Sudan Factsheet - Human Security Gateway

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					                                           Leading the British Government’s fight against world poverty

                                                                                            MARCH 2004

About Sudan
                                                                                             Fact Sheet January 2008

    •   Around 35 million people live in Sudan1. In 2005 Sudan’s income per capita (GNI) was $810 (WDI 2006;
        £396). From 2000-04, the economy grew at 5-6%, increasing to 8% in 20052. The main export from Sudan is
    •   Sudan has only had 11 years of peace since independence in 1956. The Government of President Bashir
        took power through a military coup in 1989. Elections took place in 2000 in Northern Sudan, when the
        Government was re-elected by an overwhelming majority. However, opposition political parties boycotted the
        elections, alleging major irregularities and misconduct. Under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA),
        signed in January 2005 by warring parties in North and South Sudan, national elections at Presidential,
        Parliamentary and State Government levels are due over the whole country in 2009.
    •   Due to the conflict, statistics are unreliable, and there are gross disparities between the North and the South.
        In 2000, it was estimated that 150 children out of 1,000 died before the age of 1 in the South compared to 63
        in the North 3. This compares to 6 per 1,000 in the UK.
    •   Enrolment in primary school was estimated to be 60% in the North, but only 20% in the South (Joint
        Assessment Mission March 2005), compared to 100% in the UK.
    •   Average life expectancy is around 57 years3, compared to 79 in the UK.
    •   In 2000, only 15% people in South Sudan have access to improved sanitation3.

About Darfur
    •   Over the past three years, the people of Darfur have witnessed an appalling level of violence. More than
        200,000 people have been killed. Over two million are displaced, many living in crowded and vulnerable
        camps, and over 200,000 Darfuris have fled to Chad. Through the admirable work of aid agencies, the four
        million people dependent on humanitarian aid in Darfur have had access to vital assistance and services.
        The deterioration of the security situation, however, has made this increasingly difficult to sustain. Attacks on
        humanitarian workers are having a particularly severe impact on getting help to those most in need.
    •   The UK utterly condemns the continuing violence targeting civilians and humanitarian workers in Darfur and
        calls on all sides to cease the violence immediately; renew the ceasefire, engage fully with the political
        process and support the rapid deployment of the AU / UN peacekeeping force for Darfur.

About DFID Sudan (UK Department for International Development)
    •   The DFID Sudan office opened in Khartoum on 2 April 2006. DFID Sudan leads on taking forward
        development and humanitarian work in Sudan, working closely with the British Embassy, and it also works in
        close co-ordination with the Sudan Unit in London (a joint FCO-DFID Unit) which leads on political work.
    •   In addition, the Joint Donor Team (JDT) based in Juba, South Sudan opened in May 2006. This is a highly
        innovative programme of mixed funding and joined up policy making involving the UK, Netherlands, Norway,
        Sweden, Denmark and Canada. The JDT should in time act as a channel for all DFID expenditure (apart
        from humanitarian) in the South.
DFID’s Development Aid Programme in Sudan
    •   In the past five years the UK has provided US$667m (£326m) in aid to Sudan, out of a total of US$2201m
        (£1075m) from the international community.
    •   In 2007/08 the UK plans to give about US$228m (£114m).
    •   In Darfur, the UK has been the second largest bilateral donor since 2003.
    •   DFID Sudan is developing a Country Assistance Plan for Sudan for the period 2008-2013.

  World Development Index 2005
  World Bank Country Brief, August 2005
  Joint Assessment Mission, March 2005

DFID’s Areas of Work in Sudan
Addressing Poor Governance and Conflict
Poor governance is a cause of poverty. Peace is a pre-condition for good governance. In Darfur, the UK is putting
pressure on the parties to stop fighting and working to get an effective peacekeeping operation. The UK is providing
support to the key Commissions for implementing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), such as the National
Civil Service Commission and the National Judiciary Commission as well as working on longer term reform of the
police and justice sector. The Africa Conflict Prevention Pool allocation is focused on supporting Disarmament,
Demobilisation and Reintegration programmes in the North and South, as well as promoting Security Sector Reform.

DFID is working to make the Government of Sudan more capable, accountable and responsive by:
   • Capable: DFID is strengthening the police and judiciary to promote the rule of law in the North and the South.
        The Multi Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) provides technical assistance to local government to improve their
        capability to tackle poverty and deliver services.
   • Accountable: DFID is supporting preparations for the elections due in 2008, including strengthening Political
        Parties. DFID is providing support to strengthen Parliamentary oversight of the budget and other decisions.
        We are encouraging the Government to join the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative to ensure greater
        transparency about revenues. This will help civil society and the media hold the Government to account.
   • Responsive: Successful CPA implementation will make the Government more responsive to the needs of
        different regions. The UK government is working to ensure all sectors of society are included in the
        preparation of the National Strategic Plan and the Poverty Reduction Strategy. Funding through the MDTF
        will make the Government of Sudan more responsive to the most war-affected areas.

DFID is working to make the Government of Southern Sudan more capable, accountable and responsive by
   • Capable: DFID is working to establish effective public financial systems and is building the capacity of the
        GofSS to make the civil service more effective.
   • Accountable: DFID is encouraging the Government of Southern Sudan to join the Extractive Industries
        Transparency Initiative.
   • Responsive: The Joint Donor Team have been fully involved in supporting budget preparation, with a focus
        on addressing the needs of the most vulnerable communities.

Humanitarian Aid and Access to Basic Services
In Darfur, UN agencies and NGOs are providing emergency shelter, food aid, health care and access to water to 3.6
million conflict-affected people. This population is highly dependent on relief but increased insecurity in Darfur is
preventing humanitarian agencies from operating effectively, leaving hundreds of thousands without access to aid. In
other parts of Sudan, the UK continues to meet humanitarian needs as well as building longer term capacity. In South
Sudan, DFID is supporting an interim Basic Services Fund aimed at financing major NGOs in service provision until
the new regional, state and local governments are capable of taking over. The first phase of this programme is
designed to benefit over 900,000 people, providing essential services such as training 300 teachers and 270 health
sector staff. HIV and AIDS is comparatively low in Sudan, although the UN is undertaking work to try and establish
more reliable data. $7.8m (North; £3.81m) and $8.8m (South; £4.3m) have been provided from the Global Fund to
fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

Making Aid Effective
Harmonisation between donors is a high priority for DFID in Sudan. The majority of UK support is delivered through
pooled funding mechanisms. Two Multi-donor Trust Funds were established to meet priority needs to implement the
CPA; one to address national issues, and the other for South Sudan. These are administered by the World Bank and
the Government of Sudan provides $2 for every $1 contributed by donors. Most UK humanitarian funding is spent
through the multi-donor Common Humanitarian Fund through which the UN targets funding to the most urgent needs.
With other donors, DFID supports UNDP through a Strategic Partnership, focusing on promoting good governance
and the rule of law in Sudan.

Working with Civil Society
International NGOs are essential partners in Sudan, particularly in the humanitarian response in Darfur and for
delivering basic services in the South. In Darfur, the UK spends $24 m (£12m) through NGOs and the majority of the
Basic Services Fund in the South is delivered by NGO partners. The UK government is promoting the ability of
national and international NGOs, to operate effectively in Sudan.

For more information about DFID’s work in Sudan please visit

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