile Separation Standards
                          Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service
                          Task Force: Integrate Procedure Design to Deconflict Airport, Implement RNP with             FMC Route Offset
                          RF Capability, and Expand Use of Terminal Separation Rules (4, 21a and 32b),                    Automation provides controllers with support to amend an aircraft’s flight plan to indicate
                          Increase Capacity and Throughput for Converging and Intersecting Runways (9)                    that it has been placed on, or has been taken off, a Flight Management Computer (FMC)
                                                                                                                          lateral offset.
                      Transition to PBN Routing for Cruise Operations                                                     Supported By: Flight Common Service
                          This approach augments the conventional NAVAID-based Jet and Victor airways with
                          RNAVs, including Q-routes and T-routes.                                                      PBN Route Eligibility Check
                          Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service                                                       En Route Automation will check the eligibility of aircraft to operate on performance-
                          Task Force: Develop RNAV-Based En Route System (30)                                             restricted routes.
                                                                                                                          Supported By: Flight Common Service
                      Navigation System Infrastructure
                      NextGen En Route Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Infrastructure
                          Additional DME coverage over the continental United States is needed to optimize and
                          expand RNAV routes by closing coverage gaps at and above Flight Level 240.




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59         /nextgen
                             Performance Based Navigation (cont’d)




60
                                          2010                  2011                    2012                      2013                     2014                     2015                   2016                   2017

                                    1                           p    y
                                          OI 108209: Increase Capacity and Efficiency Using RNAV and RNP (
                                                                                    y     g                        )
                                                                                                         (2010-2014)                                                                  Enablers referenced in
                                                                                                                                                                                      Appendix A: RNAV and




     en
                                                                                                                                             Optimization of PBN Procedures           RNP with Curved Path


                                                                                             Large-Scale Redesign of Terminal and Transition Airspace Leveraging PBN

                                                                                                                              Transition to PBN Routing for Cruise Operations

                                                                                                                                        NextGen En Route DME Infrastructure




NextGe Implementation Plan
                                                                                                                            RPI

                                                                     ATPA

                                                                                                                                                            FMC Route Offset

                                                                                                                                                  PBN Route Eligibility Check




                                                                                             Concept                       Development                    Operational


                                                                                                         Selected Work Activities
                             Budget        Task
                                                        Activity                          Description                             OIs              FY 2010                         FY 2011                     FY 2012 – Mid-term
                              Line         Force
                             Operations      4       New York/New      Increases efficiency and reliability of the airspace                 Completed initial designs   • Implement Stage 2A             • Implement remaining stages
                                            21a      Jersey/           structure and ATC to accommodate growth while                         supporting Stage 2A                                          • Complete airspace designs
                                            32b      Philadelphia      enhancing safety, reducing delay and taking                           implementation decision                                        for remaining stages
                                                                       advantage of new technologies. This project
                                                     Metropolitan
                                                                       encompasses a complete redesign of the airspace in
                                                     Area Airspace     the New York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas.
                                                     Redesign          It capitalizes on PBN, higher downwind segments for
                                                                       arrival aircraft, unrestricted departure climbs, fanned
                                                                       departure headings and holding in terminal airspace.
                                                                       The four implementation stages started in December
                                                                       2007 and are planned through 2012.

                             Operations      4       Chicago           Encompasses significant increases in en route                        Completed airspace          • Initiate ZAU airspace          • Implement Stage 3
                                            21a      Airspace          departure throughput with several new departure                       design for Stage 3 High       divestitures to Grissom Air      (coincident with OMP runway
                                            32b      Project           routes planned (east, west and south) and supports                    and Wide                      Reserve Base to enable a         10C/28C completion)
                                                                       the O’Hare Modernization Project (OMP) with new                      Completed                     10-sector low altitude
                                                                       arrival routes and airspace to capitalize on the new                  environmental design          redesign which will improve
                                                                                    O Hare.
                                                                       runways at O’Hare. The project also includes                          review                        efficiency and reduce
                                                                       efficiencies for other airports in the Chicago area.                                                complexity
                                                                       The three implementation stages started in March
                                                                       2007 and are planned through 2013.
                      Budget       Task
                                              Activity                       Description                          OIs           FY 2010                        FY 2011                   FY 2012 – Mid-term
                       Line        Force
                       p
                      Operations     4     Las Vegas
                                                 g                                                p
                                                          Provides near-term modification of airspace and                         p
                                                                                                                         Developed RNAV                    p
                                                                                                                                                     • Complete Las Vegasg                p              g
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Implement Las Vegas
                                    21a    Optimization   procedures supporting the Las Vegas Valley. This                procedures for               optimization environmental       procedure optimization
                                           Project        effort is developing new PBN departure and arrival              Henderson Executive          assessment
                                    32b
                                                          routes and realigning airspace to increase efficiency           Airport scheduled to be    • Complete Henderson
                                                          at McCarran International Airport and surrounding               published in 2011            procedure optimization
                                                          satellite airports. The implementation is planned to           Modified 2 existing DME
                                                          start in June 2011 and continue through 2013.                   to accommodate current
                                                                                                                          DME operational
                                                                                                                          requirement

                      Operations    32a    Metroplex      Expedites versions of Integrated Airspace and                  Simulated study team        Selected next 5 sites for      • Continue
                                     29    Optimization   Procedures projects, but with an expedited life cycle           process to identify          deployment of study teams.       design/implementation teams
                                           of Airspace    of two to three years from planning to                          limitations and              These sites are: Atlanta,        to provide a systematic,
                                                          implementation. The focus of these efforts is on                recommend                    Houston, Southern                effective approach to the
                                           and
                                                          implementation of optimized PBN arrivals and                    modifications prior to       California, Northern             design, evaluation and
                                           Procedures     departures and airspace changes to support optimal              deployment of actual         California and Charlotte,        implementation of PBN-
                                                          routings. This concept is based on a two-team                   study teams                  N.C.                             optimized airspace and
                                                          approach: study teams and design/implementation                Initiated 2 prototype      • Initiate 2-3 design/             procedures
                                                          teams.                                                          study teams in north         implementation teams to
                                                                                                                          Texas and Washington,        provide a systematic,
                                                                                                                          D.C., metroplexes            effective approach to the
                                                                                                                                                       design, evaluation and
                                                                                                                                                       implementation of PBN-
                                                                                                                                                       optimized airspace and
                                                                                                                                                       procedures

                      Operations
                      O    ti       32a
                                    32     PBN            Adds ffi i        ith                  d
                                                          Add efficiency with new PBN procedures and     d                Implemented a total of
                                                                                                                        I l         t d t t l f     • C ti     i t    t d design
                                                                                                                                                       Continue integrated d i          Continue to implement user
                                                                                                                                                                                      • C ti     t i l      t
                                     29    Procedures     optimizes existing initial capability PBN procedures.           200 PBN routes and           and implementation of the        requested PBN procedures
                                                          Most of the procedures have proponents from                     procedures including 51      PBN procedures at Denver
                                                          industry and/or ATC. These PBN procedures                       routes, 90 RNAV            • Continue to implement PBN
                                                          address location-specific safety issues and                     Standard Instrument          routes and procedures in the
                                                          efficiencies.                                                   Departures (SIDs) and        NAS
                                                                                                                          Standard Terminal
                                                                                                                          Arrival Routes (STARs),
                                                                                                                          and 59 RNP
                                                                                                                          Authorization Required
                                                                                                                          approach procedures
                                                                                                                         Developed initial PBN
                                                                                                                          routes and procedures
                                                                                                                          designs for integrated
                                                                                                                          procedures and airspace
                                                                                                                          project at Denver

                      Operations    30     E Route PBN
                                           En R t         Continues development and implementation of PBN                Developed a draft          • Finalize the Q route
                                                                                                                                                                     Q-route          • Continue the Q route
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Q-route
                                           – Q-Routes     Q-routes as the national routing infrastructure.                Q-route implementation       implementation plan and          implementation plan
                                                                                                                          plan                         initiate the implementation
                                                                                                                         Initiated development of     process
                                                                                                                          Q-routes




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61         /nextgen
                             Performance Based Navigation (cont’d)




62
                                                                                                    Selected Work Activities
                               Budget        Task
                                                          Activity               Description               OIs        FY 2010                        FY 2011                                FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                Line         Force




     en
                              Operations             National Airspace     Represents the                           Published         • Continue Airspace Management           • Transition to Integrated Airspace and
                                                     and Procedures        agreements and                            Version 1 as        Program legacy projects                  Procedures approach for airspace and PBN
                                                     Plan                  commitments of the FAA                    the baseline of   • Complete annual PBN procedure            procedures efforts
                                                                           to modernize the airspace                 the current         development goals; transition to       • Use results of demonstration efforts and
                                                                           and procedures to solve                   NAS                 benefits-based service goals             concept exploration experiments, which should
                                                                           problems in core areas.                                     • Focus on optimal altitude procedures     be available to inform decisions about inclusion
                                                                           Also, it includes                                                                                      of future concepts (e.g., Integrated
                                                                           evolutionary activities such
                                                                                        y                                              • Use metroplex teams to drive
                                                                                                                                         optimization and d i i
                                                                                                                                            ti i ti     d decisions on            Arrival/Departure Operations and High Altitude
                                                                           as concepts and                                                                                        Trajectory Based Airspace)
                                                                           demonstrations related to                                     Integrated Airspace and Procedures




NextGe Implementation Plan
                                                                           airspace and PBN.                                             projects
                                                                                                                                       • Execute multi-year plan for Q-route
                                                                                                                                         development and implementation

                              Trajectory             Capacity              Provides the necessary         108209                       • Award contract                         • Develop recommendation on future program
                                Based                Management -          equipment enhancements,                                                                                plans based on FY 2010-2011 deliverables and
                              Operations             NextGen DME           relocations, and                                                                                       associated requirements to fill the gaps to
                                                                           replacements to ensure                                                                                 enable Performance Based Navigation in the
                                                                           that DME facilities are                                                                                high altitude route structure
                                                                           available in accordance                                                                              • Deploy NextGen DME
                                                                           with the FAA's NextGen
                                                                           Implementation Plan.

                               Flexible        9     Separation            Performs analysis,             108209    Developed         • Develop Prototype
                              Terminal               Management,           systems engineering and                   demonstration/      demonstration/HITL consolidated
                             Environment             Enhancing             support modifications and                 Human-in-the-
                                                                                                                     Human in the        report
                                                                           improvements to STARS                     Loop (HITL)       • Conduct impact assessment – trade
                                                     Terminals and
                                                                           and CARTS to support                      test plan           study for HITL
                                                     Airports - Terminal   merging multiple RNAV
                                                     Enhancements for      routings in the terminal
                                                     RNAV ATC              environment.

                                                     Separation            Performs pre-                  108209    Delivered         • Continue development of PBN            • Develop, evaluate and validate improvements
                              Trajectory             Management,
                                                          g      ,         implementation activities                 variable            Conformance Monitor and Alert            to the strategic conflict detection and prediction
                                Based                Modern                necessary to transition                   separation                                                   algorithms, the trajectory model, and the
                              Operations                                   separation management                     concept of                                                   conflict alert algorithms
                                                     Procedures
                                                                           automation enhancements                   operations                                                 • Develop, evaluate and validate the
                                                     (Separation           for implementation and                                                                                 requirements for flight data display
                                                     Automation            continued functionality for                                                                            enhancements to support elimination of flight
                                                     Enhancements,         PBN route eligibility                                                                                  strips in non-surveillance airspace
                                                     Data-Side and         checking for inclusion in                                                                            • Provide regulated access to specific aircraft
                                                     Radar-Side)           En Route Automation                                                                                    using dynamic special activity airspace to
                                                                           Modernization Release 3  3.                                                                            promote fuller use of available airspace
                                                                                                                                                                                • Complete prototype development for FMC
                                                                                                                                                                                  Route Offset

                             Demonstration           RNAV/RNP              Demonstrates the safe and                                   • Initiate RNAV/RNP terminal area        • Conduct demonstrations and operational trials
                                                     Demonstration         effective integration of                                      demonstration at a small/medium          on technologies, supporting safety logic, air
                                                                           public RNP operations in a                                    airport                                  traffic management and aircraft performance to
                                                                           mixed-equipage traffic                                                                                 identify any uncertainty or deficiency (risks) to
                                                                           environment at a                                                                                       performance and/or to validate the integration
                                                                               ll/ di       i
                                                                           small/medium airport. t                                                                                   d/ implementation of N tG
                                                                                                                                                                                  and/or i l       t ti    f NextGen
                                                                                                                                                                                  technologies, applications, procedures and/or
                                                                                                                                                                                  standards
                                                                                Time Based Flow Management
                                                                                                                1   3
                                                                            1    4
                                                             2    4                                                                                        1     2     4                               4

                                                                                                          Phases of Flight


                           OI 104115: Current Tactical Management of Flow in the En Route                               2   OI 104123: Time-Based Metering Using RNAV and RNP Route Assignments
                       1
                                      for Arrivals/Departures                                                       Area Navigation (RNAV), Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Time-Based
                      Proper spacing end sequencing of air traffic maximizes National Airspace System (NAS)
                                                                                                                    Metering (TBM) provide efficient use of runways and airspace in high-density airport
                      efficiency and capacity in the arrival and departure phases of flight.
                                                                                                                    environments. Metering automation will manage the flow of aircraft to meter fixes, thus
                      Task Force: Cruise
                                                                                                                    permitting efficient use of runways and airspace.
                                                          Advisor’s
                      Implement Traffic Management Advisor s (TMA) Adjacent Center Metering (ACM)
                                                                                                                    Use        Route Data to Calculate Trajectories Used to Conduct
                                                                                                                    U RNAV R t D t t C l l t T j t i U d t C d t TBM Operations             O    ti
                      Capability at Additional Locations
                                                                                                                        The Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) RNAV routes for both Standard
                          To expand the benefits of time-based metering and Time Based Flow Management’s
                                                                                                                        Instrument Departures (SIDs) and Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) will be
                          (TBFM) other advanced flow management capabilities, ACM will be implemented at
                                                                                                                        used to calculate the terminal component of aircraft trajectories.
                          the following additional locations: LAX — ACM from ZAB and ZLA; SFO — ACM from
                                                                                                                        Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service
                          ZSE, ZOA, ZLA and ZLC; SAN — ACM from ZLA and ZOA; ATL — ACM from ZDC
                          and ZHU; and IAD — ACM from ZNY.                                                              3   OI 104120: Point-in-Space Metering
                          Supported By: Weather and Flight Common Services
                          T kF          E      dU       f Ti    B   dM t i
                          Task Force: Expand Use of Time-Based Metering (24)                                        Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) uses scheduling tools and trajectory-based
                                                                                                                    operations to assure smooth flow of traffic and increase the efficient use of airspace.
                      Implement TMA at Additional Airports
                          To expand the benefits of time-based metering and TBFM’s other advanced flow              Extended Metering
                          management capabilities, TBFM will be implemented at the following additional                 Will provide flow deconfliction for metered aircraft at the meter reference points
                          locations: Baltimore, Md. (BWI); Cleveland, Ohio (CLE); Washington, D.C. (DCA); San           (upstream from the meter fixes).
                          Diego, Calif. (SAN); Morristown, N.J. (MMU); Teterboro, N.J. (TEB).                           Supported By: Weather and Flight Common Services
                          Supported By: Weather and Flight Common Services
                          Task Force: Expand Use of Time-Based Metering (24)                                            4   OI 104117: Improved Arrival, Surface, Departure, Flow Operations
                                                                                                                    This integrates advanced arrival/departure flow management with advanced surface
                                                                                                                    operation functions to improve overall airport capacity and efficiency.

                                                                                                                    Integrated Departure/Arrival Capability (IDAC)
                                                                                                                        Increases NAS efficiency and reduces delays by providing decision-making support
                                                                                                                        capabilities for departure flows. IDAC automates the process of monitoring departure
                                                                                                                             biliti f d       t    fl            t   t th             f    it i d       t
                                                                                                                        demand and identifying departure slots for tower personnel.
                                                                                                                        Supported By: Weather and Flight Common Services




www.faa.gov/
63         /nextgen
                              Time Based Flow Management (cont’d)




64
                                              2010                 2011                   2012                         2013                2014                       2015                  2016                  2017

                                     1      OI 104115: Current Tactical Management of Flow in the En Route for Arrivals/Departures (2010-2014)

                                                                                          Implement TMA’s ACM Capability at Additional Locations


                                                                                                                  Implement TMA at Additional Airports




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                                                                   2    OI 104123: Time-Based Metering Using RNAV and RNP Route Assignments (2012-2016)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Enabler referenced in
                                            Use RNAV Route Data to Calculate Trajectories Used to Conduct TBM Operations                                                                                      Appendix A: RNAV



                                                                                   3    OI 104120: Point-in-Space Metering (2012-2016)

                                                                                                                                   Extended Metering


                                                                                                                                                                     OI 104117: Improved Arrival, Surface, Departure,
                                                                                                                                                              4
                                                                                                                                                                                Flow Operations (2015-2018)
                                                                                                                                                 IDAC



                                                                                               Concept                      Development                    Operational



                                                                                                            Selected Work Activities
                               Budget
                               B d t             T k
                                                 Task
                                                                 Activity                  Description                    OIs                FY 2010                             FY 2011                    FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                Line             Force
                               Trajectory                   Trajectory            Supports the FAA Air Traffic           104120    Completed TBFM concept of
                                 Based                      Management, En        Organization mission by                           operations
                               Operations                   Route                 increasing the efficiency of the air             Developed coupled
                                                                                  traffic operations and reducing                   scheduling design and
                                                            (Point-in-Space
                                                                                  users’ delays through the use of                  requirements documentation
                                                            Metering)
                                                                    g)            TBM
                                                                                  TBM.

                                Arrivals/           7b      Trajectory            Provides a consistent flow of          104115    Developed TBFM business
                              Departures at          8      Management –          traffic to the runway using TBM.                  case documentation (shortfall
                              High Density          46      Arrival Tactical      TMA/TBFM is an Air Route                          analysis, concept of use, cost
                                Airports            24                            Traffic Control Center (ARTCC)-                   Rough Orders of Magnitude,
                                                            Flow (TBO –
                                                                                  based decision-support tool                       projected benefits,
                                                            En Route              designed to optimize the flow of                  architecture artifacts,
                                                            Point-in-Space        aircraft into capacity constrained                implementation strategy) and
                                                            Metering)             areas.                                            program b     li
                                                                                                                                             baseline approval l
                                                                                                                                   Developed TBFM training
                                                                                                                                    requirements
                        Budget         Task
                                                   Activity                  Description                  OIs              FY 2010                             FY 2011                         FY 2012 – Mid-term
                         Line          Force
                       Time Based              Time Based Flow      Provides a consistent flow of        104115                                              p
                                                                                                                                                  • Develop, test and deploy coupled
                                                                                                                                                                           p y    p                p               p y
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Develop, test and deploy
                          Flow                 Management           traffic to the runway using TBM.                                                scheduling capability,                  extended metering, IDAC and
                       Management              (TBFM)               TMA/TBFM is an ARTCC-based                                                      incorporating deconflicted              the capability to apply RNAV
                                                                    decision-support tool designed to                                               metering points in ARTCC                routes to calculate trajectories
                                                                    optimize the flow of aircraft into                                              airspace and enabling the             • Deploy ACM and the TMA
                                                                    capacity constrained areas.                                                     subsequent extended metering            capabilities to additional
                                                                                                                                                    capability                              locations in the NAS
                                                                                                                                                  • Initiate site survey and adaptation
                                                                                                                                                    activities to implement ACM at
                                                                                                                                                    additional locations and TMA at
                                                                                                                                                    additional airports
                                                                                                                                                  • Initiate development of detailed
                                                                                                                                                    requirements analysis for the
                                                                                                                                                    IDAC

                         Flexible       43     Flight and State     Redefines and extends the            104117    Completed TFDM                • Conduct TFDM evaluations and          • Develop concept of operations
                        Terminal        38     Data                 Tower Flight Data Manager                       Investment Analysis             demonstrations                          for TFDM Phase 2
                       Environment       9     Management,
                                               Management           (TFDM) and Arrival/Departure                    Readiness Decision            • Conduct Human-in-the-Loop tests
                                                                                                                                                               Human in the Loop          • Develop operation evaluation
                                        41                          Management Tool (A/DMT)                                                         to finalize TFDM concept of use         model
                                               Surface/Tower/
                                                                    concept of operations. Funding                                                                                        • Develop TFDM Phase 2
                                               Terminal Systems     will be used to update current                                                                                          prototype
                                               Engineering          analysis proposals and assess                                                                                         • Conduct demonstrations of
                                                                    acquisition risks.                                                                                                      TFDM Phase 2

                       Collaborative    35     Flight and State     Addresses information and            104117    Developed concept of          • Deliver digital airport structure     • Develop concepts for common
                        Air Traffic            Data                 capability gaps within                          operations and Enterprise       and configuration information to        adaptation to support base
                       Management              Management,          aeronautical information to                     Architecture for a national     support situational awareness           information for TBFM activities
                                                                    achieve NextGen shared                          Special Activity Airspace                                             • Initiate limited deployment of
                                               Common Status
                                                                    situational awareness.                                                                                                  standards-based common
                                               and Structure                                                                                                                                adaptation to NAS
                                               Data




                      Demonstrations           Demonstrations       Tests and demonstrates                         Conducted 2D Aircraft
                                               and Infrastructure   emerging technologies as they                   Flight Trial in Denver
                                               Development          are developed to allow the FAA
                                                                    to meet the NextGen mid-term
                                                                    goals and objectives.




www.faa.gov/
65         /nextgen
66
                                                                                     Collaborative Air Traffic Management
                                                                                                                               3
                                    1     2     3                                3

                                                                                                                         Phases of Flight

                               1    OI 105302: Continuous Flight Day Evaluations                                                    3    OI 105208: TMIs with Flight-Specific Trajectories
                              Continuous (real-time) constraints are provided to Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP)            This capability will increase the agility of the NAS to adjust and respond to dynamically




NextGen Implementation Pla
                              t ffi management decision-support tools and the National Airspace S t
                              traffic            td i i           tt l     d th N ti     l Ai       System (NAS) users.             h
                                                                                                                                   changing conditions such as impacting weather, congestion and system outages.
                                                                                                                                         i       diti        h    i      ti        th          ti    d    t      t




                         an
                                                                                                                                   Task Force: Integrated Air Traffic Management and Data Comm
                              Enhanced Congestion Prediction
                                 The Enhanced Congestion Prediction increment provides improved capabilities to                    Basic Rerouting Capability
                                 assess the impact of a set of reroutes on the level of demand and other performance                   This capability is the means by which Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS)-
                                 metrics for a point of interest.                                                                      generated reroutes are defined and transmitted via System Wide Information
                                 Supported By: Aeronautical and Weather Common Services                                                Management (SWIM).
                                                                                                                                       Suppo ted y          g t a d eat e Co        o Se ces
                                                                                                                                       Supported By: Flight and Weather Common Services
                                   Automated Congestion Resolution
                                   The Automated Congestion Resolution increment recommends reroutes for flight-                   Delivery of Pre-Departure Reroutes to Controllers
                                   specific Traffic Management Initiatives (TMIs). This allows the traffic manager to adjust           This increment will give En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) additional
                                   the target parameters and evaluate the required trajectory adjustments.                             capabilities to receive amended routes pre-departure and provide updated flight data
                                   Supported By: Aeronautical and Weather Common Services                                              to the tower.
                                                                                                                                       Supported By: Flight Common Service
                               2                                                                                                       Task Force: Improve CATM Automation to Negotiate User-Preferred Routes and
                                                               g
                                    OI 101102: Provide Full Flight Plan Constraint Evaluation
                                                                                                                                       Alt      t T j t i (7b           d       d Digital Air Traffic Control
                                                                                                                                       Alternate Trajectories (7b, 8 and 46) and Di it l Ai T ffi C t l
                              Constraint information that impacts the proposed route of flight is incorporated into ANSP               Communications for Revised Departure Clearances, Reroutes and Routine
                              automation, and is available to users.                                                                   Communications (39)
                              Task Force: Integrated Air Traffic Management

                              Electronic Negotiations
                                  The Electronic Negotiations increment provides flight planners with information about
                                  congestion along their intended routes and proposes flight-specific rerouting.
                                  Supported By: Weather Common Service
                                  Task Force: Integrated System-Wide Approach (CDM/TFM/ATC) (47) and Improve
                                  CATM Automation to Negotiate User-Preferred and Alternative Trajectories
                                  (7b, 8 and 46)


                                              2010                   2011                    2012                   2013                  2014                    2015                    2016                   2017


                                                                                       1   OI 105302: Continuous Flight Day Evaluations (2012-2018)

                                               Enhanced Congestion Prediction

                                                                                                          Automated Congestion Resolution
                                                                                                  2    OI 101102: Provide Full Flight Plan Constraint Evaluation (2013-2018)

                                                                                                                       g
                                                                                                          Electronic Negotiations


                                                                                                                               OI 105208: TMIs with Flight- Specific
                                                                                                                          3               Trajectories (2014-2015)

                                                               Basic Rerouting Capability


                                                               Delivery of Pre-Departure Reroutes to Controllers



                                                                                   Concept                      Development                      Operational


                                                                                               Selected Work Activities
                       Budget         Task
                                                    Activity                        Description                    OIs                 FY 2010                          FY 2011                     FY 2012 – Mid-term
                        Line          Force
                      Collaborative    7b     Flow Control               Refines active aircraft reroutes        105208        Developed concept of          • Conduct analysis for            • Conduct risk reduction
                       Air Traffic      8     Management,                concepts; develops active aircraft                     operations for airborne         airborne reroute                  analysis and integration
                      Management       46     St t i Flow
                                              Strategic Fl                                       analyzes,
                                                                         reroute requirements; analyzes                         reroutes altitude
                                                                                                                                reroutes,                       requirements                      engineering products for
                                                                         simulates and develops white                           modification, etc.                                                strategic flow use of airborne
                                              Management
                                                                         papers on active aircraft reroutes.                                                                                      reroutes in support of
                                              Integration                                                                                                                                         integrated arrival/departure
                                              (Integration                                                                                                                                        management
                                              Execution of Flow                                                                                                                                 • Implement pre-departure
                                              Strategies into                                                                                                                                     reroutes in ERAM with no
                                              Controller Tools)                                                                                                                                   automated coordination with
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Terminal and simulations of
                                                                                                                                                                                                  airborne reroute procedures

                      Collaborative    47     Flow Control               Refines concept of operations for       105208        Developed initial Traffic     • Initiate demand and capacity    • Develop more efficient and
                       Air Traffic            Management,                strategic flow management, analysis     101102         Flow Management (TFM)           balancing demonstration           tailored combinations of traffic
                      Management              Strategic Flow             and white paper of strategic flow                      concept of operations         • Deliver report that evaluates     management initiatives for
                                                                         management, and modeling and                           document                        the business logic for            strategic flow management
                                              Management
                                                                         simulation.                                                                            balancing capacity and            through concept engineering,
                                              Enhancement                                                                                                       demand predictions                including prototypes traffic
                                              (Enhancing the                                                                                                                                                         Human in
                                                                                                                                                                                                  analysis tools and Human-in-
                                              Strategic Flow                                                                                                                                      the-Loop (HITL) simulations
                                              Program)

                      Collaborative    47     Flight and State Data      Addresses information and capability    105302        Developed concept of          • Deliver digital airport         • Develop concepts for common
                       Air Traffic            Management,                gaps within aeronautical information    105208         operations and Enterprise       structure and configuration       adaptation to support base
                      Management              Common Status and          to achieve NextGen shared                              Architecture for a National     information to support            information for CATM activities
                                                                         situational awareness and Trajectory                   Special Activity Airspace       situational awareness           • Begin limited deployment of
                                              Structure Data
                                                                         Based Operations vision.                                                                                                 standards-based common




www.faa.gov/
                                                                                                                                                                                                    d t ti to
                                                                                                                                                                                                  adaptation t NAS




67         /nextgen
                              Collaborative Air Traffic Management (cont’d)




68
                                                                                                  Selected Work Activities
                               Budget         Task
                                                              Activity                  Description                    OIs               FY 2010                            FY 2011                     FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                Line          Force
                              Collaborative           Flight and State Data   Integrates weather into air traffic     105302    Developed requirement           • Apply industry standards          • Complete prototypes,
                               Air Traffic            Management, Advanced    management (ATM); probabilistic         105208     recommendations for               exchange formats for                concepts of use and
                              Management              Methods                 TFM Area Flow Program will              101102     integrated weather in ATM         inclusion in decision-support       demonstrate unified flight
                                                                              develop advanced algorithms to                                                       tools                               planning and filing making use
                                                                              support the area flow support tool.                                                                                      of constraint management
                                                                              Creates a unified flight planning                                                                                        through a hypercube and
                                                                              filing by continuing assessment of                                                                                       supporting probabilistic TFM




NextGen Implementation Pla
                                                                              f          f           d
                                                                              fuzzy performance and common                                                                                                 d l ith integrated
                                                                                                                                                                                                       models with i t     t d




                         an
                                                                              reference to the ATM domain.                                                                                             weather


                              Collaborative           Flight and State Data   Facilitates the sharing of common       101102    Hosted the Flight Object        • Deliver the Flight Object         • Continue to develop Flight
                               Air Traffic            Management, Flight      flight information between systems                 Industry Day                      global flight identifier report     Object Data Dictionary
                              Management              Object                  and enables collaboration using                   Completed development of        • Deliver the high-level Flight     • Continue to model Flight
                                                                              common reference framework. The                    an initial Flight Object Data     Object benefit approach             Object data
                                                                              Flight Object is an extensible and                 Dictionary y                      report
                                                                                                                                                                     p                               • Host joint Flight Object and
                                                                              dynamic collection of data elements                                                                                      aeronautical information
                                                                              that describes an individual flight                                                                                      Industry Days
                                                                              throughout its life cycle. It is the
                                                                              single common reference for all                                                                                        • Conduct international
                                                                              system information about that flight.                                                                                    demonstration of Flight Object
                                                                              It associates and merges disparate                                                                                       with Asia Pacific partners
                                                                              data into a cohesive picture of the
                                                                              flight. Authorized system
                                                                              stakeholders and the ANSP may
                                                                              electronically access consistent
                                                                              flight data that is tailored to their
                                                                              specific need and use. A Flight
                                                                              Object is created for each proposed
                                                                              flight. The Flight Object description
                                                                              does not include environment or
                                                                              weather information since these are
                                                                              system-wide elements which affect
                                                                              multiple flights.



                                System                ATM Requirements,       Develops concepts                       105302    Developed and delivered         • Conduct airborne access to        • Conduct airborne access to
                              Development             Airborne System Wide    and requirements for an airborne                   initial airborne SWIM             SWIM concept of use v2              SWIM laboratory simulations
                                                      Information             exchange of NAS information via                    concept of use                    (Industry Review)                 • Conduct airborne access to
                                                                              the SWIM network for flight,                      Developed white paper           • Conduct airborne access to          SWIM Initial Verification and
                                                      Management (SWIM)
                                                                              aeronautical and weather                           identifying technical             SWIM Operational and                Validation
                                                                              information between aircraft and                   impacts to SWIM portals           Technical Requirements
                                                                              ground-based FAA systems.                                                            Industry Day
                       Budget         Task
                                                     Activity                    Description                    OIs             FY 2010                     FY 2011                   FY 2012 – Mid-term
                        Line          Force
                      Collaborative           Dynamic Airspace and    Provides the tools to air traffic                  Developed multi-year     • Develop preliminary ARMS      • Develop ARMS evaluation
                       Air Traffic            Capacity Management     managers to reconfigure airspace,                   program plan               concept of operation            model
                      Management                                      expand or contract control sectors                                             document                      • Conduct demonstration of
                                                                      to match the overall level of activity                                       • Deliver white paper on          ARMS prototype
                                                                      in the facility’s airspace, and to                                             ARMS functional description
                                                                      dynamically deactivate restrictions.
                                                                      The Airspace Resource
                                                                      Management System (ARMS) will
                                                                      provide the tools for controlling the
                                                                      reconfiguration of the NextGen
                                                                      networked communications
                                                                      infrastructure in response to an
                                                                      operational requirement for
                                                                      reconfigurable airspace.

                        System                ATC/Technical           Centers on the human element in          101102    Developed initial        • Develop NextGen common        • Demonstrate Collaborative Air
                      Development             Operations Human        the transformation of the NAS                       air/ground integration     workstation demo display        Traffic Management
                                              Factors Controller
                                              Factors,                leading to the achievement of the                   simulation roadmap         simulation                      efficiencies enabled by
                                                                      NextGen vision.                                                                                                common situational
                                              Efficiency/Air Ground
                                                                                                                                                                                     awareness between flight
                                              Integration                                                                                                                            operators and controllers




www.faa.gov/
69         /nextgen
70
                                                                    Automation Support for Separation Management
                                                                                                                               1   2



                                                                                                                          Phases of Flight


                               1    OI 102108: Oceanic In-Trail Climb and Descent                                                       2    OI 102137: Automation Support for Separation Management
                                      g                       (ANSP) automation enhancements will take advantage of
                              Air Navigation Service Provider (      )                                             g                   ANSP automation p                                          g
                                                                                                                                                        provides the controller with tools to manage aircraft in a mixed




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                              improved communication, navigation and surveillance coverage in the Oceanic domain.                      navigation and wake performance environment.
                              When authorized by the controller, pilots of equipped aircraft use established procedures for
                              climbs and descents.                                                                                     Aircraft-to-Aircraft Alerts for 3-nm Separation Areas
                                                                                                                                           En route conflict alert will be enhanced to support wake vortex separation
                              Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract (ADS-C) Oceanic Climb/Descent                                      requirements in 3-nm separation areas and transition airspace. Problem detection
                              Procedure (CDP)                                                                                              and trial planning capabilities will also be enhanced to support aircraft-to-aircraft
                                  The ADS-C CDP (previously known as ADS-C In-Trail Procedure (ITP)) is a new                              alerts in 3-nm separation areas and transition airspace, to include alerts based on
                                                                                   (e.g.,
                                  concept that allows a properly equipped aircraft (e g Future Air Navigation System                                                 requirements.
                                                                                                                                           wake vortex separation requirements
                                  (FANS) 1/A equipage) to climb or descend through the altitude of another properly
                                  equipped aircraft with a reduced longitudinal separation distance (compared with the                 Wake Vortex Separation Indicator
                                  required longitudinal separation minima for same-track, same-altitude aircraft). This                   To support the en route controller in applying wake turbulence separation
                                  procedure allows more aircraft to reach their preferred altitude.                                       standards, the radar display will indicate static wake vortex separation
                                                                                                                                          requirements for any given pair of aircraft.
                              ADS-C Automation for Oceanic CDP
                                                                                        p
                                The automation enhancements to Ocean21 include capabilities to allow a controller to                                            g
                                                                                                                                       Assisted Trial Planning Onto the Radar and Data Consoles
                                select two aircraft and ensure they are eligible for ADS-C CDP, send concurrent on-                        Assisted Trial Planning will be integrated on the en route radar and the data
                                demand position reports to two aircraft, determine if the minimum separation distance                      consoles. Integrating this capability into the consoles assists radar controllers in
                                between the two aircraft is greater than the ADS-C CDP separation distance (e.g.,                          determining possible problem-free flight plan changes without having to use the
                                greater than 15 nautical miles (nm)), display the ADS-C CDP conflict probe results to a                    data consoles to create trial plans. A controller will also be able to use this
                                controller, and build an uplink clearance message to the ADS-C CDP requesting aircraft                     capability to simultaneously examine the problem status of a set of possible
                                and an uplink traffic advisory message to the blocking aircraft.                                           clearances.

                                                     Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B)
                              Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS B) Oceanic ITP and Automation                                                         Non Surveillance
                                                                                                                                       Automation Support for Non-Surveillance Airspace
                                  The ADS-B ITP will enable aircraft equipped with ADS-B and appropriate onboard                          The en route automation will provide an indication of possible non-surveillance
                                  automation to climb and descend through altitudes where current non-ADS-B separation                    separation violations using a base set of non-surveillance separation rules. This
                                  standards would prevent desired altitude changes.                                                       capability will also utilize electronic flight data, eliminating the need for paper flight
                                  Supported By: Surveillance Common Service                                                               strips.



                                            2010                    2011                   2012                   2013                      2014                   2015                      2016                    2017

                                       1   OI 102108: Oceanic In-Trail Climb and Descent (2010-2013)                                         Enablers referenced in Appendix A: ADS-B
                                                                                                                                             Out, In-Trail Procedure and FANS 1/A (Satcom)
                                                                                  ADS-C Oceanic CDP

                                                                                ADS-C Automation for Oceanic CDP

                                                                                                                ADS-B Oceanic ITP and Automation
                                                                                                                               OI 102137: Automation Support
                                                                                                                           2              for Separation Management
                                                                                                                                          (2014-2015)

                                                                                                                Aircraft-to-Aircraft Alerts for 3-nm Separation Areas

                                                                                                                                  Wake Vortex Separation Indicator

                                                                                                      Assisted Trial Planning onto the Radar and Data Consoles

                                                                                                                A t   ti Support f N S
                                                                                                                Automation S                  ill     Airspace
                                                                                                                               t for Non-Surveillance Ai


                                                                                Concept                         Development                     Operational


                                                                                             Selected Work Activities
                        Budget        Task
                                                     Activity                     Description                        OIs             FY 2010                   FY 2011                         FY 2012 – Mid-term
                         Line         Force
                       Trajectory             Oceanic Tactical        Addresses current performance gaps            102108      Delivered concept       • Initiate planning for   • Complete functional requirements for ADS-C
                        Based                 Trajectory              in the areas of capacity, productivity,                    of operations for In-     2012 operational          climb and descent procedure
                       Operations             Management              efficiency, safety and environmental                       Flight Operations         trials                  • Complete preliminary requirements for pre-
                                                                      impacts in oceanic environment.                            Re-Profile Alert                                    departure and Web-enabled Collaborative
                                                                                                                                 capab y
                                                                                                                                 capability                                             ajec o y a      g (CTP)
                                                                                                                                                                                     Trajectory Planning (C )
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Conduct lab demonstration for pre-departure
                                                                                                                                                                                     CTP
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Initiate operational trial for Trajectory
                                                                                                                                                                                     Feedback In-Flight Operations



                      Demonstration           International Air       Contributes directly to NextGen                           Conducted joint         • Conduct trans-          • Conduct trans-oceanic optimization
                                              Traffic
                                              T ffi                   concepts and supports international                        gate to gate
                                                                                                                                 gate-to-gate              oceanic                   demonstrations
                                              Interoperability        collaboration and harmonization, thus                      demonstration with        optimization            • Deliver trans-oceanic demonstration report
                                                                      assisting the FAA and international                        Single European           demonstrations          • Deliver trans-oceanic demonstration metrics
                                                                      communities to validate 4D Trajectory                      Sky Air Traffic                                     report
                                                                      Based Operations alternatives                              Management                                        • Collaborate internationally
                                                                      (AIRE/ASPIRE).                                             Research (SESAR)




                       Trajectory             Separation              Develops a separation management              102137      Delivered               • Initiate pre-           • Develop, evaluate and validate improvements
                         Based                Management, Modern      concept of operations. Develops initial                    separation                implementation            to the strategic conflict detection and
                       Operations             Procedures              automation requirement to assist in                        management                prototype                 prediction algorithms, the trajectory model, and
                                                                      separation of aircraft in traditional                      concept of                development for           the conflict alert algorithms
                                              (Separation
                                                                      traffic situations.                                        operations                Wake Vortex             • Develop, evaluate and validate the
                                              Automation                                                                                                   Separation and            requirements for flight data display
                                              Enhancements,  ,




www.faa.gov/
                                                                                                                                                           extend 3-nm               enhancements to support elimination of flight
                                              Data-Side and                                                                                                separation                strips in non-surveillance airspace
                                              Radar-Side), Vertical                                                                                                                • Dynamic special activity airspace to promote
                                              Separation                                                                                                                             the fuller use of available airspace by providing




           /nextgen
                                                                                                                                                                                     regulated access to specific aircraft




71
72
                                                                                              On-Demand NAS Information
                                                                                                                              1     2
                                                                    1     2

                                                                                                                          Phases of Flight

                               1    OI 108212: Improved Management of Airspace for Special Use                                     2    OI 103305: On-Demand NAS Information
                              Changes to status of airspace for special use are readily available for operators and Air           NAS and aeronautical information will be available to users on demand. NAS and aeronautical




NextGen Implementation Pla
                              Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs). The status changes are transmitted to the flight              information is consistent across applications and locations, and available to authorized




                         an
                              deck via voice or Data Communications. Flight trajectory planning is managed                        subscribers and equipped aircraft. Proprietary and security-sensitive information is not shared
                              dynamically based on real-time use of air-space.                                                    with unauthorized agencies/individuals.

                              ANSP Real-Time Status for Special Use Airspace (SUA)                                                Broadcast Flight and Status Data to Pilots/Airline Operations Centers (AOCs)
                                 Airspace use is optimized and managed in real time, based on actual flight profiles                 This increment provides nationwide service coverage to deliver Traffic Information
                                 and real-time operational use parameters. Airspace reservations for military                        Services-Broadcast (TIS-B) for both Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) and 1090 MHz
                                 operations,                           flights              re-entry
                                 operations unmanned aircraft systems flights, space flight re entry and restricted or                                                ES)
                                                                                                                                     Mode S Extended Squitter (1090 ES).
                                 warning areas are managed on as-needed basis.                                                       Supported By: Surveillance and Weather Common Services
                                 Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service
                                                                                                                                  Provide Improved Flight Planning and In-Flight Advisories for Flight Operations Centers
                              Special Activity Airspace (SAA) Forecast of Capacity Constraints                                    (FOCs)/AOCs
                                 This increment translates the SUA activation schedule and knowledge of the                           This increment ensures that NAS and aeronautical information is consistent, allowing
                                 airspace configurations into predicted traffic flow constraints.                                     users to subscribe to and receive the most current information from a single source.
                                 Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service                                                            Information is collected from ground systems and airborne users (via ground support
                                                                                                                                      services), aggregated and provided through system-wide information environment, Data
                                                                                                                                      Communications, or other means.
                                                                                                                                      Supported By: Aeronautical and Weather Common Services

                                                                                                                                  Provide NAS Status via Digital Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs)
                                                                                                                                      This increment enables the issuance of Digital NOTAMs for those airspace constraints
                                                                                                                                      affecting a flight based on its trajectory. The initial implementation includes internal
                                                                                                                                      distribution within ANSP of those notices that would be distributed via the Flight
                                                                                                                                      Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) service.
                                                                                                                                      Supported By: Aeronautical Common Service



                                             2010                   2011                    2012                   2013                    2014                   2015                   2016                    2017

                                                                                          OI 108212: Improved Management of Airspace for
                                                                                      1
                                                                                                     Special Use (2012-2014)

                                                                                                                    ANSP Real-Time Status for SUAs

                                                                                                                                  p    y
                                                                                                                SAA Forecast of Capacity Constraints
                                            Enabler referenced in Appendix A: FIS-B                2     OI 103305: On-Demand NAS Information (2013-2018)


                                                                                          Broadcast Flight and Status Data to Pilots/AOCs



                                                                                      Provide Improved Flights Planning and In-Flight Advisories for FOCs/AOCs


                                                                                                                               Provide NAS Status via Digital NOTAMs




                                                                                      Concept                         Development                   Operational



                                                                                                 Selected Work Activities
                        Budget        Task
                                                        Activity                        Description                      OIs                FY 2010                          FY 2011                   FY 2012 – Mid-term
                         Line         Force
                      Collaborative    35       Flight and State Data        Addresses information and                  103305      Conducted concept of          • Deliver digital airport        • Develop concepts for
                       Air Traffic              Management, Common           capability gaps within aeronautical        108212       operations and Enterprise       structure and configuration      common adaption to support
                      Management                Status and Structure         information to achieve NextGen                          Architecture for a National     information to support           base information for
                                                                             shared situational awareness.                           SAA                             situational awareness            On-Demand NAS activities
                                                Data
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Limited deployment of
                                                                                                                                                                                                      standards-based common
                                                                                                                                                                                                      adaptation to NAS

                      Demonstration             Joint Network Enabled        Develops information exchange              108212                                     • Conduct initial program plan   • Initiate concept of operations
                                                O
                                                Operations (NEO)
                                                      ti                     protocol and architecture with                                                          f data exchange
                                                                                                                                                                     for d t      h                               t f    f       l i
                                                                                                                                                                                                      or concept of use for applying
                                                Program                      interagency aviation stakeholders,                                                      demonstration combining          net-centric concepts to UAS
                                                                             and conducts flight operational trials                                                  net-centric capabilities and   • Initiate the development of a
                                                (Spiral 3)
                                                                             as needed.                                                                              applications with Unmanned       concept of operations
                                                                                                                                                                     Aircraft Systems (UAS)           describing NEO operations in
                                                                                                                                                                                                      UAS environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Initiate safety and hazard
                                                                                                                                                                                                      analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Initiate demonstration
                                                                                                                                                                                                      strategies
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Conduct demonstration to
                                                                                                                                                                                                      illustrate NEO capabilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                      operating in UAS environment




www.faa.gov/
73         /nextgen
                              On-Demand NAS Information (cont’d)




74
                                                                                                   Selected Work Activities
                                               Task
                              Budget Line                     Activity                   Description                    OIs               FY 2010                            FY 2011                     FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                               Force
                                 System                New Air Traffic         Develops concepts                       103305    Developed and delivered         • Conduct airborne access to        • Conduct airborne access to
                               Development             Management (ATM)        and requirements for an airborne        108212     initial airborne SWIM             SWIM concept of use v2              SWIM laboratory simulations
                                                       Requirements,           exchange of NAS information via                    concept of use                    (industry review)                 • Conduct airborne access to
                                                                               the SWIM network for flight,                      Developed white paper           • Conduct airborne access to          SWIM initial verification and
                                                       Airborne System
                                                                               aeronautical and weather                           identifying technical             SWIM Operational and                validation
                                                       Wide Information        information between aircraft and                   impacts to SWIM portals           Technical Requirements
                                                       Management (SWIM)       ground-based FAA systems.                                                            Industry Day




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                               Collaborative           Flight and State Data   Facilitates the sharing of common       103305    Hosted the Flight Object        • Deliver the Flight Object         • Continue to develop Flight
                                Air Traffic            Management, Flight      flight information between systems                 Industry Day                      global flight identifier report     Object Data Dictionary
                               Management              Object                  and enables collaboration using                   Completed development of        • Deliver the high-level Flight     • Continue to model Flight
                                                                               common reference framework. The                    an initial Flight Object Data     Object benefit approach             Object data
                                                                               Flight Object is an extensible and                 Dictionary                        report.                           • Host joint Flight Object and
                                                                               dynamic collection of data elements                                                                                      aeronautical information
                                                                               that describes an individual flight                                                                                      industry days
                                                                                      g              y
                                                                               throughout its life cycle. It is the
                                                                               single common reference for all                                                                                          Conduct international
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • C d ti t          ti  l
                                                                               system information about that flight.                                                                                    demonstration of Flight Object
                                                                               It associates and merges disparate                                                                                       with Asia Pacific partners
                                                                               data into a cohesive picture of the
                                                                               flight. Authorized system
                                                                               stakeholders and the ANSP may
                                                                               electronically access consistent
                                                                               flight data that is tailored to their
                                                                                     ifi     d d            Flight
                                                                               specific need and use. A Fli ht
                                                                               Object is created for each proposed
                                                                               flight. The Flight Object description
                                                                               does not include environment or
                                                                               weather information since these are
                                                                               system-wide elements which affect
                                                                               multiple flights.
                                                                                         Environment and Energy
                                                                                         5                          1   2   3       4
                                                                                     3
                                                                                 2                                                                                1
                                                   1                        1                                                                                         2    3   5                     1   5

                                                                                                              Phases of Flight

                       1    OI 109309: Implement EMS Framework
                                                                                                                            Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) – Regional
                      Enable the use of the Environmental Management System (EMS) framework, including                          AEDT will provide capabilities for integrated environmental analysis at regional levels
                      environmental goals and decision-support tools, to address, plan and mitigate                             for fuel burn, emissions and noise.
                      environmental issues.
                                                                                                                            Environmental Goals and Targets Performance Tracking System
                      Environmental Policy                                                                                      A system will be established that will support the systematic identification of
                          This increment will refine and formalize NextGen environmental and energy policy
                          Thi i         t ill fi       df     li N tG         i      t l d            li                        environmental benefits across the National Airspace System (NAS), enabling the FAA
                          including NextGen environmental goals.                                                                to measure progress toward achieving NextGen environmental goals. This system may
                                                                                                                                include business practices, automation capabilities and interfaces with other
                      Environmental Targets                                                                                     automation systems.
                          This increment will explore, test and refine quantitative NextGen environmental targets
                          for noise, air quality, climate, energy and water quality.                                        NextGen EMS Frameworks and Stakeholder Collaboration
                                                                                                                               Standardized approaches will be identified for aviation stakeholders (e.g.,
                      National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Strategy and Processes                                          manufacturers airports, airlines and the FAA) to identify and address key
                                                                                                                               manufacturers, airports
                          This increment establishes effective strategic approaches for addressing the NEPA                    environmental issues critical to stakeholder environmental programs or EMSs. These
                          requirements of NextGen improvements.                                                                approaches are intended to allow aviation stakeholders to collaborate and address
                                                                                                                               cross-cutting environmental challenges.
                      Decision Support Assessment
                          This increment addresses mission-level NextGen decision support capabilities (e.g.,               AEDT – Airport
                          capabilities that support FAA planning decisions such as those related to capacity                   AEDT will provide capabilities for integrated environmental analysis at airport levels for
                          management) and operational-level capabilities (e.g., those related to flow contingency              fuel burn, emissions and noise.
                                        t d trajectory fl )
                          management and t j t         flow).
                                                                                                                                2   OI 109315: Implement NextGen Environmental Engine and Aircraft Technologies
                      Improved Scientific Knowledge
                                                                                                                            Reductions in aircraft noise, emissions and fuel burn through improvements in aircraft
                          This increment will improve knowledge of aircraft source-level noise and emissions of
                                                                                                                            engine and airframe technologies and alternative fuels. Technologies will be at sufficient
                          air pollutants and greenhouse gases, their atmospheric evolution, and impacts on
                                                                                                                            readiness levels to achieve the goals of the FAA’s Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions
                          human health and welfare and climate change.
                                                                                                                            and Noise (CLEEN) program.
                      Analysis to Support International Environmental Standard Setting
                                                                          Standard-Setting
                                                                                                                            Open Rotor
                                                                                                                            O     R t
                         Analysis and benefit assessment will be performed to support the development and
                                                                                                                            Twin Annular Premixing Swirler II Lean Combustor
                         implementation of International Civil Aviation Organization environmental standards,
                                                                                                                            Adaptive Trailing Edges
                         such as for aircraft carbon dioxide emissions and more stringent noise levels.
                                                                                                                            Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Blade Tracks
                                                                                                                            Ceramic Matrix Composite Acoustic Nozzle
                      Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool - Economics
                                                                                                                            Engine Weight Reduction and High-Temperature Impeller
                          Capabilities of the aviation environmental portfolio management tool will be enhanced
                                                                                                                            Dual-Wall Turbine Blade
                          continuously through 2015 to enable analysis of airline and aviation market responses
                                                                                                                               g        g        y    (
                                                                                                                            Flight Management System (FMS) - Air Traffic Management (ATM) Integration
                                                                                                                                                            )                g      (   )     g




www.faa.gov/
                          t environmental mitigation and policy options, and for analyzing U.S. environmental
                          to    i         t l iti ti      d li      ti        df     l i US          i      t l
                                                                                                                            Ultra High-Bypass Ratio Geared Turbo Fan
                          issues critical to NextGen under various fleet growth and evolution scenarios.




75         /nextgen
                               Environment and Energy (cont’d)




76
                               3    OI 109316: Increased Use of Alternative Aviation Fuels                                             4    OI 109311: Environmentally and Energy Favorable En Route Operations
                              Determine the feasibility and market viability of alternative aviation fuels for civilian aviation      This will optimize en route operations to reduce emissions, fuel burn and noise. New
                              use. Obtain ASTM certification of hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels from fossil and                operational capabilities will be applied, such as advanced aircraft technologies, including
                              renewable resources that are compatible with existing infrastructure and fleet thus meeting                                                                                   operations.
                                                                                                                                      capabilities for FMS and avionics to achieve more efficient en route operations Improved
                              requirement to be a “drop-in” alternative fuel.                                                         efficiency in operations will provide system-wide benefits, including benefits to sensitive
                                                                                                                                      areas (e.g., national parks).
                              Drop-In HRJ Blend Fuels
                                 This increment will result in ASTM approval in 2011 of a 50-50 blend of HRJ and Jet-A                 5    OI 109313: Environmentally and Energy Favorable Terminal Operations
                                 alternative fuels. This increment also explores other blends for environmental and
                                                                                                                                      Optimize aircraft arrival, departure and surface operations to reduce emissions, fuel burn
                                 performance feasibility through air quality and life-cycle emissions analyses, engine
                                                                                                                                      and noise through the use of environmentally friendly procedures. Develop Standard
                                 performance evaluation, and ground tests and flight demonstrations by 2013. These
                                                                                                                                      Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) procedures that permit use of the Optimized Profile Descent




NextGen Implementation Pla
                                 efforts will advance deployment of these sustainable alternative fuels, including
                                   ff t ill d         d l        t f th        t i bl lt       ti f l i l di




                         an
                                                                                                                                      (OPD) technique (also known as Continuous Descent Arrival). Develop Area Navigation
                                 environmental acceptability and ASTM approval.
                                                                                                                                      (RNAV) Standard Instrument Departure (SID) procedures that minimize level segments on
                                                                                                                                      climb-out. Develop enhanced surface operation mechanisms and procedures to maximize
                              Other Advanced Aviation Alternative Fuels
                                                                                                                                      airport throughput while further reducing aircraft fuel burn and emissions.
                                 This increment will explore and qualify additional classes of sustainable aviation
                                 alternative fuels blends that use novel feedstocks and conversion processes (e.g.,
                                 advanced fermentation, alcohol oligomerization, pyrolysis, etc.). Efforts include
                                                                                                     life cycle
                                 environmental and performance feasibility through air quality and life-cycle emissions
                                 analyses, fuel properties analysis, engine performance evaluation, and ground tests
                                 and flight demonstrations by 2015. These efforts will advance deployment of these
                                 sustainable alternative fuels, including environmental acceptability and ASTM
                                 approval.



                                             2010                     2011                     2012                     2013                 2014                   2015                   2016                    2017

                                                                1    OI 109309: Implement EMS Framework (2011)                                                                           Note: Updates are planned to OI
                                                                                                                                                                                               109309 including extending
                                                                                     Environmental Policy                                                                                      the implementation schedule
                                                                                                                                                                                               through 2015

                                                                                                            Environmental Targets

                                                                                                   NEPA Strategy and Processes

                                                                                                                                                 Decision-Support Assessment

                                                                                                                                                 Improved Scientific Knowledge


                                                                                                                                     Analysis to Support International Environmental Standard Setting

                                                                                                                  Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool - Economics

                                                                                           AEDT-Regional

                                                                                                                 Environmental Goals and Targets Performance Tracking System
                                                                                               NextGen EMS Frameworks and Stakeholder Collaboration

                                                                                                                       AEDT-Airport



                      2   OI 109315: Implement NextGen Environmental Engine and Aircraft Technologies (2010-2015)

                                                             Open Rotor

                                 Twin Annular Premixing Swirler II Lean Combustor

                                                            Adaptive Trailing Edges

                                   Ceramic Matrix Composite Turbine Blade Tracks

                                                                Ceramic Matrix Composite Acoustic Nozzle

                                                                         Engine Weight Reduction and High-Temperature Impeller

                                                           Dual-Wall Turbine Blade

                                                                                                                                   FMS – ATM Integration

                                                                                                                Ultra High-Bypass Ratio Geared Turbo Fan



                                           3   OI 09316: Increased Use of Alternative Aviation Fuels (2011-2015)

                                                                                   Drop-In HRJ Blend Fuels
                                                                                   Drop In


                                                                                                                 Other Advanced Aviation Alternative Fuels



                      4   OI 109311: Environmentally and Energy Favorable En Route Operations (2015)



                      5   OI 109313: Environmentally and Energy Favorable Terminal Operations (2015)

                                          Note: Increments associated with OI 109311 and OI 109313 are addressed through other
                                                portfolios that affect operational efficiency, capacity and/or flexibility




www.faa.gov/
                                                                             Concept                   Development                    Operational




77         /nextgen
                              Environment and Energy (cont’d)




78
                                                                                            Selected Work Activities
                               Budget       Task
                                                          Activity                 Description                   OIs             FY 2010                        FY 2011                FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                Line        Force
                                System              Environment and      Manages environmental impacts of       109309    Developed report on EMS    • Conduct EMS refinement      • Research potential policies
                              Development           Energy-EMS and       NextGen through EMS based on           109310     framework development;       and pilot studies             and procedures to reduce
                                                    Advanced Noise and   development and demonstration of       109311     activities of CLEEN        • Test, demonstrate and         environmental impacts
                                                                         solutions to mitigate noise and        109313     Consortium; metrics for      evaluate NAS-wide             beyond current set of
                                                    Emission Reduction
                                                                         emissions as well as increasing fuel   109315     carbon dioxide emissions     environmental benefits of     operational procedures
                                                                         burn efficiency. Research,             109316     standard; and                CLEEN aircraft and fuel     • Finalize NextGen EMS
                                                                         development, demonstration and                    opportunities for            technologies                  implementation in initial FAA
                                                                         testing help support operation                    operational procedures                                     organizations




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                                                         implementation by 2015.                                                                                    • Assess the impacts on NAS-
                                                                                                                                                                                      wide operations (including
                                                                                                                                                                                      environmental performance)
                                                                                                                                                                                      of aircraft standards for noise
                                                                                                                                                                                      and emissions
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Assess the NAS-wide benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                      of CLEEN aircraft
                                                                                                                                                                                      technologies and alternative
                                                                                                                                                                                      fuels
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Identify opportunities for
                                                                                                                                                                                      environmental gains for
                                                                                                                                                                                      taxi/ramp, terminal
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Demonstrate environmental
                                                                                                                                                                                      control algorithms used in
                                                                                                                                                                                      taxi/ramp, terminal, and en
                                                                                                                                                                                      route procedures
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Perform analysis for EMS
                                                                                                                                                                                      environmental impacts and
                                                                                                                                                                                      metrics
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Analyze NEPA compliance
                                                                                                                                                                                      within the EMS framework
                                                                               Common Services and Infrastructure



                                                                                                                 Phases of Flight

                      Surveillance Common Service                                                                         Flight Common Service
                      New surveillance infrastructure, technologies and applications will be deployed to improve          New Flight Information Management automation infrastructure will be acquired and
                      situational awareness.                                                                              implemented in a standardized enterprise-compliant fashion, providing a common interface
                                                                                                                          among National Airspace System (NAS) automation systems, service providers and users.
                      New Services: Surface Surveillance, Surface Sensors and Indicators, Surface Traffic
                      Broadcast, Surface Automation Decision-Support Tools, Surface External Data Exchange                New Services: Terminal Data Distribution, Flight Data Publication, Reroute Data
                      Service, Surface Broadcast Flight and NAS Status Information to Pilots, Oceanic Automation          Exchange, Flow Information Publication, Track Information Service
                      Support for Separation Management                                                                   Task Force: Cross-Cutting
                      Task Force: NAS Access


                      Communications Common Service                                                                       Weather Common Service

                      New International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)-compliant digital communications               New weather infrastructure will provide improved weather information in a standard
                      i f t t           d technologies ill
                      infrastructure and t h l i will provide a supplemental means f t
                                                               id           l      t l                       h
                                                                                            for two-way exchange          enterprise-compliant fashion
                                                                                                                          enterprise compliant fashion.
                      between controllers and flight crews for air traffic control (ATC) clearances, instructions,        New Services: Common Weather Picture, Net-centric Dissemination, Proactive Notification
                      advisories, flight crew requests and reports.                                                       of Significant Weather Changes, Enhanced Forecasts for Aviation, Winds and
                                                                                                                          Temperatures for Trajectory Modeling, Tailored Volumetric Retrievals of Forecast and
                      New Services: Tower Data Communications for Revised Departure Clearances, Oceanic                   Observation Information, Characterizations of Potential Weather-Constrained Airspace
                      Data Communications
                      Task Force: Cross-Cutting


                      Aeronautical Common Service

                      New Aeronautical Information Management automation infrastructure will be acquired and
                      implemented in a standardized enterprise-compliant fashion, providing a single authoritative
                      source for aeronautical data management.

                                             Configuration,          Information,                  Data,
                      New Services: Airspace Configuration Status Information and Route/Procedures Data Static
                      Airport Data Management, Digital Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs)
                      Task Force: Surface and Cruise




www.faa.gov/
79         /nextgen
                              Common Services and Infrastructure (cont’d)




80
                                                                                                Selected Work Activities
                              Budget   Task
                                                    Activity                     Description                               FY 2010                       FY 2011                         FY 2012 – Mid-term
                               Line    Force
                              ADS-B     28     Automatic           Provides highly accurate and more                Completed In-Service       • Continue to deploy         • Complete NAS-wide deployment of ADS-B,
                                               Dependent           comprehensive surveillance information            Decision for Critical        ADS-B ground                 Traffic Information Services-Broadcast (TIS-B)
                                               Surveillance-       via a broadcast communication link. ADS-          Services                     infrastructure               and Flight Information Services-Broadcast
                                                                   B receives flight data from aircraft, via a      Continued to deploy        • Pursue ADS-B program         (FIS-B)
                                               Broadcast (ADS-B)
                                                                   data link, derived from on-board position-        ADS-B ground                 expansion to provide       • Provide Initial Operating Capability for Surface
                                               NAS-wide            fixing and navigational systems. Aircraft         infrastructure               surveillance services in     Alerting
                                               Implementation      position (longitude, latitude, altitude and
                                                                                                                    Provided Initial             non-radar airspace
                                                                                               GPS,
                                                                   time) is determined using GPS an internal




NextGen Implementation Pla
                                                                                                                     Operating Capability:
                                                                                                                     O       i C      bili




                         an
                                                                   inertial navigational reference system, or
                                                                   other navigation aids.                               o Philadelphia
                                                                                                                        o Juneau
                                                                                                                    Published final ADS-B
                                                                                                                     Out rule in Federal
                                                                                                                     Register
                                                                                                                    Completed Phase 1 of
                                                                                                                     the Colorado Wide Area
                                                                                                                     Multilateration System
                                                                                                                     covering the En Route
                                                                                                                     Services supporting
                                                                                                                     Yampa Valley, Craig-
                                                                                                                     Moffat, Steamboat
                                                                                                                     Springs and Garfield
                                                                                                                     County Regional airports


                               Data     16     Data                Implements Data Comm capabilities that                                       • Release solicitation for   • Deliver a final investment decision on Data
                              Comm      17     Communications      provide new methods for delivery of                                            Data Comm Network            Comm Segment 1
                                        39     (Data Comm)         departure clearances, revisions and taxi                                       Service Provider           • Initiate development of en route automation
                                        44                         instructions in the terminal environment,                                    • Initiate development of      enhancements
                                        42                         specifically in the tower. In the en route                                     revised departure          • Enable revised departure clearance capability
                                                                   environment, Segment 1 will provide the                                        clearance capability in      in the tower environment via VHF Data Link
                                                                   basic capabilities for controllers and flight                                  tower                        (VDL) mode 2 for aircraft equipped with Future
                                                                   crews to transfer ATC clearances,   ,
                                                                                                                                                                               Air Navigation System (FANS) 1/A+
                                                                   requests, instructions, notifications, voice
                                                                   frequency communications transfers and
                                                                   flight crew reports as a supplement to
                                                                   voice.
                      Budget   Task
                                            Activity                      Description                             FY 2010                        FY 2011                            FY 2012 – Mid-term
                       Line    Force
                       NVS             NAS Voice System    Provides the connectivity for efficient
                                                                                     y                     Completed cost
                                                                                                                  p                                p         y
                                                                                                                                        • Initiate preliminary                                          p
                                                                                                                                                                        • Achieve final JRC decision to proceed with
                                       (NVS)               communications among air traffic                 analysis for business         development of                  program
                                                           controllers, pilots and ground personnel. It     case analysis report          documentation for JRC         • Award production contract
                                                           connects incoming and outgoing                  Completed required            decisions                     • Install at key site
                                                           communication lines via a switching matrix       sections of
                                                           to the controller’s workstation.                 implementation                                              • Achieve Initial Operating Capability of systems
                                                                                                            strategy and planning
                                                                                                            document
                                                                                                           Completed business
                                                                                                                t    l i       t
                                                                                                            cost analysis report

                       SWIM     40     System Wide         Provides policies and standards to support      Developed and tested         Provided Corridor             • Publish data for the following:
                                35     Information         data management, secure its integrity, and       the Aeronautical              Integrated Weather                o Pilot Weather Report
                                       Management          control its access and use.                      Information                   System publication                o TFM
                                                                                                            Management (AIM)            • Provide reroute data
                                       (SWIM)                                                                                                                               o Flight Data
                                                                                                            portion of the Special        exchange capability
                                                                                                            Use Airspace (SUA)                                              o Runway Visual Range
                                                                                                                                        • Provide flight data
                                                                                                                                          publication initial flight                                                  y
                                                                                                                                                                        • Provide Terminal Data Distribution Capability
                                                                                                                                          data services                 • Provide Flight Data Services with
                                                                                                                                        • Provide Integrated              Publish/Subscribe
                                                                                                                                          Terminal Weather System       • Provide Flight Data Publication Host Air Traffic
                                                                                                                                          publication                     Management Data Distribution System/Flight
                                                                                                                                                                          Data Input/Output and AIM SUA Client

                      CATMT     47     Collaborative Air   Identifies cognitive support and displays       Completed CATMT             • Continue CATMT Work           • Deploy CATMT Work Package 2 capabilities to
                                       Traffic             change requirements necessary for a              Work Package 1 with           Package 3 concept               include:
                                       Management          transition t a hi h ltit d specialty th t
                                                           t    iti to high-altitude        i lt that       the development of the
                                                                                                            th d       l       t f th         i     i     d l    i
                                                                                                                                          engineering and planning           o Arrival uncertainty management
                                                           addresses the FAA’s Flight Plan goals for        Impact Assessment             to support the following
                                       Technologies                                                                                                                          o Weather integration
                                                           capacity and organization excellence.            and Resolution                capabilities:
                                       (CATMT)                                                              capability                                                       o Collaborative airspace constraint resolution
                                                                                                                                             o Modernization of the
                                                                                                           Initiated the analysis              decision-support tool        o Airborne reroute execution
                                                                                                            necessary to develop                suite                   • Upgrade the existing Traffic Flow Management
                                                                                                            the requirements                 o Collaborative              System to include an initial electronic
                                                                                                            needed to implement                 information               negotiation capability for more efficient flight
                                                                                                            proven decision
                                                                                                                     decision-                  exchange
                                                                                                                                                    h                     planning
                                                                                                            support tools and data-     • Continue the analysis
                                                                                                            sharing capabilities          necessary to develop the
                                                                                                                                          requirements needed to
                                                                                                                                          implement proven
                                                                                                                                          decision-support tools and
                                                                                                                                          data-sharing capabilities

                      NNEW             NextGen Network                       ,
                                                           Provides common, universal access to            Conducted                   • Perform functional            • Initial Investment Decision for NNEW
                                       Enabled Weather     aviation weather data.                           demonstration to              analysis                        Segment 1
                                       (NNEW)                                                               validate interoperability   • Develop alternative
                                                                                                            data standards and            analysis report
                                                                                                            Web services with the
                                                                                                            development of the
                                                                                                            interagency 4D
                                                                                                            weather data cube
                                                                                                           Completed weather




www.faa.gov/
                                                                                                            data and design
                                                                                                            standards




81         /nextgen
                              Common Services and Infrastructure (cont’d)




82
                                                                                                      Selected Work Activities
                                               Task
                              Budget Line                 Activity                 Description                           FY 2010                              FY 2011                                  FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                               Force
                              Demonstrations    28     Colorado Wide     Supports the Denver Air Route                                        • Approval of design covering critical and
                                                       Area              Traffic Control Center’s ability to                                    multilateration Services for Colorado
                                                       Multilateration   provide en route air traffic                                           Phase 2 Service Volumes
                                                                         separation services to the following
                                                       Phase 2
                                                                         Colorado airports: Durango,
                                                                         Gunnison, Montrose, Telluride.

                                Networked              Integration,      Continues to enhance, operate and
                                                                                                  , p                     p        pp
                                                                                                                   Completed support to      • Enhance and sustain the NextGen                     p                 p
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Complete full initial capability of the NIEC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             y




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                 Facilities            Development,      maintain the operations analysis           the Unmanned                Integration and Evaluation Capability       • Integrate cockpit simulator into the NIEC
                                                       and Operations    capability to support the                  Aircraft System (UAS)       (NIEC) at the Technical Center              • Continue to integrate additional capabilities
                                                                         development of iterative designs to        initial NAS Integration   • Focus on integrating new technologies         into the NIEC display area
                                                       Analysis
                                                                         evaluate concepts and alternatives.        and Staffed NextGen         into existing NIEC capabilities that will
                                                       Capability        This will provide for an integrated        Tower studies               enable the customer to:
                                                                         environment ranging from low- to                                          o Iteratively evaluate design
                                                                         high-fidelity capabilities to support                                        concepts and alternatives
                                                                         NextGen concept validation and                                            o Determine quantitative metrics to
                                                                               i      t     hi h         i d to
                                                                         requirements, which are required t                                           define d lid t human
                                                                                                                                                      d fi and validate h
                                                                         facilitate the transition of NextGen                                         performance, usability, workload
                                                                         technologies in the NAS.                                                     and safety indicators
                                                                                                                                                   o Design and conduct experiments
                                                                                                                                                      to assess software, hardware and
                                                                                                                                                      prototypes for research, system
                                                                                                                                                      analyses and/or definition and
                                                                                                                                                      refinement of requirements
                                                                                                                                              • Provide interfacility capabilities
                                                                                                                                              • Enhance NIEC data collection
                                                                                                                                                capabilities

                                Networked              NextGen Test      Continues to expand the NextGen           Supported Transform       • Complete Florida Test Bed Segment 2         • Continue to expand NextGen Test Bed
                                 Facilities            Bed/              Test Bed capabilities in Daytona           Facilities Solution Set     System Requirements Document                  capabilities in Florida to support future
                                                       Demonstration     Beach, Fla., and initiate planning        Completed Florida                                                         demonstrations
                                                                         activities in Texas. This program          Test Bed Segment 1                                                      • Establish information exchange capabilities
                                                       Sites             will continue integration activities       Implementation Plan,                                                      with other NextGen Test Bed and
                                                                         between the NextGen Test Beds Beds,        site engineering/                                                         stakeholder sites
                                                                         increase system capabilities and           design package,                                                         • Initiate NextGen interactivity between Florida
                                                                         improve operational fidelity of the        system delivery and                                                       and NASA North Texas Research Station for
                                                                         environment. The NextGen Test              system capability                                                         enhanced terminal and surface capabilities
                                                                         Bed is a multi-domain                      briefing package                                                        • Expand telecommunication infrastructure to
                                                                         demonstration and testing facility                                                                                   allow improved live data capabilities
                                                                         that integrates individual airspace                                                                                • Expand site integration capabilities among all
                                                                         domains and allows for end-to-end                                                                                    three sites
                                                                                           ,
                                                                         demonstrations, evaluations and                                                                                    • Establish telecommunication circuits for initial
                                                                         testing at one or more physical                                                                                      live data capability
                                                                         sites in line with the NextGen                                                                                     • Support standards and alternatives
                                                                         gate-to-gate concept.                                                                                                development
                         Budget         Task
                                                    Activity                  Description                            FY 2010                             FY 2011                              FY 2012 – Mid-term
                          Line          Force
                        Networked               Future Facilities      pp        p
                                                                    Supports optimization of FAA’s air                                         p
                                                                                                                                          • Prepare initial business case for
                         Facilities             Investment          traffic service provider resources.                                     segment 1
                                                Planning            Considers infrastructure
                                                                    alternatives and associated benefits
                                                                    which include improved work
                                                                    environment, reduced time and cost
                                                                    to train controllers, seamless
                                                                    information exchange, and reduced
                                                                    overall air traffic service provider
                                                                        t hil till increasing th l
                                                                    costs while still i       i the levell
                                                                    of service.

                          Airport               Airfield            Continues the development of new          Conducted Future Airport    Completed Portland International         • Complete Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson
                       Improvement              Development         runways and extensions to increase         Capacity Task 2 (FACT2)      runway 10L/28R Extension                   International runway 9L/27R extension
                         Program*                                   capacity and efficiency.                   next steps, including       Completed Philadelphia International     • Complete FACT3 and identify follow-on
                                                                                                               coordination of airport      Environmental Impact Statement and         strategic planning initiatives
                                                                                                               action plans                 signed a Record of Decision              • Continue planning and environmental
                                                                                                              Completed Charlotte-       • Begin FACT3 to identify capacity-          projects
                                                                                                               Douglas International        constrained airports in 2020 and 2030    • Complete San Antonio International
                                                                                                               runway 18R/36L             • Complete Anchorage International           runway 3/21 extension
                                                                                                              Completed                    runway 7R/25L extension                  • Complete Port Columbus International
                                                                                                               reconstruction of New      • Continue New York JFK taxiway              Airport runway 10R/28L relocation
                                                                                                               York JFK runway              improvements                             • Complete Chicago O’Hare runway
                                                                                                               13R/31L and associated     • Complete Phase II of the San               10C/28C
                                                                                                               taxiway improvements         Francisco Bay Area Regional Airport      • Complete Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood
                                                                                                                                            Plan                                       International Airport runway 9R/27L
                                                                                                                                          • Complete Phase II of the Atlanta
                                                                                                                                            Metropolitan Aviation Capacity Study
                                                                                                                                          • Continue surveys to support
                                                                                                                                            development of Wide Area
                                                                                                                                            Augmentation System
                                                                                                                                            (WAAS)/Localizer Performance with
                                                                                                                                            Vertical Guidance (LPV) approach
                                                                                                                                            procedures to increase access to
                                                                                                                                               p
                                                                                                                                            airports. Consider obstruction
                                                                                                                                            removal needs so that airports with
                                                                                                                                            LPV approach procedures can
                                                                                                                                            achieve lower minimums
                                                                                                                                          • Fund metro area airport infrastructure
                      *Not considered                                                                                                       improvements at other than OEP
                      NextGen funding                                                                                                       airports




www.faa.gov/
83         /nextgen
84
                                                                  NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development
                                                                        3     6     7    8                                1    2    3   6        7    8                               3    4     7
                                                                                              13                                                                                 8
                                   1    5     7     8    9              9    10 11       12                           9       12 15 16 17 18 19                             14        9    10 11 12                   4   5    6    9    7   8
                                                                                                    19
                                                                                              18                                                                                 15
                                12 15 16 17 18 19                       14 15 16         17                                                                                           16 17 18 19                    12 15 16 17 18 19

                                                                                                                                 Phases of Flight

                               1    OI 102114: Initial Conflict Resolution Advisories                                                                OI 103116: Initial Improved Weather Information from Non-Ground-Based
                                                                                                                                             7
                              Automation enables the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) to better accommodate                                               Sensors
                                                                                                                                                                                   non ground based           (e g
                                                                                                                                            Additions to the sensor network from non-ground-based sensors (e.g., satellite and




NextGen Implementation Pla
                                                                                          detection,             planning,
                              pilot requests for trajectory changes by providing conflict detection trial flight planning




                         an
                              and development and rank-ordering of resolutions taking into account aircraft capabilities                    aircraft) provide operators and the ANSP with enhanced weather information to improve
                              and pilot and ANSP preferences.                                                                               flight and clearance planning, trajectory-based operations and flow management.

                               2    OI 102118: Delegated Responsibility for In-Trail Separation                                                      OI 103119: Initial Integration of Weather Information into National Airspace
                                                                                                                                             8
                                                                                                                                                                System (NAS) Automation and Decision Making
                              Enhanced surveillance and new procedures enable the ANSP to delegate aircraft-to-
                              aircraft separation. Improved display avionics and broadcast positional data provide                          Advances in weather information content and dissemination provide users and/or their
                                                                                   deck.
                              detailed traffic situational awareness to the flight deck When authorized by the controller,
                                                                                                               controller                   dec s o support        e ability o de y specific ea e       pac s on operations (e.g.,
                                                                                                                                            decision suppo with the ab y to identify spec c weather impacts o ope a o s (e g ,
                              pilots will implement delegated separation between equipped aircraft using established                        trajectory management and impacts on specific airframes, arrival/departure planning) to
                              procedures.                                                                                                   ensure continued safe and efficient flight.

                               3    OI 102123: Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Separation                                 9       OI 103206: Expanded Traffic Advisory Services Using Digital Traffic Data
                              ANSP automation uses ADS-B in non-radar airspace to provide reduced separation and                            Equipped aircraft receive broadcasts and display traffic data to the flight crew. Ground-
                              flight following. Improved surveillance enables ANSP to use radar-like separation                             based systems receive surveillance broadcast reports and provide them to the
                                               services
                              standards and services.                                                                                                                     distribution.
                                                                                                                                            surveillance data network for distribution
                              Task Force: NAS Access
                                                                                                                                            10 OI 104122: Integrated Arrival/Departure Airspace Management
                                    OI 102144: Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals: Closely Spaced Parallel
                               4
                                               Runways (CSPRs)                                                                              New airspace design takes advantage of expanded use of terminal procedures and
                              Changes to wake separation minima are implemented based on measured and predicted                             separation standards. This capability expands the use of terminal separation standards
                              airport area winds. Supporting procedures, developed at applicable locations based on                         and procedures (e.g., 3 nm, degrees divergence) within the newly defined transition
                              analysis of wake measurements and safety, allow more closely spaced arrival operations                        airspace. It extends further into current en route airspace (horizontally and vertically).
                              increasing airport/runway capacity i I t
                              i       i    i   t/             it in Instrument M t    l i l Conditions.
                                                                             t Meteorological C diti                                        Task Force: Integrated ATM
                              Task Force: Runway Access
                                                                                                                                            11 OI 104128: Time-Based Metering in the Terminal Environment
                               5    OI 102406: Provide Full Surface Situation Information
                                                                                                                                            Aircraft are time-based metered inside the terminal environment, enhancing efficiency
                              Surface Situation Information will complement visual observation of the airport                               through the optimal use of terminal airspace and surface capacity. This extends current
                              surface. Decision support system algorithms will use enhanced target data to support                          metering capabilities into the terminal environment and furthers the pursuit of end-to-end
                              identification and alerting of those aircraft at risk of runway incursion.                                    metering and trajectory-based operations.
                              Task Force: Surface                                                                                           Task Force: Integrated ATM
                                                                                                                                            T kF           I t   t d

                               6    OI 103104: Deploy Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Nationally                              12 OI 106202: Enhance Emergency Alerting
                              FIS-B weather processors generate graphical and textual products for broadcast to                             Controllers and search and rescue support, using ADS-B to provide location information
                              equipped aircraft in coverage areas. FIS-B products include precipitation, convective                         and discrete aircraft identification, are able to quickly locate distressed or downed aircraft
                              activity, in-flight icing, low-ceiling/visibility maps, turbulence information and site-specific              without resorting to 1,200 beacon tracks and support from Civil Air Patrol search flights.
                              weather reports and forecasts.
                      13 OI 107116: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Departure Operations                                                        OI 109304: Enhanced Aviation Safety Information and Analysis and Sharing
                                                                                                                                  17
                                                                                                                                                  (ASIAS)
                      Leverages augmented Global Navigation Satellite System capabilities to allow
                                                                                                                                  ASIAS will improve system-wide risk identification, integrated risk analysis and modeling,
                      appropriately equipped aircraft to depart in low-visibility conditions. Due to onboard
                                                                                                                                  a d p e e a o of emergent s           a age e
                                                                                                                                  and implementation o e e ge risk management.
                        i i the i        ft ill be bl to depart i l
                      avionics th aircraft will b able t d               i ibilit     diti      i Area N i ti
                                                               t in low-visibility conditions using A   Navigation
                      (RNAV)/Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Standard Instrument Departures,
                      Electronic Flight Vision System, Synthetic Vision System, or advanced vision systems.                       18 OI 109305: Improved Safety for NextGen Evolution
                                                                                                                                  This OI mitigates safety risk associated with the evolution of NextGen by providing
                      14 OI 107202: Low-Visibility Surface Operations                                                             enhanced safety methods that support making changes to the air transportation system,
                      Aircraft and ground vehicle movement on airports in low-visibility conditions is guided by                  including: advanced capabilities for integrated, predictive safety assessment; improved
                      accurate location information and moving map displays.                                                      validation and verification processes supporting certification; an enhanced focus on safe
                      Task Force: Surface
                      T kF          S f                                                                                                                                                                     operation.
                                                                                                                                  operational procedures; and enhanced training concepts for safe system operation

                      15 OI 108206: Flexible Airspace Management                                                                  19 OI 109310: Implement Enhanced EMS Framework
                      ANSP automation supports reallocation of trajectory information, surveillance,                              Further enable the use of the Environmental Management System (EMS) framework for
                      communications, and display information to different positions or different facilities.                     subsequent applications, including refined environmental goals and decision-support tools,
                                                                                                                                  to address, plan and mitigate environmental issues through implementation of ongoing
                            OI 109302: Security – Operational Capability for Threat Detection and                                 EMS improvements and availability of enhanced environmental information.
                      16
                                       T ki          Impact A l i and Ri k B
                                       Tracking, NAS I                                dA
                                                             Analysis d Risk-Based Assessment
                      The Operational Security Personnel of the ANSP address NAS security threats by more
                      effective and efficient prevention, protection, response and recovery based on net-
                      enabled shared situational awareness and a risk-informed decision-making capability.
                      Flight risk profiles are derived from trajectory-based risk assessment provided by the
                      ANSP and risk levels provided by the Security Service Provider.


                                     2010                    2011                    2012                       2013                   2014                   2015                    2016                   2017

                                                                                                       1        OI 102114: Initial Conflict Resolution Advisories (2013-2017)

                                                              Enablers referenced in Appendix A:        2       OI 102118: Delegated Responsibility for In-Trail Separation (2013-2018)
                                                              Interval Management

                            OI 102123: ADS-B
                       3    Separation                     Enabler referenced
                            (2008-2010)                    in Appendix A:
                                                           ADS-B Out
                                                                                                                                                              OI 102144: Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals: CSPRs
                                                                                                                                                         4
                                                                                                                                                                         (2015-2018)

                                                                                                                                                                                     OI 102406: Provide Full Surface
                                                                                                                                         Enabler referenced in Appendix A:
                                                                                                                                         Ground Cockpit Display of Traffic      5               Situation Information
                                                                                                                                         Information                                            (2016-2019)


                       6    OI 103104: Deploy FIS-B Nationally (2009-2013)

                                                                                                                                 p                                                        (         )
                                                                                                            OI 103116: Initial Improved Weather Information from Non-Ground-Based Sensors (2013-2018)




www.faa.gov/
                                                                                                       7

                                                       8    OI 103119: Initial Integration of Weather Information into NAS Automation and Decision Making (2011-2018)




85         /nextgen
                              NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development (cont’d)




86
                                          2010                 2011                2012           2013               2014             2015                   2016                  2017

                                                 p
                                  OI 103206: Expanded
                                  Traffic Advisory Services
                              9
                                  Using Digital Traffic Data
                                  (2009-2010)


                                                                                                                               Enabler referenced in
                                                                                                                               Appendix A: RNAV        10 OI 104122: Integrated Arrival/Departure
                                                                                                                                                            Airspace Management (2016-2019)




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                                                                                                                     OI 104128: Time-Based Metering in the Terminal Environment
                                                                                                                                11
                                                                                                                                                (2015-2018)


                                   12    OI 106202: Enhance Emergency Alerting (2010-2016)


                                                                                                                                     OI 107116: Low-Visibility/Ceiling Departure Operations
                                                                                                                                13
                                                                                                                                                (2015-2018)


                                                                                                                                14 OI 107202: Low-Visibility Surface Operations (2015-2018)


                                                                                                                                15 OI 108206: Flexible Airspace Management (2015-2018)


                                                                                                                                     OI 109302: Security – Operational Security Capability for Threat
                                                                                                                                16              Detection and Tracking, NAS Impact Analysis and
                                                                                                                                                Risk-Based Assessment (2015-2018)


                                                                                             17 OI 109304: ASIAS (2013-2014)



                                                                                                                                                            OI 109305: Improved Safety for
                                                                                                                                                       18              NextGen Evolution
                                                                                                                                                                       (         )
                                                                                                                                                                       (2016-2017)


                                                                                                                                                                                       OI 109310:
                                                                                                                                                                                       Implement
                                                                                                                                                                                       EMS
                                                                                                                                                                                  19
                                                                                                                                                                                       Framework-
                                                                                                                                                                                       Enhanced
                                                                                                                                                                                       (2018-2018)
                                                                                                                                                                                       (2018 2018)
                                                                                                Selected Work Activities
                       Budget         Task
                                                  Activity                       Description                       OIs            FY 2010                 FY 2011                         FY 2012 – Mid-term
                        Line          Force
                      Collaborative           Capacity             Provides the tools to air traffic managers     108206    Initiated multi-year     • Develop             • Develop ARMS evaluation model
                       Air Traffic            Management,          to reconfigure airspace to expand or                      program plan               preliminary         • Conduct demonstration of ARMS prototype
                      Management              Dynamic              contract control sectors to match the                                                ARMS concept
                                                                   overall level of activity in the facility’s                                          of operation
                                              Airspace
                                                                   airspace and to dynamically deactivate                                               document
                                                                   restrictions. The Airspace Resource
                                                                                           p                                                          • Deliver white
                                                                   Management System (ARMS) will                                                        paper on ARMS
                                                                   provide the tools for controlling the                                                functional
                                                                   reconfiguration of the NextGen                                                       description
                                                                   networked communications infrastructure
                                                                   in response to an operational
                                                                   requirement for reconfigurable airspace.

                      Collaborative           Flight and State     Develops a framework for integrated            108209                              • Initiate analysis   • Adapt existing automation displays to provide
                       Air Traffic            Data                 National Airspace Design and                                                         of equipage and       airport surface surveillance
                      Management              Management,          Procedures planning, enhancements to                                                 avionics            • Develop “blended airspace” procedures
                                                                   existing infrastructure to support impact                                            capabilities
                                              Concept
                                                                   assessments, and develop initial concept                                             required through
                                              Development for      for best-equipped, best-served.                                                      the mid-term to
                                              Integrated NAS                                                                                            support best-
                                              Design and                                                                                                equipped, best-
                                              Procedure                                                                                                 served
                                              Planning
                        Arrivals/       4     Capacity             Provides an integrated approach to             104122    Completed a                                    • Develop and mature initial automation, surveillance
                      Departures at    21a    Management -         arrival and departure management                          preliminary                                      and flight data requirements
                      High Density     32b    Integrated Arrival   throughout the major metropolitan                         operational safety                             • Conduct technical transfer of automation,
                        Airports                                   airspace by incorporating terminal and                    assessment and an                                surveillance and flight data requirements
                                              and Departure
                                                                   transition airspace and procedures into                   assessment of                                  • Support airspace design/analysis, transition
                                              Operations (Big      one service volume.                                       procedural changes
                                              Airspace)                                                                                                                       strategy plans and procedures development for
                                                                                                                             needed to support                                initial selected locations
                                                                                                                             this concept

                        Arrivals/             Capacity             Provides an integrated approach to             104122    Conducted pre-
                      Departures at           Management -         arrival and departure management                          implementation
                      High Density            Integrated Arrival   throughout the major metropolitan                         analyses on flight
                        Airports                                   airspace by incorporating terminal and                    data processing due
                                              and Departure
                                                                   transition airspace and procedures into                   to the large volume
                                              Control Service      one service volume.                                       of airspace and the
                                                                                                                             integration of
                                                                                                                             terminal, t
                                                                                                                             t              iti
                                                                                                                                  i l transition
                                                                                                                             and overflight
                                                                                                                             environments

                       Trajectory             Separation           Identifies cognitive support and display       108209    Conducted Fast-          • Conduct             • Conduct concept validation activities to support
                         Based                Management,          change requirements necessary for a                       Time Analyses for          integrated            refinement of high-altitude concept elements such
                       Operations             High Altitude        transition to a high-altitude specialty that              Trajectory Based           Human-in-the-         as generic airspace and flexible airspace
                                                                   addresses the FAA’s Flight Plan goals                     Operations (TBO) in        Loop (HITL)         • Refine the High-Altitude Research Management
                                                                   for capacity and organization excellence.                 high-altitude airspace     simulation of         Plan as required based on the findings of concept




www.faa.gov/
                                                                                                                                                        high-altitude         validation activities
                                                                                                                                                        concept             • Update the high-altitude concept of operations to
                                                                                                                                                                              reflect results of completed high-altitude




           /nextgen
                                                                                                                                                                              simulations, fast-time analyses and other research
                                                                                                                                                                              activities
                                                                                                                                                                            • Develop recommendations on future program




87
                                                                                                                                                                              plans based on FY 2011-2012 findings
                              NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development (cont’d)




88
                                                                                                   Selected Work Activities
                                Budget        Task
                                                           Activity               Description               OIs                  FY 2010                             FY 2011                      FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                 Line         Force
                                Flexible       25     Trajectory           Evaluates the ability of                  Performed initial 4D Flight           • Conduct RTA proof of         • Perform initial 4D FMS TBO concept
                               Terminal               Management,          aircraft to accurately meet                Management System (FMS)                 concept demonstration          validation and analyses of
                              Environment             Arrivals             vertical constraints and time              TBO concept validation and                                             performance capabilities and
                                                                           of arrival. Evaluates the                  analysis of performance                                                standards
                                                      (RNAV/RNP) with
                                                                           advantages and                             capabilities and standards                                           • Evaluate the ability of aircraft to
                                                      3D and Required      disadvantages with imposing                                                                                       accurately meet vertical constraints
                                                      Time of Arrival      vertical constraints and RTA                                                                                      and required time of arrival
                                                      (
                                                      (RTA))               in different congestion




NextGen Implementation Pla
                                                                                                                                                                                             Evaluate th d        t
                                                                                                                                                                                           • E l t the advantages and       d




                         an
                                                                           scenarios. Also evaluates                                                                                         disadvantages associated with
                                                                           Data Comm capabilities for                                                                                        imposing vertical constraints and
                                                                           aircraft messaging for RTA,                                                                                       required time of arrival in different
                                                                           and reroutes.                                                                                                     congestion scenarios from the
                                                                                                                                                                                             aircraft operator and air traffic
                                                                                                                                                                                             management (ATM) perspectives
                                                                                                                                                                                           • Evaluate Data Comm for aircraft
                                                                                                                                                                                                             RTA,
                                                                                                                                                                                             messaging for RTA reroutes and
                                                                                                                                                                                             waypoint verification data integrity
                                                                                                                                                                                           • Evaluate ground merging and
                                                                                                                                                                                             sequencing tools that will employ
                                                                                                                                                                                             control by time of arrival (identify
                                                                                                                                                                                             enabling requirements)
                                                                                                                                                                                           • Conduct human factors analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                             shifting to control by time of arrival
                                                                                                                                                                                             through controller-in-the-loop
                                                                                                                                                                                             simulations and field trials
                                                                                                                                                                                           • Conduct analysis of human factors
                                                                                                                                                                                             and flight deck automation
                                                                                                                                                                                             requirements to minimize errors and
                                                                                                                                                                                             provide integrity assurance

                              Demonstration           Unmanned Aircraft    Proves the viability of UAS     102137    Conducted UAS demonstration           • Initiate UAS demonstration   • Demonstration 4: Conduct integrated
                                                       y      (UAS)
                                                      Systems (    )       to operate safely in the NAS               incorporating two NextGen               that will explore NextGen      operational UAS demonstration with
                                                      Demonstration        without undue risk.                        technologies, ADS-B and NAS             4D trajectory concepts         4DT FMS, ADS-B/Traffic Information
                                                                                                                      Voice System (NVS), to mitigate                                        Services-Broadcast (TIS-B)/FIS-B
                                                                                                                      operational issues:                                                    and NVS-prototype Voice over
                                                                                                                         o Enhanced traffic situational                                      Internet Protocol
                                                                                                                           awareness from a cockpit
                                                                                                                           display of traffic information
                                                                                                                           (CDTI)
                                                                                                                         o Proof of concept for NVS

                                Reduce                Reduce Weather       Provides improved weather                 Established NextGen Weather           • Risk reduction activities    • Initial investment analysis
                                Weather               Impact (NextGen      observations and forecasts                 Processor test bed                    • Market survey for NextGen    • Complete NextGen Weather
                                Impact                Weather Processor)   and tailors weather data for                                                       Weather Processor              Processor risk mitigation strategy
                                                                           integration into decision                                                          capabilities                   Phase 2
                                                                           support tools for
                                                                           collaborative and dynamic
                                                                           NAS decision making
                        Budget        Task
                                                    Activity              Description               OIs               FY 2010                         FY 2011                        FY 2012 – Mid-term
                         Line         Force
                         Safety,              Security Integrated   Finalizes the business case,           Completed SITS concept          • Develop an implementation       • Award contract for SITS
                       Security and           T l Set (SITS)
                                              Tool S t              safety management                       exploration and business case     strategy and planning             development and initiate
                                                                                                                                                                                development,
                      Environmental                                 document, NAS enterprise                methodology/ analysis             document                          development activities
                      Performance                                   architecture artifacts, and                                                                               • Continue development of initial SITS
                                                                    requirements documents.                                                                                     capabilities
                                                                                                                                                                              • Transition to initial operational
                                                                                                                                                                                capability




                        System                Operational           Conducts integrated                    Developed and applied models    • Assess and integrate the        • Develop, evaluate and implement
                      Development             Assessments           assessments to ensure that              to support the operational        local, regional, NAS-wide         further enhancements for the
                                                                    safety, environmental and               performance, safety and           analysis capability of            NextGen local, regional, NAS-wide
                                                                    system performance                      environmental integrated          Aviation Environmental            scale analysis capability in the AEDT
                                                                    considerations are properly             assessments of NextGen            Design Tool (AEDT) and          • Develop, evaluate and implement
                                                                    addressed throughout the                airspace/procedure and system     develop plans for further         further enhancements for the
                                                                    integration and                         changes                           enhancements                      NextGen local, regional, NAS-wide
                                                                                      NextGen.
                                                                    implementation of NextGen                                               • Assess and integrate the          scale analysis capability in the APMT
                                                                                                                                              local, regional, NAS-wide       • Perform NextGen environmental
                                                                                                                                              analysis capability of            analyses for fleet and operations
                                                                                                                                              Aviation Portfolio                sequencing
                                                                                                                                              Management Tool (APMT)          • Enhance safety model to support
                                                                                                                                              and develop plans for further     NextGen operational assessments
                                                                                                                                              enhancements                    • Enhance operational performance
                                                                                                                                            • Develop options to integrate      model to support NextGen
                                                                                                                                              environmental assessment          operational assessments
                                                                                                                                              capability with NextGen NAS
                                                                                                                                              models
                                                                                                                                            • Develop NextGen NAS-wide
                                                                                                                                              environmental mitigation and
                                                                                                                                              cost-beneficial options for
                                                                                                                                              decision support
                                                                                                                                            • Enhance safety model to
                                                                                                                                              support NextGen operational
                                                                                                                                              assessments
                                                                                                                                            • Enhance operational
                                                                                                                                              performance model to
                                                                                                                                              support NextGen operational
                                                                                                                                              assessments

                        System                Air Traffic Control   Conducts system                        Delivered initial NextGen       • Develop common                  • Complete a strategic job analysis of
                      Development             (ATC)/Tech Ops        engineering and other                   common workstation                automation platform               the new roles of air traffic service
                                              Human Factors         technical support to fully              requirements document             requirements development          providers using a highly automated
                                                                    integrate human factors                Delivered initial human error     and simulation                    system, sharing separation
                                                                    considerations into the                 safety analysis of mid-term     • Develop Traffic Flow              responsibilities with pilots, and
                                                                    NextGen portfolio and                   operations                        Management human factors          moving toward performance-based
                                                                    conducts focused human                 Delivered initial tower           operational sequences             services
                                                                    factors studies in areas such           workstation requirements        • Develop air/ground              • Demonstrate collaborative air traffic
                                                                    as controller workload and                                                integration HITL simulation       management efficiencies
                                                                    work station interfaces.                                                  plan                            • Demonstrate integration of air and
                                                                                                                                                                                ground functional capabilities




www.faa.gov/
                                                                                                                                                                              • Identify changes in controller
                                                                                                                                                                                procedures to support pilot
                                                                                                                                                                                separation responsibility when using
                                                                                                                                                                                cockpit display of traffic information




           /nextgen
                                                                                                                                                                              • Demonstrate controller use of
                                                                                                                                                                                NextGen concepts, capabilities and
                                                                                                                                                                                procedures supporting transition of




89
                                                                                                                                                                                self separation responsibility to pilots
                              NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development (cont’d)




90
                                                                                                Selected Work Activities
                               Budget       Task
                                                       Activity                 Description                  OIs         FY 2010                             FY 2011                         FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                Line        Force
                                System              Systems Safety   • Develops tools and supporting                Began implementing      ASIAS                                        • Create policy, process
                              Development           Management         processes leading to a                        enhanced ASIAS,         • Provide capability across all commercial     standards, risk
                                                    Transformation     comprehensive and proactive                   including the             aviation nodes to fuse data from public      assessment/management
                                                                       approach to aviation safety in                selected support          and non-public sources while                 tools, analysis infrastructure
                                                                       conjunction with implementation of            architecture and          maintaining data protection                  and rudimentary safety
                                                                       NextGen capacity and efficiency               requirements for        • Evolve more sophisticated text mining        assurance framework
                                                                       capabilities. The implementation of           information security,     capabilities across data sources,          • Demonstrate a national-level
                                                                       these capabilities will require                     real time
                                                                                                                     near real-time                             operations,
                                                                                                                                               including flight operations                  SSA working prototype that




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                                                       changes in the process of safety              operations and new        maintenance, dispatch, ATC operations        will proactively identify
                                                                       management, the definition and                and expanded              and aviation safety reporting system         emerging risk across the
                                                                       implementation of risk management             participants            • Provide initial ability to automatically     NextGen
                                                                       systems, and management of the                                          monitor for unknown risk based on          • Develop proof of concept for
                                                                       overall transformation process to                                       complex text mining capabilities and         NextGen SMS including a
                                                                       ensure that safety is not only                                          seamless data sources                        prototype to implement on a
                                                                       maintained but improved.                                              • Integrate data from at least one             trial basis with selected
                                                                     • Develops and implements the                                             additional class of operations in the        participants that involve a
                                                                       ASIAS system, which provides the                                        U.S. domestic airspace                       cross-section of air service
                                                                       capability to integrate data from                                     • Conduct demonstration project with           providers
                                                                       public and non-public sources                                           limited set of Joint Planning and
                                                                       spanning commercial aviation,                                           Development Office participants for
                                                                       while maintaining data protection.                                      analysis of safety metrics and directed
                                                                       This capability and the use of                                          studies
                                                                       advanced data mining tools allow
                                                                       the early identification and                                          System Safety Assessment (SSA)
                                                                       mitigation of emerging risks to the                                   • Develop user and system requirements
                                                                       aviation system.                                                        for system baseline risk estimation
                                                                     • Creates system-wide risk                                              • Develop standard user requirements for
                                                                       baselines, and annual impact                                            development and installation of a risk
                                                                       assessment of changes, including                                        analysis function and application to
                                                                       NextGen, on safety risk.                                                NextGen concept in surface operations
                                                                     • Ensures highly capable and                                              into the operational ASIAS platform
                                                                       consistent risk assessment
                                                                       processes through Safety Risk                                         SMS
                                                                       Management (SRM) processes and                                        • Develop a method that can be used for
                                                                       taxonomy, analytical methods and                                        continual surveillance of Design
                                                                       integrated evaluation applications.                                     Approval Holder compliance with SMS
                                                                     • Develops new methods to ensure
                                                                       continual surveillance of Design                                      SRM
                                                                       Approval Holder compliance with                                       • Develop guidance on taxonomy,
                                                                       Safety Management System (SMS)                                          analytical methods and integrated
                                                                       requirements.                                                           evaluation applications that ensure that
                                                                                                                                               consistent risk assessment processes
                                                                                                                                               are employed throughout the FAA
                                                                                                                                               Office of Aviation Safety
                       Budget       Task
                                               Activity             Description                  OIs              FY 2010                             FY 2011                           FY 2012 – Mid-term
                        Line        Force
                         y
                        System              New ATM        Conducts research across all                   Provided                                    y          g
                                                                                                                                         • Conduct system design for future                                      y
                                                                                                                                                                                  Terminal Collision Avoidance System
                      Development           Requirements   solution sets, focused on                       recommendations for an          air-ground data communications         • Define baseline requirements for
                                                           maturing concepts and                           aeronautical mobile             requirements implementing flexible       future Collision Avoidance Systems
                                                           technologies targeting application              airport communications          airspace management                    • Develop an integrated approach
                                                           toward the end of the NextGen                   system standard               • Begin requirements definition for        between separation assurance and
                                                           mid-term.                                      Defined baseline                common trajectory implementation         collision avoidance with special
                                                                                                           Requirements for Future       • Conduct initial analysis of common       attention to safety
                                                                                                           Traffic Alert and Collision     trajectory needs and develop initial
                                                                                                           Avoidance System                implementation strategy                Trajectory Modeling
                                                                                                          Developed initial airborne    • Conduct engineering trade study        • Determine conflict resolution
                                                                                                           SWIM concept of use             for weather radar replacement            approaches using aircraft intent
                                                                                                                                         • Provide analysis, requirements,          data
                                                                                                                                           pseudo-code-supports for effective     • Develop evaluation model to
                                                                                                                                           collision risk safety net in an          assess common trajectory
                                                                                                                                           environment of closely spaced          • Develop NAS-wide trajectory
                                                                                                                                           parallel RNP route from top-of-          prediction requirements in the mid-
                                                                                                                                           descent to the runway                    term
                                                                                                                                                                                            p            j
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Develop common trajectory  y
                                                                                                                                                                                    message format and standard
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Develop safety assessments

                                                                                                                                                                                  Weather Radar Replacement
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Complete technology
                                                                                                                                                                                    demonstration development and
                                                                                                                                                                                    conduct evaluations
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Prototype demonstration

                        System              Operations     Addresses developing and             108206    Generated Time Based          • Develop draft 2nd level NextGen        • Conduct HITL simulations of
                      Development           Concept        validating future end-to-end                    Flow Management                 concept of operations for the NAS        trajectory based operations for
                                            Validation,    operational concepts with special               (TBFM) transient analysis       (2025)                                   integrated TBFM
                                                           emphasis on researching                         results on the                                                         • Validate concepts through detailed
                                            Validation
                                                           changes in roles and                            effectiveness of various                                                 analyses including analytical
                                            Modeling       responsibilities between the FAA                alternatives to mitigate                                                 modeling, fast-time simulations,
                                                           and airspace.                                   the impact of transient                                                  and HITL simulations and
                                                                                                           events on TBFM                                                           demonstrations

                        System              Staffed        Demonstrates the concept of,                   Conducted demonstration       • Develop performance standards          • Continue development of
                      Development           NextGen        and develops the necessary                      activities                      and SNT alternatives                     standards and alternatives
                                            Towers (SNT)   requirements, specifications and               Continued detailed            • Develop initial investment decision    • Begin development of an
                                                           supporting documentation for,                   engineering analysis and        documentation including business         implementation strategy for SNT
                                                           SNT. SNT may allow for the cost-                requirements validation         case analysis report,                  • Conduct system design activities
                                                           effective expansion of services to              activities                      implementation strategy and              including electronic data
                                                           a larger number of airports, and                                                planning, and basis of estimate          distribution integration, Data Comm
                                                                                      costs.
                                                           reduce tower construction costs                                               • Update Enterprise Architecture                            sub-system
                                                                                                                                                                                    integration and sub system
                                                                                                                                           products and amendments                  engineering activities
                                                                                                                                         • Maintain SNT equipment at field        • Procure and install Decision
                                                                                                                                           site (Dallas/Fort Worth)                 Support Tools (DST) for
                                                                                                                                                                                    conformance monitoring, including
                                                                                                                                                                                    hardware and software
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Continue procurement and
                                                                                                                                                                                    installation of DST
                                                                                                                                                                                       pp                p
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Support the development of




www.faa.gov/
                                                                                                                                                                                    concept of operations for flexible
                                                                                                                                                                                    SNT and validation of flexible SNT




91         /nextgen
                              NextGen Concept Maturity and System Development (cont’d)




92
                                                                                                 Selected Work Activities
                               Budget       Task
                                                        Activity               Description               OIs            FY 2010                              FY 2011                           FY 2012 – Mid-term
                                Line        Force
                                System              Wake Turbulence    Develops new sets of tailored            Developed                      • Determine optimal set of aircraft      • Determine changes to FAA air
                              Development           Recategorization   “leader aircraft” and “follower           recommendation for an            flight characteristics and weather       traffic control systems that will be
                                                                       aircraft” wake separation                 alternative set of wake          parameters for use in setting wake       required in the ICAO
                                                                       standards whose application               separation standards             separation minimums                      implementation of the revised wake
                                                                       would depend on flight                   Provided                       • Develop metrics for setting tailored     separation standards developed
                                                                       conditions and aircraft                   recommendation to                leader/follower aircraft wake            earlier by this program
                                                                       performance to enable                     International Civil Aviation     mitigation separation standards        • Develop a sample set of
                                                                       increased capacity of flights             Organization (ICAO) for                                                   leader/follower aircraft wake




NextGen Implementation Pla
                         an
                                                                       into and out of airports to               action                                                                    mitigation separation standards
                                                                       accommodate future demands.                                                                                       • Determine the changes to FAA air
                                                                                                                                                                                           traffic control systems required to
                                                                                                                                                                                           implement the leader/follower
                                                                                                                                                                                           tailored aircraft wake separation
                                                                                                                                                                                           standards
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Complete development of the
                                                                                                                                                                                           leader/follower tailored aircraft
                                                                                                                                                                                           wake separation standards along
                                                                                                                                                                                           with the planning for implementing
                                                                                                                                                                                           the associated procedures and
                                                                                                                                                                                           processes
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Continue development of wake
                                                                                                                                                                                           separation processes that account
                                                                                                                                                                                           dynamically for the wake generated
                                                                                                                                                                                           by the lead aircraft
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Develop enhancements to
                                                                                                                                                                                           modeling that will enable their use
                                                                                                                                                                                           in evaluating the proposed dynamic
                                                                                                                                                                                           wake mitigation separation
                                                                                                                                                                                           processes
                                                                                                                                                                                         • Perform simulations to validate the
                                                                                                                                                                                           operational feasibility of dynamic
                                                                                                                                                                                           wake separation processes and
                                                                                                                                                                                           procedures
Airport and Facility Identifiers
OEP AIrPOrTS                              OThEr AIrPOrTS
ATL        Atlanta                        ANC          Anchorage
BOS        Boston                         CMH          Columbus (Ohio)
BWI        Baltimore-Washington           MMU          Morristown (New Jersey)
CLE        Cleveland                      SAT          San Antonio
CLT        Charlotte                      TEB          Teterboro (New Jersey)

CVG        Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky
DCA        Washington National
                                          FAA FACIlITIES
DEN        Denver
DFW        Dallas/Fort Worth              ZAB          Albuquerque ARTCC
                                          ZAU          Chicago ARTCC
DTW        Detroit
                                          ZDC          Washington ARTCC
EWR        Newark
                                          ZDV          Denver ARTCC
FLL        Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood
                                          ZHU          Houston ARTCC
HNL        Honolulu
                                          ZLA          Los Angeles ARTCC
IAD        Washington Dulles
                                          ZLC          Salt Lake City ARTCC
IAH        Houston Intercontinental
                                          ZNY          New York ARTCC
JFK        New York Kennedy               ZOA          Oakland ARTCC
LAS        Las Vegas                      ZSE          Seattle ARTCC
LAX        Los Angeles
LGA        New York LaGuardia
MCO        Orlando
MDW        Chicago Midway
MEM        Memphis
MIA        Miami
MSP        Minneapolis-St. Paul
ORD        Chicago O’Hare
PDX        Portland (Oregon)
PHL        Philadelphia
PHX        Phoenix
PIT        Pittsburgh
SAN        San Diego
SEA        Seattle-Tacoma
SFO        San Francisco
SLC        Salt Lake City
STL        St. Louis
TPA        Tampa

                                                                         www.faa.gov/nextgen 93
Acronyms

    2D              Two-Dimensional                        CAAFI       Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels
    4D              Four-Dimensional                                   Initiative
    4DT             Four-Dimensional Trajectory            CARTS       Common Automated Radar Terminal
                                                                       System
    A/DMT           Arrival/Departure Management Tool
                                                           CATM        Collaborative Air Traffic Management
    AC              Advisory Circular
                                                           CATMT       Collaborative Air Traffic Management
    ACM             Adjacent-Center Metering                           Technologies
    ADS-B           Automatic Dependent                    CDM         Collaborative Decision Making
                    Surveillance-Broadcast
                                                           CDP         Climb/Descent Procedure
    ADS-C           Automatic Dependent
                    Surveillance-Contract                  CDQM        Collaborative Departure Queue
                                                                       Management
    AEDT            Aviation Environmental Design Tool
                                                           CDTI        Cockpit Display of Traffic Information
    AIM             Aeronautical Information
                    Management                             CIWS        Corridor Integrated Weather System
    AIP             Airport Improvement Program            CIX         Collaborative Information Exchange
    AIRE            Atlantic Interoperability Initiative   CLEEN       Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions
                    to Reduce Emissions                                and Noise
    ALP             Airport Layout Plan                    CO2         Carbon Dioxide
    ANSP            Air Navigation Service Provider        CRDA        Converging Runway Display Aid
    AOC             Airline Operations Center              CSPO        Closely Spaced Parallel Operations
    APMT            Aviation Portfolio Management Tool     CSPR        Closely Spaced Parallel Runways
    AR              Authorization Required                 CTP         Collaborative Trajectory Planning
    ARC             Aviation Rulemaking Committee          Data Comm   Data Communications
    ARMS            Airspace Resource Management           DCL         Departure Clearance
                    System                                 DDU         Data Distribution Unit
    ARTCC           Air Route Traffic Control Center       DME         Distance Measuring Equipment
    ASAP            Aviation Safety Action Program         DoD         Department of Defense
    ASDE-3          Airport Surface Detection              DST         Decision Support Tool
                    Equipment-Model 3                      eALP        Electronic Airport Layout Plan
    ASDE-X          Airport Surface Detection              EDX         Enhanced Data Exchange
                    Equipment-Model X
                                                           EFB         Electronic Flight Bag
    ASIAS           Aviation Safety Information
                                                           EFVS        Enhanced Flight Vision System
                    Analysis and Sharing
                                                           EMS         Environmental Management System
    ASPIRE          Asia and Pacific Initiative to
                    Reduce Emissions                       ERAM        En Route Automation Modernization
    ASTM            Standard-setting organization          ES          Extended Squitter (Mode S)
    ATC             Air Traffic Control                    EVS         Enhanced Vision System
    ATM             Air Traffic Management                 FAA         Federal Aviation Administration
    ATN             Aeronautical Telecommunications        FACT        Future Airport Capacity Task
                    Network                                FANS        Future Air Navigation System
    ATPA            Automated Terminal Proximity Alert     FIS-B       Flight Information Services-Broadcast

94 NextGen Implementation Plan
FMC       Flight Management Computer                  NM        Nautical Miles
FMS       Flight Management System                    NNEW      NextGen Network Enabled Weather
FOC       Flight Operations Center                    NOTAM     Notice to Airmen
FOQA      Flight Operational Quality Assurance        NVS       NAS Voice System
FOSA      Flight Operator Surface Application         NWP       NextGen Weather Processor
FY        Fiscal Year                                 Ocean21   Oceanic Automation System
GBAS      Ground Based Augmentation System            OEP       Operational Evolution Partnership
GIS       Geographic Information System               OI        Operational Improvement
GLS       GBAS Landing System                         OMP       O’Hare Modernization Project
GNSS      Global Navigation Satellite System          OPD       Optimized Profile Descent
GPS       Global Positioning System                   PAPI      Precision Approach Path Indicator
HITL      Human-in-the-Loop                           PBN       Performance Based Navigation
HRJ       Hydrotreated Renewable Jet                  RAPT      Route Availability Planning Tool
HUD       Heads-Up Display                            RF        Radius-to-fix
ICAO      International Civil Aviation Organization   RNAV      Area Navigation
IDAC      Integrated Departure/Arrival Capability     RNP       Required Navigation Performance
ILS       Instrument Landing System                   RPI       Relative Position Indicator
ITA       Initial Tailored Arrival                    RTA       Required Time of Arrival
ITP       In-Trail Procedure                          RTCA      Aviation industry group
JPDO      Joint Planning and Development Office       RVR       Runway Visual Range
JRC       Joint Resources Council                     RVSM      Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum
LAAS      Local Area Augmentation System              SAA       Special Activity Airspace
LED       Light-Emitting Diode                        SAAAR     Special Aircraft and Aircrew
LNAV      Laternal Navigation                                   Authorization Required
LP        Localizer Performance                       Satcom    Satellite Communications
LPV       Localizer Performance with                  SATNAV    Satellite Navigation
          Vertical Guidance                           SBAS      Satellite Based Augmentation System
MALSR     Medium-Intensity Approach Lighting          SESAR     Single European Sky Air Traffic
          System with Runway Alignment Indicator                Management Research
MHz       Megahertz                                   SID       Standard Instrument Departure
NAS       National Airspace System                    SITS      Security Integrated Tool Set
NASA      National Aeronautics and                    SMS       Safety Management System
          Space Administration                        SNT       Staffed NextGen Towers
NAS EA    National Airspace System Enterprise         SRM       Safety Risk Management
          Architecture
                                                      SRMD      Safety Risk Management Document
NATCA     National Air Traffic Controllers
                                                      SSA       System Safety Assessment
          Association
                                                      STAR      Standard Terminal Arrival Route
NAVAID    Navigation Aid
                                                      STARS     Standard Terminal Automation
NEO       Network Enabled Operations
                                                                Replacement System
NEPA      National Environmental Policy Act
                                                      STBO      Surface Trajectory Based Operations
NextGen   Next Generation Air Transportation
                                                      SUA       Special Use Airspace
          System
                                                      SURF IA   Surface Indications and Alerts
NIEC      NextGen Integration and Evaluation
          Capability                                  SVS       Synthetic Vision System

                                                                                   www.faa.gov/nextgen 95
SWIM           System Wide Information Management
TBFM           Time Based Flow Management
TBM            Time Based Metering
TBO            Trajectory Based Operations
TCAS           Traffic Alert and Collision
               Avoidance System
TFDM           Tower Flight Data Manager
TFM            Traffic Flow Management
TFMS           Traffic Flow Management System
TIS-B          Traffic Information Services-Broadcast
TMA            Traffic Management Advisor
TMI            Traffic Management Initiative
TRACON         Terminal Radar Approach Control
TSO            Technical Standard Order
UAS            Unmanned Aircraft System
UAT            Universal Access Transceiver
VDL            VHF Data Link
VHF            Very High Frequency
VNAV           Vertical Navigation
WAAS           Wide Area Augmentation System
WTMA           Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Arrivals
WTMA-P         Wake Turbulence Mitigation for
               Arrivals-Procedures
WTMD           Wake Turbulence Mitigation for
               Departures




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96 NextGen Implementation Plan
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Why NextGen Matters

NextGen is a comprehensive overhaul of our National Airspace System to make air
travel more convenient and dependable, while ensuring your flight is as safe, secure
and hassle-free as possible.

In a continuous roll-out of improvements and upgrades, the FAA is building the
capability to guide and track air traffic more precisely and efficiently to save fuel and
reduce noise and pollution. NextGen is better for our environment and better for our
economy.


  • NextGen will be a better way of doing business.
  • NextGen will reduce aviation’s impact on the environment.
  • NextGen will help us be even more proactive about preventing accidents with
    advanced safety management.
  • NextGen will get the right information to the right person at the right time.
  • NextGen will lay a foundation to continually improve air travel and strengthen
    the economy.
  • NextGen will help communities make better use of their airports.
  • NextGen will enable us to meet our increasing national security and safety needs.
  • NextGen will bring about one seamless global sky.




NextGen Integration and Implementation O ce
800 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20591
www.faa.gov/nextgen

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