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									                                                          Session-0: Inaugural


Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                                Session-0: Inaugural

                                                   Session   0

                                                     This session will:
                        Objectives:                   Provide      an    overview    of the Gender
                                                        Mainstreaming in P&DDD Project;
                                                      Establish the significance of this half day
                                                        interactive discussion session.

                        Duration:                    30 minutes

                        Methodology:                 Recitation, Formal Welcome Speech, Key Note

                                             Posters on: Gender Mainstreaming Project &
                        Material/Equipment:   Information is Empowerment
                                             Banners, one for inside the training room, and the
                                              other for outside (in the lobby or at the entrance of
                                              the training center)
                                             Name cards for Participants/Organizers/Facilitators
                                             Folders for the Participants
                                             Prominent Desk cards with participants Name,
                                              Designation and Ministry/Department
                                             Multimedia Projector/Computer
                                             White Board/Markers/Flip Chart Paper/VIPP Cards
                                             Tea and Coffee available throughout the Day
                                             Brochure on GSP and GSM for all invitees

                         Slides                                          Handouts
      01.   Overall Title Slide                           01. About Gender Mainstreaming Project
      02.   GMP Project Overview                              (GMP)
      03.   GMP Project Goals                             02. Capacity Development through Gender
      04.   GMP Project Objectives                            Mainstreaming Project
      05.   Capacity Development through GMP              03. About Gender Support Programme (GSP)
      06.   Projects supported by GSP
      07.   Overview of GSP Strategy                      Separate Inserts:
                                                            For Inauguration Invitees:        Key    Note
                                                            Address & brochure on GMP

                                                             In Discussion Participants‟ folders:
                                                             Brief profile of the facilitator
                                                             Participant List

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                          Session-0: Inaugural

   Reference                                              Steps                          Reference
     Slide                                                                                Handout

                       1. If possible, organize the inaugural event so that a large
                          number of people can be invited, including the secretaries
                          (target audience for this training), heads of line
                          departments, DCOs, EDOs, and heads of projects. This
                          will be strategic for various reasons: it will effectively
                          launch the Gender Mainstreaming Project, ensuring that
                          representatives from various departments are oriented to
                          the Project; it will also encourage people to attend the
                          event when they know that others are also doing so.
                       2. An effective key note address can encourage people to
                          look more sympathetically at an issue. It is suggested that
                          all Project Management Units (PMUs) consider inviting a
                          Key Note Speaker, a woman who has a significant profile
                          in the field of gender, and who commands respect and
                          regard, especially from the bureaucracy.
                       3. It is also advisable to invite the media to cover the
                          inauguration, and if possible, the Discussion Session as
                       4. On the day of the event, the organizers should consider
                          arriving at the venue at least 2 hours before the official
                          start time, and:
                                set-up the training hall, including the desk tags for
                                 the participants, the multimedia, checking out the
                                 presentation, putting up the banners and the
                                 posters, ensuring the white boards, flip charts,
                                 markers and tape are all available, arranging the
                                 participants folders, and the separate handouts;
                                set up the venue where the inauguration will take
                                 place, ensuring that the registration desk is              
                                 equipped with brochures, and that proper                 Brochure

                                 arrangements have been made for the participants
                                 names and contacts to be registered;
                                ensure that all arrangements have been made for
                                 the video and photography;
                                brief the media professionals and ensure that they
                                 have some written notes available to them from the

                      5. The master of ceremonies should be decided in advance
                          (it is recommended that the Project Manager perform this
    01 Overall title
        slide             role). Given the limited time available to the senior most
                          bureaucrats, the aim should be to keep this inauguration
                          session absolutely within the stipulated 30 minutes. The

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                     Session-0: Inaugural

   Reference                                              Steps                     Reference
     Slide                                                                           Handout
                        suggested sequence of activities are as follows:
                                Recitation from the Holy Quran
                               An overview of the Gender Mainstreaming Project
      02 GMP                     and the Gender Support Programme (by the
                                 Project Director using the prepared slides to
                                 introduce GSP and GMP)
                               Address by the Chief Guest (preferably the Chief
      03 GMP                     Secretary/Chairman P&D). The speech would
    Project Goals
                                 reiterate the Provincial Government‟s commitment
                                to gender equality.
      04 GMP
                                Address by the Key Note Speaker
                                Address by the donor representative (optional)
                   6. Ensure that the set up is ready for the Discussion
     05 Capacity       Session. Inform the Discussion Participants of the precise
    through GMP
                       time that the Session will commence, and ensure that the
                       Discussion Session begins on time.
                   7. As the Discussion Participants arrive, provide each one         
     06 Projects       with the folder and the name cards, and direct them to        About GSP
    supported by
        GSP            their seats (where the desk card will already have been
                                                                                    About GMP
                                                                                      
    07 Overview
      of GSP                                                                        CD thru GMP

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-0: Inaugural

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-0: Inaugural

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                                            Session-0: Inaugural

                                       ABOUT GENDER MAINSTREAMING
                                     IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
                                            & DEPARTMENTS PROJECT
                      To address the imperatives under the institutional strengthening component, a
                      three year Gender Mainstreaming Project has been initiated. The project is being
                      supported by the governments of Norway and Canada.

                      This Project resides in the Planning and Development Division at the Federal
                      level, and the P&D Departments of the four provinces, AJK and FANA. The
                      Project goal is to:

             “Build the capacity of the government officials to mainstream gender in the…

                            i                        ii                      iii                  iv
                       Formulation             Implementation             Monitoring           Evaluation

                 …of government policies, plans, programme and project in all areas of

                      The Project attempts to achieve its Goal through the following objectives:

                 Gender sensitization of senior and mid-level
                 planning and development (P&D) officials at the
                 federal, provincial and district levels.

                                Developing capacity for gender analysis, planning,
                                monitoring and evaluation.

                                         Establishing gender disaggregated databases using
                                         information and communication technology skills
                                         and competencies.

                                                    Establishing knowledge based networking, e-
                                                    forums, and a community of gender mainstreaming

                                                                Developing institutional mechanisms and
                                                                procedures for systematic gender mainstreaming
                                                                and accountability in government.

         This half-day interactive discussion session contributes to the achievement of Objective
         # 1.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                                            Session-0: Inaugural


                                          CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
                                 GENDER MAINSTREAMING PROJECT
         A high priority of the Project is to raise the awareness of senior officials and
         policy makers of the government. The training comprises of four categories, each
         with defined target group as follows:

                 senior government
                 professional civil servants working in the top tiers of government
                 legislators
                 managers and data managers

         The S1 & S2 category of training, of which this Session is a part, will be short,
         sharp sensitization exercises, the purpose of which will be to make the public
         servants more aware of the issues, recognizing that they will not be exercising
         gender analysis skills, but will be looking at and examining the results of the
         exercise of such skills. The S1 & S2 category of training will cover senior officers
         of all three tiers of government, i.e., federal, provincial and districts.

                  Type        Type of Training            Duration                Target Group

                   S1     Gender Sensitization              ½ day        Senior Government Managers

                   S2     Gender Sensitization              1 day        Professional Civil Servants

                   S3     Advocacy/Sensitization            1 day        Legislators

                   S4     Sensitization                     1 day        Data Managers

                  T1      Gender Analysis             2 days          Senior Mid-level advisory staff

                  T2      Gender Analysis            2 weeks          Officers dealing with basic level
                                                                      project proposal/programme

                  C1      Computer Skills                  4 days       Senior-mid level supervisory

                  C2      Computer Skills                  5 days       Officers dealing with basic level
                                                                        project proposal/programme

                  C3      Website development             1-1/2 day     Selected Federal and Provincial

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                                                              Session-0: Inaugural


                          ABOUT GENDER SUPPORT PROGRAM (GSP)
         A Synopsis
         The Gender Support Programme (GSP) provides a strategic framework establishing
         linkages between governance, poverty reduction and gender equality through
         implementation and monitoring of national priorities in the areas of political participation,
         economic empowerment, establishing social environment and institutional strengthening.
         An overview of GSP with regard to projects and thematic scope is as follows:

                                                                         in PDDD
                                                                                              Working Towards
                                           Gender                                           Achieving the National
                                         Justice thru                                         and International
                                          Musalihat                                           commitments on
                                           Anjuman                                           Gender and Poverty
                                                                     Contribute to
                                                                 poverty eradication
                                                               efforts through gender
                                    Gender                         governance and a
                                                              rights-based approach to
                                  Responsive                                                               Political
                                                                sustainable human
                                   Budgeting                          development                           School

                                                          Institutional                Women
                                                        Strengthening                 Access to
                                                         of the NC on                  Capital &
                                                           the Status                 Technology
                                                           of Women

                  Institutional Strengthening 
                   of NCSW (Gender Responsive                                                      Enabling Social Environment
                      Budgeting, MoF Gender                                                        Gender Justice through Musahilat
                 Mainstreaming in the Planning                                                       Anjuman (MA). Interventions –
              Process, P&DD Achieving National &                                                    build capacity of MA members,
                Int‟l Commitments on Gender &                                                         enhance public engagement,
                      Poverty Issues, MoWD                                                          promote women‟s awareness of
                                                                                                   their rights, and utilize services of
                                                                                                                  the MA.

                      Political Participation
                 Women‟s Political School, MoWD                                                       Economic Empowerment
                (mega intervention to make women                                                    Women‟s Access to Capital and
                 councilors and local government                                                    Technology (WACT). Enhance
                  more effective). Interventions –                                                   economic status of urban and
                   providing ToT, training 36000                                                      rural women through credit,
                  councilors, building support link,                                                 promoting small and medium
                sharing information and institutional                                                  entrepreneurship, building
                           strengthening.                                                          capacity, facilitating ICT solutions
                                                                                                            and networking.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                 Session-1: Introduction

                          Session-1             (Introduction)

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                               Session-1: Introduction

                                                   Session   1

                                                    This session will:
                        Objectives                   Provide an opportunity for the participants and
                                                       facilitators/organizers to become known to each
                                                     Inform the participants of the objectives and
                                                       agenda of the Discussion Session.

                        Duration                    20 minutes

                        Methodology                 Presentation; Plenary Discussion

                        Material/Equipment Multimedia projector and screen
                                           White board and flip chart papers

                          Slides                                               Handouts
     08.   Title Slide Session 1                           04. Discussion Session Objectives
     09.   Introduction                                    05. Discussion Session Agenda
     10.   Discussions Session Objectives
     11.   Discussion Session Agenda
                                                           Separate Handouts:
                                                                 FLY Exercise

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                               Session-1: Introduction

     Reference                                            Steps                                 Reference
       Slide                                                                                     Handout
                     1. Tell the participants that it is a pleasure to welcome them to
                       this workshop on Gender Mainstreaming. Highlight that the fact
                        that they have taken time out of their very busy schedules to be
       Title Slide      here reflects their recognition of how critical this issue is to

                    2. Initiate a quick round of introductions, requesting names and
                        the Ministry/Department that the participant represents. In your
      Introduction      own introduction, highlight your number of years of experience,
                        specific projects undertaken with the Federal/Provincial
                        Governments, and international experience, if any.

                     3. Pass out the „FLY‟ Handout, asking participants to keep it face
                        down till everyone receives it. Ask the participants to then turn
                        over the piece of paper, and read it. Request participants that
                        should someone be able to read it, they should NOT say it out
                        loud, just raise their hand.

                     4. It is quite likely that most participants will be unable to read the
                        word. Ask those who are able to read it to say it out loud. Then
                        through one-on-one interactions, ensure that everyone is able
                        to read the word „FLY‟.

                     5. Ask participants why most people could not read the word?
                        Receive their comments, and conclude by emphasizing that
                        our perceptions are influenced by our beliefs and assumptions.
                        The black blocks are more prominent (just as men are in our
                        society)! Also, since a very young age, we are trained to read
                        black on white, and not vice versa. Hence when we need to
                        see the reverse in order to meet an objective, it becomes
                        difficult and our beliefs and assumptions become a block.

                     6. Tell the participants that when we talk about gender
                        mainstreaming, we will see that our beliefs and assumptions
                        play a critical role in how we plan and implement development

                     Workshop Objectives & Agenda:
                     7. Share the Discussion Session Objectives with the participants.
                        Refer to the first objective and emphasize that it is critical to
                        have a common understanding of gender before one can
                        discuss gender mainstreaming. Highlight, however, that it is

                        objectives 2 & 3 which will constitute the greater part of the
                        discussion today. This will include not only why it is critical to
           10.          mainstream gender, but some of the first steps needed for                   Overall
         Overall                                                                                  Discussion
       Discussion       doing so.                                                                 Objectives

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                               Session-1: Introduction

     Reference                                            Steps                                 Reference
       Slide                                                                                     Handout
                     8. Emphasize that one of the first steps towards gender
                        mainstreaming is to commit to doing it. The ways and means
                        can always be found. Re-emphasize that this is a short session
                        therefore it will not be possible to discuss details on the specific
                        ways and means for integrating gender. However, some
                        guidelines will be provided as to how, as planners and policy
                        makers, the participants can take the gender agenda forward.

                     9. Flash the Discussion Session Agenda, quickly reiterating the

                              In the first session we will look at why gender matters
                                for your work as planners and policy makers;
          11.                 In the second session we will look review the concept of            Agenda
                                gender, look at some case studies and see what
                                mainstreaming requires;
                              In the third session the focus will be on what concrete
                                steps you can take to move this agenda forward.

                     10. Inform the participants that before focusing on the first
                         objective, you would like to facilitate a quick brainstorming to
                         evolve some norms for the time you will spend together.
                         Remark that research shows that a group performs more
                         effectively when members are clear regarding the dos‟ and
                         donts‟ of group interactions. Obtain responses from the
                         participants, and list the same on a flip chart, ensuring that the
                         following norms are covered: be relevant in terms of
                         comments and observations; given that the overall session is
                         short, be concise and brief; keep the mobile phone off;
                         speak one at a time; raise hand to provide input; etc.

                     11. Direct participants‟ attention to their Handbook, and explain its
                         organization, highlighting that it constitutes three sections
                         (Session 1, Session 2, and Session 3). Each section comprises
                         of: Power Point Slides, Handouts and Reference Material. Tell
                         the participants that all the material that is going to be
                         presented to them is provided in the Handbook. For the
                         purposes of this workshop, you will let them know when they
                         need to turn to it.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-1: Introduction

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                    Session-1: Introduction


                                     DISCUSSION SESSION OBJECTIVES

                             To clarify concepts of gender and establish its
                             relevance for equitable and sustainable

                                      To provide policy makers with a rationale as to
                                      why gender should be mainstreamed in
                                      policies, programmes and projects;

                                                   To share strategies for gender

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                       Session-1: Introduction


                                   DISCUSSION SESSION AGENDA

              Session #          Duration                        Session Title
                                                Recitation from the Holy Quran, welcome and
             Inauguration          30 Min       round of Introduction
                                                Statement and remarks by Chief Guest

                   1               20 Min       Introduction

                   2               40 Min       Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

                                                Mainstreaming Gender in Policies,
                   3               45 Min
                                                Programmes & Projects

                   4               25 Min       Taking forward the gender agenda

                Closing            5 Min        Vote of Thanks

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

                   (Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers)

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                        Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

                                                   Session   2
                             Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

                                                          This session will:
                        Objectives                         Provide      an   opportunity      for   the
                                                             participants and facilitators/organizers to
                                                             become known to each other;
                                                           Reiterate the key concepts of gender,
                                                             why and how gender issues arise, and
                                                             how gender equality can be attained;
                                                           Provide a rationale for why gender
                                                             should be mainstreamed in policy,
                                                             programs and projects.

                        Duration                          40 minutes

                        Methodology                       Presentation; Case        Studies;     Examples;
                                                          Plenary Discussion

                        Material/Equipment                Multimedia projector and screen
                                                          Colored cards (blue and green 2x2 inch
                                                          squares – 20 each)

                          Slides                                        Handouts
                                                          06. A Wake-up Call
     12. Title Slide Session 2                            07. GoP Commitments to Women
     13. Wake Up Call                                         Development
     14. At the Bottom of the Pile                        08. From Medium Term Development
     15. Overview of GoP Commitments                          Framework
     16. Why Do the Disparities Persist?                  09. Activity: Case Studies: Pathankot Water
     17. Case Studies                                         Supply Scheme & Income Generation
     18. Gender-blind Development                             Project for Kalinger
     19. Un-packing Gender                                10. Examples of Gender Blind Development
     20. Engendering Developments means                   11. Gender Roles and Gender Issues
         recognizing                                      12. Gender Equality - The Goal
     21. Message for Policy makers                        13. Gender Mainstreaming as a Strategy
     22. When water flows it takes the path of                towards Gender Equality
         least resistance ….
                                                          Separate Handouts:
                                                             „F‟ Exercise

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                        Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

     Reference                                            Notes                                 Reference
       Slide                                                                                     Handout

                     1. Display the session title slide on the screen. Tell the
                         participants that this session will focus the need to take
      Session Title      gender into consideration when it comes to development.

                      2. Highlight that:
                         For over 58 years we have lived with some very shameful                  
         13.                numbers;                                                                06.
      Wake up Call
                          In the time that we will sit and talk here together 6 women           Wake up Call
                            will have died from preventable causes.

                         While preparing for this session, ensure that the sources of
                         data is well- known to you, and that you have referred to the
                         Gender-based Fact Sheet (in the reference material) and
                         other current sources so as to be able to defend the presented
                         situation of women in Pakistan. Using appropriate data,
                         emphasize the following:

                             Our maternal mortality rates have not improved
                              significantly. Whereas estimates range from 350 to 530, it
                              is only now that a study is being undertaken to determine
                              the maternal mortality rate (300 in PIHS, 2001-2002 and
                              600 in Mehboob ul Haq (2005) Human Development

                             The mortality rate of women is higher than that of men for
                              nearly all the communicable diseases (Pakistan
                              Demographic Survey, 2001).

                             The gender disparities in our social indicators are
                              pronounced whether you look at the number of men and
                              women dying from communicable diseases or infant
                              mortality rates. We are also one of the few countries in the
                              world with more men in the population than women.
                              Biologically, if men and women receive the required
                              nutrition and both have equal access to health care, Allah
                              has made it so that women outlive men. Where this trend
                              is reversed, it is clear that something is going quite wrong!

                     3. Ask participants what can justify our being at the bottom of the
                         pile? Defend the point that this is not simply a question of
      Bottom of the      resource constraint. There are countries with similar GDP‟s
           Pile          who have much better social indicators and gender disparities
                         are not pronounced and tell the participants that we have to
                         ask ourselves, „why we are at the bottom of the pile‟? To
                         ensure a common understanding, explain that the GDI
                         (Gender related Development Index) covers the same
                         indicators included in the Human Development Index – life
                         expectancy, educational attainment, income but adjusts for

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                      Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

     Reference                                            Notes                               Reference
       Slide                                                                                   Handout
                         gender inequality. While GEM (Gender Empowerment
                         Measurement) measures gender inequality in key areas of
                         economic and political participation and decision-making.

                     4. Tell the participants that our government recognizes that we
                        have to improve our social indicators for men and women. It
                        also recognizes that this will not happen unless we address
                        gender disparities. Give the example of a pregnant woman
                        who is malnourished – tell the participants that you are sure
                        they know that 35% of women in Pakistan suffer from anemia
                        – ask them who will suffer? Not just her. If a malnourished
                        woman has a baby boy, he is likely to be malnourished as
                        well: he may live or not. If he lives, his mental and physical
                        capacities will be affected.

                     5. Reiterate that as a nation, Pakistan has made international
                        and national commitments. We have promises to keep to the                 
         15.            people of Pakistan. Using reference notes „GoP Commitments                 GoP
      Overview of
         GoP            to Women Development‟, prepare thoroughly, and referring               Commitments
     Commitments        participants to the relevant handouts, highlight the following:         to Women

                             In the preface to the MTDF the President and PM have
                              both stressed that nothing will change unless the needs of          
                              the marginal and vulnerable sections of the population are        From MTDF
                              addressed. There is a strong commitment to addressing
                              gender gaps in the MTDF.

                             The NPA (National Action Plan) a document that has been
                              prepared with intensive consultation, details the actions
                              that need to be taken to mainstream gender and empower
                              women in twelve critical areas such as poverty health
                              economy, decision-making etc.

                             The NPDEW is another comprehensive document in
                              which the government has committed to mainstreaming
                              gender in all sectors of national development.

                             There are initiatives to implement these policies: GRAPS
                              propose reforms across all sectors focused on the
                              executive arm of the government. DSP supports the
                              implementation of the GRAPs. GSP involves several
                              initiatives including the current one: gender mainstreaming
                              in the P&D departments, through Musalihat Anjumans,
                              Gender Responsive Budgeting, Women‟s political schools
                              and access to technology, etc.

                     6. Ask participants why in spite of policies, and programs
                        focused on gender equality, do gender disparities persist?
                        Note participants‟ responses on a flip chart. Typically it will
                       include: resource constraint, lack of commitment, mind-set,
                        corruption etc. Process the responses by pointing out that if it

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                       Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

     Reference                                            Notes                                Reference
       Slide                                                                                    Handout
          16.            was simply a resource constraint or corruption, it would have
       Why Do the
       Disparities       affected both genders equally.
                     7. Explain that the reason for gender disparities is that the needs
                        of women, because of their relative invisibility and lower status
                        in society, are much less known compared to those of men.
                        Refer to the fly icebreaker. If there is time, use the „F‟
                        exercise. If not, refer to the „FLY‟ exercise and emphasize that
                        just like we have difficulty seeing the word in white because of
                        our beliefs and assumptions, similarly we have difficulties
                        seeing and addressing women‟s needs and priorities. There
                        are also instances, though much fewer, when because of our
                        beliefs and assumptions about what women do and what men
                        do, we fail to include men. If the „F‟ exercise has been used,
                        process by asking participants what happened. Most will have
                        missed out the „of‟, because it seems insignificant, small, and
                        we pronounce it „ovvv‟ rather than „offff‟. Conclude that so it
                        has been with women. They are not spoken to, not heard, not
                        seen. Almost invisible. And therefore often forgotten. But the
                        development objectives, as highlighted in the MTDF, and as
                        per our commitments to the MDGs, will not be achieved
                        unless both women and men are equal participants and
                        beneficiaries to development.

                     8. Tell the participants that the debate on the causes and effect
                        of gender disparities can be taken forward more effectively if
                       we look at two case studies (Income Generation Project for                 
                        Kalinger and the Pathankot Water Supply Schemes). Using                       09.
          17.                                                                                   Activity: Case
      Case Studies
                        colored cards (blue and green), divide the participants into two
                        equal groups (participants remain seated). Inform the
                        participants that each group will be referred to a separate
                        case study. They should take 10 minutes to both read the
                        case study and discuss the questions given there with the
                        person sitting next to them.

                     9. Ask the „blue‟ Group to turn to Case Study 1 (Income
                        Generation Project for Kalinger) and the „green‟ Group to turn
                        to Case Study 2 (Pathankot Water Supply Schemes). After 10
                        minutes, ask the „blue‟ and „green‟ Groups to quickly scan the
                        other case study, so that they may contribute to the
                        discussion. Give them 5 minutes.

                     10. In the plenary, facilitate the discussion of each of the cases,
                         highlighting that:

                             These case studies are examples of gender-blind
                              development. Women and men are interdependent and
                              any development process must take the needs and
                              priorities of both into account through direct consultation,
                              otherwise the objectives of development cannot be met.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                       Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

     Reference                                            Notes                                Reference
       Slide                                                                                    Handout
                             We need to find out what the ground realities are from
                              both men and women, for these may differ from our own
                              assumptions about gender roles in a specific location.

                     11. Ask participants to give examples of gender-blind
                         development that they may have come across. Add to that
                         some of the examples quoted in the Handbook. Emphasize
                        that the field of development is littered with examples of                 
          18.                                                                                       10.
      Gender Blind
                         gender blind development. And this happens because those
                                                                                                Examples of
      Development        conceptualizing, formulating, implementing, monitoring or              Gender Blind
                         evaluating Projects or Programs are not gender aware.                  Development

                     12. Just let the title „unpacking gender‟ appear on the screen. Tell
                         the participants that through our discussion and case studies
                        we have identified the need for factoring in both men and
                         women in development. Let us review the word „gender‟ as
      “Un-packing        this provides us with the lens that we need to mainstream
                         women and men‟s concerns in development. You must have
                         come across this word many times: What does it mean to

                     13. Note participants‟ responses on the flip chart. Try to facilitate
                         the discussion so the definition can be derived. Emphasize the
                        following points:
      Engendering            We use the word „gender‟ to help us to remember that
        Means                 biological differences between men and women are the
                              same no matter what the time or the place;
                              Sex refers to biologically-determined differences such as
                              physical attributes that equip women to give birth and            Gender Roles
                              breast feed babies. These differences do not change;               and Gender
                             Many of the differences between women and men
                              however are socially created or culturally determined. This
                              happens when women and men are assigned different
                              kinds of work and have different access to opportunities in
                              education, health and livelihood. Gender refers to social
                              relations between women and men, girls and boys defined
                              by cultural values and norms;
                             Gender relations between women and men can be
                              changed. Gender relations vary in different cultures and
                              different times. (Give examples).

                     14. Explain the implications of this concept for development, in
                        that unless women and men are equally valued in a society
      Message for
                         and unless their different needs and priorities are addressed,
                         development can be neither humane, nor just, and therefore                 
     Policy Makers       not sustainable.                                                          Gender
                                                                                                Equality - The

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                        Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

     Reference                                            Notes                                 Reference
       Slide                                                                                     Handout
                      15. In conclusion, remind the participants that we have to
                           remember that unless we make a special conscious effort to               
       When water          mainstream gender, it will not happen.                                    13.
      flows it takes                                                                               Gender
        the path of                                                                             Mainstreaming
                       16. Highlight further that if no special conscious effort is made,       as a Strategy
      resistance …         resources will continue to flow as they always have and                 towards
                           disparities will persist.                                               Gender

                       17. Inform the participants that the Session on „why gender
                           matters for policy makers‟ has concluded. Tell participants that
                           this would now be a good time to have a five minute stretch

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                           Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers


                                                A WAKE UP CALL
                 Of the world‟s 1 billion poorest people, three fifths are women and girls
                 Of the 960 million adults in the world who cannot read, two thirds are women
                 Seventy percent of the 130 million children who are not enrolled in school are
                 Of the 960 million adults in the world who cannot read, two thirds are women
                 70% of the 130 million children who are not enrolled in school are girls
                 With notable exceptions such as Rwanda and the Nordic countries, women
                    are conspicuously absent from parliament, making up, on an average, only
                    16 percent of parliamentarians worldwide
                 Women everywhere typically earn less than men, they are concentrated in
                    low-paying jobs and because they earn less for the same work
                 Although women provide about 70 percent of the unpaid time spent for caring
                    for family members, that contribution to the global economy remains invisible
                 Half a million women die and at least 9 million more suffer serious injuries or
                    disabilities from preventable complications of pregnancy and childbirth

                       Source: UNDP Gender Mainstreaming: What it means, How to do it – A Resource Kit


                    Comparison of Men and Women on Key Social Development Indicators

                              Indicator                            Women                     Men
              GDP per capita                              US$ 776                        US$ 1594
              Literacy rate                               27 percent                     51 percent
              Gross primary enrolment                     64 percent                     80 percent
              Combined primary and secondary              25 percent                     50 percent
              enrolment ratio
              Maternal mortality                          340 per 100,000 live births    -
              Labour force participation                  11.39 percent                  69.1 percent
              Earned income shares                        20 percent                     80 percent
              Top administrative / managerial jobs        3 percent                      97 percent

              Sources: This table has been prepared from several sources including the Global and South
                   Asian Human Development Reports, SPDC reports, HIES and data from NIPS – taken
                   from Federal GRAP (Gender Reform Action Plan).

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                   Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers



         Policy Environment for Gender Mainstreaming

                  International Commitments
                       1. MDGs – Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 2000)
                       2. CEDAW – in force on September 3, 1981. Pakistan ratified in 1996.

                  National Commitments
                       3. MTDF – Mid Term Development Framework (2005-10)
                       4. NPA – by Ministry of Women and Development, September 1998.
                       5. NPDEW – by Ministry of Women and Development, 2002

                  Major Initiatives
                       6. GRAPs – National and Provincial GRAPs (2004)
                       7. Decentralization Support Program - TA2
                       8. GSP - Gender Support Programme (2003-2008)

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                       Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers


                                              (MTDF 2005-2010)
             Gender              Reference – Message from the President of Islamic Republic
            Equality is          of Pakistan General Pervez Musharraf
           anchored in           ….. because of uneven distribution of its fruits across various
            the MTDF             sections of the population and provinces, and disregard of
                                 equity, marginalized vast segments of the population. The
                                 poverty situation worsened and it is hardly surprising that the
                                 economic system supporting these injustices crumbled under
                                 its own weight.
             Quotes!             Ensuring equitable development of regions and ethnic groups
                                 is one of the strategic objectives of our planning. We are
                                 giving equal importance to the protection of the rights of every
                                 citizen, particularly those of children, youth, women and
                                 minorities. With the realization that economic growth and
                                 social stability must go hand in hand, we are striving to
                                 establish a just and sustainable economic system for reducing
                                 poverty and honoring our commitment to transfer the benefits
                                 of economic development to the people of Pakistan.

                                 Reference – Foreword by Shaukat Aziz, Prime
                                 Minister of Pakistan
                                 „Economic growth does not automatically translate into
                                 poverty reduction and equitable distribution among persons,
                                 genders, ethnicities and regions. Growth will be made pro-
                                 poor by result-oriented investments in women
                                 empowerment, education, health, water supply and
                                 sanitation, rural development, livestock, SMEs, specially
                                 targeted works programmes and an integrated social
                                 protection strategy for the poor and vulnerable.‟

                                 Reference - An Overview:
                                 „Establish a just and sustainable economic system for
                                 reducing poverty and achieving MDGs.‟
                                 „Protect the right to development of every citizen
                                 particularly those of children, youth, women and minorities.‟

                                 Reference – Strategic thrust of the Framework:
                                 „Facilitating the development of human capital and private
                                 sector as the engines of economic growth.‟

                                 Reference to a Sustainable Society: ‘The people will need
                                 to be empowered through improved access to assets,
                                 increased democratization, and inclusion and participation.
                                 This will also call for strengthening institutions to respond to
                                 interests of all citizens, particularly the poor …..‟

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                   Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers


                                    CASE STUDY 1
                         THE PATHANKOT WATER SUPPLY SCHEME

     The water supply scheme for village                  Question:
     Pathankot was being designed. Rehman had             What happened? Did the scheme
     developed an elaborate system of community           succeed? If not, why? What could have
     project dialogues, where 24 dialogues were           been done differently?
     organized, 2 each with 12 mohalla groups
     representing the 12 mohallas in the village.
     Care was taken to ensure that there was
     consensus among the entire community
     village on the route of the water supply

     The separate mohalla dialogues helped to
     work out the mechanics of compensating,
     where required, those villagers whose land
     was being used for laying down the pipes.
     The location for installing community taps
     were also decided jointly by the project‟s
     technical    team       and    the    mohalla
     representatives. The women were informed
     by the male members of their families about
     the water supply scheme. There was an air of
     excitement in the village households.

     Finally the water supply scheme was
     inaugurated. About two dozen community
     taps were installed; in public places often
     alongside a mud path and away from any
     trees. Essentially there were no washing
     pads where which women could use for
     household washing.          Those from the
     influential households bought rubber pipes
     connected them to the community taps and
     ensured uninterrupted water supply for their
     houses for at least half an hour daily. For the
     rest of the women it was „business as usual‟.
     They continued their old practice of walking
     miles to the nearest streams to wash clothes
     and to collect water for household

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

     Source: from UNDP/GEUP supported Gender Sensitivity and Awareness-Raising Manual, March 2003 by Shazreh Hussain
     and Nasim Zehra

                                 CASE STUDY 2

     In September 2001, Mrs. Imaan arrived in Kalinger with her                         1. Did the community
     project team comprising of two embroidery experts, one credit                         in Kalinger benefit
     and saving expert. The project was designed to help the local                         from all elements of
     women already producing traditionally embroidered clothes,                            the women‟s income
     bed-sheets, cushions etc.. The various elements of the project                        generation Project?
     included improving existing embroidery skills of the local                            If not, which element
     women; provision of designs and patterns for which there was                          proved useless for
     demand in the market; making credit facilities available to zero                      them?
     interest rate for purchasing raw materials, and providing                          2. Explain why the
     marketing facilities through KDP‟s existing sales outlet in                           element was
     Abbottabad and in Islamabad.                                                          unsuccessful?
                                                                                        3. Could the failure of
     By June 2002, fifty local women had joined the classes being                          the element have
     run by her two crafts experts. Based on time-availability                             been avoided?
     assessment, the class timings were suitable for women. When                        4. Can you recall the
     150 women completed their session, the project announced                              occurrence of a
     that they could now receive credit from the project. The credit                       similar problem in
     facility was a one window operation, required no collateral,                          any project that you
     and women could receive a max of five hundred rupees to be                            have been directly or
     returned within 6 months at zero interest rate.                                       indirectly been
                                                                                           engaged with?
     The project was committed to end what they believed was an
     exploitive borrower-lender relationship. This perception was
     developed on the basis of a study conducted in the eighties
     which highlighted that local landlords gave loan to the villagers
     at a 50-60% interest rate. Often the villagers who could hardly
     pay back the monthly interest rate were forced to work for the
     landlord at minimal salaries. The women conducting the
     baseline survey for the women income generating project had
     talked to women about the availability of the credit to buy raw
     materials for the product they were producing. The women‟s
     response was by and large unanimous. Our poor men have to
     beg for credit and ALLAH knows what we go through trying to
     return the credit and the heavy interest.

     After the credit scheme was announced, three months went by
     without any women applying for credit from the Project
     scheme! Mrs. Imaan became concerned. After all, why were
     women not approaching what she believed was a very
     attractive credit scheme for getting funds? Had women
     stopped requiring credit for buying raw material for their
     products? The KDP sociologist was thereby asked to conduct
     a three day study on the credit facility used by the male
     members of women producing local handicrafts. This is what
     the study stated.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

         There was a traditionally functioning credit facility in
         Kalinger. Every two or three months, the women producing
         local embroidery would ask the male members to bring the
         required raw material. The male members would always
         borrow money from the local shopkeeper, Hassan Mia.
         Hassan, who for years had been the main supplier of
         monthly household requirements sold monthly ration worth
         rupees 8,000-9,000 to every household. For Hassan, who
         had no investment opportunity other than purchasing more
         goods for his shop, had decided that lending money at
         10% interest to those who were his clients, friends, and
         fellow villagers borrowers was a wise thing. Hassan had
         established no payback period. However, generally his
         borrowers who would borrow few hundred every three
         months, would return in within 2-3 months.

         Hassan‟s borrowers were comfortable knowing that he
         was an understanding and sympathetic lender who had
         demonstrated on many occasions that he would
         understand towards those who could not pay the loan back
         on time. In fact, Hassan would be willing to extend
         additional loan even if the previous loan was still

         Hassan‟s credit facility was considered to be a blessing,
         particularly after the experience of five of twenty men who
         had taken a loan from a World Bank Credit Project. When
         they could not return the loans on time, these five men
         were blacklisted by the Project personnel. Their names
         were publicized in the local newspaper and the union
         council Chairman received a written complaint against
         them. These five „safaid posh‟ men had been humiliated.
         The village locals had vowed never to take credit from any
         outside source.

     Source: from UNDP/GEUP supported Gender Sensitivity and Awareness-Raising Manual, March 2003 by Shazreh Hussain
     and Nasim Zehra

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                     Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

                                           EXAMPLES OF
                                     GENDER BLIND DEVELOPMENT
         1.   Rural farming women displaced by agriculture technology. Result
                       Loss of income for females
                       Lost opportunity to learn a new skill (assumption that women cannot
                         deal with technology)

         2.       Aga Khan Education Services (AKES) in the Northern Areas invested in
                  female schools because government schools for boys existed in the area.
                  The result was because of better quality of teaching; the girls who
                  graduated from those schools had a markedly high standard of education
                  compared to boys. One of the undesirable outcomes was a difficulty in
                  finding appropriate marriage proposals for these girls.

         3.       A stone wall was built to protect a watershed area near a forest in India.
                  This was an important water source for the people who lived in the nearby
                  city. But the wall cut off the local community from their only source of
                  fuelwood, leaf litter and fodder. The army was sent to make sure the
                  people kept out of the forest. Now the women who collect these forest
                  products have to work secretly at night to elude the army guards – so it
                  takes them seven hours instead of three or four to gather a load of

         4.       Sindh‟s education policy for rural areas requires that the land for the
                  schools be contributed by the community. More often than not, those who
                  are in a position to donate the land are relatively better off, and whose off
                  springs probably go to private schools. The land which is donated by them
                  is generally is least valuable, and most often located far away from the
                  village and therefore inaccessible and unsafe for young girls. Such schools
                  consequently have little impact on the increase in enrollment, and therefore
                  female literacy rates, for obvious reasons.

         5.       A rice research project in Punjab resulted in new varieties that were fast
                  growing and early producers. Plant breeders did not explore other uses of
                  the rice plant. The husbands were given the proceeds from the rice crop.
                  Previously, women had made place mats and other crafts from the rice
                  husks and stalk. With the new varieties, this residue – disregarded by the
                  researchers – was no longer useful for crafts, resulting in less off-season
                  income for the women in the family. While the family may have had more
                  rice and the husbands (or other male household head) may have had more
                  income, net family income was not necessarily greater, and women‟s direct
                  control over her income was affected.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                        Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

                               GENDER ROLES AND GENDER ISSUES
         Gender refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities
         associated with being a man or a woman in a given society.

         They are about:
             what a man or woman can or cannot do
             what a man or woman can or cannot be
             social, economic and political relations between men and women
             who should do what
             who has control over decision-making, access to resources and benefits.

         Gender roles are created by societies, they are not biological and they vary from society
         to society, from time to time, from place to place, and from age to age. For example:

                 …… generation to generation: Think how different the day in the life of
                  your grand-father or grand-mother would have been at your age and you
                  will appreciate how gender roles have changed!

                 ……. time to time: Our own roles change as we grow from a
                  daughter/son to an adult and a parent. The trap we often fall into when
                  planning for development interventions is that we make assumptions
                  about the context of development based on our own experience in a
                  different context. These assumptions can result in terrible waste of
                  resources both for the agencies and the local community involved.

                 ……. place to place: Tasks that are intimately related with men in one
                  place are the tasks of a woman in another. For example, cutting trees in
                  the forest for firewood is generally man's work in Finland whereas in
                  Pakistan or Tanzania it would be women's work. Farmers in North
                  America are assumed to be men whereas most food production in Africa
                  is done by women. It is important to understand that these variations take
                  place from one country to another, but also within a country from one
                  region or a cultural group to another!

         Women and men play multiple roles in society, through which they participate in, and
         contribute to, the four domains around which society is organized:

         Reproductive Activities (“INSIDE”):                Productive Activities (“OUTSIDE”):
              Recognized as „Natural‟                             Recognized as „Work‟

     Roles:                                               Roles:
              Child bearing/rearing responsibilities               Work undertaken for pay in cash or
              and tasks – required to guarantee                    kind – includes market production
              maintenance and reproduction of                      and subsistence / home production.
              labor force; includes care and
              maintenance of the current and future
              work force (infants/school kids).

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                           Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

            Community Managing Activities                             Community Activities
         (“INSIDE/OUTSIDE”): Recognized as                      (“Outside”): Recognized as „Work‟

     Roles:                                                 Roles:
              Activities in the public sphere of the                 Activities at community level where
              community, such as participating in a                  decisions are made with regard to
              farmers or a women‟s group,                            access to and control over human
              attending religious meetings,                          and material resources. Would
              organizing social events and                           involve participation within the
              services, community improvement                        framework of national or local politics
              tasks, maintenance of scarce                           – generally paid work directly or
              resources of collective consumption,                   indirectly (financially rewarding)
              i.e. water, fuel, attending to the                     through STATUS or POWER.
              elderly sick and disabled. It involves
              voluntary time and is important for
              community organization and

         Once these roles are defined around the four domains, there is generally pressure on
         both men and women to conform to these social expectations. This pressure is generally
         exerted through the family, media, education, traditions and cultural norms.

         Gender roles change over time in response to many factors – social, technological,
         economic, geographic, and legal. During this process of evolution, some values are
         reaffirmed, while others are challenged as no longer appropriate.

         Gender issues arise when gender stereotyping prevent men or women from enjoying
         their full potential and human rights! Gender issues emerge when gender roles result in:

       Invisibility of either    Women and men‟s multiple roles have to be recognized. If not, one of
              gender             the gender will tend to become invisible or undervalued, e.g. the roles that
                                 women play in the reproductive domain; or women‟s contribution to the
                                 productive domain in terms of farming, management of livestock,
                                 mushroom farming, sericulture, etc. is not factored into interventions.
                                 Similarly, men‟s absence from the reproductive domain means that they
                                 lose out on care and close bonding; women‟s absence from the political
                                 domain (before devolution) did not allow women‟s representation in
                                 decision making.

        Unequal burdens          Men and women often have different needs and priorities due to their
        of work for either       different status and roles in society. Therefore development interventions
             gender              affect men and women differently. Men and women are interested in those
                                 interventions that make their lives easier to manage. Unless the needs
                                 and priorities of both women and men are addressed, humane, just and
                                 sustainable development is not possible.

       Unequal access to,        Gender issues also arise when one gender has a greater access to,
        and control over,        or control over, resources, including education, training, land, credit,
           resources             health, labor, income, technology, information, political power, transport,
                                 etc. Only if the relationship between men and women is equitable can
                                 men and women fully participate in and benefit from development. And
                                 development results must consciously define the benefits of any
                                 intervention for both men and women.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                       Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

         Men and women are the agents of change and an integral part of every development
         strategy. The participation of both men and women is essential for effective and efficient

         It is only when gender equality interventions are holistic and focus on macro and micro
         levels, i.e. on policy, program and project that society will progress and develop as a
         whole and any meaningful change would become visible. Policy makers must
         understand that interventions need to be designed so that they may address men and
         women‟s practical needs and strategic interests, as follows:

              Practical Gender Needs (PGNs)                  Strategic Gender Needs (SGNs)

          Gender needs of women arising from              Gender needs of women which change
                 existing gender roles                          existing roles and status

         Are immediate, concrete and often                Are those needs, that when met, will
         essential for human survival – such as for       actually challenge the traditional gender
         food, water, shelter, fuel and health care,      division of labor which has relegated
         etc. Attention to practical needs can            women to subordination and vulnerable
         address immediate disadvantages and              roles in society. Programs addressing the
         inequality, but can also reinforce the           strategic needs contribute to improved
         gender division of labour by helping             gender equality. They are more long term
         women and men perform their traditional          and less visible (than practical needs).
         roles better. Addressing practical needs
         usually does not change traditional
         gender roles and stereotypes.

         Examples of actions towards PGNs:                Examples of actions towards SGNs:
          Potable water                                   Women‟s representation in political
          Housing and household facilities                  structures and decision-making
          Community health centers/drugstores               bodies
          Labor-saving devices                            Policies/legislations against sexual
          Food processing/preservation                      harassment in the workplace
            technologies                                   Paternity leaves
          Pre and post natal care for mothers             Removal of legal obstacles such as
          Day care centers                                  discrimination in access to land and
          Literacy and skills development                   credit
          Accessible and adequate market                  Training for women and men in non-
            facilities                                       traditional areas (carpentry for
          Provision of credit facilities                    women, education for men)
          Women‟s crisis centers                          Men helping more equally with
          Community kitchens and laundries                  domestic work

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                        Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers

                                    GENDER EQUALITY – THE GOAL
           Not equal numbers …..               Gender equality does not simply mean equal
                                               numbers of men and women or boys and girls
           but equal recognition and           participating in all activities. It means that men and
           status                              women enjoy equal recognition and status within
                                               a society.

           Not to make them the                It does not mean that men and women are the
           same …..                            same, but that their similarities and differences are
                                               recognized and equally valued. It means that
           but to highlight and value          women and men experience equal conditions for
           similarities and differences        realizing their full human potential, have the
                                               opportunity to participate, contribute to, and benefit
                                               equally from national, political, economic, social and
                                               cultural development.

           Not to provide equal                Most importantly, gender equality means equal
           inputs …….                          outcomes for men and women. Gender equality is
                                               both a critical human rights issue and an essential
           but to ensure equal                 requirement for equitable, efficient, effective and
           outcomes                            sustainable development.

                           A stork and a bear are both hungry. Who gets to eat
                              effectively depends upon whether the plate is
                               shallow and wide, or elongated and deep. In
                             development we seek equitable inputs for equal

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                    Session-2: Why Gender Matters for Policy Makers


                           GENDER MAINSTREAMING AS A STRATEGY
                               TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY

         As defined by the United Nations, gender mainstreaming is:

                           “ …the process of assessing the implications for
                           women and men of any planned action, including
                           legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and
                           at all levels. It is a strategy for making women‟s as
                           well as men‟s concerns and experiences an
                           integral dimension of the design, implementation,
                           monitoring and evaluation of policies and
                           programs in all political, economic, and societal
                           spheres so that women and men benefit equally
                           and inequality is not perpetuated.”

                                                                  Source: The Economic and Social Council
                                                                  Report for 1997, United Nations, 1997

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

                          (Mainstreaming Gender in Polices,
                               Programs & Projects)

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                             Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

                                                   Session   3
                         Gender Mainstreaming in Policies, Programs & Projects

                                                     This session will:
                                                      Highlight      the   difference  between      sex-
                                                        disaggregated data, gender disaggregated data
                                                        and gender analysis, and how critical it is to
                                                        obtain the story behind the numbers for
                                                        developing effective policies, programs or
                                                      Emphasize the need to incorporate gender
                                                        sensitivity at each stage of the policy, program
                                                        and project cycle.

                        Duration                     45 minutes

                        Methodology                  Case Study; Exercise; Presentation; Plenary

                        Material/Equipment           Multimedia projector and screen

                         Slides                                              Handouts
     23.   Title Slide Session 3
     24.   How Can Policy Makers and Planners……            14. Gender Mainstreaming in Policies,
     25.   Understanding Gender Mainstreaming                  Programmes and Projects
     26.   Gender Mainstreaming in Policies                15. The Story behind the Numbers
     27.   Gender Mainstreaming in ……                      16. Information is Empowerment
     28.   Situation Assessment and Analysis               17. What is Gender Mainstreaming
     29.   Story behind the Numbers (Title Slide)          18. Why Gender Mainstreaming is Important
     30.   Case Study
     31.   The question you did not ask
     32.   Gender statistics were collected…….
     33.   Information is Power
     34.   Gender Mainstreaming in ……
     35.   Project Goals/Objectives, Strategy and
           Project Management
     36.   Gender Mainstreaming in ……
     37.   Project Implementation
     38.   Gender mainstreaming in …..                     Separate Handouts:
     39.   Monitoring & Evaluation                            „How do you explain this?‟
     40.   Government Officials must not Assume

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                              Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

     Reference                                            Steps                                        Reference
       Slide                                                                                            Handout
                     1. Display the Session Title Slide on the screen. Tell the
       Session -3        participants that before we start Session 3, we will have a
                         short energizer:

                                   Ask the group to stand in a circle.
                                   Tell them that they are to count from 1 to 50.
                                     The first participant calls out 1, the next calls out
                                     2 and so on. Participants who get the number
                                     five or its multiples (10,15,20..) have to clap
                                     instead of calling out the number.
                                   If someone makes a mistake (for example
                                     calling out the number instead of clapping),
                                     he/she is out of the game and the next
                                     participant starts counting again from 1. If the
                                     next participant does not start the counting
                                     again from 1, he/ she is also out.

                      2. Remind the participants that the previous session focused
                         on „why gender matters to policy makers‟. Highlight that if it
                        is established that it is necessary to address gender
          24.            disparities, then the challenge is how one can make sure
     How Can Policy      that the policies and plans that are formulated can meet the
       Makers and
      Planners……         needs of men and women, girls and boys.

                      3. Remind participants that the last two slides of the previous
                         session talked of an unconscious bias against the
                         disadvantaged, especially against women. If time permits,
                         pass out the „How do you explain this?‟ riddle. Most
                         participants will be unable to answer that the surgeon was
                         the mother! Once more reiterate that there are certain pre-
                         conceived ideas about the roles of men and women that
                         each of us have been conditioned to accept. And even
                         when these roles have changed, it is difficult for us to
                         accept, and therefore support them.

                      4. Conclude that no Government can afford that one gender is
                        left behind in terms of social, economic, political
                         development. But recognizing that we have all been
                         conditioned to think about men and women in certain ways,
         Gender          which may or may not support current realities, there is a
      Mainstreaming      need to mainstream gender so that such biases can be
                         dealt with. Tell the participants that this Session will focus
                         on understanding what that means, i.e. how for any
                         planned action one must look at implications for men and
                         women. Show the Slide „Understanding Gender
                         Mainstreaming‟ and ask participants to take a minute to
                         read the definition. Ask participants for comments or

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                              Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

     Reference                                            Steps                                        Reference
       Slide                                                                                            Handout

                        5. Tell participants that it is critical to look briefly at the key
                           actions which need to be taken at each of the four stages of
                          the project, program or policy making cycle. Read out the
                           four stages.                                                                    
         Gender                                                                                          14. Gender
      mainstreaming     6. Ask participants to focus on Stage 1, i.e. Situation                       Mainstreaming in
       in policies                                                                                        Policies,
                           Assessment. Ask what questions would need to be asked                      Programmes and
                           at this stage to ensure that both gender are adequately                        Projects

                          addressed? Highlight that the first question is: „were gender
           27.             disaggregated data and gender analysis used in the
         Gender            background and justification of the policy, program or
          in ….            project?‟ Tell participants that through a case study you
                           would like to highlight the importance of this step.
                        7. Introduce participants to the data collected in Vietnam over
       assessment          a period of 9 years (from 1990 to 1999). Point out that this
       and analysis        data was disaggregated by sex. Ask participants what the
                           data tells us? Participants should state that it clearly shows
                          more men than women have TB. At this stage, the trainer
                           should go along with them. Ask participants what action                         
      Story behind         they would take if they were Secretary Health in Vietnam.                    15. The Story
      the Numbers          Allow participants a few minutes to give their suggestions.                   behind the

                          Then stop them and flash the next slide.

       Case Study       8. Tell the participants that you would like to share what
                           actually happened. Tell them that a few people raised a
                           pertinent question … a question which was not asked when
                          the sex disaggregated data was collected. Emphasize that
      The question         when gender disparity is found in numbers, we need to see
     you did not ask       what the story behind the numbers is. For that we need
                           gender statistics, and more specific information on the
                           issue. This then leads to gender analysis which tells us the
                           cause of the difference and how to address it.

                        9. Inform the participants that in the given case, it was
                           eventually found that the quoted sex disaggregated data
                          were misleading. It was also discovered that women who
                           were suffering from TB were not being diagnosed for a
          Gender           number of reasons. Depending upon time, select three to
      Statistics were      four reasons to elaborate the point.

                        18. Conclude by highlighting that although sex-disaggregated
                            data is critical, it is not sufficient. There is a need to
                           substantiate and validate sex disaggregated data with
                            gender disaggregated data and gender analysis. One must                        
      Information is        know the story behind the numbers to be able to contribute                16. Information is
          power             effectively to policy, program or project.                                 Empowerment

                        19. Focus participants‟ attention to the next stage, i.e. Project
                            Goals/Objectives, Strategy and Project Management.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                              Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

     Reference                                            Steps                                        Reference
       Slide                                                                                            Handout
                      20. Emphasize that it is very important that objectives specify
                           what the program, project or policy hopes to achieve for
         Gender            women and what it hopes to achieve for men, otherwise if
      mainstreaming        you have only something like „community‟ in the objectives,
                           that means you have not analyzed and addressed the
                           needs of men and women and will have little success in
                          meeting them.
     Goal/Objectives   21. Remind participants that as they have seen through various
      Strategy and         case studies, working with women require a conscious
                           effort as they are not as visible or accessible as men.
                           Therefore how women will be included, and how their
                           needs are going to be addressed, must be spelt out in

                       22. Further highlight that all these efforts will culminate into
                           nothing unless a budget is set aside for working with men
                           and women. For example, the Barani Area Development
                           Project in NWFP has specified that 40% of the budget will
                           be reserved for women-specific activities.

                       23. Also, it is not enough to address only men‟s and women‟s
                           practical needs such as potable water, health centres, etc.
                           Strategic needs that have to do with improving women‟s
                           position in society have to be addressed as well. For
                           example, women‟s representation in political structures,
                           policies against sexual harassment, etc.

                       24. Now focus participants‟ attention to Project Implementation.
                           Highlight that if one is going to work with men and women,
                           there will be a need to hire both. A Project may have the
                           best strategies, but if the people who are implementing the
                           project are not sensitized, it won‟t work. For example:

                               policy for girls‟ schools is that there should be one
           36.                   within a 5km radius of the village. In NWFP, the
         Gender                  government built a school that satisfied the
         in ……                   requirement, but which was situated across a
                                 deserted stretch of land, so it never got utilized.
                               In AJK, in a World Bank project for elementary
                                 education, women and men monitoring officers
     Implementation              were appointed. The men were given motorcycles
                                 and women were not given any transport. As a
                                 result the women officers could not perform their

                       25. Finally refer participants‟ to the last stage of the cycle, i.e.
                           monitoring and evaluation. Highlight that you can only
                           monitor effectively if you have sex-disaggregated
                           indicators. Specify that there is a need for both qualitative
                           and quantitative indicators. For example,

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                              Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

     Reference                                            Steps                                        Reference
       Slide                                                                                            Handout
                              •   how many girl children and how many boy children
         Gender                    were immunized?
      mainstreaming            •   How many women are members of district
          in …..
                                   monitoring committees?
                               •   What is the extent of women‟s participation in
                                   decision-making in the district assemblies?

                       26. You also need to make sure that both women and men are
                          consulted when impact is assessed. When it comes to
      Monitoring &
                           impact, one cannot assume that it has had the same impact
       Evaluation          on both gender. There is a need to look at what the impact
                           has been on women and men, girls and boys.

                       27. So the more consciously we address gender, the better the
                           chances are of having a positive impact on women and

                               On this note we end our session on Mainstreaming
                               Gender in Policies, Programs and Projects.
                                                                                                    17. What is Gender
      Officials must                                                                                       
       not assume                                                                                     18. Why Gender
                                                                                                      Mainstreaming is

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
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Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects


                Policies, programs and projects impact differently on women and men
                due to their gender-based roles and life situations. Developing
                institutional capacity for gender mainstreaming thus requires that the
                needs of both women and men are reflected from beginning to
                end of the policy, program and planning process as follows:

                       1. Situation Assessment and Analysis: Were gender
                          disaggregated data and gender analysis used in the
                          background and justification of the policy, program or

                       2. Project Goals/Objectives, Strategy and Project
                          Management: Are the needs of both women and men
                          reflected in the goals, objectives and strategies of the
                          Project? Is there a clear policy for mainstreaming
                          women? Has appropriate budgeting been assigned for
                          sufficient for the development of both men and
                          women? Does the strategy consider men‟s and
                          women‟s practical and strategic gender needs?

                       3. Project Implementation: Will both men and women
                          participate in the implementation? Are those who will
                          implement the Program or Project gender aware? Has
                          adequate and appropriate resources been aligned to
                          work with both men and women?

                       4. Monitoring/Evaluation: Does the monitoring and
                          evaluation strategy have a gender perspective? Do the
                          indicators measure the gender dimension of each
                          objective? Have appropriate methods and resources
                          been assigned to obtain information from both gender?
                          Is there provision for a communication strategy? Does
                          the project redress a previous unequal sharing?

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                         Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects

                                  THE STORY BEHIND THE NUMBERS

     1.       Once upon a time the sex-                                                 Number of TB Cases
                                                                                          (sputum smear positive)
              disaggregated data for a
              National     TB     Program                 40000

              highlighted that significantly              30000

              more men than women are                     25000

              diagnosed with TB, and that                 20000                                                                          Male

              the Male to Female ratio in                 15000

              TB cases has increased

              substantially between 1990                      0
                                                                  1990    1991   1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999
              and 1999.
                                                                            (Source: Viet Nam National TB Program)

     2.       The information would have been taken at face value, and interventions would have
              been proposed, had not one person challenged the findings. A question was asked:
              do these differences in notification rates reflect a true difference in TB incidence for
              women and men? Or do they reflect an under-notification or misdiagnosis of the
              disease among women? This indicated the need for gender statistics such as: were
              there differences in clinical symptoms between men and women? How many women
              completed the sputum test regime? Etc.

     3.       Gender statistics were collected, followed by gender analysis. A number of gender-
              related issues emerged as follows:

                  a) Differences in clinical symptoms in women and men:
                  b) Sputum test regime: women tend not to come back to the clinic to complete
                     their sputum test
                  c) Quality of sputum produced by men and women
                  d) Understanding of and belief about TB
                  e) Health-care seeking behavior and TB diagnosis
                  f) Compliance with treatment and recovery after treatment.

     4.       This case study highlights the importance of sound gender analysis in ensuring an
              accurate understanding of the differences and complexities for women and men,
              which is essential in guiding appropriate health care interventions.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                              Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects


                                  INFORMATION IS EMPOWERMENT

     While sex-disaggregated data are important for telling us if differences exist in relation to a
     particular development issue or problem, the data cannot tell us why the difference exists,
     and in some cases the conventional analysis might in fact be misleading. Generally, a
     combination of biological and social factors is responsible for the difference in sex-
     disaggregated data. Sound gender statistics and gender analysis can help policy makers
     understand the story behind the numbers, thus making a critical contribution in terms of
     appropriate policies, strategies, and actions.

     Policy makers and planners must recognize the hidden gender-based impediments in
     development. If these are not effectively identified and addressed, the national poverty
     reduction goals cannot be achieved. When information is collected for any policy, program
     or project, the following must be ensured:

             1. Obtain Sex-Disaggregated Data                         2. Obtain Gender Statistics
                Reveals if there are differences                Information/data on specific issues where
             between women and men, boys and                       a gender disparity is known to exist.
                   girls on a specific issue.
                                                                  e.g. area wise difference, income wise
            e.g. In a community, the literacy rates              variations, age differentials, and cultural
           for boys is twice as high as that for girls;                 and sub-cultural variances;

                                   3. Probe for Gender Analytical Information
                                The results of gender analysis – provides information
                                about what the cause of the difference is, and how to
                                                     address it.

                               e.g. girls from low income households are expected to
                                 stay home and help with domestic responsibilities
                             (cleaning, caring for siblings) resulting in a lower girl-child
                                                    enrolment rate.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects


                              WHAT IS GENDER MAINSTREAMING?

     Gender Mainstreaming is a key strategy to reduce inequalities between women and men.

     The United Nations defines it as
              “…the process of assessing the implications for women and men of
              any planned action, including legislation, policies, or programmes, in
              all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women‟s as well as
              men‟s concerns and experiences a dimension of the design,
              implementaiton, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes
              in all political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and men
              benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated”.

                                                                                The Economic and Social Council
                                                                                Report for 1997, United Nations,

                                It means changing the way governments and
                                organizations work…
                                … so that the complexities and differences between
                                men‟s and women‟s experiences, needs and
                                priorities are equally valued, automatically
                                considered, and addressed from the outset at all
                                levels, in all sectors, at all stages of the policy and
                                program cycle

                                It means that all government officials…… at all
                                levels, no longer simply assume that either gender
                                (especially women) will automatically benefit from a
                                proposed policy or program. Rather, it is
                                consciously thinking about how this will happen.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-3: Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programs & Projects



       At National Level                                                 At Organizational
       Credibility and Accountability
       Just do the math! Men and women are 50% - 50%.
                                                                             It makes the social
       Governments must be accountable to all of its
                                                                              problem of gender
                                                                              inequality visible.
       Efficiency and Sustainability                                         It improves the
       Equal inclusion of men and women in all aspects of                     foundations for all our
       development and society pays off for the country as a                  programs and actions.
       whole. It is a matter of the bottom line: economic and                It teaches our staff about
       social efficiency and sustainability.                                  the different effects on
                                                                              men and women of our
       Justice and Equality                                                   programs and activities.
       It is just right! Democratic principles and basic human               It improves transparency
       rights demand gender equality.                                         and strategic decision-
                                                                              making in our
       Quality of Life                                                        organization.
       Increased attention to gender equality issues will                    It makes full use of human
       improve the lives of individual men and women. If                      resources, recognizing
       individuals are happier and healthier, they will also be               women and men with
       more productive, thus contributing to a more efficient                 similar capacities and
       and prosperous society.                                                opportunities.
                                                                             It leaves room for
       Alliance                                                               diversity, horizontal
       Gender equality as a pre-requisite for forging formal                  orientation and a new
       alliances or partnerships with other nations.                          organizational paradigm.
                                                                         Adapted from¨ Economic and Social
                                                                         Council (ECOSOC). Gender
                                                                         An Overview. United Nations. New York.
                                                                         January 2002.

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

                    (Taking Forward the Gender Agenda)

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                             Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

                                                   Session    4
                                Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

                                                     This session will:
                        Objectives                    Specify some initial but critical steps towards
                                                        mainstreaming gender in policy, programs and
                                                      Elaborate steps that will lead towards a more
                                                        gender responsive organization/department.

                        Duration                     25 minutes

                        Methodology                  Presentation; Plenary Discussion; Self Rating

                        Material/Equipment           Multimedia projector and screen

                           Slides                                            Handouts
                                                               19. Gender Mainstreaming – What does it
     41.   Title Slide Session 4                                   Need
     42.   Gender mainstreaming…. What does it need?           20. Internal Commitment from Senior Most
     43.   Feedback Form – Scale                                   Leadership
     44.   Feedback Form - Questionnaire                       21. Support from Experts
                                                               22. Strengthening Process by Mainstreaming
                                                                   Gender in Policies, Programmes and

                                                               Separate Handouts:
                                                                  Feedback Form

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                         Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

      Reference                                           Steps                               Reference
        Slide                                                                                  Handout

                       1. Display the Session Title Slide on the screen. Tell the
                         participants that with this Session we are nearing the end
                          of this Discussion. We have looked at „why gender
        Title Slide       matters‟. We have also looked at what is meant by „gender
        Session 4         mainstreaming‟. The question is: „where do we go from

                       2. Highlight the three interventions that can be taken on an
                          immediate basis by the participants to initiate the process             
            42.                                                                                    19.
                          of mainstreaming gender in their organizations. Emphasize              Gender
     mainstreaming….      that the most critical input is the participants‟ own              Mainstreaming –
       What does it       commitment. Without it nothing can happen. If the                   What does it
          need?                                                                                   Need
                          commitment exists, the expertise can be secured, and
                          processes can be re-designed to include the kinds of
                          questions we have raised in the previous session.

                       3. Ask participants to refer to the Checklist on Commitment,
                          and tick mark those steps they think can be practically                 
                          taken. Tell the participants that there are two copies of this            20.
                          Checklist. They should tick mark both copies, and tear one            Commitment
                          out for the Project, so that the Project has a sense of what       from Senior Most
                          senior most Government officials find possible to do in                Leadership
                          terms of gender mainstreaming (explain that they will still
                          have one copy in their folder).

                       4. Ask participants to do a similar rating for the Checklist on
                          Support from Experts. Again, explain that they have two                 
                          copies of this Checklist. They should mark both copies, and          Support from
                          submit one to the Project.                                             Experts

                       5. Refer participants to the Handout on Strengthening
                          Processes. Tell them that the processes listed there have               
                          already been reviewed in detail in the previous session. It is           22.
                          attached so that they may introduce the Checklist within            Strengthening
                                                                                                Process by
                          their departments to improve the policy, program and                Mainstreaming
                          project planning process.                                             Gender in
                                                                                             Programmes and
                       6. Finally, tell the participants that you would like them to fill        Projects

                         out a feedback form. Walk the participants through it. Ask
                          them not to put their names on it.
     Feedback Form -
         Scale         7. Thank the participants for their time and their contributions.
                          Invite the person who is to deliver the vote of thanks to
                          address the participants.
     Feedback Form -

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                           Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda


                                      GENDER MAINSTREAMING ..
                                        WHAT DOES IT NEED ?

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                   Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda


                           TAKING FORWARD THE GENDER AGENDA
                   Internal Commitment from Senior Most Leadership
     Only senior most management can properly oversee a crosscutting theme like Gender
     that overlaps the various management structures and areas of an organization. The
     authority and support of policy makers is essential in communicating the message that
     attention to gender equality is important and is expected!

                               As Senior Most Management, Do You……

                   Seek information, give ideas, and get progress reports on the
                       gender mainstreaming process, and gender equality progress
                       in policies and programs?
                   Recognize innovations and achievements related to gender
                   Integrate gender equality issues and perspectives into
                       speeches and statements on a range of subjects and not
                       reserve comments on this theme purely for gender and/or
                       women-specific occasions?
                   Assert what needs to change and how to do it to achieve
                       gender equality, especially in the face of resistance towards
                       gender equality?
                   Allocate sufficient resources, financial and human, for the
                       promotion and support of gender mainstreaming efforts?
                   Participate in discussions on gender issues i.e. opening
                       workshops, chairing panels, sponsoring discussions?
                   Extend moral support and lead policy advocacy and dialogue
                       on gender issues, e.g. raising it regularly in discussions with
                       politicians and representatives of development organizations?
                   Promote measures to develop gender equity within your own
                       organizational structures, procedures and culture?

     Adapted from: DFID April 2002, Gender Manual: A Practical Guide for Development Policy Makers and Practitioners

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                      Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda


                         TAKING FORWARD THE GENDER AGENDA ..

                                           Support from Experts
     Stakeholders have a significant impact on the outcome of a policy, program, or project.
     Reflect a moment on:

        Who are your organizations key stakeholders? Do they include individuals or groups
         with a „gender perspective‟?
        Is there an appropriate balance of women and men in all institutions and agencies
         involved in your planning processes?
        Has gender expertise been mobilized for your organization‟s planning processes?

          Have the following been brought in to contribute to the Public Sector
                          Policy, Programme or Project Cycle?

                      Gender focal points in other ministries or departments?
                      Development partners with a gender equality mandate?
                      An umbrella organization of women or gender NGOs?
                      Relevant sectoral or special interest NGOs that have an
                       interest or experience in gender issues?
                   Think tanks or policy analysts with experience or expertise in
                       gender issues?
                   Academics or researchers from university Gender Studies
                   Gender consultants

                                                                 Adapted from: UNDP RBEC 2002 Gender
                                                                 Mainstreaming in Practice: A Handbook

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                      Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

                          TAKING FORWARD THE GENDER AGENDA

          Strengthening Processs by Mainstreaming Gender in Policies,
                           Programmes and Projects

     1. Situation Assessment &                             Do any of the objectives challenge
     Analysis:                                               the existing or traditional sexual
      Has      specific and   relevant                      division of labor, tasks, opportunities
         information been collected on issues                and responsibilities?
         and differences for men and women                 Have specific ways been proposed
         in relation to the specific problem?                to encourage and enable women to
      Were women involved in conducting                     participate in the projects despite
         the needs assessment, and were the                  their traditionally more domestic
                                                             location and subordinate position
         women of the community asked for
                                                             within the community?
         their opinion on their problems and
         needs?                                            Have indicators been developed to
                                                             measure progress towards the
      Has there been an assessment of                       fulfillment of each objective? Do
         women‟s position in terms of such                   these indicators measure the gender
         possible problems as their heavier                  aspects of each objective?
         work burden, relative lack of
         access      to     resources      and
         opportunities or lack of participation           3. Project Strategy:
         in the development process?                       Is there need to target gender
                                                             balance as a corrective measure?
      Has a gender analysis been
         conducted to understand the cause                 Have the women in the affected
         of the issues or differences?                       community and target group been
                                                             consulted on the most appropriate
                                                             way of overcoming the problem?
     2. Project Goals/Objectives:
                                                           Is the chosen intervention strategy
      Do the project objectives make clear                  likely to overlook women in the
         that project benefits are intended                  target group, e.g. because of their
         equally for women as for men?                       heavier burden of work and more
      Does the goal seek to correct gender                  domestic location?
         imbalances     through   addressing               Is the strategy concerned merely
         practical needs of men and women?                   with delivering benefits to women, or
      Does the goal seek to transform the                   does it also involve their increased
         institutions (social and other) that                participation and empowerment, so
         perpetuate gender inequality?                       they will be in a better position to
      In what specific ways will the project                overcome the problem situation?
         lead     to     women‟s     increased
         empowerment?         Will    women‟s             4. Questions on Project
         participation increase at the level of           Management:
         the family and community? Will
         women be able to control income
                                                           Do planned activities involve both
                                                             men and women as equally as
         resulting from their own labor?

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                       Session-4: Taking Forward the Gender Agenda

      Are women and men of the affected                   Are there monitoring methods to
         community represented equally on                    check the progress in reaching
         the management committees?                          women? E.g. women‟s (increased)
      Are any additional activities needed                  income, occupation of leadership
         to ensure that a gender perspective                 roles, utilization of credit facilities,
         is made explicit (e.g. training in                  participation in project management
         gender issues, additional research,                 and implementation, and influence
         etc)?                                               over decision making?
      Is there a clear guiding policy for                 Has a communication strategy been
         management on the integration of                    developed for informing various
         women within the development                        publics   about    the    existence,
         process?                                            progress and results of the project
                                                             from a gender perspective?
      Have financial inputs been „gender-
         proofed‟ to ensure that both men and
         women will benefit from the planned              7. Evaluation:
         intervention?                                     Do women receive a fair share,
      Has management been provided                          elative to men, of the benefits arising
         with the human resources and                        from the projects?
         expertise necessary to manage and                 Does the project redress a previous
         monitor the women‟s development                     unequal sharing of benefits?
         component within the project?
                                                           Does the project give women
                                                             increased control over material
     5. Project Implementation:                              resources, better access to credit
      Are     the implementers gender-                      and other opportunities, and more
         responsive and aware of the specific                control over the benefits resulting
         gender issues?                                      from their productive efforts?
      Will both women and men participate                 What are the likely long-term effects
         in implementation?                                  in terms of women‟s increased ability
                                                             to take charge of their own lives,
      Do implementation methods make                        understand their situation and the
         sufficient use of existing women‟s                  difficulties they face, and to take
         organizations and networks such as                  collective action to solve problems?
         women‟s groups?
      Have      these partners received
         gender mainstreaming training, so
                                                                                 Adapted from Astrida
         that gender perspective can be                                          Neimanis, Gender
         sustained              throughout                                       Mainstreaming in Practice: A
                                                                                 Handbook, Part I.

     6. Monitoring:
      Does the monitoring strategy include
         a gender perspective?
      Are there monitoring mechanisms
         that ensure that all policy / program /
         project activities are on track and
         take account of progress for male
         and female beneficiaries?

Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                          Reference Material


Mainstreaming Gender in Policies, Programmes & Projects
                                                                                             Reference Material

                    GoP Commitments to Women Development
                               Policy Environment for Gender Mainstreaming

          International Commitments
              9. MDGs – Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 2000)
              10. CEDAW – in force on September 3, 1981. Pakistan ratified in 1996.

          National Commitments
             11. MTDF – Mid Term Development Framework (2005-10)
             12. NPA – by Ministry of Women and Development, September 1998.
             13. NPDEW – by Ministry of Women and Development, 2002

          Major Initiatives
             14. GRAPs – National and Provincial GRAPs (2004)
             15. Decentralization Support Program - TA2
             16. GSP - Gender Support Programme (2003-2008)

          1. Gender and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs

          Why Gender Matters to the MDGs                  women‟. The goal has one target: „to
          The Millennium Development Goals,               eliminate gender disparity in primary
          or MDGs, are an integrated set of               and secondary education, preferably
          eight goals and 18 time-bound targets           by 2005, and to all levels of education
          for extending the benefits of                   no later than 2015‟. Four indicators are
          globalization to the world‟s poorest            used to measure progress towards the
          citizens. The goals aim to stimulate            goal: the ratio of girls to boys in
          real progress by 2015 in tackling the           primary, secondary and tertiary
          most pressing issues facing                     education; the ratio of literate women
          developing countries – poverty,                 to men in the 15-to 24-year-old age
          hunger, inadequate education, gender            group; the share of women in wage
          inequality, child and maternal                  employment in the non-agricultural
          mortality, HIV / AIDS and                       sector; and the proportion of seats
          environmental degradation. UNDP                 held by women in national
          helps countries formulate national              parliaments. The existence of a
          development plans focused on the                separate goal on gender equality is
          MDGs and chart national progress                the result of decades of advocacy,
          towards them through the MDG                    research and coalition-building by the
          reporting process.                              international women‟s movement. Its
                                                          very existence demonstrates that the
          In most developing countries, gender            global community has accepted the
          inequality is a major obstacle to               centrality of gender equality and
          meeting the MDG targets. In fact,               women‟s empowerment to the
          achieving the goals will be impossible          development paradigm– at least nat
          without closing the gaps between                the rhetorical level.
          women and men in terms of
          capacities, access to resources and             Yet the gap between rhetoric and
          opportunities, and vulnerability to             reality persists: the 2005 primary and
          violence and conflict.                          secondary school parity target will
                                                          likely be missed. But even if it were
          Millennium Development Goal 3 is „to            achieved, it is hardly sufficient to
          promote gender equality and empower             ensure the full participation of women

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          in the political and economic lives of             Reduce by half the lifetime
          their countries. Much more is needed:               prevalence of violence against
          full reproductive health rights and                 women.
          access to services, guarantee of equal
          property rights and access to work,             The task force also suggests that
          affirmative action to increase political        national governments add additional
          representation, and an end to violence          indicators for tracking progress
          against women and girls. To realize             towards the gender goal. Their
          the MDGs, governments and their                 recommendations include:
          partners must seriously and                      Completion rates (in addition to
          systematically „engender‟ efforts to                enrolment rates) for primary and
          achieve all the goals. But today, the               secondary school;
          gender focus is largely limited to the           Economic indicators such as
          gender equality, maternal mortality,                gender gaps in earnings, sex-
          and HIV/AIDS goals – leaving out                    disaggregated unemployment
          critical development issues such as                 rates and occupational segregation
          the feminization of poverty, the                    by sex;
          preponderance of female-headed                   Prevalence rates for domestic
          households among the hungry, and                    violence in the past year.
          the lopsided impact of environmental
          degradation on women (particular in             Another option is to add at least one
          terms of time spent gathering fuel and          gender-specific indicator not just to the
          hauling water).                                 gender goal, as suggested above, but
                                                          also to the set of indicators for all the
          Making MDG Reporting Gender-                    goals and targets. A recent UNDP
          Sensitive                                       review of National MDG Reports2
          Gender experts and advocates have               argues that adding more indicators for
          suggested several concrete ways to              each and every target, ideal though it
          make the MDG implementation and                 would be, is not feasible given country
          reporting process more gender-                  capacity and workload considerations
          sensitive. Two complementary                    as well as the availability of data.
          approaches include adding targets               Instead, the report recommends
          and indicators to Millennium                    providing sex-disaggregated data and
          Development Goal 3 (on gender                   qualitative information on gender
          equality and women‟s empowerment),              issues across goals and targets, and
          and disaggregating the targets and              gives practical suggestions on how to
          indicators for the other goals by               do so:
          gender. Both deserve UNDP support.               Involve women‟s groups and
          The UN Millennium Project Task Force                gender experts in consultations on
          on Education and Gender Equality1                   all the goals;
          suggests that national governments               Support independent studies using
          add additional targets, beyond the                  rapid participatory methodologies
          education target, under the gender                  to collect qualitative information on
          equality and women‟s empowerment                    key gender dimensions of goals
          goal. Recommended targets include:                  and targets;
           Ensure universal access to sexual              Share draft reports with
              and reproductive health services                independent gender experts for
              through the primary health care                 review;
              system;                                      Support efforts to sensitize
           Eliminate gender inequality in                    statisticians involved in collating
              access to assets and employment;                and processing MDG tracking data
           Achieve a 30 percent share of                     to the gender dimensions of the
              seats for women in national                     mandatory indicators under each
              parliaments;                                    goal;

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             Support the collection of sex-
              disaggregated data;               
             Provide training to country teams           s-genderlens.pdf
              and others involved in the MDG
              reporting process.                          See the final reports of the UN
                                                          Millennium Project Task Force on
          Where to Go for Help                            Education and Gender Equality,
          Gender Equality and the Millennium              Toward universal primary education:
          Developments Goals                              investments, incentives, and
          ( is a                 institutions and Taking action:
          website with resources and tools for            achieving gender equality and
          addressing gender equality in all of the        empowering women at:
          MDGs – from literature on gender      
          equality as it relates to each goal, to         reports/reports2.htm#02
          tools for advocacy and action.
          UNDP best practices can be found in             National Reports, a Look Through a
          National Reports, a Look Through a              Gender Lens.
          Gender Lens, available at:

          2. CEDAW

          Convention on the Elimination of                men in political and public life,
          Discrimination       Against        Women       education, health care, marriage and
          (CEDAW)                                         family relations, property ownership
          The Convention on the Elimination of            and employment. It is the only human
          All Forms of Discrimination Against             rights treaty which affirms the
          Women (CEDAW) which came into                   reproductive rights of women and
          force on September 3, 1981 has, as of           identifies culture and tradition as
          November 1, 1999 been ratified by               influential forces shaping gender roles
          165 state parties including Pakistan            and family relations.
          which did so in 1996. Often described
          as international bill of rights for             But CEDAW is not self-executing. It
          women, it is the only legally binding           requires the enactment of national
          treaty that women can turn to in                legislation for its enforcement.
          demanding state protection of their             CEDAW can be cited and used by the
          civil, economic and political rights.           courts in deciding cases of
          Consisting of a preamble and 30                 discrimination against women in
          articles, it defines what constitutes           almost all spheres of life such as
          discrimination against women and sets           politics, employment, education,
          up an agenda for national action to             health care, marriage, family relations
          end such discrimination. The                    and property ownership.
          Convention provides the basis for
          realizing equality between women and                                      (Source: UNICEF)

          3. MTDF – Mid Term Development Framework (2005-10)

          Vision for MTDF                                 spheres and at all levels, so as to
          Enhancement of the status of women              bridge the gender gaps and move
          through promotion and protectionb of            towards gender equality.
          women‟s rights, their empowerment
          and advancement, and their active
          participation and mainstreaming in all

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                                                               Mainstreaming of gender
          Strategies:                                          Initiation of special
          a. Meeting women‟s basic minimum                      programmes for women‟s
             needs: making efforts towards                      economic empowerment
             broader horizontal linkages                      Social protection measures
          b. Poverty reduction, economic                      Macro economic policy
             empowerment, social and legal                      framework
             empowerment, personal security                   Access to training and
             and political participation:                       employment
          c. affirmative actions to create a                  Organizing women
             „level playing field‟ (mainstreaming         d. Gender responsive budgeting and
             gender in the PRSP 2003)                        required investments
              Strengthening of institutional

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          4. National Plan of Action (NPA)

          The National Plan of Action (NPA) puts together the strategic objectives and action
          the government of Pakistan will take to implement the Beijing Platform for Action
          (PFA). It was the result of nationwide consultations and the joint efforts of
          government both federal and provincial, and civil society, particularly women‟s
          groups. The PFA recommended that government address twelve (12) critical areas
          of concern:

                      Women and Poverty
                      Education and Training of Women
                      Women and Health
                      Violence against Women
                      Women and Armed Conflict
                      Women and Economy
                      Women in Power and Decision-Making
                      Institutional Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women
                      Human Rights of Women
                      Women and the Media
                      Women and the Environment
                      The Girl Child

          5. National Policy for the Development & Empowerment of Women (NPDEW)

          Goal:                                              Mainstreaming gender issues
          Empowerment of Pakistani women,                     through integration into all sectors
          irrespective of caste, creed, religion, or          of national development.
          other consideration for the realization            Eliminating all negative social
          of their full potential in all spheres of           practices.
          life, especially social, economic,
          personal and political and in keeping           Major Thrusts:
          with our Islamic way of life.                    Social Empowerment of Women:
                                                             Education, Health, Law and
          Key Policy Measures:                               Access to Justice, Violence
           Ensuring that government                         against Women, Women in the
             agencies adopt a gender sensitive               Family and Community, The Girl
             approach to development in                      Child;
             preparing needs based,                        Economic Empowerment of
             participatory and implement able                Women: Poverty, Access to Credit,
             programmes and projects. Gender                 Remunerated Work, Women in the
             sensitization to be institutionalized           Rural Economy and Informal
             and integrated into all sectors of              Sector, Sustainable Development;
             development, and to include the               Political Empowerment of Women:
             private sector as well.                         Power & Decision Making,
           Developing multi-sectoral and                    participation of women in all
             inter-disciplinary approaches for               political arenas and at all positions,
             women‟s development, with                       participation of women in all
             horizontal and vertical linkages at             decision making bodies of the
             every level.                                    executive and judicial organs of
                                                             the state and community

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          6. National and Provincial Gender Reform Action Plans (GRAPs) for
          Engendering Governance Structures

          With the total estimated cost of Rs.            GRAPs include gender-based policy,
          1444 million (US $ 24.5 million in total,       administrative, political and fiscal
          Rs. 612 million for National GRAP),             reforms at the Federal, Provincial and
          the National and Provincial GRAPs               District level to enable the
          propose a coherent gender reform                Government to implement its national
          agenda to align policies, structures            and international commitments on
          and procedures for enabling the                 gender equality. GRAPs propose
          government to implement its national            reforms across all sectors focused on
          and international commitments on                executive arm of government. These
          gender equality. The reforms are                reforms are designed within
          designed within contemporary                    contemporary development paradigm
          development paradigm with women‟s               with women‟s empowerment at its
          empowerment at its centre, and with a           centre, and a view to enhancing the
          view to enhancing the participation of          participation of women across the
          women across the gender and                     gender and governance sphere: from
          governance sphere: from political               political participation, where the
          participation, where the wishes of              wishes of citizens are expressed
          citizens are expressed through                  through political mandates and
          political mandates and legislation, to          legislation, to government actions,
          government actions, where these                 where these wishes are implemented
          wishes are implemented through                  through public sector institutions,
          public sector machinery: institutions,          policies and budgets. GRAPs propose
          policies and budgets.                           the following reforms:

          GRAP will be implemented in four                a) Institutional reforms
          years and in two consecutive phases             b) Reforms in policies, budgeting and
          of two years each. The costs of                    public expenditure mechanisms
          national as well as provincial GRAPs            c) Reforms to increase and improve
          will be partly financed through                    women‟s employment in public
          government funding, and partly                     sector organizations
          through various bilateral and                   d) Reforms to improve women‟s
          multilateral sources. GRAP has the                 political participation
          following components:                           e) Related capacity building
             Political Participation
             Institutional Restructuring
             Women‟s Employment in the
              Public Sector
             Policy Reforms
             Capacity Development
             Supporting Reforms

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          7. Decentralization Support Program – TA2

          One national and four provincial                  West Frontier Province (NWFP) and
          GRAPs were prepared by the Ministry               Balochistan. GRAPs have significance
          of Social Welfare, Women                          for the ADB as their implementation is
          Development and Special Education                 a policy commitment in the DSP, in the
          and Provincial Women Development                  Punjab Resource Management
          Departments in a consultative and                 Program (PRMP)4 and the Sindh
          review process under ADB‟s technical              Devolved Social Services Program
          assistance (TA) project, TA3832:                  (DSSP Sindh).5 During 2004, the ADB
          Gender Reform Program. Federal and                Board will consider two additional
          provincial cabinets have now                      programs, the Balochistan Resource
          approved the draft GRAPs cleared by               Management Program6 (BRMP) and
          the Provincial and National Steering              the Punjab Devolved Social Services
          Committees. The Ministry of Social                Program7(DSSP Punjab) in which
          Welfare, Women Development and                    GRAPs implementation is proposed as
          Special Education is the national focal           a policy action. DSP provides for a
          ministry for implementation of national           dedicated TA to support
          GRAP, while the provincial Women                  implementation of GRAPs.8Thus,
          Development Departments will                      through these commitments, ADB has
          implement their respective GRAPs.                 made an unprecedented effort to
                                                            mainstream both corporate and
                                                            government policy on gender through
          ADB‟s principal commitments to
                                                            innovative and high profile assistance.
          gender and governance reforms in
          Pakistan are articulated through two
          major programs, the Decentralization
          Support Program (DSP)1 and the
          Access to Justice Program (AJP).2
          Although these programs provide a
          high-level framework for policy
          dialogue with Government on gender
          and governance issues, this dialogue
          has been sporadic as both programs
          have awaited a firm commitment from
          Government to an over-arching
          package of legislative, political,
          administrative and fiscal reforms. A
          key package of reforms, in the shape
          of Gender Reform Action Plans
          (GRAPs), has been the main output of
          the recently concluded technical
          assistance (TA) project for Gender
          Reform Program.3 GRAPs have now
          been approved by the Cabinets of the                Loans 2030/1-PAK: Punjab Public Resource
          federal government and the provincial             Management Program of $200 million, approved on
                                                            4 December 2003.
          governments of Sindh, Punjab, North               5
                                                              Loans 2047/8/9-PAK: Sindh Devolved Social
                                                            Services Program of $229 million, approved on 12
            Loans 1935/36/37/38-PAK: Decentralization       December 2003.
          Support Program of $300 million, approved on 21     A $120 million loan is in the pipeline year 2004-
          November 2002.                                    2006 for Balochistan Resource Management
            Loans 1987/88/89-PAK: Access to Justice         Program.
          Program: of $350 million, approved on 20            A $150 million loan is in the pipeline for lending
          December 2001.                                    for the year 2004-2006 for Punjab Devolved Social
            TA3832-PAK: Gender Reform Program of            Services.
          $600,000 was approved by ADB on 1 February          Loan 1938-PAK: Gender and Governance
          2002.                                             Mainstreaming

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          8. Gender Support Programme (GSP)

          The Gender Support Programme (GSP) (2003-2008) has been designed to provide a unified
          holistic strategy in promoting gender equality in Pakistan. GSP is coordinated by Economic
          Affairs Division (EAD) and works with the relevant Government Ministries and line
          Departments at the Federal and Provincial level as well as other stakeholders.

          Addressing poverty in Pakistan through gender-responsive governance and rights based
          approach to sustainable human development, it aims to provide coordinated policy, technical
          and managerial support to the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design, implementation
          and monitoring of national programmes and projects. GSP is linking with Government
          Policies and programmes as follows:
               NPDEW
               PRSP
               CEDAW
               MDGs
               MDTF
               GRAP

          In terms of women‟s areas of concern, the following are being addressed through GSP:

          Strengthening of Institutional Mechanisms: 4 interventions
           Institutional strengthening of the NCSW
           Gender responsive budgeting with the Ministry of Finance
           Gender mainstreaming in the planning process & P&DD
           Working towards achieving the national and international commitments on gender and
             poverty issues with MoWD

          Political Participation
           GSP project with the Ministry of Women Development titled „Women‟s Political School‟

          Social Protection Measures
           GSP project with the Local Government titled “Gender justice through the Musahilat

          Economic Opportunities
                GSP project titled WACT (Women‟s Access to Capital and Technology)

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          1. GENDER                                         4. DIVISION OF LABOR
          Gender attributes are socially-assigned           This concept looks at the different tasks
          roles and relations between men and               and responsibilities undertaken by either
          women. Gender relationship relates to a           women or men. The allocation of
          range of institutional and social issues          activities on the basis of sex is learned
          rather than a specific relationship               and clearly understood by all members
          between certain male and female                   of a given community/society.
                                                            The triple role of women includes:
          Gender characteristics are not natural or         Productive work (production of goods
          biological. We are not born with them.            and services for consumption by the
                                                            household or for income), Reproductive
          Societies create and assign gender
                                                            work (bearing and rearing children,
          attributes to girls and boys, men and
                                                            domestic work and maintenance of the
          women, and there is often considerable
                                                            household) and Community work
          social pressure to conform to these
                                                            (provision and maintenance of resources
          ideas about behaviour. For example, in
                                                            used by everyone – water, health care,
          many societies women are expected to
                                                            education, and leadership). Men tend to
          be subordinate to men. But in some
                                                            be more involved in Community and
          societies women are dominant in
                                                            Productive work.
          decision-making. In other societies it is
          expected that women and men will                  5. GENDER RELATIONS
          participate equally in decision-making.
                                                            Social relations between women and
          2. SEX                                            men, in particular how power is
                                                            distributed between them. They impact
          The biological differences between male
                                                            on men‟s and women‟s position in
          and females that we are born with, and
                                                            society and tend to disadvantage
          that are universal.
                                                            women. Gender hierarchies are often
          For example men can impregnate and                accepted as „natural‟ but they are
          women can give birth and breast-feed.             socially determined relations that are
                                                            culturally based and subject to change
          3. GENDER ROLES
                                                            over time.
          What women and men are expected to
                                                            6. GENDER EQUALITY
          do and how they are expected to behave
          towards each other.                               Women and men‟s similarities and
          Gender roles are different across                 differences are recognized and equally
          communities and across the world. They            valued.
          change over time in response to                   Men and women enjoy equal status,
          changing community circumstances (e.g.            recognition and consideration.
          during wars – when women take on
                                                            Women and men enjoy:
          more leadership roles) and changing
          ideas about what is acceptable or not                Equal conditions to realize their full
          acceptable behaviours and roles.                      potential and ambitions;
          Gender roles and characteristics affect              Equal opportunities to participate in,
          power relations between men and                       contribute to, and benefit from
          women at all levels and can result in                 society's resources and
          inequality in opportunities and outcomes              development;
          for some groups.
                                                               Equal freedoms and quality of life;
                                                               Equal outcomes in all aspects of life.

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           7. GENDER EQUITY                               11. GENDER BLIND
           The process of being fair to men and           Unaware of gender concepts and the
           women – such as equitable allocation of        impact that they have on life experiences
           resources and opportunities. Equity can        and outcomes for girls and boys, men
           be seen to be the means and gender             and women.
           equality as the end. Equity contributes to
           equality.                                      12. GENDER SENSITIVE
                                                          Properly aware of the different needs,
                                                          roles, responsibilities of men and
           8. GENDER DISPARITY OR GAP                     women.
           A specific difference or inequality            Understands that these differences can
           between girls and boys, or men and             result in difference for women and men
           women in relation to their conditions, or      in:
           how they access or benefit from a
                                                             Access to and control over
           resource (e.g. men's and women's
           access to health services, school drop-
           out rates of girls and boys).                     Level of participation in and benefit
                                                              from resources and development.
                                                          13. GENDER RESPONSIVE
           A set of characteristics that a particular
           group assigns to women or men (e.g.            Aware of gender concepts, disparities
           domestic work does not belong to men's         and their causes, and takes action to
           responsibilities).                             address and overcome gender-based
           Gender stereotypes are often incorrect         inequalities.
           (do not reflect an individual's actual         14. GENDER TRANSFORMATIVE
           capacity) and usually limit what a person
           is permitted and expected to do by             Actively seeks to understand the
           others in the society.                         underlying causes of gender inequalities
                                                          and takes effective action to transform
           10. DISCRIMINATION AGAINST                     the unequal power relations between
           WOMEN                                          men and women, resulting in improved
           “Any distinction, exclusion or restriction     status of women and gender equality.
           made on the basis of sex which has the         15. THE MAINSTREAM
           effect or purpose of impairing or
           nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or       The dominant set of ideas, values,
           exercise by women, irrespective of their       beliefs and attitudes, relationships and
           marital status, on a basis of equality of      practices within the mainstream of
           men and women, of human rights and             society.
           fundamental freedoms in the political,         Includes all of society's main institutions
           economic, social, cultural, civil or any       (families, schools, government, mass
           other field.1” Men and women are               organizations) which determines who is
           treated differently (restricted or excluded    valued and how resources are allocated,
           or violated) in the family, the workplace      who can do what, and who gets what in
           or society due gender stereotypes. For         society. Ultimately, the mainstream
           example, when a women is not                   affects the quality of life outcomes for all
           promoted to a leadership position (even        of society.
           when she has suitable qualifications and
           experience) because a society believes         16. GENDER MAINSTREAMING
           that only men can make important
                                                          An approach or a strategy to achieving
           decisions.                                     broad-based gender equality throughout
                                                          society – by getting gender issues into
                                                          the mainstream.

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           Broadening of responsibility for               tends not to change underlying causes
           achieving gender equality.                     of gender inequality.
           Essentially involves acceptance by the         19. STRATEGIC INTERESTS
           mainstream of gender equality as a
           worthy goal, and acceptance of                 Longer term and less visible issues that
           responsibility by the mainstream to            relate to the underlying causes of gender
           actively address the gender issues             inequality. When strategic interests are
           relevant to them, their relationships and      met for women, there will be changes
           work, with the aim of achieving gender         and improvements in power relations
           equality throughout society.                   between men and women (e.g. removal
                                                          of legal barriers, sharing of domestic
           Gender mainstreaming can be viewed as          work, and equal decision-making in the
           a tool in achieving good governance            household).
           because it seeks to ensure that the
           needs and priorities of all members of a       20. CONDITION AND POSITION
           society are considered and met, that all       Condition refers to the material state in
           members of society participate and             which men and women live (e.g. food,
           contribute to the process of governance,       quality of health care and housing, etc.)
           and that the benefits of development are       Position refers to women‟s and men‟s
           distributed equitably amongst all              political, social, economic and cultural
           members of society.                            standing in society (e.g. unequal
           Gender mainstreaming is not an end in          representation in the political process,
           itself – it is an ongoing approach to the      unequal ownership of land and property).
           way we think, relate with each other and
                                                          21. ACCESS TO RESOURCES
           do our work.
                                                          When a person has the use of a
                                                          resource (access), but does not control
           An approach that emphasizes the need           it, and as such is not in a position to
           to increase the number of women and            make certain decisions about how the
           women‟s active participation in                resource is used (e.g. renting land to
           mainstream activities, particularly in         grow crops, or access to/ participate in
           politics, leadership and governance; key       political processes).
           decision-making processes at all levels,
                                                          22. CONTROL OVER RESOURCES
           in all sectors.
           A strategy based on the recognition that       When a person has the power to make
           men and women have different life              decisions about the use of resources
           experiences, different needs and               (e.g. use the land or when to sell it,
           priorities, and are affected differently by    control over which issues are discussed
           policies and programs. Therefore, in           in political processes and what the final
           addition to it being women‟s right to          decisions are).
           participate in decision making – their         23. GENDER RESPONSIVE
           participation makes sense from a               MONITORING
           government efficiency and effectiveness
           perspective – as it results in more            A systematic ongoing approach to
           effective government policies, programs        checking if interventions are on track to
           and projects.                                  achieving their goals – specifically
                                                          designed to reveal the differences in
           18. PRACTICAL NEEDS                            experiences and impact on men and
           Concrete immediate needs that are often        women.
           essential for human survival such as           24. GENDER RESPONSIVE
           food, water, shelter, money, security.         EVALUATION
           Action to address practical needs can          A systematic approach to assessing the
           relieve immediate disadvantage but             policy intervention, program or project

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           (from a gender perspective) whether it         by appropriately trained and experienced
           achieved its objectives, what the broad        social researchers or gender experts.
           impact was and why it was successful or
           unsuccessful. While monitoring is at the       27. GENDER STATISTICS
           implementation (more micro) level and          A special group of statistics that focus on
           ongoing, evaluation occurs at the              specific known gender related issues
           strategic (more macro) level and less          such as hours of sleep and leisure,
           frequently – typically mid-term and            violence against women.
           completion. Gender-responsive
           evaluations are designed to capture the        28. BASELINE
           impact on the entire group of                  Information gathered before an
           stakeholders or beneficiaries, and show        intervention is implemented to tell us
           clearly the different outcomes for women       what the situation is before action is
           and men.                                       taken. Baseline information is useful to
           Evaluations should provide us with             the process of setting targets and
           important information to inform future         measuring progress. Baseline
           policies, programs and projects.               information should be disaggregated by
           Evaluation results must therefore be           sex wherever possible to ensure that
           documented, communicated effectively           differences for women and men are clear
           and made available to relevant policy,         from the outset.
           program and project designers.
                                                          29. TARGET
                                                          Targets (or objectives) help
           Quantitative statistical information on the    policy/program/project implementers and
           differences between men and women,             managers keep their eye on the prize –
           boys and girls for a particular issue or in    the ultimate outcome expected. Targets
           a specific area. Looking at data for           increase the likelihood that overall
           individuals and breaking it down by the        objectives will be met and that adequate
           sex of the individuals (e.g. data of life      resources will be allocated to ensure
           expectancy, school enrolment, smoking          success. Wherever possible targets
           prevalence divided by men and women).          should be gender-responsive –
                                                          highlighting the focus for both men and
           Sex-disaggregated data shows us if             women where appropriate (e.g. reduce
           there is a difference in a given situation     school dropout rates to X% for girls and
           for women and men, girls and boys, but         boys).
           it doesn‟t tell us why the difference exits.
                                                          30. INDICATOR
           26. GENDER ANALYSIS
                                                          Indicators specify how achievement
           Provides a deeper understanding of the         towards targets will be measured. What
           situation for and between men and              are the „indications‟ of progress? How do
           women, their constraints, needs,               we know if we are getting closer to our
           priorities, and interests.                     target or objective? They can be thought
           Gender analytical information (results of      of as the steps along the way to
           gender analysis) is essential in designing     achieving the target. For example, if the
           good policies – because it tells us why        target is “re-forestation of a particular
           the differences exist – the causes.            area”, the indicators might be X hectares
           Gender analysis is an important part of        of land prepared for planting, X number
           policy analysis that identifies how public     of seedling trees grown, irrigation system
           policies (or programs/projects) affect         planned and set up, fertilizer purchased
           men and women differently.                     and spread, percentage of area
                                                          replanted, percentage of trees planted –
           Conducting gender analysis requires
                                                          all of the „indications‟ of progress
           well-developed social and gender
                                                          towards the target.
           analytical skills and is usually carried out

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           31. QUANTITATIVE                               34. VIET NAM WOMEN'S UNION
           Quantitative data are measures of
           quantity (total numbers, proportions,          A popular women‟s socio-political
           percentages etc), such as population           organization which is mandated to
           figures, labour force figures, school          women's equality and development, and
           attainment rates, etc. It is important that    protects women‟s legitimate rights and
           wherever possible data for individuals be      benefits.
           disaggregated by the sex of the
           individuals – sex-disaggregated data.          35. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE
                                                          ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN
           32. QUALITATIVE                                (NCFAW)
           Information that is based on people‟s          National Committee for the
           judgments, perceptions and opinions            Advancement of Women is the advisory
           about a subject. Obtained through              body to the Prime Minister in developing
           attitude surveys, focus group                  and monitoring the implementation of the
           discussions, public hearings and               National Strategy and Plan of Action for
           consultations, participatory appraisals        Advancement of Women; coordinates
           etc. It is essential that qualitative          with relevant agencies to make
           information be collected in a manner that      proposals, advocate and disseminate
           is sensitive to gender issues and shows        laws and policies of the State relating to
           a representative view of both male and         gender equality and advancement of
           female stakeholders.                           women; acts as a coordinating agency in
                                                          drafting national reports on CEDAW
                                                          implementation and a national focal point
                                                          for international cooperation in gender
                                                          equality and advancement of women.
           33. GENDER-RESPONSIVE
           GOVERNANCE                                     36. COMMITTEE FOR THE
                                                          ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN (CFAW)
           Gender-responsive governance is an
           important step in achieving good               Committees for the Advancement of
           governance. Gender-responsive                  Women are based in line ministries and
           governance seeks to ensure that                at local levels to advise and support
           institutions, policies, programs and           leaders in the implementation of the
           projects:                                      Party and State's policies for gender
                                                          equality and advancement of women.
              Involve women and men equally in
               government processes;                      37. MACHINERY FOR THE
              Learn about, take seriously, and           ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN (MAOW)
               respond to the needs, interests and        Gender equality/advancement of women
               priorities of all members of society;      units act as policy coordinators,
              Distributes resources and benefits of      advocates and catalysts for gender
               development equally between                mainstreaming across government
               women and men;                             agencies and sectors at all levels. The
                                                          Machinery for the Advancement of
              Ensures that men and women, girls          Women comprises WU, NCFAW and
               and boys enjoy equal quality of life.      CFAWs.
                                                          38. NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE
                                                          ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN

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           National Strategy for the Advancement          mainstreaming gender into planning at
           of Women by 2010 contains five specific        all levels and in all sectors and focusing
           objectives. Its overall goal is aimed at       on whatever steps are necessary to
           improving the quality of women‟s               ensure equal outcomes.
           material and spiritual life, as well as
           establishing the conditions necessary for
           women to experience their fundamental
           rights, and to fully and equally participate
           in and benefit from all aspects of
           political, economic, cultural and social
           The National Plan of Action for the
           Advancement of Women to 2005 guides
           the implementation of the National
           Strategy and details specific
           responsibilities and actions for ministries
           and agencies to take in achieving the
           POA and National Strategy.
           The WID approach which emerged in the
           1970s began with an uncritical
           acceptance of existing social structures
           and focused on how women could be
           better integrated into existing
           development initiatives. It included
           strategies such as women only projects,
           focusing on training, and women‟s
           productive work – often credit and
           income generation projects. WID treated
           women as passive recipients of
           development: women‟s concerns were
           viewed in isolation as separate issues.
           WID failed to address the systematic
           causes of gender inequality.

           (GAD) APPROACH
           GAD was developed in the 1980s in
           response to the perceived failures of
           WID. Instead of focusing only on women,
           GAD is concerned with the relations
           between women and men; it challenges
           unequal decision-making and power
           relations. GAD seeks to address the
           underlying causes of gender inequality
           by addressing the different life
           experiences for men and women through

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                                                                                                 Reference Material

                                          Gender-based Fact Sheet
                                            Prepared for PDF, April 2005
                     Gender related Development Index (GDI)              120     out   of    144
                     Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)                    64 out of 78 countries

                                           Census         1999-     2001-02      2003-04
                                            1998          2000
                    Sex Ratio                108           105        107          105
                      Sex Ratio is defined as the average number of men per 100 women.

                                           Literacy Rates 10 years + (%)
         Year                     Total                     Rural                       Urban
                         Total               Men Total Women Men               Total    Women
                                 Women                                                               Men
         Census           43.9     32         54.8        34.4   20.8   47.4   64.7      55.6        72.6
         2001-02           50      36.9       62.2         -      -      -       -           -          -
         2003-04          51.6     39.2       63.7         -      -      -       -           -          -

                 Distribution of population 10 years + by level of education and sex (%)
          Level of Education                          2001-02                 2003-04
                                               Total   Men Wome         Total    Men     Wo
                                                                  n                      men
          No formal education (Literate)        0.5     0.6      0.5     0.6      0.7    0.5
          Below Matric                         33.5    41.1     25.4    33.7     41.1    26.0
          Matric but less than Intermediate     9.3    11.9      6.5     9.7     12.3    7.0
          Intermediate but less than            3.6     4.4      2.6     3.9      4.7    3.1
          Degree and above                      3.1     4.2      1.9     3.8      4.9    2.6
          Total Literate                       50.0    62.2     36.9    51.6     63.7    39.2
          Illiterate                           50.0    37.8     63.1    48.4     36.3    60.8
            Combined Gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and                Women            31
           tertiary level schools (%) 2001/02                                          Men            43
               Adult Literacy Rate for women as % of men‟s rate (2003)                             51.13
           Youth Literacy Women Rate (% 15-24) 2002                                                 42.0
           Youth Literacy Women Rate as % of men‟s rate 2002                                        64.0
               Public Expenditure on education as % of GDP 2003-04                                   1.8

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               Public Health Expenditure (% of GDP) 2003-04                                                               0.84
               Life Expectancy at birth (years) 2002                                                       Women          63.4
                                                                                                             Men          63.7
               Probability at birth of surviving to age 65 (2000-05)                                       Women          61.9
                                                                                                             Men          60.0
              Maternal Mortality Ratio reported (per 100,000 live births)                                                530.0
             Births attended by skilled health personnel (%) 1995-2002                                                    20.0
              Average rate of fully immunized children and child bearing age                                            < 50%
              Aneamic women of child bearing age                                                                       58%
               Women (45 years of age and above) of low income in rural                                         Almost 45%
           areas suffering from poor health
               Individuals (45 years of age and above) of low income in rural                             Women          >80%
           areas suffering from poor to fair health                                                         Men           60%
                HIV/AIDS cases reported up to 2004                                                         Total         2,431
                                                                                                          Women            291
                                                                                                            Men          2,136
               Prevalence of Smoking (% of adults) 2000                                                   Women              9
                                                                                                            Men             36

                                                     Economic Activity
                                        Refined Activity Participation Rates (%)ii

                    Year               Both             Women                 Men               Improved Women
                                       sexes                                                    Participation Rate
                 1999-2000              42.8               13.7               70.4                     39.2
                  2001-02               43.3               14.4               70.3                     37.7
                  2003-04               43.7               15.9               70.6                     39.3
           **According to the old methodology, persons 10 years of age and above reporting housekeeping and other related
           activities are considered out of labour force. However, as per the improved methodology, they are identified as
           employed if they have spent time on the agricultural and non-agricultural activities that have been identified as being
           a part of labour activities.

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                     Percentage distribution of population employed by major occupational
                                                groups, 2003-04ii

                                                                            Both           Women                Men
           Legislators, senior officials and managers                        11.5             1.4               13.5
           Professionals                                                     2.0              1.9                2.0
           Technicians and associate professionals                           4.9              8.7                4.1
           Clerks                                                            1.6              0.2                1.9
           Service workers and shop and market sales                         5.2              0.8                6.1
           Skilled agricultural and fishery workers                          34.9             48.4              32.2
           Craft and related trades workers                                  15.9             14.3              16.2
           Plant    and      machine      operators   and                    3.7               0.1               4.5
           Elementary (unskilled) occupations                                20.3             24.2              19.5
               Women employed by the Federal Government                                    9,387 out of 175,189
            Ratio of estimated women to men‟s earned income                                                0.33
              Women Contributing Family Workers (%) 1995-2002                                              33.0
              Labour Force Unemployment 2003-04 (%)                                        Men               6.6
                                                                                         Women             13.0

                                                    Political Participation

           Total number of seats reserved for women in all tiers of the local                              33%
           Total number of seats reserved for women in the Senate, National                                17%
           & Provincial Assemblies

                             Women in the National and Provincial Assemblies, 2004x

                                                     Elected on              Elected on                  Total
                                                    general seats          reserved seats
                National Assembly                        13                      60                       73
                Punjab                                    6                      66                       72
                Sindh                                     4                      29                       33
                NWFP                                      1                      22                       23
                Balochistan                               1                      11                       12
                Total                                           12                    128                         140
                       The total strength of 73 women in National Assembly constitutes 21% of its composition
                       as compared to approximately 4% of 1997.

                  Female legislators, senior officials and managers (% of total)                            9
                  Women in government at ministerial level (% of total) 2004                                11

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                                                                                            Reference Material

                                             Violence against Womenxi

                                                                        2000-2004   2004
                Cases reported on
                Violence against Women                                     35,335   8,560
                Murder                                                     6,519    1,492
                Rape                                                       3,722     728
                Torture                                                    6,603    1,601
                Abduction                                                  6,505    1,397
                Suicide                                                    5,542    1,327
                Karo kari                                                  4,153    1,353
                Burn cases                                                 1,241     310
                Police torture                                              483      182
                Trafficking                                                 215      67
                Abandoned corpses of women found                            352      103

             Human Development Report, 2004
               Pakistan Labour Force Survey, 2003-04
               Literacy Trends in Pakistan, UNESCO, 2004
               State of Human Rights in 2004, HRCP
               Economic Survey 2001-02, Ministry of Finance
               Pakistan Common Country Assessment, 2003, UN and GoP
                Annual report of State Bank of Pakistan, 2003-2004
                National AIDS Control Programme, Draft Surveillance Report, 2004
               Pakistan Labour Force Survey, 2001-02
               Aurat Foundation, Islamabad
               Madadgar, LHRLA 2004

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                                                                                            Reference Material

                                                    USEFUL LINK

           Visit these official websites for information on Gender Mainstreaming

                bureau/gender/newsite2002/about/defin.htm

           e-mail contacts

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