Swiss Cadastral System by yaofenji

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 29

									• Day:                                    Wednesday 9th November
• Session:                                13.30 - 15.45
• Speaker:                                Daniel Steudler

• Topic:                                  Switzerland LAS



Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   1
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
                                           Bundesamt für Landestopographie
                                           Office fédéral de topographie
                                           Ufficio federale di topografia
                                           Uffizi federal da topografia




  Analysis of Swiss Cadastral
System and Review of LAS Model
               Dr. Daniel Steudler
    Swiss Federal Directorate of Cadastral Surveying
Table of Content

        • Country description
        • Positive aspects of country experience
        • Negative aspects of country experience
        • Building in the cadastre
        • EU influence
        • Three key improvements in the next decade
        • Critique of the integrated model in context of Switzerland
          with a view to improving the LAS




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   3
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
                                                       SWITZERLAND
                                                       7.3 million people
                                                           41'290 km2
                                                       4.0 million parcels




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   4
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
26 Cantons …
                                                       Cantons maintain
                                                         political and
                                                        administrative
                                                        bodies on their
                                                             own




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   5
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
… and 2903 Municipalities
                                                          Cantons are
                                                         further divided
                                                       into municipalities




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   6
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
  Organisations involved in cadastral system
Cadastral Surveying                                                                                           Land Registration
                                                      Government              Federal Parliament


                   Dept. for Defence, Civil                                           Department of
                   Protection and Sports              7 Federal Departments         Justice- and Police


Federal
Level                       Federal Office of Topography
                                                                                               Federal Office for Justice
                            (swisstopo)
                                                    COSIG                                           Office for Land
                             Directorate of                                                        Registry and Real
 Licensing Commission for                                                                             Estate Law
    Cadastral Surveying      Cad. Surveying



                                                       26 Cantonal        26 Cantonal
Cantonal                      21 Cantonal             Governments         Parliaments                ~350 Cantonal and
                               Surveying
Level                           Offices
                                                                                                       Regional Land
                                                                                                      Registry Offices



Community             ~15 City & Municipal     ~270 Private Licensed                                            Private
                       Surveying Offices       Land Surveying Offices                                        Notary Offices
Level

   Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,      7
   System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Organisation of cadastral surveying
Level                                                     Organisation                                     Tasks
                                               Federal Directorate
                                               of Cadastral                                   Supervision,
Confederation                                  Surveying                            strategic management
                                                                     ~15 employees
              Agreements

Canton
                                                   Cantonal Surveying                            Operational
                                                        Offices
                                                                                                management

                                                                          ~300 employees
                Contracts
                                                   Private Land Surveying Offices
Municipality
                                                   City Surveying Offices                          Execution


                                                                               ~3000 employees

Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,     8          Office heads at all levels: have to hold the
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
                                                                federal license for cadastral land surveyor
Legal basis and objectives


                                         Swiss Civil Code, 1912




                                          Objectives of the legislator:
                                          • Security of ownership, efficient land market,
                                            and mortgaging of real estates




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   9
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Swiss civil code (in force since 1.1.1912)

                      Art. 942
    1 All rights on real estates have to be registered in the land registry.
    2 The land registry consists of the main book with its

    associated maps, the auxiliary registers (in particular the list of
    property owners), the deeds (records and evidences), the
    description of properties, and the day book.
                      Art. 950
     1 Registration and description of the properties in the land register

     have to be done on the basis of a map, which as a rule, has to
     be the result of an official cadastral survey.
     2 The Federal Council decides on which principles these maps

     have to be based upon.


Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   10
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Swiss cadastral system


        Cadastral Surveying                                  Land Register

                                                        •main book
                                                        •auxiliary registers (in
                                                         particular the list of
                                                         property owners)
                                                        •deeds (records and
                                                         evidences)
                                                        •description of
                                                         properties
                                                        •day book



Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   11
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Legal act 1993, adding a new and extended purpose

                                       Ordnance for Official Surveying (VAV, 1.1.1993)

                                              Art. 1: Definition and Objective
                                              1 In terms of the Civil Law, cadastral surveying is
                                              considered to be surveying – approved by the
                                              Confederation – for the purpose of operating the
                                              land registry.

                                              2 The data of cadastral surveying shall serve as
                                              basis for the establishment and the operation of
                                              land information systems and shall be suited for
                                              public and private purposes.




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   12
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Basic principles of the cadastral system

      • Partnership Confederation - Canton
        (- Communities)
      • Public Private Partnership (PPP)
      • Decentralized structure
      • Free market, tendering
      • Costs are borne mainly by Confederation




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   13
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Conceptual elements of AV93

         - Clear definition of the
           product

         - Freedom of methods and systems
           (as basis for tendering)


         - Independent information layers
           (link between layers only trough
           geographic location)


         - Standardized way of description
                                                        ili   itf
           and transfer of data (INTERLIS)

Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   14
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Technical Elements
Standardized data modelling and cadastral data                                                                                                                                              TRANSFER Data_Catalogue;
                                                                                                                                                                                            MODEL Basic_Data_Set
                                                                                                                                                                                             DOMAIN

definition (introduced in 1993)                                                                                                                                                               LKoord = COORD2 480000.000    70000.000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 840000.000 300000.000;
                                                                                                                                                                                              HKoord = COORD3 480000.000    70000.000      0.000
                                                                                                                                                                                                               840000.000 300000.000    5000.000;
                                                                                                                                                                                              Height = DIM1 0.000 5000.000;
                                                                                                                                                                                              Precision = [0 .. 300];
                                                                                                                                                                                              Reliability = (yes, no);
                                           Name
                                                      OPTIONAL Table
                                                                                                                                                                                              LetterOrientation = GRADS 0.0 400.0;
                                                      with table name                                          OwnershipMaintenance
                                                                                                                                                                                              Status = (planned, valid);
                                         NumPos       OPTIONAL attribute name
                                                                                                                    Identifier                                    LimitPoint
                                         Identifier   Attribute that is unique within the                           Description
                                                      table of one topic (exceptionally
                                                      together with another attribute)
                                                                                                                    Perimeter
                                                                                                                    Validity
                                                                                                                                             1            mc                                TOPIC Control_Points =
                                                                                                                                                                OSKey ->
                                         Origin ->    Attribute that relates with another
                                                                                                           1
                                                                                                                    Date1
                                                                                                                    Date2
                                                                                                                                                                Identifier
                                                                                                                                                                Geometry
                                                                                                                                                                                            .........
                                                      table (relational attribute)                                  Date3                                       PositionPrecision
                                                                                                                                                                PositionReliability         END Control_Points;
                                                                                                                1                                               PointSymbol
                                                                                                                                                                Origin
                                                                                                                                                                SymbolOrientation
                                                                                                                                                                                            TOPIC Land_Cover =
   Control points                                                                                                                                                                           .........
                                                                                                                                  Ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                            END Land_Cover;
                                                              PROJOwnership

   Land cover                                                  OSKey ->
                                                                                            mc
                                                                                                               mc
                                                                                                                                  OSKey ->
                                                                                                                                  Number                                                    TOPIC Ownership =
                                                               Number                                                             Validity
                                                               Geometry
                                                               Origin
                                                                                                                                  Origin
                                                                                                                                  Class
                                                                                                                                                                                            DOMAIN
                                                                                                                                                                                             Monumentation = (border_stone, plastic_peg, cross,
   Single objects                                                                  1                                              1     1         1
                                                                                                                                                                                                               not_monumented);
                                                                                                                                                                                             OwnershipType = (parcel, distinct_right,
   Heights                                   PROJOwnershipPosition                                Parcel                          DistinctRight                OwnershipPosition                               construction_right, water_source_
                                            Object ->                              m             Object ->
                                                                                                                    c        c
                                                                                                                                      Object ->       m        Object ->
                                                                                                                                                                                                               right);
                                            NumberPosition
                                            NumberOrientation
                                                                                                 Geometry
                                                                                                 Surface
                                                                                                                                      Geometry
                                                                                                                                      Surface
                                                                                                                                                               NumberPosition
                                                                                                                                                               NumberOrientation            TABLE LimitPoint =
   Local names                              NumberHorizontalAlignment
                                            NumberVerticalAlignment
                                                                                                                                                               NumberHorizontalAlignment
                                                                                                                                                               NumberVerticalAlignment         OSKey: OPTIONAL -> OwnershipMaintenance;
                                                                                                                                                                                               Identifier: OPTIONAL TEXT*12;
                                                                                                                                                                                               Geometry: LKoord;
   Ownership                                                                                                                                                                                   PositionPrecision: Precision;
                                                                                                                                                                                               PositionReliability: Reliability;
                                                                                                                                                                                               Origin: OPTIONAL TEXT*30;
   Pipelines >5bar                                                                                                                                                                             SymbolOrientation: OPTIONAL LetterOrientation;
                                                                                                                                                                                               !! Default: 0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                               IDENT
   Administrative subdivisions                                                                                                                                                                 Geometry;
                                                                                                                                                                                             END LimitPoint;
                                                                                                                                                                                            END Ownership.
                                                                                                                                                                                            END Basic_Data_Set.



  8 Information Layers                                  Data Model (UML)                                                                                                                   Data Description Language
    (Possibility to realise the layers                         (Entity-Relationship-Diagram)
                separately)                                                                                                                                                                        INTERLIS
                                                                                                                                                                                             (system independent)

                         EGM, data
          With this method ofMelbourne,modelling, the use and exchange of AV93 data is
Analysis of Swiss Cadastral              15
                         9-11 Nov. 2005
System and Review of LAS Model
          independent from the used GIS or software system.
Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   16
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Possible future structure for LIS

    Legal topic                                                           Stakeholders
                                          spatial data    textual data    (data owners)

    Water protection                                                      Local government

    Noise protection                                                      Local government

    Environmental
                                                                          Environmental department
    protection

    Land use planning                                                     Planning department


    Indigenous land rights                                                Tribe, clan

    Collective land rights                                                Corporations


    Land ownership,                                                       National government
                                                                          State government
    cadastre                                                              Local government




                                                       common geodetic reference framework
          Two preconditions: Melbourne,
Analysis of Swiss Cadastral EGM,                     17common data modelling concept
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Drilling the topics from different stakeholders


                                                             Property parcel #: 1234


                                                                Building #: A445
                                                              Building permit: lease


                                                             Easement: parcel 1235


                                                        Land-use zone: residential 2-floors




                                                             Property parcel #: 1234
                                                                Building #: A445
                                                              Building permit: lease
                                                             Easement: parcel 1235
                                                        Land-use zone: residential 2-floors



Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   18
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Trend of increasing purpose and content of
cadastral system


                                                                                                    public law



                                                                                        LIS / GIS



                                                   private law



     1912                                   1993                       2005          2008           20xx
 Introduction                         Digital Standard           New constitu-        Full
 of Civil Code                              AV93                  tional article   coverage
                                                                    about land
                                                                   information
Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,     19
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Profession


       • all surveyors active in cadastral surveying are required to have
         the licence
              – 4 ½ years of academic education at ETH
              – 2 years of practical work
              – practical exams for Federal licence (responsibility of Federal
                Directorate of Cadastral Surveying)
       • professional associations ("Geosuisse" and "Ingenieur-
         Geometer Schweiz IGS")




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   20
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Role of Private Sector (1/2)


          Main Tasks of Private Land Surveyors:


        Cadastral                • contracts with communities/cantons for the
        Surveying                  maintenance and updating of cadastral
                                   surveying data (acting agents for authorities)
                                 • carrying out of projects for acquisition of AV93
                                   data and renovation of old existing cadastral
                                   surveys

        LIS                      • service to clients (public bodies of all levels,
                                   facilities companies, etc.)


Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   21
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Role of Private Sector (2/2)

                                            Two Partners:

 Public Sector                                              Private Sector
 • legislation (Federal and                                 • production
   cantonal level)                                          • maintenance
 • financing structure                                      • service to clients
 • setting standards                                        • innovation
 • supervision
 • co-ordination
 • verification



Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   22
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Positive aspects of country experience


• Standardized data modelling approach right from
  beginning (1993)
• Independence of information layers allows much lighter
  data model, independent data ownership, acquisition and
  maintenance




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   23
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Negative aspects of country experience


• Rather slow transition to fully digital data, coverage not
  satisfying (decentralized organization and funding)
• Horizontal cooperation between federal agencies not
  always positive (lack of leadership ?)
• Decentralized organization with 26 Cantons is not always
  efficient (although it ensures the link to the local
  government level)




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   24
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Buildings in cadastre

• Today: buildings are traditionally part of cadastral
  surveying (as one element in land cover layer)
• Tomorrow: working group is studying 3D aspects (with a
  focus mainly on viewing, rather than registration of 3D
  objects)




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   25
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
EU influences


• Strong cooperation within Europe (D-A-CH, CLGE, GE,
  FIG, Eurogi, …)
• Increasingly involved in activities of EuroGeographics (in
  newly established "Expert Group on Cadastre and Land
  Registry" with 3 working groups)
• INSPIRE




Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   26
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
Three key improvements in the next decade


• NGDI established and operational
       – supplied with all relevant data, above all cadastral data
       – complete coverage of cadastral surveying data
       – data sharing is taking place on large scale
• Strong focus on users and customers (key is: data,
  information, services  homogenization of data and fee
  structure)
• Overcome the drawbacks of Federalism, while retaining
  the benefits



Analysis of Swiss Cadastral      EGM, Melbourne,   27
System and Review of LAS Model   9-11 Nov. 2005
   Review of Swiss LAS with proposed model
                                                              Is achieved, cadastre may soon
                                                              be improved by accommodating
                                                                 public-right restrictions and
Although broadband penetration                                                                        Federalism seems to be a
                                                                       responsibilities.
is very high, e-citizenship is not                                                                hindrance for the development of
 well established (not much of                          Sustainable                              e-government structures (first tests
 information available or when
 available, awkward to find and
                                                       Development                                  of e-voting / tax form on web /
                                                                                                 infrastructure for digital signatures
                                                 Economic, Social, Environment
             access)                                                                                       not established)


                                    e-Citizenship                             e-Government

                                              Land Administration
                Land                               Functions                                             Land
                Policy                           Land Tenure, Land Value,                            Information
                                               Land-Use, Land Development

           Framework                                                                               Infrastructures


   Seems to be in place, but
 neither politicians nor citizens
                                                  Country Context are well
                                                    The single LA functions
                                                                                                 Very much in place on cantonal
                                                                                                 level, but not aggregated yet at
are aware of its comprehensive                   Institutional Arrangements being
                                                      established, and data are
                                                                                                      national, federal level.
                                                          shared. However, cross-
           character
                                                      administration cooperation could
                                                               be improved.
   Analysis of Swiss Cadastral       EGM, Melbourne,     28
   System and Review of LAS Model    9-11 Nov. 2005
Review of LAS model from a Swiss perspective

                                                     Sustainable
                                                    Development
                                              Economic, Social, Environment



                                 e-Citizenship                           e-Government

                                           Land Administration
             Land                               Functions                                   Land
             Policy                           Land Tenure, Land Value,                  Information
                                            Land-Use, Land Development

        Framework                                                                   Infrastructures


                                               Country Context
                                              Institutional Arrangements
                                             •Education, academic sector
                                              •Regular review process of
                                                strategy and concept

Analysis of Swiss Cadastral       EGM, Melbourne,     29
System and Review of LAS Model    9-11 Nov. 2005

								
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