SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE by prabhunathan

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									        Architectural Design,
 Distributed Systems Architectures


                        Lectures 17 and 18



©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 1
Architectural Design - Establishing the
overall structure of a software system

Topics covered:
 System structuring                                 Architectural
 Control models
                                                     Design
 Modular decomposition
                                                            Distributed
     Multiprocessor architectures                          Systems
     Client-server architectures                           Architectures
     Distributed object architectures
    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201      Slide 2
Software architecture
      The design process for identifying the sub-
       systems making up a system and the framework
       for sub-system control and communication is
       architectural design
      The output of this design process is a
       description of the software architecture




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 3
Architectural design
      An early stage of the system design process
      Represents the link between specification and
       design processes
      Often carried out in parallel with some
       specification activities
      It involves identifying major system components
       and their communications




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 4
Architectural design process
      System structuring
         •     The system is decomposed into several principal sub-systems
               and communications between these sub-systems are identified
      Control modelling
         •     A model of the control relationships between the different parts
               of the system is established
      Modular decomposition
         •     The identified sub-systems are decomposed into modules




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201    Slide 5
Sub-systems and modules
   A sub-system is a system in its own right
   whose operation is independent of the services
   provided by other sub-systems.

                        A module is a system component that
                        provides services to other
                        components but would not normally
                        be considered as a separate system



©Ian Sommerville 2000         Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 6
Architectural models
      Different architectural models may be produced
       during the design process
      Each model presents different perspectives on
       the architecture:
         •     Static structural model
         •     Dynamic process model
         •     Interface model
         •     Relationships model




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000      Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 7
Architectural models
     Static structural model that shows the major
      system components
     Dynamic process model that shows the process
      structure of the system
     Interface model that defines sub-system
      interfaces
     Relationships model such as a data-flow model




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 8
                         System structuring
  Concerned with decomposing the system into
              interacting sub-systems
  The architectural design is normally expressed
   as a block diagram presenting an overview of
   the system structure
      •     (More specific models showing how sub-systems share data,
            are distributed and interface with each other may also be
            developed)




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 9
Packing robot control system
       Vision
       system



    Object                              Arm                     Gripper
 identification                          roller
                                      cont                     controller
    system




                         Packaging
                          selection
                           system




                         Packing                               Conveyor
                         system                                controller


 ©Ian Sommerville 2000         Software Engineering, COMP201           Slide 10
The repository model
      Sub-systems must exchange data. This may
       be done in two ways:
         •     Shared data is held in a central database or repository and
               may be accessed by all sub-systems
         •     Each sub-system maintains its own database and passes data
               explicitly to other sub-systems


      When large amounts of data are to be shared,
       the repository model of sharing is most
       commonly used (WHY???)

    ©Ian Sommerville 2000     Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 11
Repository model characteristics
      Advantages
         •     Efficient way to share large amounts of data
         •     Sub-systems need not be concerned with how data is produced
         •     Centralised management e.g. backup, security, etc.
         •     Sharing model is published as the repository schema
      Disadvantages
         •     Sub-systems must agree on a repository data model. Inevitably a
               compromise
         •     Data evolution is difficult and expensive
         •     No scope for specific management policies
         •     Difficult to distribute efficiently




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000        Software Engineering, COMP201      Slide 12
Client-server architecture
      Distributed system model which shows how data and
       processing is distributed across a range of components
      Set of stand-alone servers which provide specific
       services such as printing, data management, etc.
      Set of clients which call on these services
      Network which allows clients to access servers




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 13
Film and picture library
    Client 1             Client 2                    Client 3    Client 4




                              Wide-bandwidth network




  Catalogue               Video                       Picture   Hypertext
   server                 server                      server     server

  Catalogue              Film clip                 Digitiz ed   Hypertext
                           files                  photographs     web



 ©Ian Sommerville 2000        Software Engineering, COMP201     Slide 14
Client-server characteristics
      Advantages
         •     Distribution of data is straightforward
         •     Makes effective use of networked systems. May require
               cheaper hardware
         •     Easy to add new servers or upgrade existing servers
      Disadvantages
         •     No shared data model so sub-systems use different data
               organisation. data interchange may be inefficient
         •     Redundant management in each server
         •     No central register of names and services - it may be hard to
               find out what servers and services are available




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 15
Abstract machine model
- Used to model the interfacing of sub-systems
  Organises the system into a set of layers (or
   abstract machines) each of which provide a set
   of services
  Supports the incremental development of sub-
   systems in different layers. When a layer
   interface changes, only the adjacent layer is
   affected
  However, often difficult to structure systems in
   this way
 ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 16
ISO/OSI network model
   7        Application
            Application                                    Application

   6        Presentation                                   Presentation

   5        Session                                        Session

   4        Transport                                      Transport

   3        Network               Network                  Network

   2        Data link             Data link                Data link

   1        Physical              Physical                 Physical
                           Communica tions medium


©Ian Sommerville 2000      Software Engineering, COMP201         Slide 17
    Control models
     Are concerned with the control flow between
     sub systems. Distinct from the system
     decomposition model
    Centralised control
      •     One sub-system has overall responsibility for control and starts
            and stops other sub-systems
    Event-based control
      •     Each sub-system can respond to externally generated events
            from other sub-systems or the system’s environment




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000      Software Engineering, COMP201    Slide 18
Centralised control
      A control sub-system takes responsibility for
       managing the execution of other sub-systems
      Call-return model
         •     Top-down subroutine model where control starts at the top of a
               subroutine hierarchy and moves downwards. Applicable to
               sequential systems
      Manager model
         •     Applicable to concurrent systems. One system component
               controls the stopping, starting and coordination of other system
               processes. Can be implemented in sequential systems as a
               case statement




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201    Slide 19
Call-return model
                                            Main
                                           program




               Routine 1                  Routine 2                  Routine 3




 Routine 1.1               Routine 1.2                     Routine 3.1           Routine 3.2




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000            Software Engineering, COMP201              Slide 20
Real-time system control

                   Sensor                                     Actuator
                  processes                                   processes




                                   System
                                  contr oller




        Computation                  User                          Fault
         processes                 interface                      handler


 ©Ian Sommerville 2000        Software Engineering, COMP201                 Slide 21
Event-driven systems
      Driven by externally generated events where
       the timing of the event is out with the control of
       the sub-systems which process the event
      Two principal event-driven models
         •     Broadcast models. An event is broadcast to all sub-systems.
               Any sub-system which can handle the event may do so
         •     Interrupt-driven models. Used in real-time systems where
               interrupts are detected by an interrupt handler and passed to
               some other component for processing




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 22
Broadcast model
      Effective in integrating sub-systems on different
       computers in a network
      Sub-systems register an interest in specific events.
       When these occur, control is transferred to the sub-
       system which can handle the event
      Control policy is not embedded in the event and
       message handler. Sub-systems decide on events of
       interest to them
      (!!!) However, sub-systems don’t know if or when an
       event will be handled


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 23
Selective broadcasting

Sub-system               Sub-system                 Sub-system   Sub-system
     1                        2                         3             4




                             Event and messa ge handler




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000         Software Engineering, COMP201     Slide 24
Interrupt-driven systems
      Used in real-time systems where fast
       response to an event is essential
      There are known interrupt types with a handler
       defined for each type
      Each type is associated with a memory location
       and a hardware switch causes transfer to its
       handler
      (!!!) Allows fast response but complex to
       program and difficult to validate


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 25
Interrupt-driven control
                                    Interrupts



              Interrupt
               vector




       Handler            Handler                Handler      Handler
          1                  2                     3             4



        Process           Process                Process      Process
           1                 2                      3            4


 ©Ian Sommerville 2000        Software Engineering, COMP201        Slide 26
Modular decomposition
      Another structural level where sub-systems are
       decomposed into modules
      Two modular decomposition models covered
         •     An object model where the system is decomposed into
               interacting objects
         •     A data-flow model where the system is decomposed into
               functional modules which transform inputs to outputs. Also
               known as the pipeline model
      If possible, decisions about concurrency should
       be delayed until modules are implemented


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000      Software Engineering, COMP201    Slide 27
Object models
      Structure the system into a set of loosely
       coupled objects with well-defined interfaces
      Object-oriented decomposition is concerned
       with identifying
         •     object classes,
         •     their attributes and
         •     operations
      When implemented, objects are created from
       these classes and some control model used to
       coordinate object operations


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000        Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 28
Invoice processing system
        Customer                                             Receipt
    customer#                                            invoice#
    name                                                 date
    address                      Invoice                 amount
    credit period                                        customer#
                            invoice#
                            date
                            amount
                            customer
        Payment             issue ()
    invoice#                sendR eminder ()
    date                    acceptPayment ()
    amount                  sendR eceipt ()
    customer#




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201         Slide 29
Data-flow models
      Functional transformations process their inputs
       to produce outputs
      May be referred to as a pipe and filter model (as
       in UNIX shell)
      Variants of this approach are very common.
       When transformations are sequential, this is a
       batch sequential model which is extensively
       used in data processing systems
      Not really suitable for interactive systems

    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 30
 Invoice processing system

                                                    Issue
                                                                       Receipts
                                                  receipts

Read issued                 Identify
  invoices                  payments
                                                   Find                  Issue
                                                 payments              payment               Reminders
                                                    due                reminder
  Invoices                  Payments




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000              Software Engineering, COMP201              Slide 31
Distributed Systems
Architectures

                Architectural design for
                software that executes on
                more than one processor




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 32
Distributed systems
      Virtually all large computer-based systems are
       now distributed systems
      Information processing is distributed over
       several computers rather than confined to a
       single machine
      Distributed software engineering is now very
       important




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 33
System types
      Personal systems that are not distributed and
       that are designed to run on a personal computer
       or workstation.
      Embedded systems that run on a single
       processor or on an integrated group of
       processors.
      Distributed systems where the system
       software runs on a loosely integrated group of
       cooperating processors linked by a network.


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 34
Distributed system characteristics
       Resource sharing
       Openness
       Concurrency
                         Distributed system
       Scalability             disadvantages :
       Fault tolerance    Complexity
       Transparency       Security
                           Manageability
                           Unpredictability

     ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 35
Distributed systems archiectures
      Client-server architectures
         •     Distributed services which are called on by clients. Servers
               that provide services are treated differently from clients that
               use services
      Distributed object architectures
         •     No distinction between clients and servers. Any object on the
               system may provide and use services from other objects




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201      Slide 36
Middleware
      Software that manages and supports the
       different components of a distributed system. In
       essence, it sits in the middle of the system
      Middleware is usually off-the-shelf rather than
       specially written software
      Examples
         •     Transaction processing monitors
         •     Data converters
         •     Communication controllers



    ©Ian Sommerville 2000      Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 37
1. Multiprocessor architectures
      Simplest distributed system model
      System composed of multiple processes which
       may (but need not) execute on different
       processors
      Architectural model of many large real-time
       systems
      Distribution of process to processor may be pre-
       ordered or may be under the control of a
       dispatcher


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 38
A multiprocessor traffic control system


                            Sensor            Traffic flow         Traffic light control
                           processor           processor                processor


                           Sensor                                        Light
                                                Display                 control
                           control              process
                           process                                      process




                                                                                                      Traffic lights
Traffic flow sensors
   and cameras                             Operator consoles




   ©Ian Sommerville 2000               Software Engineering, COMP201                       Slide 39
2. Client-server architectures
      The application is modelled as a set of
       services that are provided by servers and a set
       of clients that use these services
      Clients know of servers but servers need not
       know of clients
      Clients and servers are logical processes
      The mapping of processors to processes is not
       necessarily 1 : 1


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 40
A client-server system

     c2           c3              c4            c12
                                                           c11
                                                                                         Server process
c1
                 s1                        s4

                                                                            c10
      c5
                                                                                         Client process
                             s2                       s3                     c9

           c6                                                          c8
                             c7




     ©Ian Sommerville 2000             Software Engineering, COMP201              Slide 41
Computers in a C/S network

                     c1          c2                         c3, c4
              CC1          CC2                       CC3


                          Network                                    s3, s4               Server
s1, s2
                                                                                         computer
SC2                                                                  SC1



                                                                                          Client
                                                                                         computer
     c5, c6, c7                     c8, c9                 c10, c11, c12
                  CC4      CC5                     CC6




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000     Software Engineering, COMP201                      Slide 42
Layered application architecture
      Presentation layer
         •     Concerned with presenting the results of a computation to
               system users and with collecting user inputs
      Application processing layer
         •     Concerned with providing application specific functionality e.g.,
               in a banking system, banking functions such as open account,
               close account, etc.
      Data management layer
         •     Concerned with managing the system databases




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201     Slide 43
Application layers

                            Presentation layer




                         Application processing
                                  layer



                           Data management
                                 layer


 ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 44
Thin and fat clients
      Thin-client model
         •     In a thin-client model, all of the application processing and data
               management is carried out on the server. The client is simply
               responsible for running the presentation software.

      Fat-client model
         •     In this model, the server is only responsible for data
               management. The software on the client implements the
               application logic and the interactions with the system user.




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201     Slide 45
Thin and fat clients

                                  Presentation
                                                                        Server
Thin-client                                                         Data management
  model                  Client
                                                                      Application
                                                                       processing


                                   Presentation
                                   Application processing               Server
Fat-client
 model                   Client                                          Data
                                                                      management




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000              Software Engineering, COMP201        Slide 46
Thin client model
      Used when legacy systems are migrated to
       client server architectures.
         •     The legacy system acts as a server in its own right with a
               graphical interface implemented on a client
      A major disadvantage is that it places a heavy
       processing load on both the server and the
       network




    ©Ian Sommerville 2000       Software Engineering, COMP201    Slide 47
Fat client model
      More processing is delegated to the client as the
       application processing is locally executed
      Most suitable for new C/S systems where the
       capabilities of the client system are known in
       advance
      More complex than a thin client model
       especially for management. New versions of the
       application have to be installed on all clients



    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 48
A client-server ATM system

                         ATM

   ATM                                                         Account server

                                                       Tele-   Customer
                                                    processing account
   ATM                                               monitor   database

                         ATM


 ©Ian Sommerville 2000         Software Engineering, COMP201             Slide 49
Three-tier architectures
       In a three-tier architecture, each of the
       application architecture layers may execute
       on a separate processor
      Allows for better performance than a thin-client
       approach and is simpler to manage than a fat-
       client approach
      A more scalable architecture - as demands
       increase, extra servers can be added



    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 50
A 3-tier C/S architecture


          Presentation
                             Server                        Server
 Client                  Application                        Data
                         processing                      management




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 51
An internet banking system

 Client          HTTP interaction

                                     Web server                           Datab ase server
                                                              SQL query
 Client                         Account service                                   Customer
                                                                          SQL     account
                                  provision
                                                                                  database

Client



 Client




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000              Software Engineering, COMP201               Slide 52
3. Distributed object architectures
      There is no distinction in a distributed object
       architectures between clients and servers
      Each distributable entity is an object that
         •     provides services to other objects and
         •     receives services from other objects
      Object communication is through a middleware
       system called an object request broker
       (software bus)
      However, more complex to design than C/S
       systems
    ©Ian Sommerville 2000      Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 53
Distributed object architecture
        o1                o2                         o3                  o4

      S (o1)             S (o2)                     S (o3)              S (o4)




                                    Software bus


                          o5                                     o6

                         S (o5)                                S (o6)




 ©Ian Sommerville 2000         Software Engineering, COMP201              Slide 54
Advantages of distributed object architecture

      It allows the system designer to delay decisions
       on where and how services should be provided
      It is a very open system architecture that allows
       new resources to be added to it as required
      The system is flexible and scaleable
      It is possible to reconfigure the system
       dynamically with objects migrating across the
       network as required


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 55
Uses of distributed object architecture
      As a logical model that allows you to
       structure and organise the system. In this
       case, you think about how to provide application
       functionality solely in terms of services and
       combinations of services
      As a flexible approach to the implementation
       of client-server systems. The logical model of
       the system is a client-server model but both
       clients and servers are realised as distributed
       objects communicating through a software bus


    ©Ian Sommerville 2000   Software Engineering, COMP201   Slide 56

								
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