The Swiss Reformation Zwingli in Zurich Calvin in Geneva Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) Born in Wildhaus, Switzerland. Studied under leading renaissance scholars in Basel and Vienna, he earned an M.A. in 1506 and began the study of theology. He was ordained a priest in 1506. He became the parish priest of a country church at Glarus (1506-516). He studied Hebrew and Greek. He also acted as chaplain for Swiss mercenary armies in Italy (Milan). In 1516 he became the priest of Einsiedeln where the famous ―Black Virgin‖ attracted floods of pilgrims. Visited Erasmus in 1516. Moving Toward Reformation He was a great admirer of Erasmus and was overjoyed with the appearance of the printed Greek text. Read the patristic literature, especially Chrysostom. During his stay in Einsiedeln, he began to question (though not oppose) the sale of indulgences and questioned the value of pilgrimages. January 1, 1519 he was elected to the main pulpit in Zurich (population 6,000 with 200 clergy and monks). Zurich Reformation Zwingli began preaching from the Greek text out of Matthew. Zwingli endeared himself to the Zurich church by ministering to them during the plague of 1519 (in which Zwingli’s own brother died) and he almost died himself. In 1522 Zwingli preached that it was permissible to eat all foods at all times. On Ash Wednesday, he watched some of his members eat two fried sausages. Some were imprisoned. Zwingli defended them from his pulpit and published Concerning Freedom and the Choice of Food Pestleid (Plague Song) Help me, O Lord, Yet, if your voice, My strength and rock; In life’s mid-day Lo, at the door Recalls my soul, I hear death’s knock. Then I obey. Uplift your arm, In faith and hope, Once pierced for me, Earth I resign, That conquered Secure of heaven, death, For I am Yours. And set me free. Zurich Disputations First (January 1523): Zwingli presented 67 articles of belief that questioned human ceremonies and requirements (10% of town present). – Had previously published On the Certainty of the Word of God defending sola Scriptura – In 1522 Zwingli had secretly married (which he made public in 1524). Second (October 1523): Convinces the council to proceed with reform based on scripture alone (15% of town present). – Images removed from the churches – Monasteries were dissolved Third Disputation (January 1525): Council fully supports reform. – Easter, 1525 is the first fully Protestant worship in Zurich. – Zurich is officially a ―Reformed church.‖ – This disputation also concluded in favor of infant baptism and the exclusion of those who opposed it. Nature of Zwingli’s Reformation He opposed the use of icons and stripped churches in Zurich of their religious art. He opposed the use of instrumental music and the organ was silenced in 1524 and destroyed in 1527. The Reformed principle was to include in the worship only that which was clearly authorized in the New Testament. He opposed the Catholic Mass and simplified the liturgy. Preaching became the primary focus of liturgy. Johannes Oecolampadius from Basel (1482-1531) Studied at University of Tubingen where he met Melancthon; he was appointed Cathedral preacher in Basel (1515) Was a proof-reader for Erasmus; corresponded with Luther; entered monastery in Augsburg for two years (1520-1522). Returned to Basel in 1522 as lecturer in theology at the University. Leads the reformation of the church in Basel and became Zwingli’s supporter in Switzerland. – Wrote first major OT commentary of the Reformation – Master of Patristics – Defended Zwingli’s position on the Lord’s Supper and Baptism. Oecolampadius’ Four Theses (1523) Sola Scriptura Our righteousness is unclean; therefore justified by sola fidei Opposed the use of saints and the need for intermediaries. Proclaimed that believers have freedom in Christ and are not bound by human traditions and innovations. The Conclusions at Berne 1. The holy Christian Church, whose only Head is Christ, is born of the Word of God, and abides in the same, and listens not to the voice of a stranger. 2. The Church of Christ makes no laws or commandments apart from the Word of God; hence all human traditions are not binding upon us except so far as they are grounded upon or prescribed in the Word of God. 3. Christ is the only wisdom, righteousness, redemption, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world. For this reason it is a denial of Christ to confess any other means of salvation or satisfaction for sin. Conclusions at Berne 4. It cannot be shown from Holy Scripture that the body and blood of Christ are substantially and corporeally received in the bread of the Eucharist. 5. The mass, as it is now celebrated, in which Christ is offered to God the Father for the sins of the living and the dead is contrary to Scripture, a blasphemy against the most holy sacrifice, passion, and death of Christ and on account of its abuse, an abomination to God. 6. As Christ alone died for us, so he is also to be adored as the only Mediator and Advocate between God the Father and us. For this reason it is contrary to the basis of the Word of God to direct worship to be offered to other mediators beyond the present life. Conclusions at Berne 7. Scripture does not tell us there is a place beyond this life in which souls are purged. Therefore all services for the dead, vigils, masses, processions, anniversaries, lights, candles, and other such things are vain. 8. It is contrary to the Word of God, contained in the books of the Old and New Testaments, to make images for use in worship. For this reason they are to be abolished, if they are set up as objects of worship. 9. Marriage is not forbidden in Scripture to any class of men, but is commanded and permitted to all in order to avoid fornication and unchastity. 10. Since according to Scripture an open fornicator must be excommunicated, it follows that fornication or impure celibacy are more pernicious to the clergy than to any other class on account of the scandal. Three Positions on the Supper Transubstantiation – the bread and wine are transformed into real body and blood of Jesus (Roman Catholic) – The substance changes (bread to body) – The accidents remain (still looks like bread) Consubstantiation – the body and blood of Christ are added to the presence of the bread and wine (Luther) Symbolism – the bread and wine symbolically represent the body and blood of Christ; it is a memorial of Christ’s sacrifice. The body and blood are not substantially or literally present (Zwingli). ―The Supper Strife‖ Luther believed in consubstantiation: – Elements in Lord’s Supper are literal body & blood of Christ Zwingli believed that Lord’s Supper is entirely symbolic, a memorial feast Two denounced each other as heretics Martin Bucer sought unity among Christians Arranged discussion at Marburg, 1529 The Marburg Colloquy of Hesse Philip (also wanting unity) offered his castle at Marburg for the discussion Castle of Philip of Hesse at Marburg The Discussion Luther refused to consider Zwingli’s arguments Told Bucer that he had a different spirit Wrote on table: Hoc est corpus meum – ―This is my body‖ Bucer continued to work toward a statement with which both parties would agree Room at castle where discussion took place (as it appears today) Painting showing Zwingli (to right), Luther (pointing to table), Bucer and Melancthon seated at the table. (Bucer on right). Other key leaders in Reformation present. Marburg Agreement Fifteenth, we all believe and hold concerning the Supper of our dear Lord Jesus Christ that both kinds should be used accord-ing to the institution by Christ; [also that the mass is not a work with which one can secure grace for someone else, whether he is dead or alive;] also that the Sacrament of the Altar is a sacrament of the true body and blood of Jesus Christ and that the spiritual partaking of the same body and blood is especially necessary for every Christian. Similarly, that the use of the sacrament, like the word, has been given and ordained by God Almighty in order that weak consciences may thereby be excited to faith by the Holy Spirit. And although at this time, we have not reached an agree-ment as to whether the true body and blood of Christ are bodily present in the bread and wine, nevertheless, each side should show Christian love to the other side insofar as conscience will permit, and both sides should diligently pray to Almighty God that through his Spirit he might confirm us in the right understanding. Luther and Zwingli Topic Luther Zwingli Key Question Where can I find the Where can I find the true church? merciful God? Experience Experience of Mercy Experience of Election Education Doctor of Theology Master of Humanities Language Northern German Southern German (Swiss) Training Via Moderna (Occamist) Via Antiqua (Thomist) Beginning 95 Theses on Penance 67 Articles on Church Politics Regional/State City Theology Faith as Key Election as Key Emphasis Word as Means Spirit Without the Word Law Condemn and Convict Guide Church in Obedience Church Adiaphora Primitivism Sacraments Means Signs Function Assurance and Means Ecclesial Church/State Separation Integration Reformation: A Divided Movement Luther – Liturgical worship: permission to use tradition as long as it does not violate the gospel – Substantial presence of Christ in the supper – Valued the role of bishops (supervisors). – Separation of Church and State: Two Kingdom Theory – Influential in northern Germany Zwingli – Simple worship: only do what is authorized in the New Testament. – Symbolic presence of Christ in the supper. – Valued local pastors and independent congregations – Theocratic understanding of City Council and local jurisdictions. – Influential in Switzerland and southern Germany. Zwingli, 1525-1531 Sought to unite the Swiss Cantons through disputations. Zwingli also submitted a confession to Emperor Charles V at Augsburg: Fidei Ratio. Bern and Basel both followed Zwingli, but other Cantons did. – Bern Disputation in May 1528. By 1531, five Cantons were Protestant and five were Roman Catholic. – Successive military conflicts broke out between Protestants and Catholics beginning in 1528. – On October 11, 1531 Zwingli died in a battle between Catholics and Protestants at Kappel near Zurich. – Switzerland was permanently divided into Protestant and Catholic Cantons. Zwingli’s Theology The ground of redemption is election—God’s sovereign initiative is primary. Faith is the sign of God’s electing grace—is the certain assurance by which humanity relies on the merit of Christ alone. They are elect before they believe. Faith comes only by the Spirit of God—usually in conjunction with the preached the word of God. The preached word brings an ―internal word‖—a persuasion and insistence of the Spirit by which we believe. The Father draws us into faith because we are part of the elect. While Zwingli taught the unity of Spirit and Word, he also insisted that no external means are necessary for faith—God acts through the immediacy of his Spirit. Sacramental Theology There are only two sacraments: baptism and the Lord’s Supper. Zwingli rejects any instrumental or causative meaning for the sacraments. Rather, sacraments are symbolic in meaning—they are not means by which God works. They are communal acts by which humans pledge and testify their allegiance to God and the church. The congregation is the actor rather than God. Here Luther and Zwingli are opposites—Luther believed in the instrumental character of the sacraments. They are genuine means of grace and necessary for salvation. Sacramental Theology Zwingli: ―We cannot accept that view…which holds that the sacraments are signs of such nature that when they are administered then they simultaneously accomplish inwardly that which they signify outwardly. For this would bind the freedom of the Spirit of God, who divides to men severally as he will, that is, to whom and when and where he will.‖ Luther: ―Therefore state it most simply thus, that the power, work, profit, fruit, and end of Baptism is this, namely, to save. For no one is baptized in order that he may become a prince, but, as the words declare, that he be saved. But to be saved. we know. is nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and the devil, and to enter into the kingdom of Christ, and to live with Him forever.‖ Luther on Baptism But as our would-be wise, new spirits assert that faith alone saves, and that works and external things avail nothing, we answer: It is true, indeed, that nothing in us is of any avail but faith, as we shall hear still further. But these blind guides are unwilling to see this, namely, that faith must have something which it believes, that is, of which it takes hold, and upon which it stands and rests. Thus faith clings to the water, and believes that it is Baptism, in which there is pure salvation and life; not through the water (as we have sufficiently stated), but through the fact that it is embodied in the Word and institution of God, and the name of God inheres in it. Luther on Baptism But if they say, as they are accustomed: Still Baptism is itself a work, and you say works are of no avail for salvation; what then, becomes of faith? Answer: Yes, our works, indeed, avail nothing for salvation; Baptism, however, is not our work, but God's (for, as was stated, you must put Christ-baptism far away from a bath- keeper's baptism). God's works, however, are saving and necessary for salvation, and do not exclude, but demand, faith; for without faith they could not be apprehended. Luther and Zwingli Topic Luther Zwingli Key Question Where can I find the Where can I find the true church? merciful God? Experience Experience of Mercy Experience of Election Education Doctor of Theology Master of Humanities Language Northern German Southern German (Swiss) Training Via Moderna (Occamist) Via Antiqua (Thomist) Beginning 95 Theses on Penance 67 Articles on Church Politics Regional/State City Theology Faith as Key Election as Key Emphasis Word as Means Spirit Without the Word Law Condemn and Convict Guide Church in Obedience Church Adiaphora Primitivism Sacraments Means Signs Function Assurance and Means Ecclesial Church/State Separation Integration Martin Bucer (1491-1551) Born at Schlettstadt in Alsace Attended excellent humanistic school Joined Dominican order to further studies Sent to Heidelberg chapter because better educational opportunities there Met Luther there Humanist school in Schlettstadt that Bucer attended while Jacob Gebwiler was headmaster From Erasmus to Martin Luther Bucer deeply committed to Erasmian humanist reform agenda Luther came to Heidelberg to defend his theology University refused to allow Luther to speak Dominicans opened their chapel to him Bucer & two friends deeply convicted Justification by faith alone Bucer meets Luther Bucer stayed after lecture to ask Luther questions Luther invited him to have lunch with him Shared with him his new commentary on Romans ―I came an Erasmian; I left a Martinian!‖ Heidelberg to Strasbourg Bucer married Elizabeth Silberreisen Convinced forced clerical celibacy produced immorality Soon in trouble with church Protected by sympathetic nobles Church excommunicated him Fled to his parents in Strasbourg for help What would Strasbourg do? Parents pled for their son before council As son of citizens, he should be protected Strasbourg already had reformed pastors: Matthew Zell of St. Thomas Zell allowed him to speak on a wooden pulpit on alternate days Asked by poor gardeners of St. Auriole to be their pastor St. Thomas Matthew Zell getting older Council became supportive Voted to approve reformation for city Bucer appointed chief pastor of St. Thomas Aided in city by Wolfgang Capito and others Support from John Oecolampadius at Basel Relief medallion of Bucer from his memorial in St. Thomas Church in Strasbourg Strasbourg Cathedral where Bucer first preached under Zell St. Thomas Church where Bucer was pastor In hopes of unity…. Bucer defined a platform of unity Theologians should determine what was essential for all Christians to believe These doctrines would be taught as non- negotiable matters of faith Non-essentials (adiaphora) would be areas where different interpretations would be respected & over which they would not divide An Advocate of Unity Tolerant policy to Anabaptists – disagreed yet tried to learn from their piety Worked tirelessly to try to communicate and reunite with Catholics Tried to keep Protestants from dividing The Doctrine of the Presence Bucer convinced Luther & Zwingli both saying same things in different ways Produced a midway synthesis: – Elements not literal body & blood – But taken under form of bread & wine – Christ present with us in Lord’s Supper – Accepted by Calvin & Cranmer – Melancthon agreed with Bucer by the 1540s. – Incorporated into Reformed & Anglican theology Bucer as Protestant Diplomat Sent representatives to court of King Francis I of France to persuade him Also attempted to reach King Henry VIII Negotiated with Catholic Cardinals Tried to work with emperor Charles V Worked closely with Prince Philip of Hesse Religious Discussions Continually scheduled debates or colloquies Regensburg, Wittenberg, Augsburg, Cologne, Marburg, Worms, Wrote continually to answer critics But his efforts were largely unsuccessful. The Interim Charles imposed Interim that restored mass in Strasbourg and restricted Protestants New city council did not support Bucer He went into exile Thomas Cranmer urged them to come to England and help him Bucer sick, discouraged, tired English Reformation Bucer taught at Cambridge Helped write Book of Common Prayer English ordinal Encouraged Cranmer concerning doctrines like predestination, justification, communion Wrote De Regno Christi to King Edward VI – Described true Christian community Bucer’s Death Never well after went to England Died in 1551 after two years there His second wife, Wibrandis Rosenblatt Bucer with him Buried at Cambridge Bones exhumed and disgraced by Mary I Restored to honor by Elizabeth Same rector of Cambridge presided over both Jean Calvin (1509-1564) After studying law in Paris and Orleans, he emerged in 1534 as a leading Reformer in France. Francis I of France issued an edict suppressing Protestants in 1535. In 1536 Calvin produced a brief, systematic summary of the Protestant faith. Through 26 editions and many translations, it became the classic statement of Protestantism—Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Education of Jean Calvin Born of humble ancestry – Yet maintained manners of nobility; father was a notary – Born at Noyon, Picardy, 60 miles northeast of Paris 26 years younger than Luther – Belonged to second generation of reformers Father wanted him to be a priest but Calvin studied law and pursued humanist studies (in Orleans 1528). After his father’s death, he returns to Paris in 1531 – Receives the Doctor of Laws (1532) – His first book was a commentary on Seneca (1533) Calvin Museum constructed at location of his house Noyon Cathedral Calvin and Protestantism Testifies to some mysterious experience in 1532. – Very secret about it – Other students came to him to learn what he believed – Convinced of God’s sovereignty and omnipotence – Felt himself the chosen instrument of God Wrote a sermon for Nicholas Cop that was preached on Nov 1, 1533. – It quoted Luther and was Protestant in tone. – Cop and Calvin had to flee Paris in 1534 because the persecution of Protestants had begun. Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion First published in 1536 in Basel and dedicated to Francis I, King of France. First edition was only 6 chapters, but the last edition was 80 chapters. Total of 10 editions (1536 to 1560), published in Latin and French. The structure was originally based on the Apostle’s Creed—systematic, clear and orderly with strong rooting in Scripture and Augustine (and other church fathers). The most influential book of the Reformation. Geneva Geneva was the focus of concern as Swiss Cantons were dividing between Protestant and Catholic, and French Catholic Savoy wanted to retain Geneva within its territory. Protestant cities, like Bern, rescued Geneva from Savoy’s attack in 1530. – Farel (1489-1565), a reformer in Basel, came to Geneva in 1532 and persuaded magistrates to favor Reform by 1534 through several disputations. – By 1535, the city council gave Catholic clergy the choice to convert or leave the city. Calvin, traveling through the city in July 1536, was convinced to remain as a leader of the Reformation there. Guillaume Farel, First reformer of Geneva Geneva Reformation The initial movements (1536-1538) did not go well and after a stay in Strasbourg (1538-1541), Calvin returned to the city triumphantly. – The source of the conflict was the relationship between the Council and the church. – Calvin favored ecclesiastical control of church discipline and regulating church ordinances while the Council wanted to control discipline. – Calvin was inexperienced, and the Council drove the Reformers out of the city in 1538. Calvin’s Beliefs Wanted to restore purity of Christianity before corrupted by Roman Catholicism Saw God as creator, preserver, governor of universe Creation, Fall, Redemption as the story of Scripture. God worked out one consistent scheme of redemption through a covenant of grace. Calvin and Grace Humanity sinful and incapable of good work – Cannot save itself – Dependent entirely on God’s grace God’s justice satisfied by death of Christ Believers justified when they trust in Christ Christ takes humanity’s sin; believers are clothed with the perfect righteousness of Christ Faith itself is a gift of God’s grace (like Zwingli) Election & Preservation Calvin believed in God’s eternal election: God has chosen who will be saved by his own grace. Thus God will preserve his elect to eternal life Humanity has the responsibility to respond to God’s grace in holiness, good works, and faithful obedience The Church to Calvin The one Church of Christ was the sum of God’s elect, invisible, members known to God Believers in one community become visible church Exists wherever word faithfully preached and heard & sacraments (baptism and the Lord’s Supper) faithfully administered Published Ecclesiastical Ordinances 1541 Organization of Church Ministers(Venerable Company) or pastors—the administrators of the sacraments. Elders (Consistory)—a council of laymen. Teaching Pastors—charged with educating the church and preaching. Deacons—to minister to the needs of the church. Sacraments Accepted Bucer’s doctrine of the spiritual (not substantial but neither merely symbolic) presence in communion Wanted communion in all churches at least once weekly Council denied his request Held high view of importance and necessity of baptism: baptism is an instrumental means of grace through which God ordinarily works. The Scriptures Held high view of Scripture One book, Old & New Testament Revealing one plan of human redemption His people truly a ―People of the Book‖ Believed that we should not act without Scriptural authority Strasbourg, 1538-1541 Took refuge with Bucer in Strasbourg Learned theology and how to organize a Christian Community Preached at church for French Protestant exiles Taught at John Sturm’s Academy Wrote Married Idelette de Bure Very happy experience! Calvin’s wife, Idelette Calvin returning to Geneva in 1541 de Bure Second Call to Geneva Political shift in Geneva – People wanted preachers back – Catholic Church had sought to return and Calvin opposed through his Letter to Sadoleto Farel persuaded him to return with him Left Strasbourg in tears Stayed in Geneva the rest of his life – Next 28 years Geneva 1541-1564 Very successful reformer there Preached, supervised church, encouraged commerce & trade, advised council Founded University of Geneva Public morality successfully enforced Geneva became city of refuge for Protestants in exile from all over Europe Geneva: The Reformed City From 1541-1564, Geneva was the heartbeat of the ―Reformed‖ Protestant faith (e.g., ―Calvinism‖). – It sent missionaries into France and southern France was significantly influenced (by 1561 2150 Protestant churches). – It became a refugee city for persecuted French, Dutch, Scottish and English Protestants. – Through this influence, the Netherlands became the locus of the ―Dutch Reformed Church,‖ the Scottish Kirk became Presbyterian, the Puritans sought reform in England and the Huguenots were a religious and political force in France. The Reformation in 1541 Martin Bucer is working for unity between Reformed, Lutheran and Catholic—as is Melanchton. The last major attempt was at a conference in Regensburg (1541). Lutherans are growing in Northern Germany and Scandinavia, but Luther is uninterested in the unity efforts. The Swiss (and the French Reformed Church) are united in a ―Reformed‖ understanding of the faith, though there are sacramental and ecclesiological differences between Zurich and Geneva. – Zurich is symbolic; Geneva is instrumental. – Church discipline is conducted by the magistrates in Zurich but determined by the Council of Pastors in Geneva.