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									       Strategic Framework
Sustainable Urban Transport in Asia

               Cornie Huizenga
Partnership for Sustainable Urban Transport in
                 Asia (PSUTA)

Transforming Cities Through Sustainable Transport

                 1, December 2004
                 Manila, Philippines
• PSUTA is the Partnership for Sustainable Urban
  Transport in Asia
• Partners: Asian Development Bank, EMBARQ, Hanoi
  city, Pune City and Xian city
• PSUTA is financed by Sida through ADB and
  EMBARQ, Shell Foundation through EMBARQ and
  contributions by Hanoi, Pune and Xian City
• The Strategic Framework for Sustainable Urban
  Transport is a high-level conceptual framework which
  aims to guide city authorities and other decision
  makers in policy and investment decisions related to
  urban transport systems in Asia
    Strategic Framework Process

• Strategic Framework brainstorming workshop in Hanoi,
  Vietnam in September 2004 with 30 experts from
  government, private sector, academe, civil society and
  development agencies
• Presentation and Discussion draft SF at BAQ 2004
  (Powerpoint version -December 2004)
• Drafting Text Version January – March 2005
• Discussion draft SF at national and city level (Text
  version March – June 2005)
• Presentation of draft final SF at EST conference, Nagoya,
  Japan (August 2005)
         Strategic Framework
• Land-use planners deciding on the shape and
  structures of cities
• Land developers implementing land-use plans
• Policy makers and transport planners deciding on
  structure and shape of urban transport systems
• Regulators responsible for environmental quality,
  transport prices, competition issues
• Financing groups: local and international
• Technology providers: vehicles, fuels, Intelligent
  Transport Systems, etc.
• Commercial providers goods and passenger transport
• Users of good transport systems
• Users of passenger transport systems
                   Key Challenges
• Population growth, increased urbanization and associated
  growth in demand for mobility
• Poor air quality resulting from transport and other sources
• Growth in the use of motorized transport, at the expense of
  NMT, which frequently has resulted in reduced access to
  transport for (absolute) urban poor and other vulnerable groups
• Land-use planning paradigms and flawed land pricing
  mechanisms, which have favored the development of
  “motorized hungry transport” systems
• Governance of the transport system: limited coordination
  among, and lack of organizational capacity in regulatory and
  planning agencies. Fragmented structure of the public transport
  sector in many Asian cities has seriously hampered the
  introduction of proven non-technical and technological solutions
  towards improving the environmental, economic and social
  sustainability of urban (public) transport systems in Asia.
• Policy makers do often not prioritize sustainable urban transport
What is Sustainable Urban Transport
• SUT focuses on access and mobility rather than the
  movement of vehicles
• SUT provides access for and to all groups in society in a
  manner which is within the environmental carrying
  capacity of a city or region in a manner which is
  affordable to both providers and users of transport
• SUT allows for generating economic growth without
  compromising economic and social dimensions to a
  point beyond repair
• SUT is a pre-condition for improved quality of life in
  Asian cities
• SUT systems combine technological and non-
  technological measures to enhance the sustainability of
  transport systems
     Environmental Dimension of
     Sustainable Urban Transport
• Pollution from transport should not exceed
  assimilative carrying capacity of the (local)
  environment (air, water and soil)
• Rate of use of non-renewable resources
  should not exceed the rate at which
  renewable substitutes are developed
• Air: both local urban pollution to be
  considered as well as greenhouse gasses.
   Social Dimension of Sustainable
           Urban Transport
• Vision for road safety: no deaths and no
• Provide access to all sections of society
  including those below the poverty line
• There are high class transport options
  available at an affordable end-price for all
  groups in society
• People do not feel threatened and their
  personal security is assured
The Economic and Financial Dimension of
      Sustainable Urban Transport
• Transport policies to focus on goals and objectives:
  market mechanism to determine how to get there
• Policy making on transport systems to incorporate full
  cost allocation of all external costs: life-cycle, social
  and environmental externalities
• Application of full cost allocation system will guide
  changes in land-use planning and enhance changes
  in transport planning in Asia
• Subsidies or incentives can be considered, they need
  to take into account equity considerations and
  environmental impacts, be backed by stable financial
• Transport systems require the resources to sustain
  themselves and to allow for continual improvements.
     Governance of Sustainable Urban

• Improved data collection
• Genuine efforts to strengthen sustainability of
  transport systems require involvement of all
  stakeholders and full access to information on all
  topics by all groups
• Sustainable transport requires consistent political
  support and well coordinated transparent
  administrative structures and processes
• Sustainable urban transport can require proactive
  government involvement
• Sustainable urban transport requires a well organized
  public transport sector with a limited number of
  providers which operate in the formal economy
       Sustainable Urban Transport and
• Technology has an important role to play in strengthening of
  sustainability of urban transport systems both in terms of “hard
  ware”: cleaner fuels, vehicles and ITS, as well as in terms of
  “software”: modeling, intelligent transport systems
• Technology does not always mean expensive technology. Also
  Technology should be improved on continuous basis
• The use of technology can be enhanced through the creation of
  a conducive governance environment and by combining
  technology with non technological policy measures, e.g. clean
  busses with BRT and promotion of NMT to “feed” public
• Technology assessment to be based on environmental, social
  and economic criteria – trade off process. Certain technologies
  are more suitable for certain cities and purposes in Asia.
   – Public transport versus private transport
   – Bus versus rail
   – Motorized versus non-motorized
    Use of Strategic Framework
• Sustainable Urban Transport is a vision that cities
  should work towards
• The SF helps decision makers in taking policy and
  investment decisions to bring cities closer to the
  vision, rather than to take them further away
• The SF allows for a trade-off process between the
  environmental, social and economic dimension. The
  outcome of the trade-off process will be different
  from location to location
• SF can help policy and decision makers to “step
  outside the box” and challenge the status quo on
  transport policy
Implementation of the Sustainable Urban
        Transport at city level
• Teamwork within government, national – local as well as
  between departments is required to achieve common goal of
  SUT. Reorganization of institutional mandates can be required
  to achieve this or the creation of dedicated administrative
• Visionaries or champions are needed to move the process
• Effective communication strategies are required to win “hearts
  and minds”
• The use of indicators can greatly help in analyzing current
  sustainability levels and to support implementation processes of
  SUT policies and investments
• Independent or third party monitoring and evaluation
• Substantive capacity building required among stakeholders
  (government, private sector and civil society) to enable the
  formulation and implementation of SUT policies in Asia
Financing of Sustainable Urban Transport

• Polluter pays principle should apply
• Infrastructure use to generate revenue
• Cities and states to broaden revenue generation to
  enhance the sustainability and self-reliance
• Public private partnerships within a strong regulatory
• Policies and measures to ensure that free-riders do not
  gain from value capture on land and decreased congestion
• Cross subsidization based on polluter pays principle
• Strong public transport sector backed by strong
• Development agencies to increase funding for sustainable
  urban transport systems

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