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Hydrogeological Tracer Techniques

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 86

									Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer              Tracertechniken Bergbau            Sommersemester 2007




                       Hydrogeological Tracer Techniques


                                          for Groundwater,
                                         Surface Water, and
                                             Mine Water

                                        Christian Wolkersdorfer


                                fü                       fü
                       Institut für Geologie – Lehrstuhl für Hydrogeologie




                   Introduction
                                                                             Contents

                    • Introduction
                    • Tracer types
                         – Natural
                           Artifi
                         – Artificial
                   •   Preparation of Tracer tests
                   •   Legal Questions/Permission
                   •   Implementation
                   •   Evaluation
                   •   Examples
                         – Surface/Ground Water
                         – Mine Water




                                                                                                        1
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer    Tracertechniken Bergbau             Sommersemester 2007




                   Introduction
                                                Why do we need tracer tests?

                    •   Hydraulic connections (flow paths)
                    •   Ground water flow direction
                    •   Ground water velocity, retention time
                    •   Hydrodynamic dispersion
                    •   Flow rate, mass transport
                    •   Variability of hydrogeological properties
                    •   Transport properties of dissolved and
                        particulate water contents and their
                        interactions




                   Introduction
                                     Why do we need tracer tests in mines?

                    • Pollution of ground water
                    • Location and reliability of dams
                    • Mine water rebound after mine closure
                    • Flow of water within the flooded mine
                    • Drainage of contaminated mine water
                    • Duration of water treatment
                    • Pollution control by mine geometry
                    • Mass transport




                                                                                               2
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer    Tracertechniken Bergbau            Sommersemester 2007




                   Introduction
                                            General demands on tracer tests

                   • Transport with velocity of transport medium
                   • No natural occurrence of the tracer used
                   • Good analytical detection (even in big dilution)
                   • Water soluble or used in dispersion
                   • High resistance (chemical stability)
                   • No interaction between tracer and medium
                   • Economic (reasonably priced according to
                     buying, handling and analytical procedures)
                   • Physiological safe (non toxic)
                   • No lasting negative effects on (ground) water
                     quality




                   Introduction
                                          Demands on tracer tests in mines

                    • As deep as possible
                    • Injection without contamination
                    • More than one injection point
                    • Suitable tracer for mine water
                    • Tracer test must be repeatable
                    • Cheap and easy to handle




                                                                                              3
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer         Tracertechniken Bergbau                       Sommersemester 2007




                   Introduction
                                                              Scheme for a tracer test


                                              pump                              other data


                      Tracer                            Tracer
                                                                       water analyses
                     Injection                        preparation



                                                     Data evaluation     solubility



                                                              dynamic model
                                     flooded
                                      mine
                        pollutants
                                                        e.g. mass transport




                   Introduction
                                                                          Tracer types

                    • “Natural” Tracers
                         – Environmental Isotopes
                         – Environmental Chemicals
                         – Organisms
                         – Physical Effects
                    • Artificial Tracers
                         – Water Soluble
                         – Water Insoluble




                                                                                                              4
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer               Tracertechniken Bergbau                   Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                              Natural Tracers

                    • Environmental Isotopes
                         – Nuclides of substances, occurring in
                           water
                         – Usually without anthropogenetic
                           influence
                         – Low concentrations
                                  Expensive measuring techniques
                                  Complicated interpretation
                         – Huge spatial and temporal interpretation
                           possible
                         – Age or temperature determination




                   Tracer Types
                                                                              Natural Tracers

                    • Environmental Isotopes (1/2)
                     Isotope compound                half-
                                                     half-life (years) ratio
                     2H             2H1HO            stable               (9—17) · 10-5
                     18O            H218O            stable               (188—202) · 10-5
                     3H             3H1HO            12.34                10-16—10-17
                     3He            dissolved        stable               1.4 · 10-6
                     4He            dissolved        stable               —
                     39Ar           dissolved        269                  10-15
                     85Kr           dissolved        10.76                6 · 10-12




                                                                                                                5
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer            Tracertechniken Bergbau                     Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                           Natural Tracers

                    • Environmental Isotopes (2/2)
                     Isotope compound                  half-
                                                       half-life (years)   Ratio
                     36Cl           36Cl-              3.01 · 105          2 · 10-12
                     13C            13CO , H13CO -     Stable              1.1 · 10-2
                                          2     3
                     14C            14CO , H14CO -     5,730               1.2 · 10-12
                                          2     3
                     34S            34SO 2-
                                         4             Stable              4.2 · 10-2
                     15N            15NO -             Stable              3.7 · 10-3
                                          3
                     234U           234U6+             2.47 · 105          5 · 10-3




                   Tracer Types
                                                               Environmental Isotopes

                    • Radioactive Decay (1/2)
                         nt = n0 e-λt
                              nt:     number of atoms after time t
                              n0:     number of atoms at t = 0
                              λ:      decay constant
                              t:      time
                         λ = ln 2 (T½)-1 = 0.6931 · (T½)-1
                              T½: half-life time




                                                                                                               6
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer               Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                  Environmental Isotopes

                    • Radioactive Decay (2/2)
                         τa = T½ (ln 2)-1 ln (n0 · nt-1)
                              τa: time during radioactive decay
                              T½: half-life time
                              n0: number of atoms at t = 0
                              nt: number of atoms after time t




                   Tracer Types
                                                                  Environmental Isotopes

                    • Input – Output function
                              cout,, t = f(cin,, t)
                               out          in

                         – PFM: Piston Flow Model
                         – EM: Exponential Model
                         – DM: Dispersion Model




                                                                                                           7
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                                      Tracertechniken Bergbau                        Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                                 Environmental Isotopes




                                         Input                                                         aquifer               Output




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                                 Environmental Isotopes



                                         Input                                                         aquifer               Output




                          2500




                          2000




                          1500
                  H, TU
                  3




                          1000




                           500




                             0
                                 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04

                                                                    date




                                                                                                                                                            8
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer   Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                      Environmental Isotopes




                   Tracer Types
                                                      Environmental Isotopes




                                                                                               9
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer            Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                               Environmental Isotopes




                   Tracer Types
                                                               Environmental Isotopes

                    • Tritium (3H)
                         – Natural 3H-content: < 10 TU
                                  Stratospheric high energy protons (E > 100
                                  MeV) react with nitrogen and oxygen
                         – 1 TU ≙ 0.118 Bq kg-1
                         – Nuclear weapons‘ tests (1952—1963)
                         – Input function with peak between 1963
                           and 1965 (up to 10,000 TU)
                         – seasonal variations (winter: low; summer:
                           high)




                                                                                                        10
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                    Tracertechniken Bergbau                                                     Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                 Environmental Isotopes

                    • Tritium
                         – several models for result‘s interpretation
                                • PFM: Piston Flow Model
                                • EM: Exponential Model
                                • DM: Dispersion Model
                         – today: between 10 and 30 TU
                         – more 3H in northern than in southern
                           hemisphere (mixing effect)
                         – IAEA precipitation collection network




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                 Environmental Isotopes

                    • Tritium
                        2500
                                                             40



                                                             30
                        2000

                                                             20

                        1500
                                                             10
                  TU
                  3H,




                                                              0
                        1000                                      80   82   84   86   88   90   92   94   96   98   00   02




                         500




                            0
                                56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04
                                                                       date

                                                                                                               Valentia (IAEA)




                                                                                                                                                       11
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                     Tracertechniken Bergbau                                  Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                           Environmental Isotopes

                    • Tritium
                  1000
                                                                                          Zagreb, Croatia
                                                                                          Ljubjana, Slovenia
                                                                                          Zirovski vrh
                                                                                          trend (Zagreb)
                                                                                          trend (Ljubljana)
                   100




                    10




                     1
                         75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02




                   Tracer Types
                                                                           Environmental Isotopes

                    • Krypton 85Kr
                           – Emitted from nuclear plants
                           – Quasi-linear input function since 1958
                                   1950-1958: 0 dpm/ml 85Kr
                                   1980: 40 dpm/ml 85Kr
                                   2000: 80 dpm/ml 85Kr
                           – Quick mixing in atmosphere
                           – Low seasonal and local variations
                           – water marked by 85Kr dissolved in air
                           – No disturbing 85Kr in the underground




                                                                                                                                     12
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                                     Tracertechniken Bergbau                      Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                            Environmental Isotopes

                       • Krypton 85Kr
                                                           100


                                                            90
                   Atmospheric 85Kr activity [dpm/mL Kr]




                                                            80


                                                            70


                                                            60


                                                            50


                                                            40


                                                            30


                                                            20


                                                            10


                                                             0
                                                            1950           1960           1970            1980     1990     2000
                                                                                                 Y ea r




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                            Environmental Isotopes


                       • Deuterium 2H – Oxygen 18O
                                                                                    Rsample − Rstandard
                                                                    δ 18 O/ 2 H =                           ⋅ 1000‰
                                                                                          Rstandard
                                                                                     18        2
                                                                                        O        H
                                                                              R=     16
                                                                                          ; R= 1
                                                                                        O        H

                                                                 δ 2 H = (8.2 ± 0.07) ⋅ δ 18 O + (11.27 ± 0.65)‰
                                                                          r 2 = 0.98; n = 205




                                                                                                                                                         13
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer             Tracertechniken Bergbau                                  Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                          Deuterium 2H – Oxygen 18O




                    Simcoe, Ontario, Canada

                                                                        CNIP Climate Station Network




                   Tracer Types
                                                          Deuterium 2H – Oxygen 18O




                    Simcoe, Ontario, Canada

                                                                        CNIP Climate Station Network




                                                                                                                             14
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer     Tracertechniken Bergbau               Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                   Oxygen 18O




                    Lake Keilambete




                   Tracer Types
                                                                Natural Tracers

                    • Environmental Chemicals
                         – Na-fluorescein (Uranine)
                         – Boric Acid
                         – Chloride
                         – Absinthe (Pontarlier—Doubs,
                           August 13th 1901)
                         – Whiskey
                         – Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
                         – Fruit Juice




                                                                                                  15
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                                     Tracertechniken Bergbau                                 Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                         Environmental Chemicals

                    • Uranine (2.5—2,400 mgL-1)
                                                        –         Bathing Products
                                                        –         Cosmetics
                                                        –         Cleaning Products

                                                                  Badedas                                            2,400 mg L-1
                                                                  Benny                                                410 mg L-1
                                                                  Dressin Pine needle                                1,350 mg L-1
                                                                  General                                             15.5 mg L-1
                                                                  Wundi                                                2.5 mg L-1

                                                                                                                                  Käss 1998




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                         Environmental Chemicals

                                                      1,0


                                                      0,9
                                                                                                                              Palmolive
                                                                                                                              Herbal Ess
                                                                                                                              Uranin GER
                                                      0,8
                                                                                                                              Cover
                                                                                                                              B60
                   normalised concentration, c/cmax




                                                      0,7
                                                                                                                              Sidolin
                                                                                                                              Fit
                                                      0,6                                                                     Balea
                                                                                                                              Theramed
                                                      0,5                                                                     Blau
                                                                                                                              Bordeaux
                                                      0,4


                                                      0,3


                                                      0,2


                                                      0,1


                                                      0,0
                                                            350     400   450   500     550    600      650    700    750   800    850     900

                                                                                              wavelength, nm




                                                                                                                                                                    16
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                 Tracertechniken Bergbau                             Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                    Environmental Chemicals

                   • Borate
                             –       Sewage
                             –       Waste Deposits
                             –       Laundry Detergents
                             –       up to 83 mg L-1 HBO2




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                    Environmental Chemicals

                   • Chlorinated Hydrocarbons / SF6
                                   300

                                                 CFC11 northern hemisphere
                                                 CFC11 southern hemisphere
                                   250



                                   200
                      CFC11, ppt




                                   150



                                   100



                                    50



                                     0
                                         1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
                                                                             year




                                                                                                                                            17
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                   Tracertechniken Bergbau                             Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                       Environmental Chemicals

                   • Chlorinated Hydrocarbons / SF6
                                   600

                                                   CFC12 northern hemisphere
                                                   CFC12 southern hemisphere
                                   500



                                   400
                      CFC12, ppt




                                   300



                                   200



                                   100



                                       0
                                           1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
                                                                                year




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                       Environmental Chemicals

                   • Chlorinated Hydrocarbons / SF6
                                   7


                                   6


                                   5


                                   4
                      SF6, ppt




                                   3


                                   2


                                   1


                                   0
                                       1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
                                                                               year




                                                                                                                                              18
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer     Tracertechniken Bergbau                      Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                Natural Tracers

                    • Organisms
                         – Bacteria
                         – Pollen
                         – Eels
                         – Dugs




                   Tracer Types
                                                                    Organisms

                    • Pollen (Lycopodium clavatum)




                                                                       Käss 1998




                                                                                                         19
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer             Tracertechniken Bergbau                 Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                         Natural Tracers


                    • Physical Effects
                         – Temperature
                                  Altitude effect
                         – Salinity
                                  Waste deposits
                                  Salt lakes
                                  Ocean influence




                   Tracer Types
                                                                        Artifi
                                                                        Artificial Tracers


                    • Artificial Tracers
                         – Water soluble
                                  e.g. dyes
                                  salts
                         – Water insoluble
                                  e.g. spores
                                  microspheres




                                                                                                            20
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer            Tracertechniken Bergbau             Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                    Artifi
                                                    Artificial Tracers: Water Soluble


                    • Dyes
                         – Fluorescent dyes
                         – Non-fluorescent dyes
                    • Salts
                    • Radioactive Tracers
                    • Activation analytical tracers




                   Tracer Types
                                                                              Dyes

                    • filtering of white light
                         – dyes are coloured
                    • absorption can be measured
                         – dye intensity
                    • fluorescent dyes
                         – light energy is emitted
                                  Fluorescence
                         – detection limit 104 times lower than for non-
                           fluorescent dyes




                                                                                                       21
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer           Tracertechniken Bergbau                Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                 Dyes

                    • Characteristic wave lengths for each dye
                         – Absorption spectra
                         – Stimulation wave length
                         – Emission spectra
                    • Important: wave length maxima
                    • Detection limit for dyes with two maxima
                      is lower than with one maximum




                   Tracer Types
                                                                      Fluorescent Dyes

                    • Chemical composition and structure
                         – Organic molecules
                              • C, H, O, N, S, Na, Cl, Br
                         – Chemical structure, Arrangement of atoms
                           results in colour and fluorescence
                         – chemical structures must not be destroyed
                           during the tracer test
                         – fluorescence is a result of double bindings in
                           the aromatic molecules
                         – Xanthene-structure of most fluorescent dyes




                                                                                                         22
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer           Tracertechniken Bergbau                Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                      Fluorescent Dyes

                    • Chemical composition and structure
                         – Trivial names instead of exact chemical name
                                             9- (2- carboxyphenyle)- hydroxy-
                              • Fluorescein: 9-(2-carboxyphenyle)-3-hydroxy-6-
                                fluoron
                         – Be exact when using trivial names!
                         – Use full trivial name (e.g. there are many
                           rhodamins)
                         – Use colour index
                                Na-
                              • Na-Fluorescein: 45 350
                         – Fluorescein ≠ Uranine




                   Tracer Types
                                                                      Fluorescent Dyes

                    • Chemical composition and structure
                         – Many names for one substance might be in
                           use e.g.
                              • uranine
                                c.i.
                              • c.i. acid yellow 73
                                                      Na-
                              • fluorescein sodium; Na-fluorescein
                                spiro(isobenzofuran- 1(3h),9'-    xanthen)-
                              • spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3h),9'-(9h) xanthen)-3-
                                one,3',6'- dihydroxy-
                                one,3',6'-dihydroxy-, disodium salt (9ci)
                                                           Anglo-
                              • Fluorescein (often used in Anglo-Saxon)
                              • disodium salt
                                             c.i.
                              • yellow 73, c.i. acid




                                                                                                         23
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer              Tracertechniken Bergbau                                    Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                           Fluorescent Dyes

                    • Chemical composition and structure




                         Uranine (Na-fluoresceine)                    Rhodamine 6G




                                                                         US National Toxicology Program




                   Tracer Types
                                                Chemical composition and structure

                      pH-
                    • pH-dependency of fluorescence




                                    pyranine                            (Na- uoresceine)
                                                                uranine (Na-fluoresceine)


                                                                                             Käss 1998




                                                                                                                                24
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer          Tracertechniken Bergbau                Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                            Chemical composition and structure

                    • Decomposition of fluorescent tracers




                                                                      Käss 1998




                   Tracer Types
                                            Chemical composition and structure

                    • Detection of fluorescent tracers




                     L        lamp
                     AF       excitation filter
                     K        sample cuvette
                     SF       secondary filter
                     P        photo detector

                                                                      Käss 1998




                                                                                                        25
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer     Tracertechniken Bergbau                         Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                       Chemical composition and structure

                    • Modern Laboratory Fluorometer




                                                                Varian Cary Eclipse




                   Tracer Types
                                       Chemical composition and structure

                    • Modern Laboratory Fluorometer




                                                                Varian Cary Eclipse




                                                                                                            26
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer      Tracertechniken Bergbau                             Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                        Chemical composition and structure

                    • Modern Laboratory Fluorometer




                                                                     Varian Cary Eclipse




                   Tracer Types
                                                                 Fluorescent Dyes

                    Tracer                  Colour        Detection      Sorptivity
                                            index         limit, µg/L
                    Uranine, Na-fluoresceine 45 350
                             Na-                          0.002          very low
                    Eosin                   45 380        0.01           low
                    Pyranin                 45 040        0.008          very low
                    Sulforhodamin G         45 220        0.005          weak
                    Sulforhodamin B         45 100        0.007          weak
                    Rhodamin B              45 170        0.006          strong
                    Rhodamin WT             AR 388        0.006          medium
                    Lissamin FF             56 205        0.03           medium
                            CBS-
                    Tinopal CBS-X           FB 351        0.07           medium
                    Naphthionat                           0.01           low




                                                                                                                 27
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                                     Tracertechniken Bergbau                                             Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                                    Na- uoresceine)
                                                                                                           Uranine (Na-fluoresceine)




                                                                                                                                              Käss 1998




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                              Na-
                                                                                                              Na-fluoresceine stability

                                         140
                                                   uranine
                                         130       uranine kalibrated
                                                   turbidity
                                         120

                                         110

                                         100

                                          90
                   -1
                   concentration, µg L




                                          80

                                          70

                                          60

                                          50

                                          40

                                          30

                                          20

                                          10

                                           0
                                            16.4   17.4        18.4     19.4   20.4   21.4   22.4   23.4   24.4   25.4   26.4   27.4   28.4    29.4   30.4

                                                                                                    date




                                                                                                                                                                                28
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                            Tracertechniken Bergbau                                  Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                          Reiche Zeche Shaft Freiberg
                   6

                           Uraninkonzentration


                   5




                   4




                   3




                   2




                   1




                   0
                    30.4        2.5              4.5   6.5        8.5     10.5     12.5    14.5       16.5        18.5




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                          Na-
                                                                                          Na-fluoresceine




                                                                                          Georgi Unterbau, Brixlegg




                                                                                                                                            29
                                                                                                   sorption loss, %




                                                                         0
                                                                             2
                                                                                 4
                                                                                     6
                                                                                         8
                                                                                             10
                                                                                                  12
                                                                                                       14
                                                                                                            16
                                                                                                                 18
                                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                                           22
                                                                                                                                24
                                                                                                                                     26
                                                                                                                                          28
                                                                                                                                               30
                                                                                                                                                    32
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                                                                                                                                                             Tracer Types
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tracer Types




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer




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                                                                                                                                                                            Stöckelgraben Speyer 15.11.2002




                                                       er
                                                           28




                                                                                                                                                         Sorption Loss
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Na-fluoresceine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sommersemester 2007




30
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer      Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                            Non-
                                                            Non-fluorescent Dyes


                         – poor detection limits
                         – only small surface of water body
                         – short travel distances
                         – water of good quality
                    ☺
                         – good light and pH
                           stability
                         – modern spectral
                           photo-meters can be
                           used




                   Tracer Types
                                                            Non-
                                                            Non-fluorescent Dyes


                    • Indigo (Riba Reka, Slovenia 1864)
                    • Aniline red (Danube 1869)
                    • Fuchsine (Lur cave system 1928)
                    • Congo red, malachite green (Mendip
                      Hills 1968)
                    • Brilliant blue (1994, 1995)
                    • Aniline violet
                    • Auramine
                    • Methyl blue




                                                                                                  31
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer            Tracertechniken Bergbau                   Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                     Salts

                   •   NaCl
                   •   LiCl
                   •   KCl
                   •   Borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O)
                   •   SrCl
                   •   CsCl
                   •   Br-
                   •   I-
                   •   Ammonium
                   •   Dichromate
                   •   ZnCl2




                   Tracer Types
                                                                       Salts: Introduction

                                                  Lausen,
                    • first test 1872 (900 kg near Lausen, Switzerland)
                    • first important use of salts in 1877
                         – Danube Immendingen
                                                    Na-
                         – NaCl: 10,000 kg (+ 10 kg Na-Fluorescein)
                         – recovery 92.6 %
                    • in natural or mine waters often high background of
                       Salts”
                      “Salts”
                         – Gernrode/Harz: 1,700 mgL-1 Cl-
                         – Niederschlema/Alberoda: 5.6 mgL-1 Li+
                    • always measure background concentrations
                                          landfi
                    • also: sewage water; landfill drainage water; polluted
                      rivers




                                                                                                             32
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer         Tracertechniken Bergbau                   Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                    Salts: Introduction

                    • high salt concentrations might be harmful for
                      biology and microbiology
                         – trees and/or worms might die
                    • increase in conductivity can be used to
                      determine salt concentration
                         – used in surface flow investigations
                         – high amounts of salt necessary
                         – in practice for NaCl only
                    • salts: cation + anion
                    • usually, only one ion is tracer
                    • high density of salts can result in density flows




                   Tracer Types
                                                                    Salts: Introduction

                    • cations and anions show different flow
                      characteristics
                                     LiBr
                         – example: LiBr
                                      LiCl, Br, NaBr
                         – either use LiCl, KBr, or NaBr
                    • adsorption or cation exchange might cause loss
                      of ions
                         – higher in pore than in karst water
                         – ion exchange capacity falls with increasing ion
                           potential
                         – Li: ionic potential 1.28 ⇒ low exchange capacity
                         – Cs: ionic potential 0.61 ⇒ high exchange capacity




                                                                                                          33
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer        Tracertechniken Bergbau                 Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                    Salts: Detection

                    • conductivity
                         – mainly NaCl
                   •   titration of Cl—anion
                   •   flame emission photometry
                   •   atom absorption spectrophotometry
                   •   photometry
                         – e.g. permanganate
                    • HPCL + ion chromatography
                         – Br-, I-
                    • ICP-MS
                         – Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry




                   Tracer Types
                                                                   Rock Salt (NaCl)

                    • first and most widely used salt tracer
                    • dissociation into Na+ and Cl-
                    • samples should always be analysed for both
                      ions
                    • normally, the Cl- is the tracer
                    • saturation: 0 °C 356 gL-1; 30 °C 361.5 gL-1
                    • to avoid sinking of the solution:
                         – warm water
                         – max concentration 0.5 % NaCl (3 gL-1)
                    • sample volume at least 250 mL when using
                      titration of Cl-




                                                                                                       34
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                      Tracertechniken Bergbau                           Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                   Rock Salt (NaCl)

                                                       Density of NaCl
                            1.25                                                                  1.25




                                  1.2                                                             1.2




                                                                                                         -1
                   -1




                            1.15                                                                  1.15




                                                                                                         density, kgL
                   density, kgL




                                  1.1                                                             1.1




                            1.05                                                                  1.05




                                    1                                                             1
                                        0        100                  200              300
                                                        concentration, gL   -1




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                   Rock Salt (NaCl)

                    • detection methods
                                    – gravimetrical (AgCl)
                                    – titrimetrical (NaCr2 + AgCl)
                                    – flame emission at 589.3 nm
                                    – ion sensitive electrode (not known for chloride
                                      determination on site)
                                    – electrical conductivity (high precision)
                                    – ion chromatography (only with low concentrations)
                    • toxicology (ld50):
                                    – warm blooded animals:                       3,000 mg kg-1
                                    – fish and fish fry:                           10,000 mgL-1




                                                                                                                               35
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                     Tracertechniken Bergbau                     Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                 Rock Salt (NaCl)

                                               10000


                                                9000


                                                8000
                    NaC concentration, mgL-1




                                                7000


                                                6000


                                                5000


                                                4000


                                                3000


                                                2000


                                                1000


                                                  0
                                                       0   50   100       150      200     250    300       350    400

                                                                                 time, s




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                        Lithium-
                                                                                                        Lithium-salts

                    • first use in 1907
                                                                                      Kanzian,
                                                  – 50 kg in Notranjska Reka near St. Kanzian, Slovenia
                   • Li has a small ionic radius, therefore least
                     subjected to ion exchange
                   • possible use in porous aquifers with flow
                     distances below ca. 200 m
                   • cheapest Li-Salt is LiCl (approx. € 10 kg-1)
                   • technical purity grade (99 %) is sufficient
                   • solubility: 20 °C 832 g L-1; 60 °C 984 g L-1
                   • exothermic reaction during solution ⇒ avoid
                     plastic containers




                                                                                                                                        36
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer         Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                    Lithium-
                                                                    Lithium-salts

                    • background Li and variation must be known
                    • detection methods
                         – Ca has to be removed prior to analyses to increase Li
                           detection limits (ammonium oxalate)
                         – flame photometry
                           ICP-
                         – ICP-MS
                         – bad: atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS)
                    • toxicology (ld50):
                         – warm blooded animals:       526 mg kg-1
                         – fish and fish fry:     2,000—
                                                2,000—3,500 mgL-1
                         – no more than 0.5 mg L-1 at public water supplies
                           during a tracer test




                   Tracer Types
                                                                              KCl

                    • Only used, when K should be the tracer
                         – K concentrations are lower than Na concentrations
                           (0.1—
                           (0.1—8 mgL-1)
                         – Na and K have approx. same abundance in crust
                         – K is bound in rock building minerals (e.g. feldspar)
                    • If Cl is meant to be the tracer the cheaper NaCl
                      should be used (cost KCl = 4· cost NaCl)
                    • K is more sorptive and subject to ionic
                      exchange than Na
                    • In tracer tests, exchanged Ca often arrives
                      before K




                                                                                                     37
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer             Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                  KCl

                    • solubility
                         – 10 °C: 313 gL-1
                    • detection methods
                         –   flame emission
                         –   ionic chromatography
                         –   not advisable: AAS (766.5 nm)
                    • toxicology:
                                    (†
                         – Humans (†):                        2,430 mg kg-1
                         – fish (†):                        700—
                                                           700—5,200 mgL-1
                                           (†
                         – water organisms (†):            400—
                                                           400—5,000 mgL-1




                   Tracer Types
                                                                 Borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O)

                                           (Oilfi
                    • first used in 1948/49 (Oilfields in Kansas and
                      Oklahoma)
                    • transported as undissociated form
                         –   ⇒ low adsorption
                         –   ⇒ ion exchange
                         –   Only clay minerals can adsorb small amounts of B
                    • natural B concentration of water must be known
                      (0.02—
                      (0.02—121 mgL-1 observed)
                      don‘                                    (recristallisation)
                    • don‘t warm water to dilute the Borax (recristallisation)
                    • adding up to 30 % of boric acid increases the
                      dissolution
                    • Unimportant in arti cial tracer tests but as natural tracer
                      (sewage water, waste deposits)




                                                                                                         38
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer              Tracertechniken Bergbau                   Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                  Borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O)

                    • solubility
                         – 10 °C: 16.2 gL-1; 20 °C: 25.2 gL-1
                    • detection methods
                         – colorimetrical
                              • B + Azomethin H ⇒ yellow dye
                           ICP-
                         – ICP-MS
                         – fluorimetrical boric acid determination
                    • toxicology (ld50):
                         –   rats:                4,500—
                                                  4,500—5,000 mg kg-1
                         –            (†
                             Humans (†):            500—
                                                    500—5,000 mg kg-1
                         –   fish (†):               3,000—
                                                    3,000—7,000 mgL-1
                         –                   (†
                             water organisms (†):     540—
                                                      540—9,900 mgL-1




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                  SrCl4.6H2O

                    • Sr, not Cl is the tracer
                                                  (“ background”
                    • natural Sr concentration (“background”) must be
                              (0.005—
                      known (0.005—14 mgL      -1)

                                     Na- uoresceine,
                    • compared to Na-fluoresceine, a retardation factor of 10
                      must be expected
                    • Amounts used so far: 50 kg; 2 kg
                    • detection methods
                         –   analyse within 48 hours to avoid Sr precipitation!
                         –   Flame emission
                         –   AAS
                         –   ICP-
                             ICP-MS
                                 (ld
                    • toxicology (ld50):
                                 (†
                         – trout (†): 10,000 mgL-1




                                                                                                               39
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau               Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                     CsCl

                   • used in Notranjska Reka (Slovenia) and Upper
                     Rhine Valley
                   • highly sorptive!




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                  Bromide

                    •   only present in traces in natural waters
                    •   no sorption
                    •   stable towards microbiological activities
                    •   but: high costs and complicated analytical procedures
                    •   good water solubility of NaBr
                         – 10 °C: 850 gL-1
                    • detection methods
                         – ion sensitive electrodes
                              • high detection limit: 50 µgL-1
                         – ion chromatography
                         – isotope dilution analyses (change of isotope ratios)
                    • not to be used near drinking water supplies, if water is
                                                            Br-
                      chlorinated or ozonated (bromate and Br-organics)




                                                                                                             40
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer          Tracertechniken Bergbau            Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                          Iodide

                    • smaller natural concentrations than Br-
                    • iodite can be chemically or microbiologically
                      affected
                    • only suitable for
                         – short flow distances
                         – short residence times
                         – low organic pollution
                    • detection methods
                         – ion sensitive electrodes
                         – ion chromatography
                         – isotope dilution analyses (change of isotope ratios)




                   Tracer Types
                                                                     Ammonium

                   • first use 1942 (Warsteiner Massenkalk)
                   • sensitive to sorption and oxidation
                   • too much amounts must be used
                         – e.g. 72 kg Warstein tracer test
                         – ⇒ restricted use
                    • toxicology
                         – in alkaline waters, ammonium strongly toxic to fish
                         – in string sunshine pH can increase to 8, even 10
                                  (†
                         – trout (†):     1.25—
                                          1.25—5 mgL-1




                                                                                                    41
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer             Tracertechniken Bergbau                   Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                    Dichromate (Cr2O72-)

                    • discharge measurements in channels and rivers (up to
                      50 m³ s-1)
                         m³
                                m³
                    • 2 kg per m³ s-1 of flow needed
                    • solubility
                         – K2Cr2O7: 77 gL-1 (10 °C)
                         – Na2Cr2O7.2H2O): 1,700 gL-1 (10 °C)
                    • detection methods
                         – photometric
                         – colorimetric with diphenylcarbazide
                    • toxicology
                         – very toxic!
                                 († 0.2—
                         – trout (†): 0.2—0.35 mgL-1
                         – drinking water: 0.05 mgL-1




                   Tracer Types
                                                                        Radioactive Tracers


                    • 3H             12.3 a        3H2HO        β
                    • 24Na           15.0 h        Na+-cation   β
                    • 51Cr           27.7 d        EDTA-complex γ
                    • 58Co           70.8 d        [Co(CN)6]3-  γ
                    • 82Br             36 h        Br--anion    γ
                    • 85Kr          10.76 a        gas
                    • 114In          49.5 d        EDTA-complex γ
                    • 131I           8.05 d        I--anion     γ
                    • 198Au           2.7 d        Au3+-cation  β




                                                                                                              42
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer          Tracertechniken Bergbau                   Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                     Radioactive Tracers

                    • Radioactive Decay (1/2)
                         nt = n0 e-λt
                              nt:   number of atoms after time t
                              n0:   number of atoms at t = 0
                              λ:    decay constant
                              t:    time
                         λ = ln 2 (T½)-1 = 0.6931 · (T½)-1
                              T½: half-life time




                   Tracer Types
                                                                     Radioactive Tracers

                    • Radioactive Decay (2/2)
                         τa = T½ (ln 2)-1 ln (n0 · nt-1)
                              τa: time during radioactive decay
                              T½: half-life time
                              n0: number of atoms at t = 0
                              nt: number of atoms after time t




                                                                                                           43
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                               Tracertechniken Bergbau                              Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                 Radioactive Tracers

                                             100                                                                 100


                                             90


                                             80                                                                  10


                                             70
                   activity, counting rate




                                             60                                                                  1


                                             50


                                             40                                                                  0,1


                                             30


                                             20                                                                  0,01


                                             10
                                                               T½ = 2.02 sec
                                              0                                                                  0,001
                                                   0   2   4        6             8         10        12    14
                                                                        half-life periods




                   Tracer Types
                                                                                                 Radioactive Tracers

                                             100                                                                 100


                                             90                nt = 0.1
                                             80
                                                               τa = T½ (ln 2)-1 ln (n0· nt-1)                    10


                                             70
                                                                         sec· 1.4427· (100·
                                                                  = 2.02 sec· 1.4427· ln (100· 10)
                   activity, counting rate




                                             60                                                                  1


                                             50                     2.02· 1.4427·
                                                                  = 2.02· 1.4427· 6.9078 sec
                                             40                   = 20.13 sec                                    0,1


                                             30


                                             20                                                                  0,01


                                             10
                                                               T½ = 2.02 sec
                                              0                                                                  0,001
                                                   0   2   4        6             8         10        12    14
                                                                        half-life periods




                                                                                                                                           44
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer        Tracertechniken Bergbau               Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                         Activable Isotope Tracers

                    • substances must be under detection limit in the
                      water to be tested
                    • representative tracer properties
                    • most important activation process: neutron
                      activation
                    • nuclides formed mostly unstable
                    • sensitivity increases with increasing radioactivity
                    • atomic reactors have to be used (e.g. Karlsruhe,
                      Munich)
                    • low detection limits
                    • expensive method




                   Tracer Types
                                                         Activable Isotope Tracers

                    • n,γ-process
                         – 115In (stable) → 116In (T½ = 54 min)
                    • n,p-process
                         – 32S (stable) → 32P (T½ = 14.2 d)
                    • n,α-process
                         – 6Li (stable) → 3H (T½ = 12.3 a)

                    • tracer quantity increases with irridation
                      period
                    • e.g. detection limit In: 0.0005 ppb




                                                                                                     45
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer    Tracertechniken Bergbau             Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                          Artifi
                                          Artificial Tracers: Water Insoluble


                    • drift particles
                         – club moss spores (Lycopodium clavatum)
                         – microparticles (microspheres)
                         – bacteria
                         – phages
                         – geobombe
                         – saw dust
                         – tennis balls
                         – yeast
                         – eels




                   Tracer Types
                                                           Club Moss Spores

                    • Lycopodium
                      clavatum
                    • 50 µm diameter
                    • first used in karst
                      tracing
                    • natural and
                      artificial colours
                      possible




                                                                                               46
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer   Tracertechniken Bergbau             Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                          Club Moss Spores

                    • Canadian Lycopodium clavatum




                   Tracer Types
                                                          Club Moss Spores

                    • Canadian Lycopodium clavatum




                                                                                              47
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer   Tracertechniken Bergbau       Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                       Microparticles (Microspheres)

                    • microparticles
                      (microspheres)
                    • 0.6 — 100 µm diameter
                    • density 1.006 g cm-3
                    • polystyrole
                    • latex
                    • positively, negatively,
                      neutrally charged
                      surfaces




                   Tracer Types
                                       Microparticles (Microspheres)

                    • microparticles (microspheres)




                                                                                        48
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer   Tracertechniken Bergbau       Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                       Microparticles (Microspheres)

                    • microparticles (microspheres)




                   Tracer Types
                                       Microparticles (Microspheres)

                    • microparticles (microspheres)




                                                                                        49
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer   Tracertechniken Bergbau                         Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                       Microparticles (Microspheres)

                    • microparticles (microspheres)




                   Tracer Types
                                       Microparticles (Microspheres)

                    • microparticles (microspheres)




                                                              Triton Technologies




                                                                                                          50
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer      Tracertechniken Bergbau                           Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                          Microparticles (Microspheres)




                    composite absorbance spectra

                                                                   Triton Technologies




                   Tracer Types
                                                                         Bacteria

                    • bacteria (Escherichia coli)




                                                                 Woods Hole Biological
                                                                          Laboratory




                                                                                                               51
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer    Tracertechniken Bergbau          Sommersemester 2007




                   Tracer Types
                                                                 Phages

                    • phages (T4)




                   Tracer Types
                                                               “Rarities“

                    • geobombe
                    • sawdust
                    • tennis balls
                    • yeast
                    • eels




                                                                                            52
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau                Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                Preparation of Tracer tests

                    • What data is necessary?
                    • Where shall the tracer be injected and
                      sampled?
                    • Which tracer to be used?
                    • What amount to be injected?
                    • Who is responsible for what?
                        ⇓
                    • Plan of the Tracer Test
                    • Documentation of Tracer Test




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Necessary Data

                    • always start with a
                         • geological (e.g. rock types; sediments)
                         • hydrogeological (e.g. type of aquifer,
                           isolines: ground water contour lines)
                         • hydrological (e.g. discharge; precipitation)
                         • geochemical (e.g. anomalies)
                         • hydrogeochemical (e.g. background values)
                         • biological (e.g. bacteria, micro-organism)
                    • Investigation




                                                                                                              53
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Necessary Data

                    • hydrogeological investigation
                         • (ground) water flow direction
                         • Isolines (ground water contour maps)
                         • (ground) water velocity
                         • dissolution of tracer
                         • water usage
                         • physico-chemical parameters
                         • hydrogeochemistry




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Necessary Data

                    • Preparation of tracer tests needs time
                    • Go Out!
                    • Don‘t sit at your desk!




                                                                                                            54
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Necessary Data


                    • Costs (direct)
                         • Tracer
                         • Sampling containers
                         • Preliminary investigations
                         • Preliminary expert reports
                         • Site visits
                         • Man power
                         • Tracer analyses
                         • Final report




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Necessary Data


                    • Costs (indirect)
                         • Authorization (permits)
                         • Sampling
                         • Storage, transport of samples
                         • Preparation of observation sites
                         • Possible damages




                                                                                                            55
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau                Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Tracer Injection

                    • one or more injection sites
                    • based on preliminary investigations
                    • keep in mind:
                         • you have to carry the injection equipment
                           and tracers
                         • situation could change between site visit and
                           final test
                    • injections sites should be hydraulically
                      connected to sampling sites
                         • exception: unsaturated zone




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Tracer Injection




                                                                                                              56
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau               Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Tracer Sampling

                    • one or more sampling/observation sites
                    • better too much than too few of them
                    • you must be able to reach your sampling
                      points in due time
                    • nearby sites could be hydraulically
                      separated from each other
                    • worst thing that could happen:
                         • negative result due to incorrect selection of
                           injection and sampling sites!
                    • be open to any surprise!




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Tracer Sampling

                    • some tracers are light sensitive
                    • avoid sampling in polluted water
                    • don‘t sample treated water
                    • if necessary drill a borehole
                    • water with suspended matter should be
                      filtered




                                                                                                             57
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau                Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Tracer Sampling




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Tracer Selection

                   •   type of aquifer and lithology
                   •   toxicology
                   •   sorption and ion exchange
                   •   pore sizes of aquifer
                   •   water quality
                   •   light impact
                   •   water usage (e.g. fishing water)
                   •   analytical criteria
                   •   cost aspects
                   •   injection site
                   •   sampling site




                                                                                                              58
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau                  Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                            Tracer Amount

                    • most tracer test guides: experience necessary
                    • EHTD 2003 (Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design):
                                                       Tracer-
                      calculation is possible
                    • several equations used (EHTD lists 33 equations):
                                           Na-
                         • Dienert (1913): Na-fluoresceine (different aquifers)
                                           Na-
                         • Martel (1921): Na-fluoresceine (karst)
                                           Na-
                         • Timeus (1926): Na-fluoresceine (karst)
                                                   Na-                     ssured)
                         • Aley & Fletcher (1976): Na-fluoresceine (karst, fissured)
                                                       Na- uor. (porous/fi ssured)
                         • UNESCO 1, 2 (1973/1983): Na-fluor. (porous/fissured)
                                                         Na-
                         • Leibundgut & Wernli (1982): Na-fluoresceine (karst)
                         • Käss (1992): general equation




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                 Tracer Amount: different equations 1 ⁄4

                    • Käss (1992):
                              M=L·k·B
                              L = 2.4 km; k = 1; B = 3 →      Na- uoresceine;
                                                              Na-fluoresceine; porous aquifer
                              M ≈ 7 kg Na-fluoresceine
                                       Na-


                    • UNESCO 1:
                              M=L·K
                              L = 2.4 km; K = 1.5 →           Na- uoresceine;
                                                              Na-fluoresceine; porous aquifer
                              M ≈ 3 kg Na-fluoresceine
                                       Na-




                                                                                                                59
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                 Tracertechniken Bergbau                        Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                 Tracer Amount : different equations 2 ⁄4

                    • e.g. Na-fluoresceine; porous aquifer
                       Q = 20 L s-1; v = 10 m d-1; t = 3600 h; L, s = 0.5 km; s1 = 100 m;
                                     m³
                       V = 100,000 m³; h = 10 m; Cmax = 10 µg L-1; A = Am = 1; K = 0.25—1
                                                                                       0.25—

                    equation                                 M, kg          variables
                    UNESCO 1                                 0.25—1
                                                             0.25—          K, L
                    UNESCO 2                                 3              K, Q, L, v, V
                    BENDEL 1949                              2.5            K, Q, L
                    LEIBUNDGUT 1974                          1.3            Q, t, Cmax, A, „S“
                    LEIBUNDGUT & WERNLI 1974 2.92                           t, h, s, Cmax, Am




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                 Tracer Amount : different equations 3 ⁄4

                    • e.g. WOLKERSDORFER et al. (2002):
                      spores, closed space (flooded mine)


                                                      1     V
                                             m=           × m ×f
                                                   55, 000 rr × q


                           mass/
                       m: mass/volume of tracer, g/mL; Vm: volume of
                                 uid, m³                              (0.02—
                       enclosed fluid, m³; rr: expected recovery rate (0.02—1);
                       q: pumping capacity, L min-1 ; f: factor (spores 1;
                       microspheres 0.25), g L m-³ min-1




                                                                                                                       60
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                            Tracertechniken Bergbau                                             Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                         Tracer Amount : different equations 4 ⁄4

                    • EHTD: Efficient Hydrologic Tracer-Test Design
                                                                                                    aquifer”
                                                 flowing stream; solution conduit (similar to “mine aquifer”)




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                                                         Tracer Test Reiche Zeche
                                                                               Tracertest Reiche Zeche


                                           140



                                           120



                                           100
                    K onzentration, µg/L




                                           80



                                           60



                                           40



                                           20



                                             0
                                                 0   1   2   3   4   5   6     7    8     9         10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19
                                                                                              Zeit, h




                                                                                                                                                                       61
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                      Tracertechniken Bergbau                                            Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                                                  Tracer Test Reiche Zeche
                                                                           Tracertest Reiche Zeche

                                        1,00


                                        0,90


                                        0,80


                                        0,70


                                        0,60
                    Fracht, Norm iert




                                        0,50


                                        0,40


                                        0,30


                                        0,20


                                        0,10


                                        0,00
                                               0   1   2   3   4   5   6    7    8    9      10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19
                                                                                       Zeit, h




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                                                                 Responsibilities

                    • company
                                                   contract, money, site
                    • authorities
                                                   permits, public information
                    • you
                                                   everything – especially good mood
                    • your employees
                                                   injection, sampling
                    • laboratory
                                                   analytical procedures




                                                                                                                                                                62
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau                Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Tracer Test Plan

                    • all relevant data must be given
                    • handle out tracer plan as early as possible
                    • public should be informed
                    • tracer test plan can be used to ask for
                      permission through authorities
                    • tracer test plan should be ready at time of
                      proposal to company




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Tracer Test Plan

                   • district, local community
                   • exact description of injection sites
                   • Home, work, and mobile telephone numbers of
                     participants and substitutes
                   • relevant authorities
                   • goal/aim of tracer test
                   • type and quantity of tracers
                   • injection time
                   • quantity of priming and flushing water needed
                   • list of sampling sites and times




                                                                                                              63
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau                  Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                             Tracer Test Plan




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                           Documentation 1 ⁄4

                    • time of injection
                    • type of injection
                    • time of sampling
                    • sampling procedure
                    • sampling interval
                    • sample numbers
                         • think about that prior to the start of test
                         • Project – Date – Sampling Site – Number
                         • BRX-1902-BS-01
                         • SBG-0708-GS-02




                                                                                                                64
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                              Tracertechniken Bergbau                                                              Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                                                                                     Documentation 2 ⁄4

                   •   administrative district
                   •   number of topographical map(s)
                   •   detailed description of the investigation area
                   •   name of project head
                   •   type and quantity of tracer
                   •   injection site(s) with co-ordinates
                   •   start and finish times of injection
                   •   priming and flushing water amounts
                   •   data about every sampling site
                   •   data presentation (e.g. breakthrough curves)




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                                                                                     Documentation 3 ⁄4
                                                                                    Überhauen 539




                                                             Überhauen 530


                                                                                                              Brachmannsberger-
                                                                                                                   Stollen
                                                                                                              Biwender-Stollen
                                             Feuchtgebiet
                                            “Am Suderholz”
                                                                             Fluorschacht




                                                                                    Glasebach-Stollen


                                                                                        Glasebachschacht




                                                                                               22.8.2000           16

                                                                                       BST Mansfeld GmbH & Co KG
                                                                                       Tracerversuch Flussspatgrube Straßberg
                                                     TU BA


                                                                                       Flussspatgrube Straßberg
                                            0    200 400 600 800 1000 m                Wasserwege zwischen den drei Grubenrevieren
                                                                                               1:25000




                                                                                                                                                                          65
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau                                        Sommersemester 2007




                   Preparation of Tracer tests
                                                                              Documentation 4 ⁄4
                                                                    No 539 shaft




                                                 No 530 shaft




                                                  Fluor shaft




                         shaft
                         mine entrance                          Glasebach shaft            TUBA


                                                                                   0   200 400 600 800 1000 m




                   Legal Questions/Permission
                                                                Legal Questions/Permission

                    • a tracer test is utilization of water
                    • utilization of water needs permission
                         ⇒ artificial tracer tests have to be permitted
                           artifi
                         ⇒ natural tracer tests need no permission
                    • permitting authorities
                         –    water authorities, mining authorities
                         –    contact authorities before applying for a permit
                         –    take into account guidelines for use of tracers
                                          UBA-
                               • Germany: UBA-list
                    • permission takes 4–6 weeks (sometimes even
                      longer)




                                                                                                                                      66
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer               Tracertechniken Bergbau              Sommersemester 2007




                   Legal Questions/Permission
                                                            Legal Questions/Permission

                    • no special legislation for tracer tests exists
                    • nevertheless:
                         – national or regional water laws
                                          Wasserhaushaltsgesetz“
                         – in Germany: „Wasserhaushaltsgesetz“
                              • § 1a: General Introduction
                              • § 2: Need for Permissions
                              • § 3: Utilization
                              • § 4: Conditions for Utilization
                              • § 7: Permission
                    • necessary data for permission
                         – kind of tracer, duration, start, place, responsible
                           persons




                   Implementation
                                                                          Implementation

                    • Injection Time and Injection Procedure
                         – when to inject the tracer
                         – how to inject the tracer
                    • Sampling procedure
                         – kind of sampling procedure
                    • Tracer Preparation, Analyses
                         – storage, preparation
                         – analytical procedures
                    • Documentation and Presentation
                         – report
                         – graphical presentation




                                                                                                           67
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer          Tracertechniken Bergbau                Sommersemester 2007




                   Implementation
                                                     Injection: Time and Procedure

                    • injection time
                         – results from hydrogeological investigation
                         – leave enough time for preliminary preparations on
                           site
                         – all personnel and material should have enough time
                           to come to the site
                         – start at the beginning of a week to avoid the usual
                             Friday- late- afternoon“
                           „Friday-late-afternoon“ hurry
                         – take into account holidays and working hours in
                           factories or mines
                         – inject most effective tracers first (long flow distances)




                   Implementation
                                                     Injection: Time and Procedure

                    • procedure
                         – flush containers several times to inject tracer fully
                         – flush tracer into aquifer or unsaturated zone by
                           using excess water
                         – tracer has to flow through unsaturated zone first
                           before reaching the aquifer
                         – avoid any contamination
                                  cross-                    pH-
                         – avoid cross-contamination (e.g. pH-meters)
                         – dilute fluorescent tracer dyes in the laboratory
                         – it might be necessary to use boreholes for tracer
                           injection
                                          tracer
                         – keep in mind: tracer injection changes the
                           groundwater‘
                           groundwater‘s flow properties




                                                                                                        68
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                Tracertechniken Bergbau                                      Sommersemester 2007




                   Implementation
                                                           Injection: Time and Procedure

                    • procedure
                         – avoid slow tracer injection
                                 smearing“
                              • „smearing“ could sham non existing dispersion
                         – inject tracer as quick as possible (DIRAC-function)


                                             ⎧0 t ≠ 0
                                    δ (t ) = ⎨
                                             ⎩∞ t = 0
                                        t2
                                    ∫t1
                                             dtδ (t ) = 1




                   Implementation
                                                                           Sampling procedure

                   • people taking the samples have great
                     responsibility – choose them carefully
                   • correct labelling is essential
                   • you must stay to the predefined sampling plan
                   • inform head of project immediately, if any
                     changes occur (e.g. no more tracer visible or
                     vice versa)                                               IFG Ingenieurbüro für Geotechnik
                                                                               D -02625 Bautzen - 03591/6771-30


                   • if possible, use automatic     Object: Taucherfriedhof Bautzen
                                                    Date: 1.12.1998

                     sampling devices               Time: 12:25 PM
                                                    Responsibility: Tamme
                                                    Sample: TFB-0112-01
                   • pumps can help




                                                                                                                                    69
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer         Tracertechniken Bergbau                  Sommersemester 2007




                   Implementation
                                                                    Sampling procedure

                   • sample time must be recorded accurately (not
                     as in the sampling plan!)
                   • sample containers must be clean
                   • try to use brown glass containers
                   • store samples in a dark cool place
                   • take enough sample volume (at least 250 mL)
                   • samples should be brought to the laboratory as
                     soon as possible




                   Implementation
                                                     Tracer Preparation, Analyses

                    • some minerals have spectral bands similar to
                      the tracers you use
                    • sort the samples in the order of their extraction
                      to recognize sampling errors
                    • include background analyses
                                                   1—
                         – lithium in karst water: 1—2 µg L-1
                             uorescein-
                         – fluorescein-Na in karst water: 0.003 µg L-1
                    • only if background is know accurately enough,
                      tracer test can be evaluated
                    • series determination is easier than single
                      determination – but keep in mind tracer
                      decomposition




                                                                                                         70
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                                      Tracertechniken Bergbau                                                     Sommersemester 2007




                   Implementation
                                                                                                           Tracer Preparation, Analyses

                    • background signals
                                             16


                                             14


                                             12


                                             10
                     concentration, µg L-1




                                              8


                                              6


                                              4


                                              2


                                              0
                                             18.2. 14:24   18.2. 16:48   18.2. 19:12   18.2. 21:36     19.2. 0:00   19.2. 2:24   19.2. 4:48   19.2. 7:12   19.2. 9:36
                                                                                                       date, time




                   Implementation
                                                                                                     Documentation and Presentation

                                                                                          • date
                                                                                          • time
                                                                                          • sampling circumstances
                                                                                          • person in charge of
                                                                                            sampling
                                                                                          • weather conditions
                                                                                          • tracer concentration
                                                                                          • physico-chemical
                                                                                            parameters




                                                                                                                                                                                         71
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer              Tracertechniken Bergbau                 Sommersemester 2007




                   Implementation
                                                      Documentation and Presentation

                    • municipal and administrative district
                    • number of topographical map
                    • designation of investigation area
                    • name of project head
                    • type and quantity of tracer
                    • injection sites with name, co-ordinates, altitude,
                      geological formation
                    • start and finish times of tracer injections,
                      priming and flushing water, flow volume
                    • sampling sites
                                      co-
                              – name, co-ordinates, discharge or pump rate, tracer
                                concentration, start and finish of observation




                   Implementation
                                                      Documentation and Presentation

                    • use breakthrough curves
                    • normed curves should be used
                    • summation curves ease understanding
                           1,00

                           0,90

                           0,80

                           0,70

                           0,60
                   c/c 0




                           0,50

                           0,40

                           0,30

                           0,20

                           0,10

                           0,00
                              18.2    19.2     20.2        21.2          22.2   23.2   24.2




                                                                                                             72
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                                                                Tracertechniken Bergbau                                                                           Sommersemester 2007




                   Implementation
                                                                                                                             Documentation and Presentation

                                   200000
                                   190000
                                   180000                                                                                                                                            No 539 shaft
                                   170000
                                   160000
                                   150000
                                   140000
                                   130000                                                                                                                         No 530 shaft
                   Spores, total




                                   120000
                                   110000
                                   100000
                                    90000
                                                                                                                                                                   Fluor shaft
                                    80000
                                    70000
                                    60000
                                    50000
                                                                                                                                                                              Glasebach shaft
                                    40000
                                    30000
                                    20000
                                    10000
                                        0
                                                                  0906-02
                                                                  0606-01

                                                                  0706-01


                                                                  0806-02




                                                                  1406-02


                                                                  1606-01

                                                                  1706-01




                                                                  2606-01
                                                                  1106-01

                                                                  1206-01


                                                                  1306-02




                                                                  1806-02

                                                                  1906-02


                                                                  2106-01




                                                                  2306-02


                                                                  2506-01
                                                                  0606-02

                                                                  0706-02
                                                                  0806-01

                                                                  0906-01




                                                                  1506-01
                                                                  1506-02

                                                                  1606-02

                                                                  1706-02
                                                                  1806-01
                                                                  1406-01
                                                                  1006-01
                                                                  1006-02

                                                                  1106-02

                                                                  1206-02
                                                                  1306-01




                                                                  1906-01

                                                                  2006-01
                                                                  2006-02

                                                                  2106-02
                                                                  2206-01
                                                                  2206-02
                                                                  2306-01

                                                                  2406-01
                                                                  2406-02

                                                                  2506-02
                                                                  3105-01




                                                                  0706-




                                                                  0906-
                                                                  0606-




                                                                  0806-




                                                                  1206-01


                                                                  1306-

                                                                  1406-


                                                                  1606-

                                                                  1706-




                                                                  2306-


                                                                  2506-

                                                                  2606-
                                                                  1106-




                                                                  1806-

                                                                  1906-


                                                                  2106-01
                                                                  0606-02

                                                                  0706-
                                                                  0806-

                                                                  0906-




                                                                  1406-

                                                                  1506-
                                                                  1506-02

                                                                  1606-

                                                                  1706-02
                                                                  1806-




                                                                  2406-
                                                                  2406-

                                                                  2506-
                                                                  3105-




                                                                  1006-01
                                                                  1006-

                                                                  1106-

                                                                  1206-
                                                                  1306-




                                                                  1906-

                                                                  2006-
                                                                  2006-

                                                                  2106-
                                                                  2206-
                                                                  2206-
                                                                  2306-01
                                                                  0306-01
                                                                  0306-02

                                                                  0406-02

                                                                  0506-02
                                                                  0106-01
                                                                  0206-01


                                                                  0406-01

                                                                  0506-01
                                                                  0306-
                                                                  0306-

                                                                  0406-02

                                                                  0506-
                                                                  0106-
                                                                  0206-


                                                                  0406-

                                                                  0506-




                                                                    blind
                                                                    blind




                   Implementation
                                                                                                                             Documentation and Presentation


                                                          1,700
                                                          1,700
                                                                                                           1,4
                                                                                                           1,4
                                                          1,600
                                                          1,600                                                                                                      precipitation
                                                                                                           1,3
                                                                                                           1,3                                                       precipitation
                                                                                                                                                                     conductivity
                                                                                                                                                                     conductivity
                                                          1,500
                                                          1,500                                            1,2
                                                                                                           1,2
                                                                                     conductivity, mS/cm
                                                                                     conductivity, mS/cm




                                                          1,400
                                                          1,400                                            1,1
                                                                                                           1,1

                                                          1,300                                            1,0
                                                                                                           1,0
                                                          1,300
                                    conductivity, mS/cm
                                    conductivity, mS/cm




                                                                                                           0,9
                                                                                                           0,9
                                                          1,200
                                                          1,200
                                                                                                           0,8
                                                                                                           0,8
                                                          1,100
                                                          1,100
                                                                                                           0,7
                                                                                                           0,7
                                                                                                             12:00
                                                                                                             14:00
                                                                                                                     16:00
                                                                                                                     18:00
                                                                                                                             20:00
                                                                                                                             22:00
                                                                                                                                     0:00
                                                                                                                                     2:00
                                                                                                                                            4:00
                                                                                                                                            6:00
                                                                                                                                                    8:00
                                                                                                                                                   10:00
                                                                                                                                                   12:00
                                                                                                             12:00
                                                                                                             14:00
                                                                                                                     16:00
                                                                                                                     18:00
                                                                                                                             20:00
                                                                                                                             22:00
                                                                                                                                     0:00
                                                                                                                                     2:00
                                                                                                                                            4:00
                                                                                                                                            6:00
                                                                                                                                                    8:00
                                                                                                                                                   10:00
                                                                                                                                                   12:00




                                                          1,000
                                                          1,000

                                                          0,900
                                                          0,900

                                                          0,800
                                                          0,800
                                                                                                                                                                                               precipitation, mm
                                                                                                                                                                                               precipitation, mm




                                                                                                                                                                                         15
                                                                                                                                                                                          15
                                                          0,700
                                                          0,700
                                                                                                                                                                                         10
                                                                                                                                                                                          10
                                                          0,600
                                                          0,600                                                                                                                          55

                                                          0,500
                                                          0,500                                                                                                                          00
                                                              30.5.2000
                                                              30.5.2000   6.6.2000
                                                                          6.6.2000                         13.6.2000
                                                                                                           13.6.2000          20.6.2000
                                                                                                                              20.6.2000            27.6.2000
                                                                                                                                                   27.6.2000   4.7.2000
                                                                                                                                                               4.7.2000      11.7.2000
                                                                                                                                                                             11.7.2000




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         73
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                                            Tracertechniken Bergbau                                                                           Sommersemester 2007




                   Implementation
                                                                                                           Documentation and Presentation

                                             1,2



                                             1,1



                                               1
                     Conductivity in mS/cm




                                             0,9



                                             0,8



                                             0,7



                                             0,6



                                             0,5



                                             0,4



                                             0,3
                                                      0


                                                             1


                                                                    2




                                                                                                                                                        4




                                                                                                                                                                      6




                                                                                                                                                                                    8


                                                                                                                                                                                           9
                                                                           3


                                                                                  4


                                                                                         5


                                                                                                6


                                                                                                       7


                                                                                                              8


                                                                                                                     9


                                                                                                                            0


                                                                                                                                   1


                                                                                                                                          2


                                                                                                                                                 3




                                                                                                                                                               5




                                                                                                                                                                             7




                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                    :0


                                                           :0


                                                                  :0




                                                                                                                                                      :1




                                                                                                                                                                    :1




                                                                                                                                                                                  :1


                                                                                                                                                                                         :1
                                                                         :0


                                                                                :0


                                                                                       :0


                                                                                              :0


                                                                                                     :0


                                                                                                            :0


                                                                                                                   :0


                                                                                                                          :1


                                                                                                                                 :1


                                                                                                                                        :1


                                                                                                                                               :1




                                                                                                                                                             :1




                                                                                                                                                                           :1




                                                                                                                                                                                                :2
                                                   10


                                                          10


                                                                 10




                                                                                                                                                     10




                                                                                                                                                                   10




                                                                                                                                                                                 10


                                                                                                                                                                                        10
                                                                        10


                                                                               10


                                                                                      10


                                                                                             10


                                                                                                    10


                                                                                                           10


                                                                                                                  10


                                                                                                                         10


                                                                                                                                10


                                                                                                                                       10


                                                                                                                                              10




                                                                                                                                                            10




                                                                                                                                                                          10




                                                                                                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                          time


                                                                                                                                                                           Meister 2002




                   Evaluation
                                                                                                                Types of Aquifers and Methods

                    • Porous Aquifers
                    • Fracture Aquifers
                    • Karst Aquifers
                    • Evaluation of Break Through Curves




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     74
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer   Tracertechniken Bergbau                 Sommersemester 2007




                   Evaluation
                                                               Porous Aquifers

                    • DARCY flow
                    • GAUSS
                      distribution
                    • Relatively high
                      recovery rates
                    • Low effective
                      velocities
                    • Analytical
                      solution is
                      possible




                   Evaluation
                                                              Fracture Aquifers

                   • No DARCY flow
                   • No GAUSS
                     distribution
                   • Relatively low
                     recovery rates
                   • Mean effective
                     velocities
                   • SFDM model
                     commonly used
                     (single fissure
                     dispersion model)




                                                                                                  75
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer   Tracertechniken Bergbau                                                     Sommersemester 2007




                   Evaluation
                                                                                                Karst Aquifers

                                                      Concentration [mg/m³]
                   • DARCY flow can be          15

                     used                                                                                Karst System
                                                                                                             Data curve



                   • GAUSS distribution        10


                   • Relatively high
                     recovery rates            5



                   • High to extreme
                     effective velocities      0
                                                    30                           40              50
                                                                                             Time [h]
                                                                                                        60                  70

                                                                                                                 Fit area

                   • MDM model (multi
                                            Model type 2 : 1-D Convection-Dispersion-Model




                     dispersion model)




                   Evaluation
                                     Evaluation of Break Through Curves

                    • Break through curve
                    • Sum curve




                                                                                                                                      76
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                       Tracertechniken Bergbau                                    Sommersemester 2007




                   Evaluation
                                                                          Evaluation of Break Through Curves

                    • t0: start of tracer test
                    • t1: first tracer arrival
                                              – Maximal effective velocity
                    • tdom: maximal tracer concentration
                                              – Dominating effective velocity
                    • tmed= t50: median tracer concentration
                                              – Mean effective velocity
                    • tw: mean tracer concentration
                                              – Real effective velocity




                   Evaluation
                                                                                    Original Break Through Curve

                                             400


                                             350


                                             300
                    Na-fluorescein, µg L-1




                                             250


                                             200


                                             150


                                             100


                                              50


                                              0
                                               -600   -400   -200   0   200   400   600   800   1000   1200   1400   1600   1800
                                                                               time, minutes




                                                                                                                                                         77
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                                  Tracertechniken Bergbau                                              Sommersemester 2007




                   Evaluation
                                                                   Break Through Curve without background

                                                350


                                                300


                                                250
                       Na-fluorescein, µg L-1




                                                200


                                                150


                                                100


                                                 50


                                                 0

                                                  -600    -400    -200         0     200   400     600     800   1000   1200     1400     1600   1800
                                                                                            time, minutes




                   Evaluation
                                                                                       Break Through Curve Normalised

                                                1,0

                                                0,9

                                                0,8

                                                0,7

                                                0,6
                       c / cmax




                                                0,5

                                                0,4

                                                0,3

                                                0,2

                                                0,1

                                                0,0
                                                      0     200          400         600     800         1000    1200     1400          1600     1800
                                                                                            time, minutes




                                                                                                                                                                              78
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                           Tracertechniken Bergbau                                  Sommersemester 2007




                   Evaluation
                                                                                    Sum Curve Normalised

                                    1,0

                                    0,9

                                    0,8

                                    0,7

                                    0,6
                       Σc / Σcmax




                                    0,5

                                    0,4

                                    0,3

                                    0,2

                                    0,1

                                    0,0
                                          0    200    400     600     800     1000    1200    1400    1600    1800
                                                                     time, minutes




                   Evaluation
                                                                                    Sum Curve Normalised

                               1,0

                               0,9                                                           • t1
                               0,8

                               0,7
                                                                                             • tdom
                               0,6                                                           • t16
                                                                                             • tmed
                               0,5

                               0,4

                               0,3                                                           • t84
                               0,2

                               0,1
                                                                                             • tend
                               0,0
                                      0       200    400    600     800     1000     1200    1400    1600    1800
                                                                    time, minutes




                                                                                                                                           79
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer     Tracertechniken Bergbau                                          Sommersemester 2007




                   Evaluation
                                                                                         Velocities

                                x              v ² ⋅ (t84 − t16 )²
                         v=         DL =                                          DL = v ⋅ λ
                                t                     8 ⋅ t50

                   •   t1        150 min:        v = 6,67 cm min-1
                   •   tdom      200 min:        v = 5,00 cm min-1
                   •   t16       201 min:        v = 4,98 cm min-1
                   •   tmed      309 min:        v = 3,24 cm min-1
                   •   t84       538 min:        v = 1,86 cm min-1
                   •   tend     1500 min:        v = 0,67 cm min-1
                   •   DL = 1,5 m² min-1        (λ = 0,005 m)
                   •   DT ≈ 0,1 DL = 0,15 m² min-1




                   Evaluation
                                                                                    Recovery Rate

                                          tn

                                          ∫ c ⋅δ t ⋅ Q
                                         t1 = 0
                                    r=
                                                      M
                   •   Q = 23 L min-1                     1,00

                                                          0,90


                   •   M = 50 g                           0,80

                                                          0,70


                   •   Integral = 485,3 mg                0,60
                                                  c/c 0




                                                          0,50

                   •   r=1%                               0,40

                                                          0,30

                                                          0,20

                                                          0,10

                                                          0,00
                                                             18.2   19.2   20.2   21.2   22.2   23.2       24.2




                                                                                                                             80
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer      Tracertechniken Bergbau           Sommersemester 2007




                   Examples
                                                                   Examples

                    • Surface/Ground Water
                         – Surface flow measurements
                         – hydraulic connection (Taucherfriedhof
                           Bautzen)
                    • Mine Water
                         – Multiple shafts (Straßberg/Harz)
                         – Single shaft (Brixlegg/Tirol)




                   Examples
                                                   Surface Flow Measurements

                    • Standing (lakes) and flowing (rivers)
                      water bodies
                    • Detection of flow connections
                    • Flow Velocities
                    • Mixing conditions
                    • Dispersion
                    • Flow Measurements
                    • Evaluation of physical parameters
                         – Oxygen depletion (degasing measurements)
                         – Light input (decomposing tracer)




                                                                                               81
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer               Tracertechniken Bergbau           Sommersemester 2007




                   Examples
                                                            Surface Flow Measurements

                   •   Flow velocities
                   •   Known tracer amount injected
                   •   Mixing of tracer
                   •   DIRAC impulse
                                    M
                             Q = t =∞
                                   ∫ ct dt
                                         t =0

                                    M = injected tracer amount
                                    Ct = concentration of tracer at time t
                                     t = time of tracer sampling




                   Examples
                                                            Surface Flow Measurements

                    • Measurement in middle of river
                    • Possible Tracers
                         – NaCl
                           Na-
                         – Na-fluorescein (Uranine)
                         – Rhodamine WT
                   • Flourimeter (fibre optics)
                   • Conductivity




                                                                                                        82
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                                      Tracertechniken Bergbau                          Sommersemester 2007




                   Examples
                                                                                       Surface Flow Measurements




                   Examples
                                                                                       Surface Flow Measurements
                                                                                Lobergaben


                                         1,0


                                         0,9


                                         0,8
                                                    vdom
                                         0,7


                                                                                             vmed
                                   max




                                         0,6
                   concentration c/c




                                         0,5


                                         0,4


                                         0,3

                                                   vmax
                                         0,2


                                         0,1


                                         0,0
                                               0     100   200   300      400        500       600   700   800   900   1000




                                                                                                                                              83
                                Uranin ng/L




                   100
                         200
                               300
                                          400
                                                                      500
                                                                                                    600
                                                                                                                           700




               0
     05. 11.
     06. 11.
     07. 11.
     08. 11.
     09. 11.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                Examples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Examples




     10. 11.
     11. 11.
     12. 11.
     13. 11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer




     14. 11.
     15. 11.
     16. 11.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    t =0
     17. 11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Q = t =∞
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Results

     18. 11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             M
     19. 11.




                                                                                                          Versuchsbeginn
     20. 11.
     21. 11.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ∫ ct dt
     22. 11.
     23. 11.
     24. 11.
     25. 11.
     26. 11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    =




                                                                                                                                                                       connection)
     27. 11.
     28. 11.
     29. 11.
     30. 11.
     01. 12.
     02. 12.
     03. 12.
     04. 12.
     05. 12.
     06. 12.
     07. 12.
     08. 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       65.9 L



     09. 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            g⋅s




     10. 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10,000 g




     11. 12.
     12. 12.
     13. 12.
     14. 12.
     15. 12.
     16. 12.
     17. 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           M = injected tracer amount


     18. 12.
     19. 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            t = time of tracer sampling
     20. 12.
     21. 12.
     22. 12.
     23. 12.
     24. 12.
     25. 12.
     26. 12.
     27. 12.
     28. 12.
     29. 12.
     30. 12.
     31. 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ct = concentration of tracer at time t




     01. 01.




                                                                                                                                 Tracerversuch Gesundbrunnenquelle
     02. 01.
     03. 01.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Tracertechniken Bergbau




     04. 01.
     05. 01.
     06. 01.
     07. 01.
     08. 01.
     09. 01.
     10. 01.
     11. 01.
     12. 01.
     13. 01.
     14. 01.




                                                                                                                                                                     • Taucherfriedhof Bautzen (hydraulic
     15. 01.
     16. 01.
     17. 01.
     18. 01.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                = 0.15 L ⋅ s −1 = 9.1 L ⋅ s −1




     19. 01.
     20. 01.




                                                                                                  GW2
     21. 01.
     22. 01.
     23. 01.
     24. 01.
     25. 01.
     26. 01.




                                                                 Versuchsbeginn
                                                                                  Gesundbrunnen




                                                Nachweisgrenze
     27. 01.
     28. 01.
     29. 01.
     30. 01.
     31. 01.
     01. 02.
     02. 02.
     03. 02.
     04. 02.




                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ground Water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Surface Flow Measurements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sommersemester 2007




84
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                   Tracertechniken Bergbau                            Sommersemester 2007




                   Examples
                                                                                           Ground Water

                             1
                            0,9         c in ng/L
                            0,8         sum
                            0,7
                            0,6
                      max




                            0,5
                     c/c




                            0,4
                            0,3
                            0,2
                            0,1
                             0
                                  0    10     20    30     40       50       60       70    80   90   100
                                                    Days after start of tracer test




                   Examples
                                                                                           Ground Water

                    • t1 = 12 d                     ⇒           v1 = 2.7 · 10-4 m·s-1
                    • tdom = 49.5 d                 ⇒           vdom = 6.5 · 10-5 m·s-1
                    • t16 = 25.6 d                  ⇒           v16 = 1.3 · 10-4 m·s-1
                    • t50 = 49.7 d                  ⇒           v50 = 6.5 · 10-5 m·s-1
                    • t84 = 68.5 d                  ⇒           v84 = 4.7 · 10-5 m·s-1

                                          vf 2.1⋅10 −6
                                      va = =           = 8.4 ⋅10 −5 m ⋅ s -1
                                          ne  0.025




                                                                                                                             85
Prof. Dr. Christian Wolkersdorfer                            Tracertechniken Bergbau                        Sommersemester 2007




                   Examples
                                                                                              Ground Water
                           Concentration[µg/l]
                                                                                               Best-fit

                     100




                     50




                     0     0              500             1000      1500     2000      2500          3000
                           Model type1: Standardized1-D          Time [h]                Fit area


                                                    t50 = 56.9 d ⇒ v50 = 5.7 · 10-5 m/s
                                                             DL = 5 · 10-3 m²/s
                                                                 λ = 91 m




                   Examples
                                                                                                    Mine Water

                    • Brixlegg/Tirol
                                       silver-
                          – historical silver-barite mine
                          – 100 m deep shaft
                                 • 20, 40, 70, 100 m levels
                          – Flooded since 1990
                            Outfl    20— L·
                          – Outflow 20—50 L·min-1




                                                                                                                                  86

								
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