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					 AIM     DOMini    64.                                                11EBREWS.                                          Anno Domini       64.

   15 For perhaps he therefore departed for a sea- ' trust that through your prayers I shall be given
son, that thou shouldest receive him for ever ;        unto you.
   16 Not now as a servant, but above a servant, a       23 There salute thee Epaphras, my fellow-
brother beloved, specially to me, but how much prisoner in Christ Jesus ;
more unto thee, both in the flesh, and in the            24 Marcus, Aristarchus, Demas, Lucas, my fel-
Lord ?                                                lowlabourers.
   17 If thou count me therefore a partner, receive      25 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with .
him as myself:                                        your spirit. Amen.
   is If he hath wronged thee, or owcth thee ought,         91 Written from Rome to Philemon, by Onesi-
put that on mine account ;                                      mus a servant.
   19 I Paul have written it with mine own hand, I
will repay it : albeit I do not say to thee how thou         iration MAY the kindness which Paul expresses for
                                                     Onesmius, in being willing that his debt should be charged
owest ;into me even thine own self besides.          to his account, lead us to reflect on our infinite obligations to
  20 Yea, brother, let me have joy of thee in the    the gracious Redeemer. He willingly took our debts upon him-
Lord: refresh my bowels in the Lord.                 self, and has discharged them all, that we, being pardoned and
  21 Having confidence in thy obedience I wrote      justified through him, might be received into the family of God.
unto thee, knowing that thou wilt also do more May the grace manifested in the conversion of the poor fugitive,
than I say.                                           in whose behalf this Epistle was written, encourage us to pray
                                                      and hope, that the worst of sinners may be brought to repent-
  .`22 But withal prepare me also a lodging : for I

 do, in a case which I am going to mention, I rather choose by             and how much more unto thee," to whom he belongs, " both it
love to entreat thee, being such a one as Paul the aged, and now           the flesh, and in the Lord," in whose mind and conduct a most
 also the prisoner of Jesus Christ, after a long train of labours and      happy Change has taken place. If thou, therefore, esteem me as
 services in his cause. I beseech thee concerning one whom I call          a friend, " receive him as myself." And " if he hath wronged.
my Son, begotten to Christ in my bonds. This person, who is                thee, or oweth thee any thing, charge it to my account ; I Paul
very dear to me, is no other than thy servant Onesimus; who did            have written it with my own hand, and, upon demandovill repay it,-
not formerly act in a manner answerable to the signification of his        as far as my ability will extend. Yet I do not say to thee, that ag
name ; for he was " unprofitable to thee." But so great a change           God made me happily instrumental in the salvation of thy soul,
has taken place in him, through the power of divine grace, that            " thou owest me even thy own self besides " what I ask. There-
I trust he will now be "profitable," both to thee and to me. I             fore, my dear brother, deny 'me not this request in favour of this
have sent him back to thee again, who art his lawful master, and I         young man. " Let me have joy of thee in the Lord ;" it will be
beseech thee to receive him, as a person whom I love even as               more delightful to me than food is to a hungry nun ; therefore
 " my own bowels." I would have retained him with me, that, in             "  refresh my bowels in the Lord."—I forbear to urge the matter
thy stead, he might have ministered unto me, during the imprison-          farther ; for I have written to thee in full confidence of thy obe-
 ment which I suffer for the gospel's sake. But I would do nothing         dience, " knowing that thou wilt even do more than I say," or
 in this affair, without thy mind and express consent, that thy be-        request of thee. But withal prepare a lodging for me ; for I hope
nefit might not seem to be extorted by necessity, but be granted           that I shall, through your prayers, be set at liberty, and granted
triflingly. Perhaps, by the permission of Providence, he was se-           to you again. The following persons salute thee with brotherly
parated from thee for a season, that thou mightest receive him for         affection ; Epaphras, my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus, Marcus,
ever ; not now as a disobedient servant, to be long frowned upon,          Aristarchus, Demas, and Luke, my fellow-labourers. May the
and kept at a dis t ance; but as standing in a much dearer relation        grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your Spirit. Amen
than merely that of a servant, " even a brother beloved unto roe,


                              THE EPISTLE OF PAUL THE APOSTLE TO THE

                           CHAP. I.
       The Hebrews are reminded of the great favour which
  God had bestowed upon them, in sending them a revelation of
                                                                          Gprophets, at sundry timesunto in divers man-
                                                                              OD, who
                                                                               ners spake in time past
                                                                                                           the fathers by
  his will by his own Son, whose glory is set forth as far su-
  perior to that of angels.
                                                                               2   Hath in these last days spoken unto us

   HEnnEws.] It is almost certain that this Epistle was written           of the law had their full accomplishment, so that he was the sub-
by the Apostle Paul; yet he thought it prudent, in an address to          stance of all those shadows. Solemn and affectionate cautions,
the Hebrews, or Jewish nation, not to assume his apostolical cha-         warnings, and exhortations, are interspersed, addressed to different
racter, nor even to mention his name, because he well knew that           descriptions of persons, and a full account is given of the nature,
the prejudices of his countrymen were very strong against him,            power, and efficacy of that faith by which the just live, ad over-
and he w ished them to consider this address with cooln43s and im-        come all difficulties in the way to heaven. This Epistle, in a rrict
partiality. Yet, it is evident, that he supposed some of the He-          instructive way, connects the Old Testament with the New.
brews would know from whom the letter came ; See chap. x. 31,                CHAP. I. Ver. 1, &c. God, who at sundry times, &c.] Tic
and xiii. 18, 23, 24. Here we find the personal and mediatorial           apostle enters upon his subject without formal introductior, ty
.diguity of Christ set forth; and it is shewn, that in him the types      observing, that the blessed God had spoken to the fathers c tL2
Anno Domini       64.                                        HEBREWS.                                                 Anno Domini        64.

by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all                          and they shall be changed : but thou art the same,
things, by whom also he made the worlds ;                               and thy years shall not fail.
  - 3 Who being the brightness of his glory, and the                       13 But to which of the angels said he at any
 express image of his person, and upholding all                         time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine ene-
things by the word of his power, when he had by                         mies thy footstool ?
himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand                        14 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent
i..)f the Majesty on high ;                                             forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of
    4 Being made so much better than the angels,                        salvation ?
 as he bath by inheritance obtained a more excel-
lent name, than they.                                                      zopira tion .] 0 THAT WC may have suitable views and con-
    5 For unto which of the angels said he at any                       ceptions of our glorious Redeemer. He that put away our sins
 time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten                        is the brightness of his Father's glory, and the express image of
thee ? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he                     his person. His throne endures for ever and ever, and the
                                                                        highest orders of God's creatures are required to pay divine
shall be to me a Son ?                                                  worship to him. May we love him, adore him, and trust it
    6 And again, when he bringeth in the firstbe-                       him, with all our hearts. Amen.
gotten into the world, he saith, And let all the
angels of God worship him.                                                                          CHAP. II.
    7 And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his                        1   -   4 The danger   of
                                                                                                neglecting the great salvation,. thus rei
angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire.                           vealed and made known. 5 9 Christ's superiority to angels

    8 But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, 0 God,                         farther shewn. 10 18 The benefits of his incarnation, suf-

                                                                            ferings, and death.
is for ever and ever : a sceptre of righteousness is
the sceptre of thy kingdom.
    9 Thou hast loved righteousness, and bated                          T HEREFORE we ought to give the more ear-
                                                                         nest heed to the things which we have heard,
iniquity ; therefore God, even thy God, hath                            lest at any time we should let them slip.
anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy                           2 For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast,.
fellows.                                                                and every transgression and disobedience received
    10 And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning bast laid                      a just recompense of reward •
the foundation of the earth : and the heavens are                          3 How shall we escape, if we neglect so great
the works of thine hands.                                               salvation ; which at the first began to be spoken by
    11 They shall perish ; but thou remainest : and                     the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that
they all shall wax old as cloth a garment ;                             heard him;
    12 And as a vesture shalt thou fold them up,                           4 God also bearing them witness, both with signs

Jewish nation in former ages, at many times, and in various man-        nours to him, Psalm xcvii. 7. Thus he called upon the most ex-
ners, by his servants the prophets. But in these last days, says        alted of his creatures to honour and adore the Messiah. " And
the apostle, he hath shown his mercy in a still more surprising         concerning the angels he saith, He makcth his angels spirits,
way ; for he bath spoken to us by his own beloved Son, whom he          and his ministers a flame of fire." They are noble and active
hath appointed, as Mediator, " to be the heir and possessor of all      spirits ; but God never commanded that they should be the objects
things, by whom also he made the worlds," Col. i. 15-17. No             of worship. Hence we see the 'infinite disparity between Christ
creature can have any inheritance of power, honour, or felicity,        and the highest angels, Rev. xix. 10. But unto the Son he speaks
except as derived from him, and held in subordination to him.           in a very different manner, in a passage which !lath an immediate
Being One with the Father and the Eternal Spirit, he is both the        reference to him, Psalm xlv. 6, 7. " Thy throne, 0 God, is for
Creator and the Upholder of all beings. " He is the brightness          ever and ever ; the sceptre of thy kingdom is a sceptre of right-
of his Father's glory, and the express image of his person." The        eousness." In making thy soul an offering for sin, and in the
essence of the Deity must ever be invisible to man; but the only        whole of thy administration, thou hast given the fullest demonstra-
begotten on was appointed, as Mediator, to make known his               tion, that thou lovest righteousness - and hatest iniquity; " there-
glory and perfections ; so that he who saw him saw the Father           fore God, even thy God, bath anointed thee with the oil of glad-
also ; for the Son is the express image, or character, of the Father.   ness above thy fellows." None of the angels can pretend to com-
:He shows to man, with the greatest exactness, the nature and per-      pare with thee in glory, or in joy. And as to thy disciples and
fections of God. He upholds the world which he bath made, by            servants, they are anointed with the Holy Spirit for thy sake, but
 the efficacious word of his power, as One with the Father. This        thou art anointed far more than they all, even as thou exceedest
 glorious person, when he had, by the sacrifice of himself, purged      them in excellency and dignity. " Thou, Lord, from the begin-
and put away our sins, returned to the celestial world, and ." sat      ning hast founded the earth ; and the heavens are the work of thy
down at the right hand of the Majesty on high." Consider, I be-         hands ;" permanent as they seem to be, " they at length shall
seech you, what reverence, what zeal, and what love, you owe to         perish," but thou endurest in undeedying glory. "They shall grow
this Saviour of men, who, in his exaltation and celestial glory, was    old as a garment, and be folded up, and changed ; but thou art
made so much better than the angels, "as he hath by inheritance         ever the same, through eternal ages, and thy years shall not fail."
 obtained a inure excellent name than they." For to which of the        I will refer you to another passage, in which the Father speaks to.
angels bath the Father ever said, at any time, as he bath said to       the Messiah, Psalm cx. 1, " Sit thou at my right hand, until
 the Mssiali, " Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee ?"       make thine enemies thy footstool." To which of the angels did
 See the notes on Psalm ii. 7. " And again, I will be .a Father to      he ever speak in this manner ? " Are they not all ministering
him, and he shall be my Son," 2 Sam. vii. 14. Though these              spirits, sent forth to attend on those who shall inherit salvation ?"
words were originally spoken of Solomon, it was chiefly as he was       —So the words should be read.
a type of Christ. And when the Father introduced his first be-             CHAP. IL Ver. 1 - 9. Therefore tce ought to give, &c.] We
gotten Son into the world, and spoke of him as coming to take           ought to give the more earnest, believing, and obedient atten-
possession of his kingdom, he said, " And let all the angels of         tion to what we have heard, both on account of the majesty of the
Ok, d," in their various orders,"   worship him," or pay divine ho-     Speaker, and the important nature of the message he .brings,
AMID    DOlnini 64.                                         CHAPTER II.                                                 Anno Domini 64.
and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of                    thren, in the midst of the church I will sing praise
the Holy Ghost, according to his own will ?                            unto thee.
   5 For unto the angels hath he not put in subjec-                       13 And again, I will put my trust in him. And
tion the world to come, whereof we speak.                              again, Behold. I and the children which God bath
   6 But one in a certain place testified, saying,                     given me.
What is man, that thou art mindful of him ? or the                        14 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers'
son of man, that thou visitest him ?                                   of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part
   7 Thou madcst him a little lower than the angels;                   of the same ; that through death he might destroy
thou crownedst him with glory and honour, and                          him that had the power of death, that is, the devil ;.
didst set him over the works of thy hands :                               15 And deliver them who through fear of death .
   8 Thou hast put all things in subjection under                                                                          weralthifmsubjcondage.
his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under                      16 For verily he took not on him the nature of
him, he left nothing that is not put under him.                        angels ; but he took on him the seed of Abraham.
But now we see not yet all things put under him.                          17 Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be
   9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower                     made like unto his brethren, that he might be a
than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned                    merciful and faithful high priest in things pertain-
with glory and honour ; that he by the grace of                        ing to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of
God should taste death for every man.                                  the people.
   10 For it became him, for whom are all things,                         18 For in that he himself hath suffered being
and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons                      tempted, he is able to succour them that are
unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation                     tempted.
perfect through sufferings.
   ii For both he that sanctifieth and they who                           Zspiratim] ADORED for ever be our compassionate High
are sanctified are all of one : for which cause he is                  Priest, who took upon himself our infirmities, that he might
not ashamed to call them brethren,                                     know how to pity and relieve us under what we have to endure
   12 Saying, I will declare thy name unto my bre-                     in this world. Thus the Captain of our salvation was perfectly

by any means " we let the things slip," or flow out of our minds,      worthy of a believing and an adoring acceptance from sinful man ;
so that we should lose the impressions which they have made upon       and such as do receive it will be bad in everlasting honour, by the
us ; " for if the word spoken by angels," on mount Sinai, "was         choirs of saints, and the hosts of angels. Thus, in all respects, it
stedfast," and confirmed by such awful sanctions, " that every         was " becoming ;" infinitely worthy of God, and the source of hap-
transgression received a just recompense of reward ; how shall we      piness to man. " It became him—in bringing many sons unto
escape " the awful vengeance of God, if we disregard, and wil-         glory, to make the Leader, the Prince, and the Captain of their
fully " neglect, so great salvation ?" i. e. the salvation which is    salvation perfect," or completely fit for his office, "through the
proclaimed by the gospel, which began to be spoken of by the           most awful sufferings." In consequence of this appointment,
Lord Jesus Christ himself, and whose testimony was confirmed by        "Jesus, the great sanctifier, and they who are sanctified by
them that heard him ; God also bearing them witness, by enabling       are all of one family; for this cause," wonderful as it may appear,
them to perform many miracles, signs, and wonders, by the gift         " he is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying," as personated
and power of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will. The su-        by David, " I will declare thy name to my brethren; in the midst
perioi ity of the Lord Jesus to the angels is further proved by this   of the church will I praise thee,' Psalm xxii. 22, 26. " And.
consideration ; for unto them God " hath not put into subjection       again," Like my brethren, " I will trust in thee." And in another
the world to come, whereof we speak." He never intended that           place, " Behold, I and the children which God has given me"
they should preside over the gospel dispensation, which is the sub-    are for signs and wonders, Isaiah viii. 18.
ject of our present discourse. But David bears this testimony,            Ver. 14, &c. Forasmuch then as the children, &c.) Seeing that
saying, Psalm viii.4, " Lord, what is man, that thou rememberest       the children whom he represents " are partakers of flesh and
him? or the on of man, that thou regardest him ?" He then goes         blood, he himself likewise took part of the same," assuming all
on to speak of the character and circumstances of the Lord Jesus       their sinless infirmities, and becoming capable of those sufferings
Christ, both respecting his humble and exalted state ; for, with       which it was necessary for him to undergo, " that through dcath
 reference to him, he saith, "Thou rimiest him a little lower than     he might destoy," dethrone, or depose, " him that had the power
 the angels," or for a little while ; " and thou crownedst him with    of death," and had assumed the empire of it ; " that is, the devil ;"
 glory and honour, and host set him over all the works of thy hands,   that he might" deliver those who, through fear of death," wero, or
leaving nothing that is not put under him." But "we do not see         justly might have been, "all their lifetime subject to bondage ;"
yet that all things are put under him." Yet we have an earnest         since, if they rightly understood their condition, they had nothing
and a full security that they shall be ; "for we see Jesus made a      to expect after death but ruin and destruction. To deliver such
Jittle lower than the angels, that he might be capable of suffering    miserable captives was the great object which Christ came to ac-
death, and that, by the love and grace of God, he might taste the      complish; " for verily he took not on him the nature of angels,'"
bitterness of death for every man who is made willing to receive his   to save them from the abyss of misery, "but he took hold of the
salvation : we see him now "crowned with glory and honour," in         seed of Abraham," to save all that believe in his name, as Abra-
 consequence of his sufferings.                                        ham did. " Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like
    Ver. 10-13. It became him, &c.] This plan of salvation is be-      unto his brethren, that so he might be a merciful and faithful
 coming ; as an act of sovereignty in God, it comported with the        High Priest, in things pertaining to God ; that he might, in the
dignity, and displayed the incomprehensible majesty, of his perfec-    most effectual manner, make reconciliation, or atonement, for the
tions. As an execution of impartial vengeance on our Surety, it        sins of the people," in their own nature. By taking their nature
asserted the rights of divine government, and secured the utmost       upon him, he had somewhat to offer ; and by experience of thsir
veneration to the divine law. As an emanation of rich indulgence       infirmities, he contracted that peculiar kind of compassion, which,
to us, it redresses all our misery, and it retrieves our own happi-    humanly speaking, nothing else could teach. But " in that he
ness. In each respect, it spreads the brightest lustre over all the    himself hath suffered, being tempted, he is able to succour them
admiuistrations of the blessed God, and renders his very justice        that are tempted." Thus the ends of Christ's humiliation and
znniable and glorious, even to astonishment. In all respects, it is     death are set forth, in a most striking light.
ii11710   Domini   64.                                       HEBREWS.                                                 Anno Domini 64.
fitted for his work, through sufferings. Adored be his name,            and said, They do alway err in their heart ; and
who came to deliver us from the ?ear of death, and to depose            they have not known my ways.
him that had the power of death. Forbid it, Lord, that any of
us should neglect so great a salvation. Amen.
                                                                           11 Se I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter
                                                                        into my rest.)
                          CHAP. III.                                       12 Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of'
1-13 The apostle speaks of Christ as superior to Moses, and if          you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the
  the ilancrer of slighting the voice of the gospel. 14 19 He
                                                                        living God. .
  particular% cautions against unbelieji
                                                                           13 But exhort one another daily, while it is

Tk    r EREFORE: holy brethren, partakers of
           the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle
and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus ;
                                                                        called To day; lest any of you be hardened through
                                                                        the deceitfulness of sin.
                                                                           14 For we are made partakers of Christ,_ if we
   2 Who was faithfill to him that appointed him,
                                                                        bold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto
as also Moses was jaithficl in all his house.
                                                                        the end ;
   3 For this man was counted worthy of more
                                                                           15 While it is said, To day if ye will hear his
glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who 'lath builded
                                                                        voice harden not your hearts, as in the provocation.
the house bath more honour than the house.
                                                                           16 'For some, when they had heard, did provoke :
   4 For every house is budded by some man ; but
                                                                        howbeit not all that came out of Egypt by Moses.
he that built all things is God.
                                                                           17 But with whom was he grieved forty years ?
   5 And Moses verily was faithful in all his house,
                                                                        was it not with them that had sinned, whose car-
as a servant, for a testimony of those things which                     cases fell in the wilderness ?
were to be spoken after ;
                                                                           18 And to whom sware he that they should not
   6 But Christ as a son over his own house; whose
                                                                        enter into his rest, but to them that believed not ?
house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and                           19 So we see that they could not enter in be-
the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end.                            cause of unbelief.
   7 Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if
ye 1.vil I hear his voice,
   8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation,                        26.pil'iltiOn0 MAY we ever remember, that unbelief ex-
                                                                        cluded many of the Israelites from the promised land, and
in the day of temptation in the wilderness :                            that the same evil shuts out many from the heavenly inherit-
   9 When your fathers tempted me, proved me,                           ance. 0 that we may be numbered with those who believe to
and saw my works forty years.                                           the saving of the soul, and may be followers of them who
   10 Wherefore I was grieved with that generation,                     through faith and patience do now inherit the promises.

   CHAP. III. Ver. 1 6. Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers, S.x.]
                                                                        me as if to try how much it was possible for me to bear. They
It appears that the apostle, in this address, had an eye, not only      did this, though they saw my great and wonderful works for the
to the unbelieving Jews, but to those also who were converted to        space of forty years. Therefore I was highly displeased with that
Christianity. To these latter he here speaks in the following           perverse and rebellious generation, and said, " They do always
manner, a Holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling," be-        err in their hearts ;" they are obstinate in their blindness, folly,
ing called of God according to his purpose, called to glory, and        and perverseness ; " and they have not known my ways," ner
virtue, let me entreat you attentively to consider and regard that      shown any desire to be acquainted with them. So that, after re-
glorious Saviour, who ;3 " the apostle " of God, to bring unto us       peated provocations, I , at length, sware in my wrath, " that they
the messages of his will ; and who is likewise "the High Priest of      should never enter into my rest," in- the promised land, but that
our profession," by whom our sins are expiated, and our salvation       their carcases should fall in the wilderness. This should excite
obtained ; who was faithful to him that appointed him to his office,    you to caution, and godly jealousy. " Take heed lest there be in
as Moses was faithful in all his house, according to the testimony      any of you an evil heart, a heart of unbelief, in departing from the
of God concerning him, Num. xii. 7. But Jesus was esteemed              living God," whose displeasure is so greatly to be feared. You
worthy of much more glory than Moses, inasmuch as ilewlm bath           are under a dispensation of grace, but you are surrounded with
boilded the house had} more honour than the house itself,               many snares and temptations. " Exhort one another daily, while
or any part of it. That man of God was a part of the house of           it is called to day ; lest some one among you," by insensible de-
the Lord, or a member of his household ; but Christ formed the          grees ''be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin." Ilcinein-
                                                                        ,     ,

church itself; and he arranges every thing in it with supremo au-       Der, that steady perseverance in the way of' holiness is the great
thority ; " for every house is builded by some man ; but he that        proof 'orsincerity. It will appear, that " we are made partakers
built all things is God." Yet this honour Christ possesses. Moses       of Christ," and his benefit., "if we hold fItst the beginning of our
was faithful in the house of God, as a servant ; but Christ is faith-   confidence steadfast unto the end." For we should not forget
ful as a Son over his own house ; that is, the church, over which he    that it is said, in the passage just mentioned, Psalm xey. 7, " To
 presides, and in which he dwells ; " whose house are we," if we        day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in the pro-
are real Christians, " holding fast the confidence and the rejoic-      vocation ;" for some of those who heard so many awful declara-
 ing of' the hope firm unto . the end," resolutely adhering to the      tions from the mouth of God did still provoke him,- " yet not all
 truth and the religion of Jesus.                                       those who came out of .Egypt by Moses." There was a remnant
    Ver. 7. ke. Wheryin-e, as the Holy Ghost saith, &c.] The fol-       then, as there now is, of believing and obedient souls. " But with
 lowing- address seems to be directed partly to the unbelieving Jews,   whom was he grieved ?" Was it not with them that had sinned,
 anti partly to those who were in a measure convinced of the truth      and persisted in their crimes, " whose carcases fell in the wilder-
 of Christianity, hut were halting between two opinions, whom the       ness ?" There. was nothing in this like a failure of the divine pro-
 apostle considered as in a dangerous condition. "Wherefore as the      mise. For to whom swore he in his wrath that they should not
      r Ghost saith, To day if ever ye desire to hear his voice at all, enter into his rest, but to them that believed not, but continued
 harden not your hearts " in sin and unbelief; lest you bring. de-      obstinate in their disobedience ? So we see, upon the whole, what
 itruetion upon yourselves, as many of your forefathers did, in that    evil it was that destroyed them ; for " they could not cater in loca.
prov;)cation wherewith they provoked ine, in the day of temptation I cause of unbelief,"
 in the wildernes, when your progenitors.- tempted me, and proved
411:110 DOril;t1i   64,                                       CHAPTER IV.                                                  .4/tno Domini 64.
                            CHAP. IV.                                        8 For if Jesus had given them rest, then would he
  —11 The certainty and the excellency of the heavenly rest, as           not afterward have spoken of another day.
   typified by that of the sabbath, and that of Canaan. 12 16    -           9 There remaineth therefore a rest to the people
  The power of the word of God, and the compassion of our                 of God.
    reat High Priest, improved as encouragements to steadfast-               10 For he that is entered into his rest, he also
  ness and prayer.                                                       hath ceased from his own works, as God did from
        us           fear, lest, promise being
LETseemthereforeshortintoit. arest, any of you
    left us
            of entering
            to come      of
                             his                                             11 Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest,
                                                                         lest any man fall after the same example of unbe-
   2 For unto us was the gospel preached, as well                        lief.
as unto them: but the word preached did not profit                           12 For the word of God is quick, and powerful,
them, not being mixed with faith in them that                            and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing
heard it.     •                                                                   tL dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and
   3 For we which have believed do enter into rest,                      of the joints and marrow, and i$ a discerner of the
as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they                         thoughts and intents of the heart.
shall enter into my rest : although the works were                          13 Neither is there any creature that is not ma-
finished from the fbundation of the world.                               nifest in his sight : but all things are naked and
   4 For he spake in a certain place of the seventh                      opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have
day on this wise, And God did rest the seventh day                       to do.
from all his works.                                                          14 Seeing then that we have a great high priest,
   5 And in this place again, If they shall enter                        that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of
into my rest.                                                            God, let us hold fast our profession.
   6 Seeing therefore it remaineth that some must                           15 For we have not an high priest which cannot
enter therein, and they to whom it was first preached                    be touched with the feeling of our infirmities ; but
entered not in because of unbelief:                                      was in all points tempted like as we are, yet with.
   7 (Again, he limiteth a certain day, saying in                        out sin.
David, To day, after so long a time ; as it is said,                        16 Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne
To day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your                        of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and fiEd grace
hearts.                                                                  to help in time of need.
   CHAP. IV. Ver. I, 2. Let us therffore .fear, lest, a promise, Sec.]   poral way, under the protection of David, and enjoying the sab-
Theawful case of the unbelieving Israelites should be improvedby us.     batical rest. " There remaineth therefbre, for the true people of
A promise is left us of entering into the heavenly rest ; but " let us    God, another and a better rest," even the keeping of a perpetual
fear, lest any of you should seem to come short of it." Let us           sabbath ; so the word signifies. This is reserved for them in
cherish a humble and jealous distrust of our own hearts; for the         heaven, when they will have done with sin, sorrow, fear, tempta-
matter is of infinite moment : let us diligently examine ourselves,      tion, and labour; " for he, that hath entered into his rest, hath
and cry earnestly to God that we may not be deceived, hut be led         ceased from his own works, as God did from his." The apostle
into the way everlasting. Let us fear, lest any should even "seem"       adds, " Let us therefore labour," with all possible earnestness, di-
to come short of it. Sonic copies read, " any of us;" and the con-       ligence, and constancy, " that we may enter into that rest, "that
nexion seems to require this reading. " For unto us was the gospel       no one may fall by the same example of unbelief," which proved
preached, as well as unto them;" that is, the glad tidings ofthe pro-    so fatal to Israel, and which has been fatal to many others.
mised rest. " But the word which they heard did not profit them,            Ver. 12, 13. For the word of God i,s quick, and powerful, &c.] The
since it was not mixed with faith in them that heard it." They           apostle, in the first place, evidently means the written word ; but he
had not faith to receive the word into their hearts, as the ingrafted    gradually passes from the word spoken, to him that spoke it. Any
word which is able to save the soul. Nor will the gospel profit us,      one, truly acquainted with the energy of the scriptures, will per-
unless it be received by fhith and love.                                  ceive the propriety of these expressions, as applied to them, " The
   Ver. 3 11. For we which have believed do enter, &c.] The
         -                                                               word of God is quick and powerful." It is so efficacious as to
apostle, in these verses, seems to speak of that rest which is begun     reach, penetrate, and quicken the soul, "It is sharper than any
by flab, and completed in glory. This was typified by the rest of        twoedged sword," piercing in the acutest manner that can be im-
the sabbath, and the rest of Canaan. The promise of rest in the          agined, " even to the separating between the soul and spirit," the
land of Canaan, contained a promise to give believer., of all na-        principles of animal and rational life. It may be said, in a figura-
tions, the everlasting possession of the heavenly country, of which      tive sense, to divide the most closely-connected parts of the body,
the rest of' Canaan was but an emblem ; and the unbelief which           and to reach "to the joints and marrow." It controls the most
excluded many of' the Israelites from the rest in the promised land,     secret irregularities and disorders, which no human eye can reach ;
excludes all other unbelievers from rest in heaven. " But we             for it " is a discerner of' the thoughts and intents of the heart -"
which have believed do enter into rest." It is evident, that more        for, indeed, " there is no creature that is not manifest in the
was intended than the rest in Canaan, in the scriptures referred to.     sight " of him ivhose word it i5; but all things are "naked and
God called it his rest, in allusion to the rest of the sabbath, which    laid bare before the eyes of him with whom we have to do," or to
was instituted in commemoration of his resting from all his works.       whom we are to give an account, So that to attempt a disguise be-
David addressed the Jews in his day, who were actually in posses-        fore him will be altogether in vain.
sion of the promised land, and at the height of their prosperity ;          Vele 11,        Seeing then that we have a ,,,,Teat high priest, &C.]
yet he spoke of their entering into teat, in order to which, he de-      " Seeing we have such an High Priest a,5 Jesus is," so great, and
clared that it was necessary they should hear the voice of God that      so powerful, " who lath passed into the leavens, to make inter-
very day. Now, says the apostle, if Joshua had given them rest, if       cession for us, let us hold fast our profession." Though he is so
the rest of Canaan was all that was intended, " then would he not        inconceivably glorious in his person yet he is full of the tenderest
have spoken of another day." When these words were written,              compassion. " For we have not an ' iligh Priest which cannot be
there was a rest of Goa, from which sinners would be excluded,           touched with the feeling of our infirmities," hut, on the contrary',
though they actually dwelt in the laud of Canaan, secure, in a tem-      we have One who has the most tender feeling of' them, " seeing ins
   VOL. II,                                                                      6n
Anna Domini 64.                                               HEBREWS.                                               Ann° Domini 64,
  5.1c: Oration.] A mawsinSE is left to the people of God of enter-    offered up prayers and supplications with strong
ing into the heavenly rest ; 0 that none of us may come short of       crying and tears unto him that was able to save
it I for the consequence of tins would be more awful than lan-
guage can describe. May every mind be suitably impressed
                                                                       him from death, and was heard in that be feared ;
xvith this consideration—To-day if ye will hear his voice,                8 Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedi-
harden not your hearts. ADAM.                                          ence by the things which he suffered ;
                                                                          9 And being made perfect, he became the
                           CHAP. V.                                    author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey
1   -4 The nature of the high priesthood among the Jews.               him ;
    5 10 Th e pre-eminence of Christ as a High Priest. 11-14
                                                                          10 Called of God an high priest after the order
    The Iletrcn's are rei».oueet for the small progress they made      of Melchisedec.
    iv Christian know/site .                                              ii Of whom we have many things to say, and
VOR every hin‘h priest taken from among men
               ,        -                                              hard to be uttered, seeing ye are dull of hearing.
 Yr is ordained for men in things pertaining to                           12 For when for the time ye ought to be teachers,
God, that he may oar both gifts and sacrifices fbr                     ye have need that one teach you again which be
sins :                                                                 the first principles of the oracles of God ; and are
   2 Who can have compassion on the ignorant,                          become such as have need of milk, and not of
and on them that are out of the way ; for that he                      strong meat.
himself al,-4) is compassed with infirmity.                               13 For every one that useth milk is unskilful in
   3 And by rea:::;on hereof he ought, as fbr the                      the word of righteousness: for he is a babe.
people, so also fbr himself; to offer fbr sins.                           14' But strong meat belongeth to them that are
   4 And no man taketh this honour unto himself,                       of full age, even those who by reason of use have
but he that is called of God, as was Aaron.                            their senses exercised to discern good arid evil.
   5 So also Christ glorified not himself to be made
An high priest ; but he that said unto him, Thou art
my Son, to day have I begotten thee.                                     aopiration.] How should it relieve our oppressed minds, to
   6 As he saith also in another place, Thou art a                     hear of a great High Priest, who knows how to have com-
                                                                       passion on the ignorant, and such as are out of the way; and
priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.                        who is the Author of eternal salvation to all them that obey
   7 Who in the days of his flesh, when he had                         him ! May we be brought into subiaction to his will; that,

has been in all points tempted and tried like as we are, yet without   vain: for " he was heard in that he feared 7 " or, he was heard,
sin," or the most distant approach unto it. " Let us therefore         and delivered from his fear ; from that agonizing terror which op-
come boldly," and with freedom of speech unto him, as seated on        pressed his holy soul, so that he was afterwards cahn and composed
his " throne of grace," to present our daily petitions, " that we      under his heaviest sufferings. He knew that ha must drink the
may obtain mercy," pardoning and healing mercy, " and find             bitter cup ; but his language was, " Father, thy will be done."
grace to help in time of need." Let us approach with holy confi-        Hence the apostle says, " Though he were a Son, yat learned he
dence, yet with reverence and humility of heart, being fully as-       obedience by the things which he suffered ; and being thus made
sured that he whom we address is ready to do for us even more          perfect through suffering, he became the author of eternal salva-
than we can ask or think.                                               tion to all them that obey him." He was fully authorised and
   CHAP. V. Ver. 1 6. For every high priest taken from among
                    -                                                   qualified for the great, work which he had undertaken ; so that, to
men, 8s.c.] The apostle here makes some observations on the priest-     all those who believe in his name, and receive him, he becomes
hood of Aaron, which tend to show its insufficiency, and to point       the Author of complete deliverance from sin and its (.;;:isequences,
out its typical meaning. Every high priest selected from among          which is emphatically called an " eternal salvation. - This glorious
the sons of Aaron was ordained and appointed for the benefit of         Deliverer was " called of God an high priest after the order of
men in the great concerns of religion. His office required him to       lildelchisedec." Concerning " whom," says the apastle, '" we have
present before God the oblations and sin-offerings of the people.       many things to say, and some of them hard to be understood, be-
He should be one who knew how to have compassion on the ig-             cause ye are slow and dull of hearing," through your prejudiced
norant, and such as were " out of the way," for whom the sin-           attachment to the Levitical law and priesthood. l - anie ofyou have
offerings were provided; being conscious that he himself also was       heard the messages of the gospel so long, that it might have been
compassed with infirmity. It was necessary for this reason, that       expected you would, by this time, have been teachers of others in
he should offer an appointed sacrifice for sin on his own account,      the great truths of Christianity. But, instead of that, you have
as well as for the people. For God would not accept of any ser-        need again of being taught the first principles of that religion ; and
vices unless presented in this way ; which continually testified,      " have need of milk, and not of strong meat," such as suits a manly
that sinners were unworthy to approach their offended Creator, in      age, and a strong constitution. For every one that useth and par-
any other manner than through an expiatory sacrifice. No man           taketh of milk is deemed unskilful in the gospel, which is the
might presume to take upon him this honourable office of his own       word of righteousness ; for he is yet "but a babe," in comparison
will ; it was confined to those whom God expressly called to exe-      with many others.
cute it, as he did Aaron and his posterity. For the office derived         Vet'. 14. But strong meat belongeth, &c.] It is proper for those
all its efficacy from the appointment of the Most High. " So           who may be termed full grown men, even those who, by reason of
Christ did not glorify himself to be made an high priest ;" he did     use and long habit, have their senses exercised, so as to be able
not aspire to this exalted office without a proper call; but be glo-   readily to distinguish both good and evil. The display of the divine
rified Him who said unto him, " Thou art my Son, this day have I       perfections in the redemption of Christ, obscurely intimated in the
begotten thee." And, in another place, he said to him, " Thou          ceremonies of the Mosaic law, is the strong meat referred to,
art a priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedee,"          which those who were matured in knowleA;c and judgment were
Psalm cx. 1.                                                           able to feed upon and digest. They found herein proper nou-
   Ver. 7 13. Who in the days of his flesh, 8:c.] In our Lord's
            -                                                          rishment for their faith, hope, and splritual affections. But
agonies in the garden, his distress was beyond description. Then       others, through the weakness of their understandings, and the
especially he offered up most earnest prayers and supplications,       prevailing prejudices of their minds, could net relish this kind of
accompanied with strong cries and tears; and he did not cry in         food.
Anno Domini 64.                                              CHAPTER VI.                                                Anno Domini 64.
while we confide in his atoning sacrifice, we may yield willing             9 But, beloved, We are persuaded better things
obedience to his commands. Amen.                                        of you, and things that accompany salvation, though
                          CHAP. VI.                                     we thus speak.
                                                                            10 For God is not unrighteous to forget your
 1-3 The apostle expresses his desire and purpose to lead the           work and labour of love, which ye have shewed
  Hebrews forward in the knowledge of Christ. 4- 8 He                   toward his name, in that ye have ministered to the
  speaks of the deplorable condition of apostates. 9 - 14 He            saints, arid do minister.
  expresses his favourable opinion of the Hebrew converts.
                                                                            ii And we desire that every one of you do shcw
   15-20 He dwells on the security of the covenant.
                                                                        the same diligence to the full assurance of hope
'THEREFORE leaving the principles of the                                unto the end :
 -11-- doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfec-                        12 That ye be not slothful, but fbllowers of them
tion; not laying again the foundation of repent-                        who through faith and patience inherit the pro-
ance from dead works, and of faith toward God,                          mises.
   2 Of the docurine of baptisms, and of laying on                          15 For when God made promise to Abraham,
of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of                       because he could swear by no greater, he sware by
eternal j udgment.                                                      himself;
   3 And this will we do, if God permit.                                   14 Saying, Surely blessing I will bless thee, and
   4 For it is impossible for those who were once                       multiplying I will multiply thee.
enli:htened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift,                         15 And so, after he had patiently endured, he
and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,                              obtained the promise.
   5 And have tasted the good word of God, and                             16 For men verily swear by the greater : and
the powers of the world to come,                                        an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all
   6 If they shall fall away, to renew them again                       strife.
unto repentance; seeing they crucify to them-                              17 Wherein God, willing more abundantly to
selve the Son of God afresh, and put him to an                          shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of
open shame.                                                             his counsel, confirmed it by an oath :
   7 For the earth which drinketh in the rain that                          18 That by two immutable things, in which it
cometh oft upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet                       was impossible for God to lie, we might have a
for them by whom it is dressed, receiveth blessing                      strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay
from God.                                                               hold upon the hope set before us :
   S But that which beareth thorns and briers is                            19 Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul,
rejected, and is nigh unto cursing ; whose end is to                    both sure and stedfast, and which entereth into that
be burned.                                                              within the veil :

  CuAe. VI. Ver, 1 - 3. Therefore leaving the principles, &c.]           world to come." But, with all their attainments, they were never
How must we leave the first principles or rudiments of religion ?        truly humbled, renewed, or sanctified. Their hearts were never
 Not by fingett Mg them, or losing sight of them. Yet we must not        purified by faith. Though they were alarmed and pleased on
 be always laying. a foundation, but should go on to build upon it.      different occasions, yet a new heart was never put within them.
 The Hebrews had been, from the beginning, instructed in the             And, consequently, in time of temptation, they fell away. So our
 nature and necessity of repentance from dead works, and of faith        Lord tells us of some who had the miraculous gifts of the Holy
 towards God: but the apostle would not now insist upon these            Ghost, who cast out devils, and did many wonderful works, to
 articles. Nor would he discourse concerning the doctrine of bap-        whom he would say, " I never knew you," Matt. vii. 21-23. The
 tism, either of John's baptism, or that of Christ. Nor would he         apostle lived in the age ofmiracles; and this passage relates to such
speak of the laying on of the apostles hands, by which miraculous        as had extraordinary gifts, and to such only. If such should fall
gifts were conferred. Nor yet would he, at present, speak of the        away, and totally apostatise, it would be impossible to renew them
 important doctrines of the resurrection of the dead, or of a future     again unto repentance: the case of Judas is an awful illustration
judgment. But, passing over these subjects, he would now prose-          of this. " They crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and
 cute his main design, in the subsequent part of this epistle ; which   put him to an open shame." They pour contempt upon him, and
 was, to explain the deep mysteries of redemption and salvation by      offer him all the injury they can. Their case is therefore desperate,
 Jesus Christ. " This will we do, if God permit."                       since there is no salvation in any other, nor any other sacrifice fbr
    Ver.. 1, - 8. For it is impossible for those, &c.] The persons      sin. They are left to final impenitence and hardness of heart. God
 described in the following verses are such as had made a profes-        Almighty save us from such a miserable condition ! We see, at
sion of religion, but afterwards totally apostatised from it, and re-    the same time, that those backsliders, whose hearts were truly
nounced it altogether. They had been once enlightened, by such          changed by divine grace, are " renewed again unto repentance."
a speculative knowledge of the truth, as led them to attend to the      The apostle illustrates what he has been saying by a similitude.
ordinances of the gospel ; they had " tasted," not of the renewing      " For the earth which drinketh in the rain that cometh oft upon it
 and sauctifying grace of God, but " of the heavenly gift " which       and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is dressed, re-
was common to professors of religion in that day ; that is, they had    (Tivoli blessing from God." This is descriptive of real believers,
" been partakers of the Holy Ghost," in his miraculous communi-         who are fruitful in good works. " But that which beareth briers
cations, so as to enable them to speak with tongues, and perform        and thorns is rejected, and is nigh unto cursing; whose end is to
many wonderful works ; they had "tasted of the good word of             be burned." The soil is so bad, that neither the rain, nor the hus-
God," having heard it with some kind of rapturous joy, like those       bandman's labour, produces any effect upon it ; for it brings forth
hearers who are compared to stony ground, Matt. xiii. 21, 22. In        nothing of value, nothing but briers and thorns.
their temporary apprehensions of a future state of happiness, they         Ver. 9, &c. But, beloved, we are persuaded, &c.] Though we are
sometimes had such elevations of mind, arising from ill-grounded        obliged to caution others by such awful language as this, we en-
1;opes, that it might be said, they tasted of "the powers of the        tertain better hopes concerning you, 46 and are persuaded better
                                                                              6m 2
Arno Domini 64.                                                 'HEBREWS.
   20 Whither the forerunner is for us entered,              ing to the law, that is, of their brethren, though ,
even   Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the !                                                               theycomuflinsAbrahm:
order of Melchisedee.                                           6 But he whose descent is not counted from
                                                             them received tithes of Abraham, and blessed him
                                                             that had the promises.
                          Ztpitation,                            7 And without all contradiction the less is blessed
          Amidst temptations sharp and long 5
          My soul to this dear Refuge flies:                 of the better.
          Hope is my anchor, firm and stronr,                    8 And here men that die receive tithes ; but
          When tempests blow, and billows rise.              there he receiveth then!, of whom it is witnessed
                                                             that he liveth.
                       CHAP. VII.                                9 And as I may so say, Levi also, who received'
1-10 Melchisedec's priesthood was superior to that of Aaron. tithes, payed tithes in Abraham.
   11-18 The Mosaic system was to le disannulled when            10 For he was yet in the loins of his father when
   the _Messiah appeared. 19-28 This was needjid on several   Meichisedec met him.
   accounts.                                                     11 if therefore perfection were by the Levitical

:F    OR this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of          priesthood, (for under it the people received the
       the most high God, who met Abraham re- law,) what further need was there that another
turning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed         priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec,
him ;                                                        and not be called after the order of Aaron ?
    2 To wIlom also Abraham gave a tenth part of                 12 For the priesthood being changed, there is
all ; ficst being by interpretation King of righteous-       made of necessity a change also of the law.
nes, and after that also King of Salem, which is,                13 For he of whom these things are spoken per-
King of peace ;                                              taineth to another tribe, of which no man gave
    3 Without father, without mother, without de-            attendance at the altar.
scent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of              14 For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of
life : but made like unto the Son of God ; abided'           Juda ; of which tribe Moses spake nothing concern-
a priest continually.                                        ing priesthood.
   4 Now consider how great this man was, unto                   15 And it is yet far more evident : fbr that after
whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth               the similitude of Melchisedee there ariseth another
of the spoils.                                               priest,
   5 And verily they that are of the sons of Levi,               16 Who is made, not after the law of a carnal
who receive the office of the priesthood, have a             commandment, but after the power of an endless
commandment to take tithes of the people accord-             life.

things of you, and things which accompany salvation, though                 not that of Aaron. Let us now illustrate that prophecy. This
      thus speak." We are persuaded, that yon sincerely love Christ,        venerable person, to whom David refers, and of whom Moses has
is cause, and his people. And " God is not unrighteous to for-              given us a short account, was " king of Salem, and priest of the
get your work and labour of love." You make it appear that you               most high God," Gen. xiv. 18, Sze. We have no information con-
are passed from death to life because you love the brethren. You             cerning his appointment to these high offices ; but in both of them
hare shown real love to the name of Christ himself, in that                  he was a type of the Lord Jesus, who is a priest upon his throne.
" you have ministered to tlic saints, and do minister." Many of              Mcichisedec came to meet Abraham, after he had vanquished
von have been active in the ways of religion ; and we desire that            those tyrannical princes who had carried Lot captive from Sodom.
.,, very one of you do show the same diligence that they have done,          His name is, by interpretation, " King of righteousness," and the
that you may attain and enjoy " the full assurance of hope unto              name of his city signifies " Peace." Thus he eminently typified
 the end ;" for that state of mind is connected with diligence in the        the Lord our righteousness, and the Prince of peace, the great
 t:hr:stian course. " That you may not he slothful," sluggish,               Reconciler between God and men. He was introduced in the
 and indolent, hut strenuous " followers of those " who have                 sacred history, as if he had been "without father, without mother,
 already reached their heavenly home, and do "through faith and              and without descent," no mention being made of these, that he
 ratience now inherit the promises. For when God made promise                might exactly prefigure that High Priest, who, as the Son of man,
 ;-o Abraham, because be could swear by no greater, he sware by              had no human father; who, as the Son of God, was without mo-
 himself'," by his own existence, " saying, Surely blessing I will           ther ;and who, in his priesthood, had no successor. Nothing was
 bless thee." Abraham having waited long, in humble faith and                said concerning the beginning of Melchisedce's lifc, nor the end
 patience, obtained the promise. The blessed God being willing,               of his days; that he might resemble the Son of God, whose exist-
  m the most abundant manner, " to show to the heirs of promise               mice is from everlasting to everlasting. The silence of the scrip-
  the immutability of his counsel," and his determined resolution             ture respecting the above particulars was evidently intentional,
  to bestow the blesfings mentioned, " confirmed all by the solemnity         that AIelchisedec might resemble him who is a priest for ever.
      an oath: that by two irainutF.ble things," the oath and the pro-           Ver. 4-17. Now consider how great this man was, &c.] The
       "   w  e mic.dit have strong consolation, who have fled for re•        patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of all the spoils to him, which
  fluie to lay hold on the hope set before us " in the gospel. " That         he had recovered from the king of Shinn and his allies. Thus
  he which we have of eternal life is an anchor to the soul," to              Abraham owned his superiority. The descendants of Levi, who
   keep it steady amidst the storms oflife ; " and it is sure and stead-   . receive the Aaronical priesthood, have a commandment to take
    ,wt, entering into that within the veil," where Jesus is entered as       tithes of the people that is, of their btethren, though comingr,
  our forerunner, even be " who is a priest for ever after the order          of the loins of Abrah                                            am.Butheofw rspaking,
  ef Melchisedec."                                                         ' pedigree was not counted from them, nor had any relation to.
      Ciinr. VII. Ver. 1-3. For this Melehisccke, king of Salem, &c.]          Abraham's family, received tithes of Abraham and ble:„sed him
   We bkve .several tunes referred to the prophecy, " that Christ              who had the promises, pronouncing the priestly benediction upon
   F,heuld be ,a priest for tver the order of Melehisedee," and            • him. And, without all dispute, the less is blessed of the better, or
Ain() Dowini (34.                                          CHAPTER VIII.                                                Anno Domini 64.
   11 For he testified", Thou art a priest for ever                       to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then
after the order of Melchisedec.                                           for the people's : for this he did once, when he
    18 For there is verily a disannulling of the com-                     offered up himself.
mandment going before for the weakness -and unpro-                           28 For the law maketh men high priests which
fitableuess thereof:                                                      have infirmity ; but the word of the oath, \\Thiel'
   19 For the law made nothing perfect, but the                           was since the law, maketh the Son, who is conse-
bringing in of a better hope did; by the which we                         crated for evermore.
.draw nigh unto God.
   20 And inasmuch as not without an oath he was
 made priest:
                                                                            as.piration.] BLESSED be thy name, 0 Lord, for the intro-
                                                                          duction of this better hope, by which we draw nigh to thee.
   21 (For those priests were made without an oath;                       The unchangeable priesthood of Christ is the relief of our op-
 but this with an oath by him that said unto him, The                     pressed minds ; as be is able to save to the uttermost all who
 Lord sware and will not repent, Thou art a priest                        come to the Father by him. Help us to meditate on his
for ever after the order of Melchisedec :)                                sufficiency to answer all our necessities, and to copy his lovely
                                                                          example, who was holy, harmless, undefiled, and separate from
    22 By so much was Jesus made a surety of a                            sinners ; and to him, with the Father and the Holy Spirit,
 better testament.                                                        be eternal glory ascribed. Amen.
    23 And they truly were many priests, because
 they were not suffered to continue by reason of                                                  CHAP. VIII.
 death :                                                                  1-13 The apostle recapitulates what he had &fore advanced,
    24 But this man because he continued' ever,                             respecting the superior dignity of the Lord Jesus, as the
 bath an unchangeable priesthood.                                           High Priest of the church; and iiirther illustrates the excel-
                                                                            lence of the new covenant.
    2.5 Wherefore he is able also to save them to the
 uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he
 ever liveth to make intercession for them. -
    26 For such an high priest became us, who is
                                                                          N is OW of the things which we have spoken this
                                                                                   the sum : We have such an high priest,
                                                                          who is set on the right hand of the throne of the
 holy, harmless undefiled, separate from sinners, and                     Majesty in the heavens ;
 made higher than the heavens ;
                  r                                                         2 A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true
    27 NIV11-0 needeth not daily, as those high priests,                  tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man.

the inferior of the superior. Thus Melchisedec, at that time,             For that " law made nothing perfect," as to any provision for
acted in a higher character than Abraham. And it may be far-              pardon, righteousness, and everlasting happiness ; " but the
 ther observed, that, under the institution of ikloses, " men that die    bringing in of a better hope" made every thing perfect, " by
receive tithes," the priests being mortal men, like their brethren ;      the which hope we draw nigh to God," and have access to him,
but in the case of Meichisedec, he received them of whom it is            and acceptance with him for ever. The Lord appointed the
only testified in scripture, 44 that he liveth," of whose death we        Levitical priesthood without an oath, which might intimate, that
have no account. And, 4' as I may so say," adds the apostle,              it was revokable„ and should not always continue. But in con-
." Levi also, who received' tithes, payed tithes in Abraham. For          stituting Christ to be a Priest for ever, he most solemnly confirmed
he was yet in the loins of his father, when Melchisedec met hint"         the appointment with an oath. " The Lord bath sworn, and he
upon the occasion just mentioned. I introduce these things to in-         will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever." Let this be particu-
         " if perfection had been by the Levitical priesthood,            larly remarked. " By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better
what occasion was there for another priest to arise, and one of           testament," or covenant, than that made with the Jews at Horeb,
another order-" Why should such a prediction be given, and an             of' which the high priest was a surety.
expectation be raised of a priest after the order of Melchisedec,            Vet'. 23, Zic. And they truly were many priests, &c.] This is
and not after the order of Aaron ? It must farther be observed,           another instance of the superiority of' Christ ; " they truly were
the people received the law along with the Aaronic priesthood,            many priests, because they were nut suffered to continue by reason
and scarcely any part of the ceremonial institutions could be             of death ;" they were hindered by mortality from continuing in
exactly attended to without the priests. And therefore, " the             the perpetual execution of their office ; but the Lord Jesus
priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also        Christ, " because he continued' for ever, bath an unchangeable
of the law." The appointment of a high priest after another order         priesthood," or a priesthood which never passed' over to another,
must abrogate the ceremonial law, and put an end to that dispen-          as his successor. Hence arises this most comfortable conclusion,
sation. It had been expressly predicted, that our Lord-should             that " be is able to save them to the uttermost," completely, and
be of the tribe of Judah, and of the family of David ; and it ap-         in allrespects, " that come unto God by him," as the appointed
pears front the taxation recorded in Luke iL 1-5, fiat this was           High Priest, " seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for
actually the case. But the prophecy, that Christ should be a priest       them."—Such an High Priest became us, and was necessary for
after the order of Melehisedec, makes this far more evident than          us; anti the more we reflect upon this subject, the more consola-
any other thing could do, as he was not constituted High Priest           tion shall we derive from it. We have a High Priest exactly
according to any of the prescriptions of the law of Moses, which          answerable to our necessities, through whom we are brought to
the apostle calls a " carnal commandment," as it related merely           enjoy the favour and frieralship, of God, in a way consistent with
to externals, and was, in itself, incapable of securing spiritual bles-   the glory of his perfections. He was " holy, harmless, undefiled,
sings ; hut he was constituted after " the power of an endless            separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens." Ile
life:" intimating that he retains his priesthood for ever, and that       had no need to offer sacrifices tiar himself, nor to repeat hia
he bestows eternal life, and all the blessings connected with it,         sacrifice for others ; for by one offering he bath perfected for ever
on those who confide in his atoning sacrifice. The power ofan             them that are sanctified. The law made men high priests who bad
endless life is essential to his priesthood.                              infirmity ; " but the word of' the oath, which was since the law," or,
   Ver. 18 - 22. For -there is verily a disannulling, Szc.] There is      as it may be read, " reaches beyond the law," constitutes to that
 an abolishing of the former commandment, reqszak-, ritual ob-            office the Son of God, who was in all respects competent to it, and
 servances, because of its weakness and unprotitasleness, in corn-           ", consecrated for evermore."
varison with that everlasting priesthood of which I am speaking.             C11-.41'._ VIII. Ver. 1 - 4. Now ve the things which we hav,spokea.
 Anno Domini 64.                                                     HEBREWS.                                              Anno Domini        64.

    3 For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts                       new covenant with the house of Israel and with the
  and sacrifices : wherefore it is of necessity that this                    house of Judah :
  man have somewhat also to offer.                                               9 Not according to the covenant that I made
    4 For if he were on earth, he should not be a.                            with their fathers in the day when I took them by
 priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts                       the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt ;
  according to the law :                                                     because they continued not in my covenant, and I
    5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of                               regarded them not, saith the Lord.
 heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of sod                                  10 For this is the covenant that I will make with
 when he was about to make the tabernaci? : for,                             the l'use of Israel after those days, saith the Lord;
 See, saitb he, that thou make all things qceording                          I Nti" put my lal,s into their mind, and write them
 to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount.                                 in then hearts : aliC I will be to them a God, and
    6 But now bath he obtained a more excellent                              they shall be to me a people :
 ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of                                ii 2il.nd they dial' no ceC1 every man his neigh-
 a better covenant, which was established upon                               bour, and every man his brother, saying, Know
 better promises.                                                            the Lord : for all shall know me, from the least to
    7 For if that first covenant had been faultless,                         the g :1 test.
 then should no place have been sought for the                                  12 For I will be mercifid to their unrighteous-
 second.                                                                     ;less, and their sins and their iniquities will I re-
    8 For finding fault with them, he saith, Behold,                         member no more.
 the days come, saith the Lord, when I will make a                              13 In that he saith, A new covenant, be bath

 this is the sum.]    That Christ is constituted the Higl. Priest over        a more excellent economy, and guides to lead them to a better
  the house of God, after the order of Mcichisedeck, and by d.e               acquaintance with it. More particularly, he displays the transcen-
  oath of God himself invested with immortal honours ; who, having            dant superiority of' Christ and his gifts, even to those persons
  on earth performed all that was necessary to he done, ascended              and privileges which they held in the highest esteem. These,
  into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the majestic throne         Lae the morning star, were introductory to the rising sun, yet
  in the celestial regions, exalted to rule over all things, for the          totally eclipsed by it. The charge given to Moses was, " See
  glory of the Father, and the good of his people. And we are                 that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed thee in
  constantly to regard him " as a minister of holy things," in the            the mount."
  most holy place, of which that in the tabernacle was a type; a                 Ver. 6-9. But now hath he obtained, &c.] Christ bath more
  sanctuary this, proportionable to the boundless wisdom, power,              noble services allotted to him in the heavenly sanctuary, inasmuch
 and magnificence of God. And as every high priest, according                 as he is the Mediator of a better covenant than that in which the
  to the law, was appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices, so it was          Jewish high priest mediated, and which is established upon better
  requiSite that Christ should have somewhat to offer, that the anti-         promises. They only referred to the blessings of' Canaan, to be
 type might correspond with the type. He therefore assumed                    enjoyed by the people, while they continued obedient. The
 human nature on earth, and gave himself a sacrifice to God for               superior excellency of the covenant here spoken of may be easily
  the sins of men ; and then be ascended into heaven, to appear               perceived. If the first covenant had been esteemed faultless,
  before God, as with the blood of his sacrifice, which had been              there would have been no place for a second. But, finding limit
  offered up on their behalf; all which exactly corresponds with the         with the Jews, the Lord saith, " Behold the days come, when I
  method prescribed to the high priest, on the great day of atone-            will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house
 ment, Levit. xvi. It was not proper for him to continue on earth,            of Judah," Jer. xxxi. ;33.    And lie expressly mentions the supe-
 after he had offered his all-sufficient sacrifice ; for, in that case, he    rior excellence of the covenant there referred to, when compared
  could not, in any consistency with the Jewish institutions, have            with the national covenant. " It shall not be according to the
 been a priest. Heaven was the appointed sanctuary, in which he              covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day when I took
  must perform the rest of his meritorious ministrations. He inter-          them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, because
  fered not with the priests in the typical services of the temple ; for     they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith
  he had obtained a for superior ministry, of real intrinsic value and       the Lord." I will take an effectual method with them, to engage
  efficacy, in the heavenly sanctuary. The Mosaic economy con-               them to cleave unto inc. " I will put my laws in their minds,
  tains only the example and shadow of heavenly things.                      and write them in their hearts." That is, they shall discern such
     Vet'. 5. Observe, the apostle styles the legal obligations, and         a beauty and glory in religion, as will engage their desires, and
 indeed the whole service of the jewish sanctuary, " The example             win their affections to it ; so that it shall be no longer an unplea-
 and shadow of heavenly things ;" or of Jesus Christ, of evange-             sant business to them ; it shall be their delight, and even as their
 lical worship, and of spiritual hlesings. I the pattern ;                   meat and drink, to do my will. Observe how the gracious decla-
 somewhat like the strokes pencilled out upon a fine piece of linen,         ration runs,
 which present you with the figure of sprigs, of leaves, and of                 Ver. 10-12. This is the covenant, &c.] Is it a privilege to
 flowers.; but have not yet received their splendid colours, their           know God, the infinitely amiable source of all perfection ? Is it a
 curious shades, and beautiful enrichments from the labours of'              most valuable endowment, to have his laws put into our minds,
 embroidery. Xxia, " a shadowy repreEentation ;" which gives                 and written on our hearts ? Is it a branch of real felicity, to have
 you some dini and imperfect idea of the body, but not the fine              our numberless sins forgiven, and not one of our iniquities remem-
 features, not the distinguishing air, none of those living graces,          bered any more ? Is it the compendium of all happiness, to have
 Wh ich adorn the real person. 'Yet both the pattern and the shadow          God for our portion and exceeding great reward ; to be his pecu-
 lead our minds to something nobler than themselves. The pattern,            liar treasure, his loving and obedient people ? Of all these we
 to that which completes it ; the shadow to that which occasions it.         may say, They are the blessings of the covenant, the blessings
 " The body is Christ."                                                      resulting from the Saviour's death ; and whoever is truly interested
     This epistle, of all others, is the most unexceptionable vindi-         in him is unquestionably entitled to diem all. These are the better
 cation, as well as the most faultless model, of allegorical exposi-         promises of the new covenant, in which both the holiness and hap-
 tion.—It is pleasing to observe what propriety of address the apostle       piness of God's people are secured.
uses. He speaks to the Jews in their own way. He alludes to                     Ver. 13. In that he saith, A new covenant, eze.]      The promise
their own usages, ordinances, and ceremonies. He proves them                 of a new covenant bath in effect made the first old, which implies,
to be types of a more clear, a more benign, and, in all respects             that it was decaying, and ready to vanish away. For that which
'Inn° Domini 64.                                           CHAPTER IX.                                                 Anno Domini 64.
made the first old. Now that which decayeth and                         the priests - went -always into the first tabernacle,
waxeth old is ready to vanish away.                                     accomplishing the service qf God.
                                                                           7 But into the second went the high priest alone
                                                                        once every year, not without blood, which he
  S.Ispiration.1 SURELY, this covenant contains all our sal-            offered for himself, and for the errors of the
vation, and all our desire. May we be helped to call its bless-         people :
ings ours. Amen.                                                           8 The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way
                                                                        into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest,
                          CHAP. IX.                                     while as the first tabernacle was yet standing :
1-14 The apostle illustrates the doctrine of the priesthood and            9 Which was a figure for the time then present,
  intercession of Christ, by comparing them with what the               in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, that
  high priest did on the great day of atonement.     15 - 28 He         could not make him that did the service perfect, as
  shows the necessity of Christ's blood being shed, and the suffi-      pertaining to the conscience ;
  ciency of the atonement made by it.
                                                                              1Vhich stood only in meats and drinks, and
       verily the first covenant had also ordi-
T HENof divine service, and a worldly sanc-
                                                                        divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on
                                                                        them until the time of reformation.
tuary.                                                                     11 But Christ being come an high priest of good
   2 For there was a tabernacle made ; the first,                       things to come, by a greater and more perfect
wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the                     tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say,.
shewbread ; which is called the sanctuary.                              not of this building ;
   3 And after the second veil, the tabernacle which                       12 Neither by the blood of goats and calves,
is called the Holiest of all.                                           but by his own blood ; he entered in once into the
   4, Which had the golden censer, and the ark of                       holy place, having obtained eternal redemption
the covenant overlaid round about with gold,                            for us.
wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and                              13 For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and
Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the                          the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sane-
covenant;                                                               tifieth to the purifying of the flesh :
   5 Aild over it the cherubims of glory shadowing                          14 How much more shall the blood of Christ,
the mercy seat; of which we cannot now speak                            who through the eternal Spirit offered himself with-
particularly.                                                           out spot to God, purge your conscience from dead
   6 Now when these things were thus ordained,                          works to serve the living God ?

is antiquated, and fallen into old age, cannot be expected to con-      " that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest,
tinue long. The apostle wished the Jews to be made sensible of          while the first tabernacle had its continuance," or while the Jewish
this.                                                                   economy lasted. The legal ordinances were figures for the time
   CHAP. IX. Ver. 1 - 14. Then verily the first covenant, &c.]          then being ; and they had a special reference to the days of the
 Our translators have, I think, improperly supplied the word cove-      Messiah. When he hung upon the cross, the veil of the temple
nant, instead of tabernacle ; for the apostle is evidently speaking     was rent from the top to the bottom ; his ascension into heaven,
of the latter. The tabernacle " had ordinances of divine service,       and intercession there, opened the way to the mercy-seat, and
and a worldly sanctuary," or a sanctuary consisting of such mate-       into the holiest of all. Under the former dispensation, gifts and
rials as this world could furnish. The tabernacle was made of           sacrifices were offered, " which could not make him that did the
boards and curtains, pillars and coverings ; in this was the candle-    service perfect with respect to the conscience." The offerers,
stick of pure gold, the table, and the twelve loaves of shew bread      who rested in them, and did not by faith look through them to
upon it, which were always to stand before the Lord. This apart-        the promised Saviour, did not obtain forgiveness of sins, and an
ment was called " the sanctuary," or holy place, where the golden       interest in spiritual blessings. Consequently, they did not find
altar of incense stood. Beyond the second veil, was that apart-         true peace of conscience. But Christ, having made his appearance
ment of the tabernacle which was called " the holy of holies, or        as a high priest of good things to come, bath accomplished in
the holiest of all," where were the golden censer, in which the         reality what had been represented in a figurative way. He per-
high priest used to burn incense on the great day of atonement,         forms his services in a greater and more perfect tabernacle above,
and the ark of the covenant overlaid with gold, so that it appeared     not made with the hands of men. Nor does he present before
as entirely consisting of that precious metal ; in, or near the ark,    God, by way of expiation, the blood of goats and calves; but, by
was the golden pot containing the manna, which continued pure           his own blood, he entered into the holy place, continually plead-
for many ages. Here the rod of Aaron, which blossomed, was pre-         ing his sacrifice before the Father, " having obtained eternal
served ; and here were the two tables on which the ten command-         redemption for us ;" i. e. redemption from sin, the condemnation
ments were written by the finger of God. Over the ark were the          of the law, and the wrath of God ; a redemption complete and
eherubims of glory, shadowing with their wings, or covering, what       everlasting. For if the blood or bulls and of goats could avail in
was significantly called " the mercy-seat," where God was pleased       a ceremonial way, to expiate the guilt of the nation, or of' indivi-
to manifest his gracious presence. These were all important things      duals ; or if, in cases of personr1 defilement, the ashes of a heifer
in the ancient tabernacle ; but we have not room to show their          sprinkled on the unclean, " sanctified to the cleansing or the flesh ;
particular signification. When these things were thus prepared          how much more efficacious shall the blood of Christ be ?" How
and adjusted, the ordinary priests went continually into the first      much more available must it be to make reconciliation for iniquity,
apartment of the tabernacle, to perform their daily services. But       to put away sin, and to cleanse and purge the conscience from
into the second apartment, only the high priest went once a year,       dead works, that the before polluted sinner may serve the living
with the blood of the sin-offering, which he presented first for him-   God with acceptance ? For let us remember, that
self, and then for the errors of the people. The Holy Ghost,               He offered himself. His soul and body, both unspotted and
who appointed this service, signified by the difficulty of entrance,    pure, were the sacrifice. These he resigned ; the one to deadly
the cloud of incense, and the presenting of the atoning blood,          wounds, the 'other to inexpressible anguish ; and both, to be in-
 Anno Domini 64.                                                     HEBREWS.                                                       Dcmini
    15 And for this cause he is the mediator of the                             25 Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as
 new testament, that by means of death, for the                               the high priest entereth into the holy place every
 redemption of the transgressions that -,-Pere under                          year with blood of others ;
 the first testament, they which arc called might                               26 For then must he often have suffered sine::
 receive the promise of eternal inheritanco.                                  the foundation of the world : but now once in tho
     16 For where a test:one:at is, d2cre must also of                        end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin
 necessity be the death of the testator.                                      by the sacrifice of himself:
    17 For a testament is of force after men are                                27 And as it is appointed unto men once to die,
 dead : otherwise it is of no strength at all while the                       but after this the judgment :
 testator liveth.                                                               28 So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of
    18 Whereupon neither the first testament was                              many ; and unto them that look for him shall he
 dedicated without blood.                                                     appear the second time without sin unto salvation.
    19 For vhen Moses had spoken every precept                                                           _._..c.._-
 to all the people according to the law, he took the                            2sptiration.] WHILE we look forward to the solemnities of
 blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet                                   '
                                                                              death and judgment, may we have clear views of the atoning
 wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book,                               sacrifice of Christ, and a firm and lively faith in him, It hose
 and all the people.                                                          blood purges the conscience from dead works, and saves the
                                                                              soul from ruin. Amen.
    20 Saying, This is the blood of the testament
 which God hath injoined unto you.                                                                       CHAP. X.
    21 Moreover he sprinkled likewise with blood                              1-4 The legal sacrifices must be frequently repeated. 5-9
 both the tabernacle, and all the vessels of the mi-                            David foretold the abolition of them. 10-18 Thc way in
 nistry.                                                                       which we obtain remission. 19-25 Exhortations to faith,
    22 And almost all things are by the law purged                             prayer and constancy. 26-39 The danger of apostasy.
 with blood ; and without shedding of blood is no
 remission.                                                                   141 011, the law having a shadow of good things to
                                                                                    come, and not the very image of the things,
    23 It was therefore necessary that the patterns                           can never with those sacrifices which they offered
 of things in the heavens should be purified with •                           year by year continually make the corners there-
 these; but the heavenly things themselves with ,                             unto perfect.
 better sacrifices than these.                                                   2 For then would they not have ceased to he
    24 For Christ is not entered into the holy places
    -                                                                         offered ? because that the worshippers once purged.
 made with hands, which are the figures of the true ;                         should have had no more conscience of sins.
 but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence                          3 But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance
 of God for us :                                                              again made of sins every year.

   stead of all whole burnt-offerings, for the sins of men. On this           Testament.—But what is a testament ?An authentic deed, ht
   invaluable oblation, his intercession at the right band of the Father      wl;ich estates are transmitted, and legacies bequeathed. In other
   is founded ; from this it derives that prevailing efficacy which is        testaments, some earthly possession is given ia this, the heavenly
   the security of his standing disciples, and the recovery of those          patrimony, even all the riches of grace, and the everlasting inhe-
   who may have fallen. When apprehended by faith, it removes                 ritance of glory.—Did we consider the scripture in this light, it
   the burden of guilt from the conscience, and gives the trembling           would be a most engaging invitation to search them with assiduity
   sinner peace, confidence, and comfort. The Levitical services              and pleasure. What young person is willing to continue ignorant
   were all shadows of spiritual or heavenly things. The expiations           of a parent's last will and testament ? \'‘)io does not covet to
   were types of real expiations, real atonements ; what expiation            know, what honours, or what riches, fall to his enjoyment, by
   therefore, says the learned Macknight, is there in the whole uni-          such an interesting conveyance ? Now, " where a testament is,
   verse, if the sacrifice of Christ be excluded ? Let that blood then,       there must also be of necessity the death of' the testator. For
  which has obtained eternal redemption for us, be the ground of              a testament is of force after men are dead ; but it is of no force at
  our hope and confidence. Let the death of Christ, who, through              all while the testator liveth.""Therefore the first testament, or
  the eternal Spirit, or the Holy Ghost, offered himself without              covenant, was not dedicated without the blood of an appointed
   spot to God, be ever kept in view, as that by which alone we can           sacrifice. When the book and the people were sprinkled, accord-
   enjoy peace here, and felicity hereafter.                                  ing to the divine order, Moses said, " ibis is the blood of the
       Ver. 15. And for this cause he is the Mediator, fk -c.] He is the      testament which God bath ordained unto yam." Indeed, almost
   Mediator of a covenant far preferable to that of Moses; that, by           all things under the law were purged with blood. Hence arises
  means of death, for the redemption and expiation of transgressions          this manifest and important branch of divine truth, " that without
  kigainst the former covenant, they who are called by his grace              shedding of blood there is no remission of sin." It was therefore
  4 ' might receive the promise of an eternal inheritance." The               necessary, that the patterns of heavenly things should be purified
 _promises of the Mosaic covenant were chiefly of a temporal nature,          by the blood of slain beasts; but the heavenly things themselves
 .relating to an inheritance in Canaan. But an eternal inheritance            with a more excellent sacrifice, even that of Christ. He has
  in heaven is ensured by promise to all the real children of God.            entered into heaven itself, to appear in the presence of God for
  It is in.eon.iequence of the Redeemer's death, that the blessings of        us, and to plead his own sacrifice. His sacrifice is so perfect and
  the covenant are effectually secured to us. For where a covenant            complete, that there can be no need for a repetition of' it. " lie
  is, it necessarily imports the death of' that by which the covenant         bath appeared once—and there needs no more, to put away sin by
  is confirmed. The most remarkable covenants of which we read                the sacrifice of' himself." Even " as it is appointed unto all men
  were all attended with sacrifices. This leads me to observe,                once to die, and after this the judgment ; so Christ was once
        Cr, 16, &c. here a testament is, &c.] The gospel-covenant             offered to bear the sins of many," and by bearing it to put it away;
,;1s. dese6bed as a tviL :ie testament ; and all its glorious blessings, as   " and to them that look for him, he shall appear the second time
_legacies bequeathed by the dying Redeemer. Tliis notion not                  without sin unto salvation."
         runs ilrough the scriptures, but stands conspicuous even in             CHAP. X. -Ver. 1-18. For the law harinz a shadow, &e.1          As
         titie-page.—\'It are they called The Old and the New                 the law had only a shadow, or imperfect sketch, of good thing -ztc
At1710   Domini 64.                                         CHAPTER X.                                                AnnoDonzini        64.

   4 For it is not possible that the blood of bulls                        15 Whereof' the Holy Ghost also is a witness to
and of goats should take away sins.                                     us : for after that he had said before,
   5 Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he                           16 This is the covenant that I will make with
saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not,                        them after those days, saith the Lord, I will put
but a body hast thou prepared me :                                      my laws into their hearts, and in their minds will I
   6 In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou                     write them ;
hast had no pleasure.                                                      17 And their sins and iniquities will I remember
   7 Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the                      no more.
book it is written of me,) to do thy will, 0 God.                          18 Now where remission of these is, there is no
   8 Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and                     more offering for sin.
burnt offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest                         19 Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter
not, neither hadst pleasure therein; which are                          into the holiest by the blood of Jesus,
offered by the Jaw;                                                        20 By a new and living way, which he bath conse-
   9 Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, 0                         crated for us, through the veil, that is to say,his flesh ;
God. He taketh away the first, that he may esta-                           21 And having an high priest over the house of
blish the second.                                                       God ;
   10 By the which will we are sanctified through                          22 Let us draw near with a true heart in full
the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.                  assurance of faith, having our ihArts sprinkled from
   11 And every priest standeth daily ministering                       an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with
and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which                      pure water.
can never take away sins :                                                 23 Let us hold fast the profession of ,:zzr faith
   12 But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice                  without wavering ; for he is faithful that promised :
for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of                           24 And let us consider one another to provoke
God ;                                                                   unto love and to good works :
• 13 From henceforth expecting till his enemies                            25 Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves
be made his footstool.                                                  together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting
 - 14 For by one offering he hath perfected for                         one another : and so much the more, as ye see the
ever them that are sanctified.                                          day approaching.

come, and not the very image, or complete delineation, of the           Jewish, yet greatly superior to therm—Among the :Jews, none
things, it could by no means make those perfect who were the            but the high priest was permitted to set a fhot within the holy of
observers of it, so as to remove the guilt of sin, bring them into a    holies ; and he only on the solemn day of . expiation. Whereas,
state of reconciliation with God, or of settled peace of conscience.    all Christians are allowed to enter into the immediate presence of
The sacrifices which they offered year by year, continually, could      the Most High God; they may have the nearest access to Him,
not effect these purposes. For had they answered these ends,            who dwells in the heaven of heavens ; and this, not once a year
would they not have ceased to he offered ? The repetition of them       only, but at all times, and on all occasions.—The high priest never
showed that they were inefficacious. For they who bad performed         entered but with the blood of a slaughtered animal. We have
that service, being once purged by it, should have had no more          that to present before the Father, which is of infinitely greater
consciousness of sins. But in these sacrifices, there is a remem-       value,—" the blood of Jesus."—The high priest entered through
brance again made of sins every year. On the contrary, when the         the veil of the temple, a way that was soon to be abolished. Wd
sacrifice of Christ had been offered, the legal sacrifices were vir-    enter by a far more noble way, by the flesh of Christ, given as
tually abolished. Nor was any other sacrifice required. No repe-        sacrifice for our sins; this way is both " new and living ;" i. e.
tition of it was necessary, because it is of infinite value. " But it   such as never waxes old, will always exist, and leads to life eter.
is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take        nal.—Trusting in this sacrifice, and entering by this way, we may
away sin," or make a real atonement to God as the Governor of           draw near "with boldness," with an humble confidence,and present
the world, for the guilt of any transgression. That blood could         our supplications in faith, in assurance of faith, yea, with
not possibly render pardoning mercy consistent with the infinite        assurance of faith, " having our hearts sprinkled from an evil Can-
justice and holiness of God. When Christ therefore cometh into          science," which is indeed our case, if we be real Christians; and
the world, he saith, " Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not,        having "our bodies washed with pure. water," by which may be iu
but a body hast thou prepared me." Thou hast no delight in the          tended, our being free from outward pollution and defilement.
sacrifices of the law, Psalm 1.7-15. Isai. i. 10-15. But " lo, I        The allusion seems to he to the custom M . washing the body before
come ; in the volume of the book," or the roil of prophecy, " it is     worshipping in the temple. Some think reference is had to bap_
written of me ; I delight to do thy will, 0 God." By this will of       t ism. " Let us hold first the professien of our faith without waver-
God, perfectly performed by the Redeemer, "we are sanctified"           ing." Most copies read it " our hope." Let us not sink under
and saved, through the offering of the body of Jesus ChriA, not         trials, being assured that God will us present supports, and
repeatedly, but once for all. The Jewish priests daily offered          future felicity, according to what be has promised; 1 - w he that
sacrifices which could not take away sins; but when Christ had          has promised is faithful. " Let us consider one another," and
offered one sacrifice, he for ever sat down on the right -hand of       endeavour to stimulate and provoke one another, to the more vigo-
God, waiting for his enemies to be made his footstool. " For by         rous exercise of love, and to the practice of good works, by our
one offering he hath perfected them that are sanctified by it, and      exhortations and example. " Le LL:i not forsake the assembling
perfected them for ever."—Words cannot nore strongly express            of ourselves together," for religi,3 purposes, as the manner Of
the complete efficacy of Christ's sacrifice.—The apostle repeats        some is, through negligence and the fear of persecution. But let
the blessings of the covenant, which have been considered in chap.      us exhort and encourage one another to the utmost or our power,
viii. 8-12. And then adds,                                              and so much the rather as we see the day or death, or cf ju:Ig-
    Ver. 19 25. Having therefore, brethren, boldness, &c.] The
          -                                                             ment, approaching.—As this epistle WaS written not very long
„apostle, in this place, and indeed throughout the whole epistle,       before the destructioa of Jerusalem,..soure reference, "night be Lela
 alludes to the Mosaic ordinances, in order to show, that the pri-      to that awful event.
 vileges of the Christian dispensation were typified by thow of the
   VOL. IL,                                                                   6 N,
Anno Domini        64.                                          HEBREWS.                                                  Anno Domini 64,
   26  For if we sin wilfully after that we have                            ing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better
received the knowledge of the truth, there remain-                          and an enduring substance.
eh no more sacrifice fbr sins,                                                 35 Cast not away therefore your confidence,
  27 But a certain fearful looking for of judgment                          which bath great recompence of reward.
and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adver-                           36 For ye have need of patience, that, after
saries.                                                                     ye have done the will of God, ye might receivy
   28 He that despised Moses' law died without                              the promise.
mercy under two or three witnesses :                                          37 For yet a little while, and he that shall come
   29 Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye,                             will come, and will not tarry.
shall he be thought worthy, who bath trodden under                             38 Now the just shall live by faith : but if any
foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood                             man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure iu
of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an                            him.
unholy thing, and bath done despite unto the Spirit                            39 But we are not of them who draw back unto
of grace ?                                                                  perdition ; but of them that believe to the saving of
   30 For we know him that bath said, Vengeance                             the soul.
NAT/gall unto me, I will recompense, saith the
Lord. And again, The Lord shall judge his
people.                                                                                Loup, let not all our hopes be vain;
   31 I/ is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of                                  Create our hearts entirely new,
the living God.                                                                        Which hypocrites could ne'cr attain,
                                                                                       Which false apostates never knew.
   32 But call to remembrance the former days, in
which, after ye were illuminated, ye endured a                                                        CHAP. XI.
great tight of afflictions ;                                                1 - 38 The nature, excellency, and efficacy offaith, .illnstrated,
   33 Partly, whilst ye were made a gazing-stock                              ty the examples of the most enzinent saints, from Abel to the
both by reproaches and afflictions ; and partly,                              close ef the Old -Testament dispensation. 39, 40 The supe-
whi13t ye became companions of them that were so                              rior advantages of Christianity.
   34 For ye had compassion of me in my bonds,
and took joyfully the spoiling of your goods, know-
                                                                            N  2
                                                                                   OW fitith is the substance of things hoped for,
                                                                                     the evidence of thinp-s not seen.
                                                                                   For by it the elders obtained a good report.

     Ver. 26, &c. For if we sin wilfidlu, &e.] The professors of            your confidence in him who is able to save ; for it hath great
religion among the Hebrews were under strong temptations to                 recompense of reward. It is true, in these days of trial, ye have
apostasy, through their own undue attachment to the Mosaic                  need of patience ; but the promise will be made good after ye have
             end through the violence of their persecuting brethren.        done the will of God in this state of warfare. Yet a little while,
Hence the apostle gives them frequent and awful warnings. By                and your Deliverer shall conic, and will not tarry beyond thin
" sinning wilfully," he means, a total and obstinate renouncing of          appointed hour. Remember, it is said, " Tins just shall live;''
Christ and his cause, in a contemptuous manner, after having                but he must live " by faith," and hold on to the end. Awful is•
received some knowledge and conviction of the truth of Christi-             that declaration, " if any man draw back, my soul shall have no
anity. It should be remembered, that " there remaineth no more              pleasure in him." But blessed be God, we trust " that we are
sacrifice for sin." Should you wilfully renounce Christ, and turn           not of them that draw back to perdition, but of them that believe
to Judaism, or infidelity, and continue in that deplorable state of         to the saving of the soul."
mind, you renounce the only way in which sinners can be saved.                 CHAP. XI. Ver. 1, 2. Now ,fiiith is Mc substance, &c.] The
You give up and disown that which God has appointed and                     apostle having asserted, from the testimony of the prophet, that
revealed as the only refuge of sinful man. And, in that case,               " the just shall live by faith," goes on to show, at large, the nature
" there remains nothing but a certain fearful looking for of judg-          and efficacy of that faith, and to prove that it had been the grand
ment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries" of          peculiarity of just men, from the beginning of the world. It is
the gospel and government of Christ. He that despised the law               implanted by the Spirit of God in regeneration ; it leads a man to
of Moses died without mercy under two or three witnesses ; of               receive the truth concerning salvation, by the great Mediator ;
how much sorer punishment then, do ye suppose, he shall be                  and it embraces the whole revealed will of God, and induces a
 coankd worthy, who hath even trampled upon, and despitefully               man to expect the accomplishment of the divine promises, both
 trodden under foot, the Son of God; who bath slighted the                  respecting this life, and that which is to come. The apostle defines
 method of reconciliation which he bath appointed, " and counted            it thus, " It is the substance of things hoped for ;" the words nay
 the blood of the covenant by which he" once professed to be                be read, " It is the confident expectation of things hoped far."
 sanctified, " an unholy thing I" This is the most daring outrage            So the same word is rendered, 2 Ger. ix. 4. Heb. Faith
 against the adorable Redeemer, that a man can be guilty of. It             credits the testimony of God, and rests on his promises, in such a
 ii evident, there is nothing said here that ought to discourage             manner, as to give the object hoped for a present subsistence in
 humble mourning souls, who are earnestly seeking for mercy and              the mind, as if it were already possessed. Thus it is " the f,alb-
 pardon. Such shall in no wise be cast out. The ground of the               stance of things hoped for." As it liati respect to what is past,
 apotle's ;masoning is, that God will not pardon sin, but                    and so not the object of hope, it is the " evidence of things not
 tiu'ol!,,,-!) the at of Christ ; and when that is con-                     seen." It is an internal conviction of them, according to what is
 t-.apt.a(ms'y renoune('d, the only ground of hope is given up.              revealed in the divine word. The voice of faith is, God bath scud
  And " It isa fearri!I thing to fall into the hands of the living God."    it, and it must be true. This definition of faith is illustrated by
  Bat, s:t.ys the apostle, call to remembrance the past trials which        all the examples introduced in this chapter. It is the active prin-
 3,- e have aufrgone, in which, after your conversion, ye endured           ciple of all holy obedience in the life and conversation. " Ly it
 a g rat tight of i&liatin. Ye took joyfully the spoiling of your           the elders obtained a good report." Faith was the animating
 goods, animated hy the hoe of 0 more enduring substance. Ye                spring of all their eminent services, and of all then' pati(2:it suPer-
                 became ciomiaoiona, of persecuted Christians, and had      ings in the cause of truth and holiness. Thus it is constantly'
             lo .;; en me in inj: bends. I;e, encouraged not to cast away   assexted, By faith they did this zliAl the other, or thoy eitthircet
AIMO    Domini 64.                                           CHAPTER XI.                                               Juno Domini 61.

   3 Through faith we understand that the worlds                        with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the
were framed by the word of God, so that things                          same promise :
which are seen were not made of things which do                            10 For he looked for a city which bath foun-
appear.                                                                 dations, whose builder and maker is God.
   4 By faith Abel offered unto God a more excel-                          11 Through faith also Sara herself received
lent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained wit-                     strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of
ness that he was righteous, God testifying of his                       a child when she was past age, because she judged
g,ifts : and by it he being dead yet speaketh.                          him faithful who had promised.
   5 By faith Enoch was translated that he should                          12 Therefore sprang there even of one, and him
 not see death ; and was not found, because God                         as good as dead, so main' as the stars of the sky in
had translated him : for before his translation he                      multitude, and as the sand which is by the sea
had this testimony, that he pleased God.                                shore innumerable.
   6 But without faith it is impossible to please him:                     13 These all died in faith, not having received
for he that cometh to God must believe that he is,                      the promises, but having seen them afar off, and
and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently                       were persuaded of them, and embraced them,
seek him.                                                               and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims
   7 By faith Noah, being warned of God of things                       on the earth.
not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an                              14 For they that say such things declare plainly
ark to the saving of his house ; by the which he                        that they seek a country.
condemned the world, and became heir of the                                15 And truly, if they had been mindful of that
righteousness which is by faith.                                        country from whence they came out, they might
   8 By faith Abraham, when he was called to go                         have had opportunity to have returned.
out into a place which he should after receive for                         16 But now they desire a better country, that is,
an inheritance, obeyed ; and he went out, not                           an heavenly : wherefore God is not ashamed to be
 knowing whither he went.                                               called their God : for he bath prepared for them a
   9 By faith he sojourned in the land of promise,                      city.
as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles                           17 By faith Abraham, when he was tried, of-

such afflictions and trials as were allotted to them. The good          he employed himself, in obedience to God's command, in pre-
report the elders obtained, for what they did and suffered, was         paring an ark to the saving of his house. By means of this, he
the effect of that faith which worketh by love.                         condemned the unbelieving world, and became an heir of the
. Ver. 3-16. Through filth we understand, &c.] Faith credits            righteousness which is obtained by faith. It was faith in God that
the word of God concerning the creation of the world; not that it       carried him through all that he had to do, and to suffer, at this
was formed out of any appearing or existing matter ; for " the                               for so
                                                                        awful season and fo so long a time.
things winch are seen vere not made of things which do appear."            " By faith Abraham, when he was called—obeyed." Being
Let unbelievers assert as they please, ' that out of nothing, no-       called by the Lord of glory, who appeared to him, to go out from
thing is made,' faith gives credit to what the word of God affirms      Ins native country, to a distant place, with a promise that he should
 concerning this subject, Gem chap. i. and ii. Thus faith is the        afterwards receive it for an inheritance, Ire immediately obeyed
evidence of things not seen.                                            the divine call, without disputing or murmuring, and went out,
   " By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than     though he knew not whither he was going. He humbly and be-
Cain." The word used signifies also " a greater sacrifice."             lievingly resigned himself to the divine guidance. By faith he
 Cain brought the meat-offering alone ; Abel brought the firstlings     sojourned, for a long time, in the land of promise, when he knew
 of his flock. By faith he penitently, humbly, and obediently,          it to be so, as in a strange country, without having any property
presented to God the typical sacrifice, no doubt according to           there, excepting a burial place towards the close of his life ; dwell-
divine appointment ; and he was accepted. His faith embraced            ing in teats with Isaac and Jacob, who, in their succession, were
the premise of the seed of the woman. Cain brought a formal             heirs with him of the same promise. He passed from place to
acknowledgment to God for temporal benefits, but he discovered          place, resigned, submissive, and composed; for he by faith
no penitential sense of sin, nor had he any views of the necessity      "looked for a city that hath foundations, of which God is the
of atonement. The Lord himself testified, that Abel was righteous       Builder and Former;'' a city worthy of his own abode, and worthy_
before him, as his fl:ith had respect to the groat propitiation ; and   to be the inheritance of his children. By faith Sarah _herself
though he was murdered by Cain, he still spcaLeth to us by his          received strength for the conception of seed, and brought forth a
example. Our Lord calls him " righteous Abel," Matt. xxiii.             child beyond the duo time of age for such a purpose, when she was
35. But he obtained this good report by faith. " By faith Enoch         ninety years old, " because she judged him faithful who had pro-
was translated that he should not see death." He was exempted           mised." Therefore, from Abraham, and him very far advanced
from the pains and agonies of dissolution. His body was changed,        in age, there sprang a posterity, numerous as the stars of heaven,
and rendered incorruptible, that he might immediately pass into         and comparatively as the sand on the sea-shore. Among these
glory. He was not found on earth by those that sought him, for          were many worthy and excellent persons, who " all died in the  °
 God had taken him to himself. He had obtained this testimony,          faith, not having received" the blessings contained in " the pro-
that God was highly pleased with him. " But without faith it is         mises, but having seen them afar off', and having been fully per-
impossible to please God," and to walk in communion with him,           suaded of them, and embraced them" with the most cordial affection,
as Enoch did. " For he that corneal to God must believe that he         " confessed themselves to be strangers and pilgrims in the earth."
is," and have a realizing sense of his presence and perfections, as     For they were desirous of a better country, that is an heavenly one;
well as a firm persuasion " that he is the Rewarder of them that        wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God; for he
diligently seek him."                                                   bath prepared for them such a city as they sought and looked for.
   " By faith Noah—prepared an ark to the saving of his house."            Ver. 17-19. By faith Abraham, when he was tried, tfered,
Being warned of God of things not seen as yet, he firmly believed       &c.] The faith, of which such glorious things are spoken, and
the warning message, and acted upon it. He was moved with               to which such admirable achievements are ascribed, throughout
Sear of the threatened deluge; and, &ring a long course of years,       this whole chapter, was a belief of the promises of God, particu-
                                                                               6 N2
    Anno Domini 64.                                            HEBREWS,                                                Anno Domini 64,
 fered up Isaac : and he that had received the pro-                        30 By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, after
 mises offered up his only begotten son,                                 they were compassed about seven days.
    18 Of whom it was said, That in Isaac shall thy                        31 By faith the harlot Rahab perished not with
 seed be called :.                                                      them that believed not, when she had received the
    19 Accounting that God was able to raise him                         spies with peace.
 up, even from the dead ; from whence also he                              32 And what shall I more say ? for the time
 received him in a figure.                                              would fail me to tell of Gedeon, and of Barak, and
    20 By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau con-                        of Samson, and of Jephtlme ; of David also, and
 cerning things to come.                                                Samuel, and of the prophets :
    21 By faith Jacob, when he was a dying, blessed                        33 Who through faith subdued kingdoms,
 both the sons of Joseph ; and worshipped, leaning                      wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped
 upon the top of his staff:                                             the mouths of lions,
    22 By faith Joseph, when he died, made mention                         34 Quenched the violence of fire, escaped the
 of the departing of the children of Israel ; and gave                  edge of the sword, out of weakness were made
 commandment concerning his bones.                                      strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the
    23 By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid                        armies of the aliens.
three months of his parents, because they saw he                           35 Women received their dead raised to life
was a proper child ; and they were not afraid of                        again : and others were tortured, not accepting
the king's commandment.                                                 deliverance ; that they might obtain a better resur-
    24 By faith Moses, when he was come to years,                       rection :
refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's (laughter ;                      36 And others had trial of cruel mockings and
   '25 Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the                    scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprison-
people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin                       ment:
for a season ;                                                             37 They were stoned, they were sawn asunder,
   26 Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater                          were tempted, were slain with the sword : they
riches than the treasures in Egypt : for he had                         wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins ; being
respect unto the recompence of the reward.                              destitute, afflicted, tormented ;
   27 By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the                           38 (Of whom the world was not worthy :) they
-wrath of the king : for he endured, as seeing him                      wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in
who is invisible.                                                       dens and caves of the earth.
   28 Through faith he kept the passover, and the                          39 And these all, having obtained a good
sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the first-
.                                                                       report through faith, received not the pro-
born should touch them.                                                 mise :
   29 By faith they passed through the Red sea as                          40 God having provided some better thing for
by dry land: which the Egyptians assaying to do                         us, that they without us should not be made
were drowned.                                                           perfect.

 lady th{se which reldte to the Messiah, and salvation by him.—         were appointed to destroy the male children as perceiving some-
 So long s this chapter remains in the Bible, it will furnish an un-    thing very uncommon in his appearance, which they supposed to
 answerable confutation of those objections which suppose, that the     indicate his future eminence. And they were so supported by
 doctrine of faith has an unfriendly influence on religious or virtu-   faith, that they were not afraid of the king's commandment.
 ous practice. Against all such cavils it will " stand fast for ever-      Ver. 21, &c. By .faith Moses, when he was come to years, &c.]
 more, as the moon, and as the faithful witness in heaven." Abra-       When he was grown up, and become great in the honours of the
 ham, when he was tried, in a very severe manner, at the command        Egyptian court, deliberately refused to be any longer called the
 of God, offered his only son Isaac, whom he loved; and he that         son of Pharaoh's daughter, as he had been. He boldly professed
 had received the promises gave up his only-begotten Son, in whom       himself an Israelite, and began to vindicate his oppressed brethren ;
  those promises centred, and concerning whom it was said, " In         choosing much rather to suffer affliction with the people of God,
  Isaac shall thy seed he called," Gen. xxi. 12. " For he accounted,    than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season. Esteeming the
- or concluded, that God was able to raise him up even from the         reproach of Christ, or the reproach cast upon the people of Christ,
  dead," if Ile should have expired under the sacrificial knife, and    a greater honour, and greater riches, than all the treasures- in
  been reduced to ashes. For he remembered in what an extraor-          Egypt ; for he had his eye upon a future world, and by final " had
 dinary manner he had at first received him ; so that his faith tri-    respect to the recompense of the reward" promised to the people
  Umplied over every difficulty.—This is a most expressive figure of    of God. When he became the leader of the tribes of Israel, he by
  tile crucifixion and resurrection of Christ.                          faith forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king. Ile boldly
      Ver. 20-23. By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau &c.] He         said to the affrighted tribes when Pharaoh pursued them, " Fear
  blessed his two sons, in a firm belief that God would fulfil his      not, stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord." For he
  promises to his posterity, delivering some remarkable prophecies      endured, as seeing him who is invisible, but ever present to the
  concerning things to come. When Jacob was going to die, he by         eye of the believing mind ; for faith is the evidence of things not
  faith blessed both the sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh,          geen. By faith in what God had spoken concerning Israel, he
  with the rest of his children. He expressed his confidence in God,    kept the passover, and the sprinkling of the blood of the lamb, as
  and worshipped him, " leaning upon the top of his staff," or upon     a token of preservation, that be who destroyed the firstborn of'
  the bead of' his bed. By faith Joseph foresaw the return of the       the Egyptians might not touch the firstborn of the Israelites.
  Israelites to Canaan ; he made mention of their departure, and        By faith they passed through the Red-sea, as if they had marched
  crdered, that they should carry his bones with them. The parents      on dry land, while the Egyptians, rashly and presumptuously
  of Moses Were actuated by the same faith in respect to him, in his    attempting to follow them, were all drowned, and sunk like lead,
 'childhood. They concealed him three months from those who             in the waters which returned - upon them. When the Israeiftea
Anno Domini 64.                                            CHAIYITR XII,                                             Ann° Domini 64.
  aopiration.] 0 Loup, write in our bearts we beseech                    7 If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you
thee, the important instructions contained in this portion of         as with sons ; for what son is he whom the father
thy word.                                                             chasteneth not ?
                        CHAP. XII.                                       8 But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all
1-14 The apostle exhorts the Hebrews to patience under their          are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons.
  afflictions, from the example of the saints, and of Christ.            9 Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh
  15 29 He sets firth the excellency of the gospel dispensa-
                                                                      which corrected us, and we gave them reverence :
                                                                      shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the
"W aside everyso great aand theofarewhich (loth
us lay
       about with
                          we also
                            seeing   compassed
                          cloud witnesses, let
                                                                      Father of spirits, and live ?
                                                                         10 For they verily for a few days chastened us
                                                                      after their own pleasure ; but he for our profit, that
so easily beset us and let us run with patience the                   we might be partakers of his holiness.
race that is set bef us,                                                 11 Now no chastening for the present seemeth
   2 Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher                       to be joyous, but grievous : nevertheless afterward
of our faith ; who for the joy that was set before                    it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness
him endured the cross, despising the shame, and                       unto them which are exercised thereby.
is set down at the right hand of the throne of                           12 Wherefore lift up the hands which bang
God.                                                                  down, and the feeble knees ;
   3 For consider him that endured such contradic-                       13 And make straight paths for your feet, lest
tion of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied                   that which is lame be turned out of the way ; but
and faint in your minds.                                              let it rather be healed.
   4 Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving                       14 Follow peace with all men, and holiness, with-
against sin.                                                          out which no man shall see' the Lord :
   5 And ye have forgotten the exhortation which                         15 Looking diligently lest any man fail of the
speaketh unto you, as unto children, My son, despise                  grace of God ; lest any root of bitterness springing
not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when                   up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled ;
thou art rebuked of him :                                                16 Lest there be any fornicator, or profane per-
   6 For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and                      son, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his
scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.                                birthright.

came into the promised land, according to divine direction, they      of faith, and the power, truth, and faithfulness of God. We ought
walked round the strong city of Jericho, believing the promise of     therefore to lay aside every weight and ineumbrance, and not to
its being delivered into their hands ; and by faith the walls fell    burden ourselves with unnecessary loads of unprofitable things,
down, when they had compassed the city seven days. It was by          and of earthly things. We should also particularly guard against
faith, and in consequence of it, that Rai -Jab, who had been called   that sin which most easily besets us, whether it be unbelief, or any
the harlot, did not perish with the unbelievers of that city, among   other evil thing ; that we may " run, with patience and persever-
whom she dwelt, when she had received the spies with peace.           ance, the race set before us," in prospect of an eternal crown of
And what shall I say farther upon this subject ? The time would       glory. That we may run this race successfully, we should turn
fail me to discourse at large upon Gideon, &c. It was through         our eyes from every object which would retard us in our course ;
faith that some of them subdued the kingdoms that had oppressed       and, with confidence, and love, and holy desire, "look unto Jesus,
Israel, wrought eminent works of obedience and righteousness,         the author and finisher of our faith," as the fountain of all sup-
obtained promises of unexpected events in their favour ; stopped      plies, and as our pattern and example ; who, "for the joy that was
the mouths of lions, as in the case of Samson and Daniel ; some       set before him," of saving sinners, and glorifying his heavenly
quenched the violence of fire through &Rh, as Shadrach, Meshecb,      Father, " endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down
and Abcchtego; some escaped the edge of the sword, as David,          at the right band of the throne of God." For, says the apostle,
Elijah, and others. Some out of weakness were made strong, and,       it will be of great advantage to you to " consider him who en-
like David, waxed valiant in fight, turning to flight the armies of   dured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be
the enemies of God. Some women received their dead chil-              wearied and faint in your minds." He patiently bore all till his
dren raised to life again. And some of God's faithful people          work was finished. You have already suffered many things; but ye
have been tortured by persecutors, not accepting deliverance,         have not, like him, yet " resisted unto blood, in your striving
because they expected a resurrection to everlasting life, which was   against sin." And I fear " you have forgotten the exhortation
far better than being spared by their persecutors, and delivered      that speaketh unto you, as unto children," Prov. iii. 11, 12, " My
from the jaws of death. Many, through faith, have patiently           son, despise not the chastening of the Lord ;" be not hard and
endured cruel mockings, scourgings, bonds, and imprisonment.          unfeeling under it ; "neither faint when thou art rebuked of him."
Some have been stoned, some have been sawn asunder, some              For, remember this, that "whom the Lord loveth be chasteneth,"
tempted, some slain with the sword. While others have been            &c. God deals with you as wise and affectionate parents deal with
 obliged to wander about, covered with the skins of sheep or of       their sons. Should you he without chastisement, you would bo
 goats, being destitute of every thing, afflicted and tormented.      treated as men sometimes treat bastards, and not as they treat
 Even those excellent persons of whom the world was not worthy,       their own sons. When we had earthly parents who corrected us,
have hid themselves from those who thirsted for their blood, in       we gave them reverence, and patiently yielded to the strokes ;
deserts, in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth. 'These      and shall we not much rather submit to the chastisements of our
pious persons, in different ages, obtained a good report through      heavenly Father, who corrects us that we may live. Our earthly
faith ; yet they did not live to see the accomplishment of the pro-    parents chastened us for their pleasure, or as they thought good;
mise concerning the Messiah ; "God having provided some better         but if our heavenly Father correct us, it is for our real benefit,
thing for us," in the present dispensation, " that they without us     " that we may be" purified from sin, and "made partakers of his
might not be made perfect."                                            holiness." It must be acknowledged, that no chastening seemeth
   CHAP. XII. Ver. 1, &c. Wherefore seeing we also are compassed,      for the present to be joyous ; it rather occasions grief and sorrow
ice.3. We are surrounded with a cloud of witnesses to the efficacy    for the time ; but afterwards it produceth happy effects, even “- ths
Ann° Domini 64.                                                  IIEBREWS.                                               Ann° Dornini 644
    17 For ye know how that afterward, when he                             he hath promised, saying, Yet once more I shako
would have inherited the blessing, he was rejected :                       not the earth only, but also heaven.
for he found no place of repentance, though he                                27 And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the
 sought it carefully with tears.                                           removing of those things that are shaken, as of
    18 For ye are not come unto the mount that                             things that are made, that those things which can--
 might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor                          not be shaken may remain.
 unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest,                                   28 Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which
    19 And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice                           cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we
 of words ; which voice they that heard intreated                          may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly
 that the word should not be spoken to them any                            fear :
 more:                                                                        29 For our God is a consuming fire.
    20 (For they could not endure that which was
'commanded, And if so much as a beast touch the
 mountain, it shall be stoned or thrust through with                          a5piration.] SEEING that we already, in some measure, re-
 a dart :                                                                  ceive a kingdom which cannot be moved, and hope to receive
    21 And so terrible was the sight, that Moses                           it more fully hereafter, may we have grace to serve God accept-
                                                                           ably, with reverence and godly fear; for, to his enemies, he is
 said, I exceedingly fear and quake :)                                     a consuming fire. Amen.
    22 But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto
 the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem,                                                CHAP. XIII.
 and to an innumerable company of angels,                                  1-7 Exhortations     to love, hospitality, chastity, contentment,
    23 To the general assembly and church of the                              trust in God, and due respect to ministers.         8 Christ is
firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God                            unchangeable and eternal. 9-25 Various exhortations, and
the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made                         a concluding prayer.
perfect,                                                                       .ET brotherly love continue.
    24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new cove-                              A   2 Be not forgetful to entertain strangers :
 nant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh                       for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.
better things than that of Abel.                                              3 Remember them that are in bonds,asbound with
    25 See that ye refuse not him that speaketh.                           them ; and them which suffer adversity, as being
 For if they escaped not who refbsed him that spake                        yourselves also in the body.
on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn                          4 Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed
 away from him that ,speaketh from heaven :                                undefiled : but whoremongers and adulterers God
    26 'Whose voice then shook the earth : but now                         will judge.

peaceable fruits of righteousness." Therefore resume courage ;              of the trumpet, and the voice of words, reaching to all the thou-
let the hands which hang down be lifted up, and the feeble and              sands of Israel, that they entreated that the word should not be
tottering knees be strengthened, that ye may hold out to the end           spoken to them in this manner any more ; for they were not able
of the Christian race. Make straight paths for your feet, by               to endure that which was pronounced, And if so much as a beast
removing every stumbling-block, lest those who are weak and dis-           should touch the mountain, it must be stoned, or thrust through
couraged, like lame persons, should be turned out of the way ; but          with a dart, if it escaped death by the lightning and the tempest,
let every feeble traveller in the way to Zion, rather be healed,            Exod. xix. 12, 13. And so terrible was the sight, that even Moses
recovered, and restored. Let it be your care to " follow peace             himself said, "I exceedingly fear and quake," Exod. xix. 16-20.1
with all men," even when it may seem to flee from you. So far              mention these things to call off your attention from that dispensa-
as truth and duty will permit, strive to live peaceably , with all men.    tion, and to excite your gratitude for the introduction of the
And ever follow holiness, and cultivate it in all its branches, " with-    gospel, in which the riches of divine mercy are so gloriously dis-
out which no man shall see the Lord," how ready soever men may             played. Here the blessed God makes milder and gentler disco-
be to flatter themselves with such a hope. It is the unalterable           veries of himself. "For ye are come to mount Zion, the city of' the
purpose of God to exclude those from his presence, in whom sin             living God," where joyful assemblies are kept, and where the divine
reigns. Therefore look diligently lest any man lint of the grace           voice is heard flora the mercy seat. The meaning of these figura-
of God ; lest any poisonous root of bitterness should spring up to         tive expressions is, Ye are come to the church: of Christ on earth,
trouble your society, and thereby many be defiled. In particular,          with all it special privileges and honours, as intimately connected
be watchful, lest there be any fornicator among you, or any pro-           with the holy residence of God in heaven. Ye are related to the
fane person, who should pour contempt on spiritual blessings, and          ble s sed society above, and shall shortly arrive at that world where
sacrifice them to present indulgence. Thus Esau, for one morsel             it holds its supreme residence, since ye are come to Jesus the
of' meat, sold his birthright, and the privileges of the firsthm-n ; and   Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling,
ye know, that when afterwards he would have inherited the                  which speaketh better things than that of Abel. But see that ye
blessing which belonged to the firstborn, he was rejected; for he          refuse not him that speaketh, &c. It is he whose voice once shook
found no place of repentance in his father's mind, though he sought        the earth ; but now he bath promised to shake both earth and
it carefully, and even with tears. And the time will come, when            heaven, by which is meant the change of the Mosaic dispensation
they who disregard spiritual blessings, for the sake of fleshly in-        for that of the gospel. The ceremonial institutions were shaken,
dulgence, %yin be made sensible of their madness and folly. The            as things which were to continue but for a time ; but the things not
privileges, gospelbrings along with it, add great weight
                   the ospel                                               to be shaken must remain. We receive, in the gospel, a kingdom
to the cautions I am giving. For ye are not come to mount Sinai,           ivhich cannot be moved to make way for any different establish-
which might indeed be touched; but the very touch was forbidden.           ment, and which introduces us into an eternal inheritance in
Awful displays of the divine glory were made there, when the law           heaven.
was given ; burning fire, a thick cloud, darkness, and a dreadful              CHAP. XIII. Ver. 1, &c. Let brotherly love continue.] Th's is
tempest, were the signals of God's descending upon the mountain.           one of the most important and comprehensive exhortations I can
The people were so powerfully affected when they heard the sound           give you. Show kindness to the followers of Christ who 4re
Anno Domini 64.                                            CHAPTER XIII.                                              A71710 DOMilli     64.
  5 Let your conversation be without covetousness :                       17 Obey them that have the rule over you, and
and be content with such things as ye have : fbr he                    submit yourselves : for they watch for your souls,
bath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.                  as they that must give account, that they may do it
   6 So that we may boldly say, The Lord is my                         with joy and not with grief: for that is unprofitable
helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto                     ior you.
me.                                                                       18 Pray for us : for we trust we have a good
   7 Remember them which have the rule over                            conscience, in all timings willing to live honestly.
you, who have spoken unto you the word of God :                           19 But I beseech 1101I the rather to do this, that I
whose faith fallow, considering the end of their                       may be restored to you the sooner.
Conversation :                                                            20 Now the God of peace, that brought again
   8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day,                      from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd
and for ever.                                                          of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting
   9 13e not carried about with divers and strange                     covenant,
doctrines. For it is a good thing that the heart                          21 Make you perfect in every good work to do
be established with grace ; not with meats, which                      his will, working in yoti that which is wellpleasimr
have not profited them that have been occupied                         in his sight, trirow;h Jesus Christ ; to whom be
                                                                                 6                                           h
therein.                                                               glory for ever and ever. Amen.
   10 We have an altar, whereof they have no right                        22 And I beseech you, brethren, stiffer the word
to eat which serve the tabernacle.                                     of exhortation : for I have written a letter unto you
   11 For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood                      in few words.
is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for                      23 Know ye that our brother Timothy is set
sin, are burned without the camp.                                      at liberty ; with whom, if he come shortly, I will
   12 Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify                     see you.
the people with his own blood, suffered without the                       24 Salute all them that have the rule over you,
gate. •                                                                and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.
   13 Let us go forth therefore unto him without                          25 Grace be with you all. Amen.
the camp, bearing his reproach.
   14 For here have we no continuing city, but we                            T. Written to the Ifebrews from Italy by
seek one to come.                                                                Timothy.
   15 By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of
praise toGod continually, that is, the fruit of our lips                 2etiiratiOn.1 NEVER, 0 Lord, can we be sufficiently thank-
giving thanks to his name.                                             ful for this precious epistle. May we read, mark, learn, and
    16 But to do good and to communicate forget                        inwardly digest the truths it holds forth, to our everlasting
not : for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.                    benefit. Amen.

obliged to travel from place to place, and have need of protection      grace of the gospel, and not unsettled about distinctions of meats,
and relief: Forget not to use hospitality to such ; for some, in the    which have not profited them that have been exercised therein.
practice of it, have entertained angels, without at first knowing       We, who steadfastly adhere to Christ, have, in his atonement, the
it ; as Abraham, and others. Remember those who are in bonds            substance of all that was shadowed forth by the law and its
for the gospel's sake, as if you yourselves were bound with them ;      sacrifices. The flesh of these sacrifices was divided between the
and those that suffer adversity, as being yourselves in the body,       altar and the priests, who alone were to eat the most holy things ;
and liable to the same calamities. Marriage is to he deemed ho-         but such as adhere to the tabernacle, or the Jewish system, and
nourable in all, and the bed undefiled; but as for whoremongers and     neglect the gospel, have not the privilege of partaking of its pre-
adulterers, however they may escape human punishment, God will          cious feast. They exclude themselves. It is an instructive con-
most certainly judge them. Let your whole eonvei - sation be free       sideration, that the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought
from covetousness, or eagerness after the world; and be content         into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the
and satisfied with such things as ye have ; you have good reason so     camp ; afterwards, without the city of Jerusalem ; no part of these
to be, and to dismiss all anxious care; ibr the Lord bath said, " I    being eaten by the priests. Wherefore Jesus, that he might
will not, I will not leave thee ; I will never, never, never forsake   sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered, not within the
thee," (Greek text.) josh. i.15. So that we may confidently say,       walls of the city, but without the gate of Jerusalem. Let us, there-
" The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do         fore, break through every attachment, and go out unto him without
unto me." Remember, with grateful respect, those who have              the camp, bearing our part in his reproach. This is of little conse-
formerly presided over ) on in holy things, and have spoken to von     quence, considering how short a time we have to live ; for here we
the word of God, to your great benefit and edification. Be mind-       have no continuing city, &c. By him let us offer the sacrifice of
ful or that filith which they taught, and whioh was exemplified in     praise to God continually. And let us ant forget to do good, and
them ; let it be your care to imitate them, considering the end of     to communicate to the necessitous ; for with such sacrifices God
their conversation, the great subject of their ministry, whose glory   is well pleased, through the mediation of Christ. Remember your
they constantly laboured to promote, even " Jesus Christ, the          present ministers—and submit yourselves to them. Pray for us;
same yesterday, and to day, and for ever." Whoever be taken            for we trust we have a good conscience. Pray, that 1 may he
from you, or whatever trials you have to hear, he can support          restored to you the sooner. Now the God of peace, who hath
you; for his sufficiency, love, care, and 11:ithfulness, are always    reconciled us to himself; and who brought again from the dead
the same, and will be so for ever. Let this consideration excite       the Lord Jesus, through the blood of the everlasting- covenant,
von to steadfastness. 13e not carried about with divers and strange    make you perfect in every thing, &c. Grace be with you all,
dectrines.—It is a good thing that the heart be establi s hed in the