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					Recommended Minimum Requirements for
        Packet Data Roaming

                         CDG Document 147
                       Version 0.00 (DRAFT)

                               02 Feb 2007


                         CDMA Development Group
                       575 Anton Boulevard, Suite 560
                        Costa Mesa, California 92626
                         PHONE +1 888 800-CDMA
                              +1 714 545-5211
                           FAX +1 714 545-4601
                             http://www.cdg.org
                                cdg@cdg.org




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     any disclosure or contribution, including any liability arising out of
     infringement of intellectual property rights.
    Recommended Minimum Requirements for Packet Data Roaming




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1                                  Revision History

     Date               Version        Description

     Feb 02, 2007       0.00 (DRAFT)   Initial draft distributed for review


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3   Open issues:

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 1                                                                    1. Introduction
 2   1.1 Overview
 3   The following is a set of important requirements to which operators should adhere when setting
 4   out to implement packet data roaming. Operator experiences in implementing packet data
 5   roaming to date suggest that lack of compliance with a small number of key requirements has
 6   created many of the problems encountered. Therefore, the intention is to provide a succinct list
 7   of these important requirements with references to details in other documents. Unless otherwise
 8   noted, all requirements described below apply to any CDMA2000 air interface technology.


 9   1.2 Reference Information

10                          Table 1-1: Relevant Industry Organizations

      Organization                       Description

      3GPP2                              3G Partnership Project 2
                                         www.3gpp2.org

      CDG                                CDMA Development Group
                                         www.cdg.org

      CDG IRT                            CDG International Roaming Team
                                         www.cdg.org/cdg/teams/international.asp

      IETF                               Internet Engineering Task Force
                                         www.ietf.org

      ICANN                              Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
                                         www.icann.org
                                         Assigns globally unique domain names (a.k.a. “realms”)

      TIA                                Telecommunications Industry Association
                                         http://www.tiaonline.org/


11                              Table 1-2: Relevant CDG Standards

12   All CDG reference documents listed below are available for download in the Members
13   Only: Reference Documents section of the CDG website at
14   www.cdg.org/members_only/ref_doc.asp

      Ref     Standard              Description

      1.      CDG #44               CDMA International Roaming Agreement
                                    (Version 2.5 or later required for packet data support)

      2.      CDG #79               Wireless Data Roaming Network Requirements and



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     Ref    Standard               Description

                                   Implementation
                                   (Version 1.1 or later required for 1xRTT/EV-DO)

     3.     CDG #94                CDMA Packet Data Roaming eXchange Guidelines

     4.     CDG #116               Packet Data Billing Requirements and Implementation

     5.     CDG #118               International Voice Roaming Checklist

     6.     CDG #121               Packet Data Roaming End-to-End Test Plan

     7.     CDG #123               Operator Requirements and Capabilities Form for Packet Data
                                   Roaming

     8.     CDG #124               Packet Data Technical Data Sheet


1           Table 1-3: Relevant 3GPP2 Cross Referenced TIA/EIA/IS Standards

2   All TIA/EIA/IS standards listed below are available for download in the 3GPP2
3   Specifications: Cross-Reference to Published Standards section of the 3GPP2 website
4   at www.3gpp2.com/Public_html/specs.

     Ref    Standard               Description

     1.     P.R0001 v1.0           Wireless IP Architecture Based on IETF Protocols
            (TSB-115)

     2.     C.S0016-B v1.0         Over-the-Air Service Provisioning of Mobile Station in Spread
            (TIA-683-C)            Spectrum Systems

     3.     X.S0011-00z-C          cdma2000 Wireless IP Network Standard
            v1.0 (TIA-835.00z)
                                   z = subdocument number:
                                     1 – Overview
                                     2 – Simple IP and Mobile IP Access Services
                                     3 – Packet Data Mobility and Resource Management
                                     4 – Quality of Service and Header Reduction
                                     5 – Accounting Services and 3GPP2 RADIUS VSAs

                                   see also: Table 1-4: IS-835 Evolution

     4.     C.S0024-0 v4.0         cdma2000 High Rate Packet Data Air Interface Specification
            (IS-856-2)

     5.     A.S0008-0 v3.0         Interoperability Specification (IOS) for High Rate Packet Data
            (TIA-878-1 pub)        (HRPD) Access Network Interfaces


5   Note that the TIA-835 set of documents are the primary standards that define the packet
6   data network architecture. While version C is currently shown in Table 1-3: Relevant
7   3GPP2 Cross Referenced TIA/EIA/IS Standards, a version D is in progress. The major
8   improvements introduced by each version are shown below:



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1                                  Table 1-4: IS-835 Evolution

     IS-835 Version     Improvements

     TIA/IS-835-A         Simple IPv4 (i.e. IPv4 over PPP)
     (May 2001)               o PAP, CHAP, or null authentication
                              o IP address assignment via IPCP
                          Mobile IPv4
                              o Static or dynamic home address
                              o Static HA assignment
                              o NAI extension & FA challenge/response
                              o Security association between PDSN/FA and HA
                          VJ header compression
                          PPP payload compression
                          Airtime and/or volume based accounting
     IS-835-B               Multiple service instances introduced
     (Sept. 2002)           DiffServ QoS
                            Simple IPv6 (IPv6 over PPP)
                            “Always on” support for Simple IP (via LCP echo)
                            Dynamic HA allocation using RADIUS
                            IP, ROHC, and ROHC-over-PPP header compression
                            DNS address auto-configuration via IPCP
                            Dynamic DNS update by network entities assigning the address
                            Fast PDSN-PDSN handoff (tunnel PPP between PDSNs)
                            Remote address based accounting
     TIA-835-C              Multiple service instance support
     (Aug. 2003)            0-byte header reduction schemes and enhanced CRTP
                            Differential flow treatment (QoS, compression)
                            “Always on” enhancement (Max PPP Inactivity Timer)
                            PDSN/HA resource management
                            Prepaid data
                            IP Reachability (capability indication from HA to HAAA)
     IS-835-D             Mobile IPv6
     (TBD)                IPv4 and IPv6 interworking
                          QoS improvements:
                              o End-to-end QoS
                              o QoS subBLOB
                              o Service tiers within AAA system
                          Push support for network initiated services
                          DHCP support
                          Enhanced security
                          Flow control for PDSN-to-RAN traffic
                          Flow control and QoS/content/flow based accounting
                          Roaming enhancements




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1                      Table 1-5: Relevant IETF Standards/Specifications

2   All IETF standards listed below are available for download in the Internet
3   RFC/STD/FYI/BCP Archives at www.faqs.org/rfcs.

     Ref    Standard               Description

     1.     RFC 1144               Compressing TCP/IP headers for low-speed serial links
                                   (also known as Van Jacobson header compression)

     2.     RFC 1332               The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)

     3.     RFC 1334               PPP Authentication Protocols (PAP & CHAP)

     4.     RFC 1661               The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

     5.     RFC 1662               PPP in HDLC-like Framing

     6.     RFC 1962               The PPP Compression Control Protocol (CCP)

     7.     RFC 1994               PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)

     8.     RFC 2002               IP Mobility Support (Mobile IP)

     9.     RFC 2003               IP Encapsulation within IP

     10.    RFC 2004               Minimal Encapsulation within IP

     11.    RFC 2205               Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) v1 Functional Spec

     12.    RFC 2402               IP Authentication Header

     13.    RFC 2406               IP Encapsulating Security Payload

     14.    RFC 2409               Internet Key Exchange (IKE)

     15.    RFC 2460               An Architecture for Differentiated Services

     16.    RFC 2486               Network Access Identifier (NAI)

     17.    RFC 2507               IP Header Compression

     18.    RFC 2637               Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)

     19.    RFC 2661               Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)

     20.    RFC 2784               Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)

     21.    RFC 2794               Mobile IP Network Access Identifier Extension for Ipv4

     22.    RFC 2865               Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)

     23.    RFC 3012               Mobile IPv4 Challenge/Response Extensions

     24.    RFC 3024               Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP

     25.    RFC 3095               Robust Header Compression (ROHC): Framework and four
                                   profiles: RTP, UDP, ESP, and uncompressed

     26.    RFC 3162               RADIUS and IPv6

     27.    RFC 3241               Robust Header Compression (ROHC) over PPP


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     28.      RFC 3545             Enhanced Compressed RTP (CRTP) for Links with High Delay,
                                   Packet Loss and Reordering


1                   Table 1-6: CDMA Roaming eXchange (CRX) Providers

     Company                            Details

     Aicent                             www.aicent.net

     Syniverse                          www.verisign.com

     Verisign                           www.syniverse.com


2                          Table 1-7: Acronyms and Abbreviations

     Acronym /
     Abbreviation   Description

     1xRTT          CDMA2000 Single Carrier (1x) Radio Transmission Technology. Also known
                    as 1x or IS-2000. CDMA channel hosts both voice and data with data speed
                    up to 150kbps (50kbps average)

     1xEV-DO        CDMA2000 Evolution, Data Only. Also known as EV-DO, DO, or IS-856.
                    CDMA channel is dedicated to data services with data speeds up to 2.4Mbps
                    (400-600kbps average)

     3DES           Triple (3x) Data Encryption Standard. Also known as DESede. Encryption
                    algorithm uses a 168-bit key (i.e. three 56-bit DES keys). Used during IKE

     AAA            Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting server. Similar to HLR/VLR
                    servers in a the mobile voice network. Communicates using RADIUS.

     AH             Authentication Header. Provides authentication and message integrity but
                    does not support data confidentiality. Has been effectively replaced by ESP

     AN             Access Network. Data network providing network access to the MS/AT

     AN-AAA         Access Network AAA

     AT             Access Terminal. EV-DO nomenclature for the Mobile Station (MS). This
                    document uses “MS/AT” to refer to packet data capable mobile devices

     BAAA           Broker AAA

     CHAP           Challenge Handshake Authentication Procotol. 3-way handshake protocol
                    used during link establishment and periodically anytime thereafter to
                    authenticate a user. Uses MD5

     CoA            Care-of Address. Used in Mobile IP architecture. Temporary address
                    assigned to a Mobile IP enabled device in foreign domain. Messages
                    addressed to the device are routed by the HA to the CoA

     CRTP           Enhanced Compressed RTP




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 Acronym /
 Abbreviation   Description
                                                     rd
 CRX            CDMA2000 Roaming eXchange. 3 party provider that facilitates CDMA
                packet data roaming between carriers by providing interconnection, AAA,
                billing, and settlement services

 DES            Data Encryption Standard. Encryption algorithm that uses a 52-bit key.

 DH1            Diffie-Helman group 1 key exchange. Cryptographic protocol that uses a 768
                bit modulus to allow two parties to establish a shared secret key over an
                insecure network. Used during IKE

 DH2            Diffie-Helman group 2 key exchange. Cryptographic protocol that uses a 1024
                bit modulus to allow two parties to establish a shared secret key over an
                insecure network. Used during IKE

 DNS            Domain Name Server. Provides translation between domain names and IP
                addresses

 ESP            Encapsulating Security Payload. Used by IPSec to provide secure packet
                flows with authentication, data confidentiality, and message integrity

 EV-DO          See 1xEV-DO

 FA             Foreign Agent. Used in Mobile IP architecture

 FQDN           Fully Qualified Domain Name

 GRE            Generic Routing Encapsulation. Transport layer encapsulation used by PPTP

 GRX            GPRS Roaming eXchange

 HA             Home Agent. Used in Mobile IP architecture

 HAAA           Home AAA

 HDLC           High-level Data Link Control

 HDR            High Data Rate. Term has been replaced by HRPD

 HMAC-MD5       keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code using MD5. Used by IPSec ESP

 HMAC-SHA-1     keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code using SHA-1. Used by IPSec ESP

 HRPD           High Rate Packet Data. Also known as HDR and 1xEV-DO

 IKE            Internet Key Exchange. Protocol used to setup an IPSec security association.
                Used with IPSec to authenticate each peer, negotiated security policy, and
                handle exchange of session keys. Formerly known as ISAKMP

 IPCP           Internet Protocol Control Protocol

 IPSec          IP Security Protocol. Uses AH, ESP, and IKE to provide secure connections
                over insecure IP networks

 IPSec SA       IPSec Security Association. Created during IPSec connection establishment
                to define the rules of that specific connection

 IS-856         1xEV-DO air interface



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 Acronym /
 Abbreviation   Description

 IS-2000        1xRTT air interface

 ISAKMP         Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol. Term replaced
                by IKE

 L2TP           Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol

 LAC            L2TP Access Concentrator

 LCP            Link Control Protocol

 LNS            L2TP Network Server

 MD5            Message-Digest algorithm 5. Hash function used by authentication protocols
                such as CHAP

 MIP            Mobile IP

 MN             Mobile Node. Mobile IP term for a node that can change its point of
                attachment to the Internet while maintaining the same IP address (i.e. an
                MS/AT that supports Mobile IP)

 MS             Mobile Station. Referred to as Access Terminal (AT) in packet data. This
                document uses “MS/AT” to refer to packet data capable mobile devices

 MS/AT          Mobile Station / Access Terminal. Used in this document to refer to packet
                data capable mobile devices

 MSID           Mobile Station Identifier. May be IMSI, MIN, or IRM.

 NAI            Network Access Identifier. Constructed from mobile’s username (MSID) and
                provider’s domain name (realm). NAIs should be fully qualified network names
                of the format: <MSID>@<realm>

 NAS            Network Access Server. An access gateway that authenticates users and
                authorizes access to an internal network or the Internet. In the packet data
                architecture, the PDSN acts as the NAS

 NAT            Network Address Translation

 NCP            Network Control Protocol

 NID            Network ID

 PAAA           Proxy AAA

 PAP            Password Authentication Protocol. Simple authentication protocol that is
                considered insecure since it transmits unencrypted ASCII passwords

 PCF            Packet Control Function

 PDSN           Packet Data Serving Node

 P-P            PDSN-PDSN interface

 PPP            Point-to-Point Protocol

 PPTP           Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol


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     Acronym /
     Abbreviation   Description

     QoS            Quality of Service

     RADIUS         Remote Access Dial In User Service

     RLP            Radio Link Protocol

     ROHC           Robust Header Compression

     RN             Radio Network

     R-P            RN-PDSN interface

     RTP            Real Time Protocol. A thin protocol that adds timing and sequencing data to
                    support real time transport of audio and video data over packet networks

     SHA-1          Secure Hash Algorithm 1

     SIP            Simple IP

     SO             Service Option

     SO33           Service Option 33. CDMA service option for 1xRTT

     SO59           Service Option 59. CDMA service option for 1xEV-DO

     SID            System ID

     TCP            Transmission Control Protocol

     UDP            User Datagram Protocol

     VAAA           Visited AAA

     VJHC           Van Jacobson Header Compression

     VPN            Virtual Private Network

1




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     Recommended Minimum Requirements for Packet Data Roaming




 1                                                             2. Requirements
 2   2.1 Air Interface
 3

 4   2.1.1 For 1xRTT devices, MIN-based IMSIs shall be provisioned with IRMs
 5      "International Roaming Mobile Identification Number Assignment Guidelines and
 6       Prosecutors" <http://www.ifast.org/files/dec2006/IRMGuidelinesv5.3.pdf>

 7

 8   2.1.2 For EV-DO networks, properly formed SectorIDs shall be broadcasted.
 9      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 2.1
10      3GPP2 C.S0024-0, Section 10.9.2 <http://www.3gpp2.com/Public_html/specs/C.S0024-
11       0_v4.0.pdf>

12




13   2.2 Interconnection
14

15   2.2.1 A CRX shall be used for interconnection between operators.
16      CDG Reference Document #79, "Wireless Data Roaming Requirements and
17       Implementation", Section 3.4
18      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 2.1
19      CDG Reference Document #94, "CDMA Packet Data Roaming eXchange Guidelines

20


21   2.2.1 The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) shall be used for exchanging routing
22   information.
23      CDG Reference Document #79, "Wireless Data Roaming Requirements and
24       Implementation", Section 3.4

25




26   2.3 Authentication and Accounting
27



28




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     Recommended Minimum Requirements for Packet Data Roaming


 1   2.3.1 A12 authentication shall be used for EV-DO.
 2      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 2.4, 3.4.5, 4.2

 3


 4   2.3.2 A12 authentication credentials shall be provisioned in all EV-DO devices.
 5      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 6.1.3

 6

 7   2.3.3 Devices shall be provisioned with properly formed NAIs that contain a realm that is a
 8   fully qualified domain name (FQDN).
 9      CDG Reference Document #79, "Wireless Data Roaming Requirements and
10       Implementation", Section 3.4
11      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 12.2.1

12


13   2.3.4 MIN-based RADIUS routing may be provided to cater for improperly formed NAIs in
14   devices. The CRX may perform MIN-based RADIUS routing for the operator.
15      CDG Reference Document #79, "Wireless Data Roaming Requirements and
16       Implementation", Section 3.2
17      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 4.3

18

19   2.3.5 The minimum set of the attributes shall be included in RADIUS records forwarded
20   between operators' AAAs.
21      CDG Reference Document #116, "Packet Data Billing Requirements and Implementation",
22       Section 4

23




24   2.4 Architecture
25


26   2.4.1 Mobile IP Service shall be provided to in-bound roaming devices.
27      CDG Mobile IP Resolution
28       <http://www.cdg.org/cdg/cdgexecoffice/files/CDG%20Exec%20Board%20MobileIP%20Resol
29       ution%2020061011r1.pdf>
30      CDG Reference Document #79, "Wireless Data Roaming Requirements and
31       Implementation", Section 4.2
32      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 3.8.3

33


34   2.4.2 For Simple IP roaming, the LAC function shall be supported on PDSN(s) in order to
35   support L2TP for operators that require it.



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 1      CDG Reference Document #79, "Wireless Data Roaming Requirements and
 2       Implementation", Section 4.3
 3      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 3.8.2, 13.2

 4

 5   2.4.3 Public IP addresses shall be assigned to network infrastructure elements, including
 6   HAs, FAs, AAAs, and DNS servers. This should include NAS IP addresses.
 7      CDG Reference Document #79, "Wireless Data Roaming Requirements and
 8       Implementation", Section 4.3
 9      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 3.3

10


11   2.4.4 Public IP addresses shall be assigned to network infrastructure elements, including:

12   2.4.4.1 Home Agents (HAs)

13   2.4.4.2 Foreign Agents (FAs)

14   2.4.4.3 Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Servers

15   2.4.4.4 DNS servers

16      CDG Reference Document #79, "Wireless Data Roaming Requirements and
17       Implementation", Section 4.3
18      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section 3.3

19


20   2.4.5 Server addresses shall not be hard coded devices. In legacy instances where
21   server addresses are hard coded, public IP addresses shall be hard coded.
22      CDG Reference Document #136, "1xEV-DO Roaming Guide", Section

23

24   2.4.6 DNS servers in the visited network shall be made reachable to the home network.
25   This is required because Mobile IP usually results in mobiles being assigned the visited
26   operator's DNS server.




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