THE FIRST EPISTLE OF PAUL THE APOSTLE TO THE
CHAP. I. 4 I thank my God always on your behalf, for the
t_9 The apostle salutes the church at Corinth, and congra- grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ ;
tulates them on the great things which God had done for 5 That in every thing ye are enriched by him,
them. 10-16 He reproves them for their divisions, and ex-
in all utterance, and in all knowledge :
horts them to brotherly love. 17-31 He vindicates the
doctrine of the (TOSS, and his own manner of preaching it ; 6 Even as the testimony of Christ was confirmed
showing that this doctrine is calculated to promote the glory of in you :
God, and to humble the pride of man. 7 So that ye come behind in no gift ; waiting for
the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ :
AUL, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ
.p 8 Who shall also confirm you unto the end, that
through the will of God, and Sosthenes our ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus
2 Unto the church of God which is at Corinth,
9 God is faithful, by whom ye were called unto
to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord.
to be saints, with all that in every place call upon
10 Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of
the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both their's and our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same
our's : thing, and that there be no divisions among you ;
3 Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our ,
but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same
Father, andfrom the Lord Jesus Christ. mind and in the same judgment.
I. CORINTHIANS.] About three years after the apostle Paul had fully granted unto them ; and this prayer is presented to God the;
left Corinth, where he had raised and established a numerous and Father, and to the Lord Jesus Christ.
flourishing church, he had occasion to write this epistle to the Ver. 4 9. I thank my God always on your behalf, &c.] It is
Corinthians. It was written a short time before he left Ephesus, observable, how the apostle endeavours to conciliate the affections
perhaps in the year of Christ fifty-seven. The apostle had left of those to whom he writes, by putting them in mind of the bene-
the church in this place, in a good condition ; but, soon after, the fits which they had received under his ministrations. Great grace
people fell into fictions, and divided themselves into sects and had been bestowed upon them, by which they had been turned
parties, which occasioned his writing to them. Ile rebukes them from idolatry and wickedness, to the knowledge and worship of
for their divisions and contentions, suggesting, that their regard the true God. And, besides, they were in every thing enriched
for the wisdom of men, and the philosophy of the Gentiles, had by Christ, in all utterance, and in all knowledge of spiritual and
brought thesimplicity of the gospel into contempt among them ; divine subjects, by the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit;
he blames them for their bearing with a certain incestuous person ; hereby the testimony of Christ was confirmed in them, so that they
and for their going to law with one another ; he resolves some became living witnesses of it to all who knew them. They came
cases of conscience ; treats of things offered to idols, and of the behind other churches in no gilt, which might render them re-
maintenance of ministers. He discourses concerning the Lord's spectable and useful. They had now glorious prospects before
supper, concerning spiritual gifts, and the excellency of charity. them, and were waiting for the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.
Ile proves at large the doctrine of the resurrection, of the truth The apostle assures them, that his grace would confirm them unto
of winch some of the Corinthians doubted. And he closes with the end of their Christian course, that they might be blameless in
some particular exhortationsolirections, and salutations, declaring the day of the Lord. He then reminds them, that God had called
that the want of' love to die Lord Jesus Christ subjects a man to them " into the fRowship of his Son Jesus Christ, that they might
a most dretaltn1 curse. participate in the blessings of his salvation, and the glorious pro-
OJAI>. I. Ver. 1-3. Paul, called to he an apostle, &c.] In the mises of his kingdom, which all had a reference to that illustrious
inscription and preface of most of his epistles, this apostle not only day of which he was speaking ; and that he who had called them,
mentions ins own name, but asserts his apostolic office ; and it was given them such great and precious promises, and elevated their
tile rather needful that he should do this in his epistle to the minds to such enlarged expectations, was faithful, and would not
Corinthians, because, through the influence of evil-minded men, disappoint them. Though the apostle afterwards intimates that he
some among them had disputed, depreciated, and denied Ins au- had doubts respecting some of' the Corinthians, yet he here ad-
thority-. And as in several other epistles he associates Timothy dresses them, as being, in the judgment of charity, what they pro-
with himself, not as joining with him in forming those epistles, but fessed to he. It is remarkable, that this holy and heavenly man,
ris entirely concurring with hint in sentiment and design ; so he out of the abundance of his heart, and the ardour of Ins affection
here mentions Sosthenes, in the same way, whose reputation at to the Redeemer, very often repeats the words, " Our Lord Jesus
Corinth stood high. But after the salutation, the apostle speaks Christ ;" yet there is no room to fear that any will he disgusted
of himself in the singular number. He addresses the believers at with the repetition, who love his name in sincerity ; for his name
Corinth, as having been sanctified, or set apart, in Christ Jesus, in to them is as ointment poured forth. It is farther observable, that,
consequence of which they were " called to be saints," or holy in these verses, the apostle, in a delicate manner, puts the Corin-
persons. With these he joined the other churches in Achaia, and thians in mind, that they had received the gifts lie mentions by
all those in every place through that whole circuit, who called Ins instrumentality, long before those teachers came among them
upon the name of Jesus Christ, or paid divine worship to him ; whom they now so much admired; consequently, that they had
who, says the apostle, is equally their Lord and ours, meaning received none of these tokens of the divine favour under their
himself and Sosthenes. This in the New Testament, is the cha- ministration. See 2 Cur. xii. 12, 13.
racter of a Christian ; he is one that calleth on the name of' the The apostle, in the next place, hastens to the great things which
Lord Jesus Christ. So Stephen called on his name, saying, he had immediately in view in this address.
L or d Jesus, receive my spirit." Ananias, addressing the Saviour Ver. 10. Now I beseech you, brethren, &c.] How tender, how
concerning Saul, said, " I Ic bath authority to bind all that call moving, how forcible are these words I " I beseech yon—bretl:ren
upon thy name."—In the third verse, the apostle offers up a —by the venerable and endearing name of the Lord Jesus Christ
prayer for the Corinthians, that grace and peace might be plenti- I beseech you to relinquish your disputes and contentions, intl
Anno Domini 57. CHAPTER T. Anno DOMilli 57.
11 For it hath been declared unto me of yon, 21 For after that in the wisdom of God the
my brethren, by them which are of the house of world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God
Chloe, that there are contentions among you. by the foolishness of preaching to save them that
12 Now this I say, that every one of you saith, I believe.
am of Paul ; and I of Apollos ; and I of Cephas ; 22 For the Jews require a sign, and the Greeks
and I of Christ. seek after wisdom :
13 Is Christ divided ? was Paul crucified for you ? 23 But we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews
or were ye baptized in the name of Paul ? stumblingblock, and unto the Greeks foolish-
.16 I thank God that I baptized none of you, but ness ;
Crispus and Gaius : 24 But unto them which are called, both Jews
15 Lest any should say that I had baptized in and Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the wi:1-
mine own name. dom of God.
16 And I baptized also the houshold of Ste- '25 Because the fbolishness of God is wiser than
phanas : besides, I know not whether I baptized men ; and the weakness of God is stronger than
any other. men.
17 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to 26 For ye see your calling, brethren, how that
preach the gospel : not with wisdom of words, lest not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty,
the cross of Christ should be made of none effect. not many noble, are called:
18 For the preaching of the cross is to them that 27 But God hath chosen the foolish things of the
perish fbolisliness ; but unto us which are saved it world to confbund the wise ; and God hatli chosen
is the power of God. the weak things of the world to confound the things
19 For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of which are mighty ;
the wise, and will bring to nothing the understand- 28 And base things of the world, and things
ing of the prudent. which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and
20 Where is the wise ? where is the scribe ? things which are not, to bring to nought things
-where is the disputer of this world ? 'lath not God that are :
made foolish the wisdom of this world ? 29 That no flesh should glory in his presence.
that ye all endeavour, as far as possible, " to speak the same mark of distinction ? I freely declare, that since there have been
thing," and not unnecessarily and unkindly contradict one ano- such unhappy divisions among you, and my name has been made
ther ; " that there may be no schisms or divisions among you," use of to such a purpose, " I thank God that I baptized none of
nor alienation of affection ; " but that ye be all perfectly joined, you myself, except Crispus and Gaius ; lest any should have the
or knit, together, in the same mind, and in the same judgment." shadow of a pretence to say, that I baptized in my own name,"
Let unnecessary controversies be laid aside, and converse together however false such an assertion might be. I recollect that I also
concerning those great and important things about which, as baptized the_houshold of Stephanas ; besides, I know not whether
Christians, you must he agreed, and which will serve to promote I baptized any other. " For Christ sent mc not so much to bap-
union and peace.—Here it may be observed, that it was morally tize, as to be employed in preaching the gospel ;" while other
impossible that they should all exactly agree in opinion, consider- ministers, who were more at leisure, were assistant to me in bap-
ing the difference in their education and capacities. The apostle tizing those who were brought to repentance.—My care has been,
could not intend that ; he does not so much as say what that one to publish the glad tidings of salvation with simplicity and plain,
opinion was, in which they should all agree. But he speaks of ness ; " not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should
that peaceful, mild, and harmonizing temper, which Christians, of be made of none effect."
different views in some thim2,-s, should maintain towards one ano- Ver. 18 29. For the preaching ("the cross, &c.] The doctrine
ther. This temper is highly ornamental to the gospel, and con- of salvation by the crucifixion of the Saviour is " to them that
ducive to the peace and comfort of society. perish foolishness." They think it unaccountably strange, that
Ver. 11 17. For it hath been declared unto me cf ,you, &c.]
- any should be pardoned and accepted of God, through one that
Some suppose, that Chloe, here mentioned, was the wife of Ste- died an ignominious death. " But to us who are saved," this
phanas, and the mother of Fortunatus and Achaicus. By these, doctrine is " the power of God," to answer the greatest and
the Corinthians had sent their letter to Paul, chap. xvi. 17. " It noblest purposes. For it is written, " I will destroy the wisdom
bath," says the apostle, " been intimated to me, that there are of the wise, and bring to nothing the understanding of the pru-
some contentions among you," which are injurious to the cause in dent," Isai. xxix. 11. I will pour contempt on the wit, learning,
which you are all embarked. I fear there are among you various and eloquence which men so much admire. As the same prophet
parties, though you are not yet come to an open separation. says, Isai. xxxiii. 18, " Where is the wise ? where the learned
Every one of you is attached to some particular teacher, in oppo- scribe ? where the disputer of this world ?" The man who has been
sition to all others. One professes himself to be of Paul's party ; most admired for accuracy of distinctions ? " Hath not God made
another, that he belongs to the eloquent Apollos ; another to the wisdom of this world to appear foolishness ?" For after that
Peter, the great apostle of the circumcision ; while others pro- the wisdom of the great Former of all things had been displayed
fess themselves the disciples of Christ alone, and so excuse their in the works of his hands, the world, by all its pretended know-
disregard of all his ministers. However respectable the names of ledge, knew not the true and living God ; but it plaased him, by
these persons might be supposed to be, the thing itself, the party that preaching which they call foolishness, " to save them that
spirit which prevailed respecting them, was altogether unreason- believe." The Jews require a sign from heaven, and the Greeks
able and indefensible. The apostle therefore asks, " Is Christ seek after the wisdom of eloquence ; " but we preach Christ cru-
divided ?" Is he not the Saviour of one as well as another ? Will cified," without regarding the demands of eita)er. This doctrine
any among you withdraw your attachment from him ? Some of is indeed " to the Jews a stuniblinghlock, and to the Greeks fool-
you profess a regard for Paul, who is now addressing you ; but ishness ; hut to those who are called by divMe grace, it is the
" was Paul crucified for you ?" Are your obligations to him in power of God, and the wisdom of God," whether they be Greeks
any degree like those which you are under to him who died on the or Jews. Because, what the world calls foolishness, or folly, in the
-cross to save your souls ? I would farther ask, " Were you bap- (economy of God, is wiser than mill the projects men can devise ;
ti:ed in the name of Paul," that you should thus put it on as a and what is deemed weakness, in the gospel system, is stronger
Ann° Domini 57. I. CORINTHIANS. Anno Domini 57.
So But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of it cannot be b.* 1>nown and received, without the light. and
God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, guidance V the fLly Spirit.
and sanctification, and redemption :
31 That, according as it is written, He that
glorietli, let him glory in the Lord.
A" .I,unto excellency of Ispeech God. wisdom,
brethren, when came to you, came
declaring you the testimony of
2 For I determined not to know any thing among
aoiration. you save Jesus Christ and him crucified.
3 And I was with you in weakness, and in fear,
He takes the men of meanest name
For sons and heirs of God ; and in much trembling.
And thus he pours abundant shame 4 And my speech and my preaching was not
On honourable blood. with enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demon-
He calls the fool, and makes him know stration of the Spirit and of power :
The myseries of his grace, 5 That your faith should not stand in the wisdom
To bring aspiring wisdom low, of men, but in the power of God.
And all its pride abase.
6 Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that
Nature has all its glories lost, are perfect : yet not the wisdom of this world, nor
When brought before his throne ;
No flesh shall in his presence boast, of the princes of this world, that conic to nought :
But in the Lord alone. 7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery,
even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before
CHAP. II. the world unto our glory :
8 Which none of the princes of this world knew
1--5 The apostle proceeds to remind the Corinthians of the
plain manner in which he preached Chrisi to them. 6 9
for had they known it, they would not have cruci-
- Yet the gospel is replete with excellent wisdom. 10-16 But fied the Lord of glory.
than all the efforts of men. That it pleases God to pour contempt phy into their discourses, had gained much applause. Many of the
on what the world highly esteems, is evident from plain facts, as Corinthians were captivated with the vain atil:etation of sublimity
to the conversion of sinners ; you see, that not many wise men and rhetoric, to which these men pretended, and which was
after the flesh are called, not many mighty, nor many of noble so common among the Greeks of that age ; but which was very
birth or blood. But God hath chosen the foolish things of the remote from that true and manly eloquence in which the apostle
world to confound the wise ; and the weak things of the world to Paul excelled. He here tells them, " he came not with excellency
confound the things which are mighty. Those who are scornfully of speech or of wisdom ;" with pompous language, or with the
set at nought among men, who are overlooked, and held in con- boasted charms of worldly wisdom ; but he came simply to declare
tempt, hath God chosen, that he may bring to nought the pride, the testimony of God, for which he produced authentic evidence.
haughtiness, and arrogance of men. This he bath done in his infi- " For," says he, " I determined to know nothing among you," to
nite wisdom, " that no flesh should glory in his presence. But of appear to know, or attempt to make known, " nothing among
him ye are, in Christ Jesus," made partakers of his grace, and you, save Jesus Christ and him crucified." This was the main
heirs of his kingdom of glory. thing 1 resolved to insist upon, as well knowing that all the most
Ver. 30, &c. Who (2f God is made unto us, &c.] Wisdom, to en- important doctrines of the gospel stand in a close and natural con-
lighten our ignorant minds ; righteousness, to justify our guilty nexion with this. I determined so to hold tbrth this great truth,
persons ; sanctification, to renew our depraved natures; and re- as if I knew nothing of Jewish or Grecian learning. Ye are my
demption, to rescue us from all evil, and render us, both in body witnesses, that Christ and his cross was my favourite theme, with
and soul, perfectly and eternally happy.—Let it be remarked, how those things which relate to the redemption and salvation of sin-
carefully the apostle set aside all merit, and all sufficiency, in man. ners through his blood.
He represents the whole of our salvation, both in the procurement Ver. 3-6. And I was with you in weakness, Rec.] I proceeded
and the application, as the work of God. Christ is, and not we in my work with diffidence, humility, and modesty ; being deeply
ourselves, the Author of this glorious restoration, the Cause of this sensible of my own insufficiency, and aware of the prejudices and
great felicity. He is made all this unto us ; how ? not by our own opposition which I had to encounter. I was at some times also
resolution and strength, but of God ; by the agency of his mighty oppressed with fear, even to trembling ; lest any infirmity of mine
power, and blessed 3pirit. He shows us the all-sufficient fulness should prevent my success, or disgrace the doctrine for which I
of Christ. He brings us, by ardent longings, to him. He implants pleaded. For I knew that I had enemies about me on every side,
us into Christ, and makes us partakers of his saving benefits. whose opposition to the gospel was very powerful. But my speech
Christ is made unto us righteousness and sanctification ; the in private, and my preaching in public, were not with enticing
former imputed, the latter inherent. This preserves a distinction words of man's wisdom ;" or with that sophistry and eloquence
between the noble articles, and assigns to each a great share in which the men of this world so greatly admire. On the other
the mconomy of salvation. To say, that if one of the blessings is hand, my preaching was in the demonstration of the Holy Spirit
communicated by way of imputation, the other should be commu- and of power ; for the mighty energy of the Spirit accompanied my
nicated in the same manner, seems to be cavilling rather than ar- ministry, and confirmed, by miracles, the testimony which I bore ;
guing because the subjects are or a different nature, and there-
" that your faith should not stand in the wisdom," the wit, the
ihre must eTeourse be enjoyed in it different wan.—The cocoa tree reason, or address " of men, but in the power of God." Yet
furni:;lies, to the An food in one way, clothing- in another, " we speak wisdom ;" that which may be truly called so, " among
and domestic utensils in a third. We cannot suppose it adminis- those who are perfect," or farther advanced in Christian know-
tering to all these uses in one and the same unvaried method. If ledge and experience ; " yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of
so mean a comparison may be admitted, to illustrate a subject of the rulers of this world, which shall come to nought :" not that
infinitely greater importance, it is thus in the present case.—On wisdom which is sought and admired by the great politicians of
the whole, it appears that God's method of snxing sinners exactly the nee; " but we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even
corresponds with that which is written, " He that glorieth, let the InJden wisdom which God ordained before the world unto our
Phi glory lii the Lord," Jer. ix. 23, 21. Isai. Ix v. 16. glory."
H. Ver. I, 2. And I, brethren, when I came to you, &c.] Ver. 7-13. But we speak the wisdom of God, &c.] Our appre-
The new teachers at Corinth, by introducing the Grecian philoso- hensions of heavenly things are so obscure; and our ideas of divine-
Anno Domini 57. CHAPTER HI. Anno Domini 57,
9 But as it is written, Eye bath not seen, nor aspiration.] HAPPY Is the man whose heart is divinely
ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of determined to know nothing, save Jesus Christ, and him cruci-
fied. May we esteem this the most important of all know-
man, the things which God hath prepared for them ledge ; and, according to our capacity and ability, may we
that love him. endeavour to promote it in others. How would we lament
10 But God hath revealed them unto us by his over those who can relish nothing hut what relates to a sen-
Spirit : for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the sual life, and who understand not the things of the Spirit of
deep things of God. God ! May almighty grace illuminate and renew their souls, and
it For what man knoweth the things of a man, lead them, and every one of us, into the knowledge of those
things which relate to the soul's everlasting welfare. Amen.
save the spirit of man which is in him ? even so
the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit CHAP. III.
of God. 1-4 The apostle reproves the Corinthians for their carnality,
12 Now we_ have received, not the spirit of which appeared by their contentions. 5-9 He shows that
the world, but the spirit which is of God ; that we the true ministers of Christ can do nothing without him; and
might know the things that are freely given to us of that they are nothing but what he makes them to be. 10-15
He had laid the foundation, but every one should take care
God. how and what he built upon it. 16, 17 He shews that the
13 Which things also we speak, not in the words church of Christ should Le kept pure, as the temple of God.
which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy 18-23 That every one might to have a humble opinion of
Ghost teacheth ; comparing spiritual things with himself, and not to glory in .men ; because, throngh Christ,
spiritual. ministers, and all thins, are given to the church.
14 But the natural man received] not the things
of the Spirit of God : for they are foolishness unto
him : neither can he know them, because they are
brethren, could not speak as
AND I,spiritual, but as unto carnal, unto youunto
babes in Christ.
spiritually discerned. 2 I have fed you with milk, and not with meat :
15 But he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither yet
he himself is judged of no man. now are ye able.
16 For who bath known the mind of the Lord, 3 For ye are yet carnal : for whereas there is
that he may instruct him ? But we have the mind among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye
of Christ. not carnal, and walk as men ?
love so scanty, that we may fancy that to be absurd, which is only so as to be influenced by the carnal views by which the men of
great, wonderful, and incomprehensible. It will be impossible the world are governed ; but we have received " the Spirit which
for all the sagacity of the world to prove the doctrine of redemp- is of God; that we might know the things which are freely
tion by the blood of Christ an absurdity, though it should ever given to us of God." These things we also speak, and commu-
remain an inexplicable mystery. Its incomprehensible nature is nicate to others, " not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth,
no objection to its truth and reality. This is rather a circumstance but which the Holy Ghost teacheth," which are best adapted to
which perfectly agrees with the testimony of the inspired writers, enlighten the minds, and to impress the hearts and consciences of
and affords an unanswerable argument for the divine origin of men ; " comparing spiritual things with spiritual," or one part of
Christianity. The sacred writers call it God's wisdom, by way of divine revelation with another.
supereminent distinction, and his wisdom in a mystery, even his Ver. 14, &c. But the natural man receiveth not, &c.] The na-
" hidden wisdom ;" that which could not possibly have been con- tural man is to be understood of one who is still in a state of' sin
ceived by any finite mind, however large or capacious. It was in- and carnality, in opposition to a regenerate man, or one who has
finitely too deep for the contrivance of men, and absolutely undis- not the Spirit of God. However sagacious and learned such a man
coverable by the penetration of angels. How then could it be may be, without spiritual illumination, " he receiveth not the
known, but by manifestation from above ? Whence could it take things of the Spirit of God. They are even foolishness unto him ;"
its rise, but from an especial revelation ? This is that " wisdom they are too sublime for his corrupted and degenerate taste. The
which God ordained " in the secret of his own infinite mind, "be- more full they are of the depths of divine wisdom, the more he
fore the world, unto our glory ;" that is, for the great purposes of accounts them foolishness. " Neither can he rightly and experi-
our final salvation. This wisdom " none of the princes of this mentally know them, while he continues in his carnal state; be-
world knew;" they had no idea out; "for if they had known it, cause they are spiritually discerned ;" or only understood in their
they would not have crucified" him who is in truth " the Lord of nature and glory by him who is enlightened by the Spirit of God.
glory ;" they would not have dared thus to treat the Son of God, " But he that is spiritual," renewed by the divine Spirit, and no
the promised Messiah. They were ignorant of his character and longer in the state or nature and sin ; such a one " judgeth all
dignity. " But as it is written," isai. lxiv. 4, " Eye bath not things" necessary to be known, relating to the way of salvation by
seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, Jesus Christ; and he feels a transforming power in them. He has a
what glorious things God hath prepared for them that love him." right discernment of all things necessary to his final safety. "Yet
Nor had the generality of mankind, nor even the people who en- be himself is judged of no man." That is, he is not clearly and
joyed the benefit of the scriptures, any just conception of the fully known ; according to what the apostle John saith, " The
plan of salvation, nor of the method by which it was to be accom- world knoweth us not, because it knew him not." After all, there.
plished. " But God bath revealed them unto us" the apostles, must undoubtedly- be in the divine counsels many things beyond
and our fellow-christians, " by his Holy Spirit ;" at least, in some our comprehension. Who hath known the mind of God, that he
measure and degree. ".For the Spirit searcheth all things, even might instruct him, or take upon him to judge of the propriety of
the deep things of God," the mysteries of his gospel, and of his his purposes, or his proceedings ? But Paul could say of' himself
counsels, Rom. xvi. 25. Eph. i. 9, and iii. 3, 5, 7. For who of and of his fellow-apostles, " We have the mind of Christ," that wcs
mankind knoweth the things of a man," the deep recesses of his might make it known unto others, by our ministrations.
mind, " but the spirit of a man which is in him ?" So also, no one CHAP. M. Ver. 1-9. And I, brethren, could not speak unto ,you,
knoweth the things of God, but the Spirit of God, who can conceal &c.] Those who are renewed to a spiritual life, through divine
or discover what he pleases. This may serve to illustrate what I grace, may yet be defective in many thing,s. While Paul was with
an asserting ; " for we have received, not the spirit of the world," the Corinthians, especially in the beginning, be could not,spealt
Anno Domini 57. 1. CORINTHIANS: Anno Domini 57,
4 For while one saith, I am of Paul ; and ano- unto me, as tt wise Masterbuilder, I have laid the
ther, I am of Apollos ; are ye not carnal ? foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let
5 Who then is Paul, and who is Apollos, but every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.
ministers by whom ye believed, even as the Lord 11 For other foundation can no man lay than
gave to every man ? that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.
6 I have planted, Apollos watered ; but God gave 12 Now if any man build upon this foundation
the increase. gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble ;
7 So then neither is he that planteth any thing, 13 Every man's work shall be made manifest :
neither he that watered' ; but God that giveth the for the day shall declare it, because it shall be re-
increase. vealed by fire ; and the fire shall try every man's
8 Now he that planted' and he that watered' are work of what sort it is.
one : and every man shall receive his own reward 14 If any man's work abide which be bath built
according to his own labour. thereupon, he shall receive a reward.
9 For we are labourers together with God : ye 15 If any man's work shall be burned, be shall
are God's husbandry, ye are God's building. suffer loss : but he himself shall be saved ; yet so as
10 According to the grace of God which is given by fire.
unto them as unto spiritual men, grown and advanced in know- be brought forth to his glory. Or, to use another similitude, " ye
ledge, grace, and holiness ; but as unto men comparatively carnal, are God's building," wholly erected by him; in the raising of
full of weakness and imperfection, " even as unto babes in which he is pleased to employ us as labourers.
Christ." Though they had been plenteously enriched with spiri- Ver. 10-15. According to the grace 9f God, &c.) When ye were
tual gifts, the apostle had observed these things in their disposition entire strangers to the first principles of religion, I was made the
and conduct, which made it necessary for him to treat them as instrument of instructing you in the way of life. " According to
babes in Christ, far from maturity of judgment and experience, the grace of' God which was given unto me," to which I am in-
and prone to give way to carnal passions. He did not think it ex- debted for every thing, I was enabled to act in the character of
pedient to enter into the deep and sublime doctrines of religion " a wise master-builder ;" and, as such, I have carefully endea-
among these young converts, though he thought well of them in voured to lay that solid foundation, which bath strength enough to
general. Ile fed them with milk, as the nurse feeds the infant, hear the weight of the everlasting hopes and interests of mcn. On
and not with strong meat, which they were not able to digest ; this foundation another man buildeth ; " but let every one take
" neither," says he, "yet now are ye able," as I perceive by the the utmost care how he buildetb thereupon," and what kind of a
account I hear of your present state. For it appears that ye are superstructure he attempts to raise. As to the foundation itself, no-
yet carnal, or under the influence of weak, and even sinful, preju- thing can possibly be substituted in the room of' it. For, whatever
dices. " For whereas there is among you envying, and strife, and attempts are made in this way, " other foundation " for hope, for
divisions, are ye not indeed carnal ?" And do ye not walk too pardon, for peace, and salvation, " can no man lay, than that is
much like those men who are destitute of religion, and not as laid, which is Jesus Christ." This foundation is laid of God in
Christian brethren ought to do ? By this behaviour, a stranger Zion, elect, precious, safe, and sure ; it is every way capable of
would not know that you are the real servants and followers of bearing the weight, the whole weight of' the church, and of every
Christ ; or see any thing in you above uninstructed and unsanctified individual who rests upon it. " Now if any man," ill a ministerial
nature. For when you eagerly contend about the honours of this way, " build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones ;"
or that preacher, and endeavour to set him up as the head of a or, on the contrary, contemptible materials, such as " wood, hay,
party, does not this savour of carnality more than any thing else ? or stubble ; every man's work shall be made manifest : for the day "
While cue says, " I am for Paul ;and another, I am for Apollos ;" of trial " shall declare it.—The meaning of this seems to be, that
I admire the fine sentiments of the one, and the nervous language some, who preach the doctrine of salvation by thith in Jesus Christ,
anti address of the other ; " are ye not carnal ?" Who, I beseech go on to instruct believers from the word of God, in all the pre-
you, is Paul ? end who is Apollos ? Do you not admire them cious truths of the gospel ; they lay before them the duties they
merely for their natural talents ? Ought ye not rather to respect ought to perform, and the obligations they lie under, and teach
them as the ministers of Christ, who were the instruments of bring- them to prove the truth of their faith hy humble, holy, active obe-
ing you to the knowledge of his name, and to believe in him, dience. These build with valuable materials, gold, silver, and
" even as the Lord gave to every man," both his abilities, and his precious stones, which will stand the fiery trial. Others try to
success ? Through his abundant mercy, I have planted a spiritual carry on the building with base materials ; such as unscriptural
phmtation at Corinth, where there was nothing of the kind before; doctrines, human inventions, superstitious ceremonies, and philo-
since that time, Apollos has watered the young plants, by Ids sophical speculations, comparable to wood, hay, and stubble.
a (Meting and useful labours, Acts xviii.27. No labourer can make his These base materials weaken the building ; they are disgraceful to
plants gru ,,v without the influences of heaven, the shining of the it, and will never stand the appointed trial. For the decisive day
.uin, and the refreshing showers of rain. So " that he that planteth will be " revealed by fire ; and the tire shall try every roan's work
;s nothing, and he that watereth is nothing; hut God is all in all, of what sort it is." It shall stand a severe examination ; and that
who by his efficacious Spirit and grace giveth the increase. Besides, awful day will expose the vanity of many things, on account of
it is altogether foolish and unreasonable to set up one instrument in which some builders value themselves, and for which they are ad-
opposition to another, when both are united in affection, in interest, mired by others. The burning flame will consume the wood, the
and. in aim and design. For in all these respects, "lie that planteth hay, and the stubble. " But if any man's work abide. tiretest, he
ami he that waterah are one." Our great and uniform design is, shall receive a reward" from Christ, the Proprietor of tile build-,
to please God, and to profit and save the souls of men. Why then do ing. If, on the other band, " any man's work be burned up, he
set up the one, in order to depress the other ? " Every man shall sutler loss ;" the loss of all his labour, and of the time he has
lidl receive his own reward according to his own labour," and spent in unprofitable speculations, to the neglect of vital religion.
net according to the weak partiality of Ids fellow-creatures. We Yet if he be, upon the whole, a good man, and one who bath in
have no opposite or independent schemes of our own to carry on ; reality built upon Christ, the sure foundation, though his wood,
.C..r be such a thought from our hearts. " We are labourers toge- hay, and stubble be destroyed, "he himself shall be saved ; yet so,
oiler with God ;" my meaning is, we are the fellow-labourers of as by fire :" like a man whose house is in flames while he is in it,
(;(;d, who is the great Master of the vineyard in winch we labour. who escapes with difficulty, and with the loss of all his goods,
" Y e are God's husbandry," his field, or his vineyard ; which, and the fruit of all his labour; yea, the loss of every thing, ex...
aeLording to ids appointment, we arc to cultivate, that fruit nray ceptinz his own life.—This view of' things should excite every.
iinno Domini .57. CHAPTER IV. Anne Domini 57,.
16 Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, apostle contrasts their vain glory with, his own afflicted state,
and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you ? and lowly conduct. 14-16 He claims their regard as their
,spiritual father. 17-21 He had manifested his regard-
17 If any man defile the temple of God, him for them, in sending Timothy unto them and he intended to
hall God destroy ; fOr the temple of God is holy, visit them himself.
which temple ye are.
18 Let no man deceive himself. If any man .ET a man so account of us, as of the minis--
among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let 4 ters of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of
Min become a fool, that he may be wise. God.
19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness 2 Moreover it is required in stewards, that a man
with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise be found faithful.
in their own craftiness. 3 But with me it is a very small thing that I
20 And again, The Lord knoweth the thoughts should be judged of yon, or of man's judgment :
of the wise, that they are vain. yea, I judge not mine own self.
21 Therefore let no man glory in men. For 4 For I know nothing by myself; yet am I not
all things are your's ; hereby justified : but he that judgeth me is the
22 Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the Lord.
world, or life, or death, or things present, or things 5 Therefore judge nothing before the time, until
to come ; all are your's ; the Lord come, who both will bring to light the
23 And ye are Christ's ; and Christ is God's. hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest
the counsels of the hearts : and then shall every
man have praise of God.
aspiration. 6 And these things, brethren, I have in a figure
When shall our feet arise, and stand
On heaven's eternal hills ? transferred to myself and to Apollos for your sakes ;
There sits the Son at God's right hand, that ye might learn in us not to think of men above
And there the Father smiles. that which is written, that no one of you be puffed
up for one against another.
CHAP. IV. 7 For who maketh thee to differ from another
t-5 Ministers should be accounted of as the servants of and what hast thou that thou didst not receive ?
Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God, to whom
they are accountalle. 6, 7 The Corinthians are exhorted now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory,
not to be puffed up for one against another. 8-13 The as if thou hadst not received it ?
workman to take heed how he buildeth on the foundation, and what be named, they, with their several abilities, and their arduous
,sort of materials he employs. labours, are for your benefit and salvation. Your patrimony is very
Ver. 16 - 20. Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, &c.] large ; for " the world," and every thing in it, belongs to you, as
We have mentioned some injudicious workmen, whose labour will far as it will do you good. " Life," with all its comforts, is en-
be lost ; yet they themselves shall be saved, though with great ha- sured to you, till its business be completed. " Death," at the ap-
zard and danger; but there are others, whose condition will be pointed hour, will come to you, not as an enemy, but as a friend,
deplorable. The church is the temple of God, in which he dwells to deliver you from all sin and sorrow, and to conduct you to the
by his Holy Spirit. Now if any man defile, or profane, this temple, regions of peace and felicity. In a word, " things present" are
by impure and corrupt doctrine, and a loose and licentious exam- yours, and " all the great things which God has promised in the
ple, whereby many are defiled ; he will, in the issue of things, be world to come." And do not forget, that " ye are Christ's, and
exposed to the divine indignation, and " him shall God destroy," that Christ is God's."
as a wicked and ungodly person. Thus the Jews polluted the CHAP. IV. Ver. 1 7. Let a 7nan so account of us,as of the ministers,
temple of God by their crimes, and were given up into the hands Sec.] Though I have before observed, that ministers in themselves
of their enemies to be destroyed. Two terms are used in the are nothing, yet they are not to be trampled upon, nor treated
English translation, defile, and destroy ; but, in the original, the with contempt ; for they are the ministers or servants of Christ,
word is the same in both places. Let not this admonition be employed by him, and for him, " and stewards of the mysteries of
despised, especially as coming from God. " Let no man deceive God," put in trust with the treasure of the gospel ; and, as such,
timself" through pride and self-conceit. "If any man among they are entitled to esteem and respect, on account of their office.
you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that " Moreover it is required in stewards, that a man be found faith-
be may be wise." Let him became sensible of his own natural ful." A minister should uprightly and thithfully seek the glory
ignorance, blindness, and folly, as the first step towards his being of God, and the welfare of the souls of men. lie should impar-
made wise unto salvation. If he desire to approve himself really tially dispense the truths of God, vcithout respect of persons, or
and substantially wise, let him renounce all confidence in himself, regard to his own interest, honour, ease, or indulgence. Now, my
and embrace that gospel, the preaching of which is counted fool- highest aim is, that my Lord and Master may judge me faithful,
ishness by the world. And let it be remembered, that the boasted whether men be pleased or di.spleased with my conduct. " With
wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, me it is a very small thing that I should be judged of you, or of
" Ile taketh the wise in their own craftiness." And again, " The any man's judgment." Nor indeed do I so judge mine own
Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain," Job self," as if my ease Nye re finally to be cl.terinined by my own con-
v. 13. Psalm xciv. 11. He knows that their reasonings and ima- clusions concerning it. For though "I know nothing by myself,"
ginations are foolish and worthless. as to any unfaithfulness in my trust, " yet am I not hereby justi-
Ver. 21, &c. Therefore let no man glory in men, &c.] Let none fied;" because we are M1 apt to look with a partial eye on our
pride themselves in the superior wisdom and abilities of their own failings. " But he that judgeth me is the Lord," by whose
leaders. It is a vain and foolish thing to do so. For, in fact, " all judgment I must stand or Mil. " Therefore judge nothing 'before
things are yours," and ministers in particular are so ; not your the time ;" that is, " until the Lord come, who both will bring to
lords and leaders, to be set up as the heads of perties ; hut your light the hidden things of darkness, and make manifest the secret
servants for Jesus's sake. " Whether Paul, or Apollo, or (. - ephas," counsels of the heart 6" of all,mem And then shall every faittad
Alm Domini 57. I. CORINTHIANS. Anno Domini 57,
8 Now ye are full, now ye are rich, ye have 17 For this cause have I sent unto you Timo-
reigned as kings without us : and I would to God diens, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the
ye did reign, that we also might reign with you. Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my
9 For I think that God bath set forth us the ways which be in Christ, as I teach every where
apostles last, as it were appointed to death : for we in every church.
are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, 18 NOW some are puffed up, as though I would
and to men. not come to you.
10 We are fools for Christ's sake, but ye are wise I 9 But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord
in Christ ; we arc weak, but ye are strong ; ye are will, and will know, not the speech of them which
honourable, but we arc despised. are puffed up, but the power.
11 Even unto this present hour we both hunger, 20 For the kingdom of God is not in word, but
and thirst, and are naked, and are buffeted, and in power.
have no certain dwellingplace ; 21 What will ye ? shall I come unto you with a
19 And labour, working with our own hands : rod, or in love, and in tile spirit of meekness ?
being reviled, we bless ; being persecuted, we suf-
fer it :
13 Being defamed, we intreat : we are made as
ZOiration.] WE see, 0 Lord, that we cannot judge of thy
the filth of the earth, and are the offscouring of all favour by outward circumstances. We learn here, that some of
things unto this day. thy most faithful servants have, amidst their arduous labours to
14 I write not these things to shame you, but as promote thy cause, been exercised with the severest trials. They
my beloved sons I warn you. were sometimes hungry and thirsty, destitute of decent clothing,
and without any certain habitation. Yet they were in a happy
15 For though ye have ten thousand instrueters state, as being interested in thy favour and friendship, and
in Christ, yet have ye not many fathers : for in living in the cheerful hope of a glorious crown of righteous-
Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the gospel. ness, when their sufferings should conic to an end. May
16 Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers of these considerations operate powerfully on all our minds !
and upright man " have praise from God." I have, by a figure, and outward distress; even to hunger, and thirst, and almost to
my brethren, " transferred these things to myself and to Apollos," nakedness, not having decent raiinein to put on. We are some-
mentioning our names, and that of Cephas, because there is an times insulted and buffeted by infuriated mobs; and, in general,
entire friendship among us. I have done this " for your sakes ; have " no certain dwellingplace." We often " labour, working
that ye might learn" from us, not to think of those, whom you are with our own hands," in order to procure the common necessaries
most ready to admire, above what I have here written ; nor, in of life. " Being reviled, we bless" and pray for our bitterest
general, above what the scripture warrants. We utterly renounce, enemies ; " being persecuted, we suffer it" patiently; " being de-
as you see, all claims to undue applause. Let me ask that man, famed, we only mtreat " that men would regard their own best
whoever he is, that has the highest opinion of himself and his own and immortal interests. " We are made as the filth of the
attainments, " Who maketh thee to differ from another ? and what world," like wretches taken from the very dregs of the people; or
'bast thou which thou didst not receive" from the Author of all good? like the refuse of all things, the sweepings of the streets, fit for no-
And if thou bast received from him whatever distinguishes thee from , thing but to be trampled upon by the vilest of the human race.
other men, why dost thou pride thyself in it, and glory in it, " as ; And this is the case even unto this day. But do not mistake me ;
if thou hadst not received it ;" or as if it were originally thy own ? " I write not these things to shame you," as if you were regard-
These are humbling and mortifying thoughts; but I fear you are less of our sufferings; " but as my beloved sons I warn you," lest
not prepared to receive them. you should be carried away with those insinuating teachers who
Ver. 8, &c. Now ye are full, now ye are rich, &c.] You have, as have introduced themselves among you. " For if you have ten
you suppose, such eloquent and refined teachers among you, and thousand instructors in Christ, yet have you not many spiritual
are so pleased and satisfied with them, that you think yourselves fathers ; for in Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the
rich and happy ; you seem to reign as kings without us, your gospel ;" it was first preached among you by me, and God made
former ministers, who were constantly teaching you lessons of me the happy instrument of your spiritual birth. And as ye are
humility. You have been favoured with abundance of spiritual my children, I ant tenderly solicitous for your welfare, and have
gifts ; and you think highly of yourselves, when you compare your- a right to your respectful obedience. " Wherefore 1 beseech you,
selves with other churches. But I fear there is much delusion in be ye followers of me ;" adhere to the truths which I have taught
this. " I wish you did reign," or that you were in reality as you, and imitate my example. Being unable at this time to come
prosperom, as honourable, and as happy, as you think yourselves unto you myself, " I have sent unto you Timothy my beloved son,
to be. This would be matter of rejoicing to me, and to my fellow- who is faithful in the Lord," and an excellent young man, who
labourers. For, to speak my mind freely, " I think that God hath will be able more perfectly " to bring to your remembrance my
set forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to death ;" like ways in Christ, as I teach every where, in every church " where
those comiernned persons who are brought forth last in the public providence directs me to go. I do indeed hear, that some of
shows, to be exposed to wild beasts till they are slain, in the pre- the oew teachers, and their adherents among you, are puffed up
sence of the spectators. We are distinguished by a larger share with their imaginary importance ; and give it ont that I dare not
of hardships and sufferings than other men. We are made a come among you, or intermeddle in your affrs. But be assured,
spectacle to the whole world, both of men and angels. We are " that I purpose to come to you shortly, if the Lord will," who
frequently treatcd as fbols, babblers, and madmen, for the sake of governs all things according to his sovereign pleasure. When I
Christ, Acts xvii. 18, and xxvi. 24. But ye think yourselves, to come, I will examine, not the confident speech of those that are
a high dree, wise in the Christian system. " We are weak " puffed up, but what power and authority they have in the church,
through iutirmities and sufferings; " but ye are strong" in confi- as opposed to mine. " For the kingdom of God is not in word,
dence anti boldness ; " ye are honourable " in your own esteem, but in power." What then is your desire ? " Shall I conic unto you
and as flattered by your teachers ; " but we are despised," and with a rod " of correction in my band ? or, which I should rather
treated with contempt by many, in all places wherever we come. choose, :Thall I come unto you in love, and in the spirit of meekness,
" For even to this present hour," we are often exposed to want that I may ;Administer comfort to you, instead of sharp rebukes ?
Anna Domini 57. CHAPTER V. Ann° 1)on2ini 57.
CHAP. V. may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For
1 5 The Corinthians are sharply reprovedfor protecting a per-
even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us :
son guilty of incest; and, by the authority of Christ, the apostle 8 Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old
orders his exclusion. 6 8 He skews that the leaven of sin
- leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wick-
must be purged out, in order that the true passover might be edness; but with the unleavened bread of since-
kept. 9-13 And that scandalous professors of religion must rity and truth.
9 I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company
is reported commonly that there
I Tamongnamed among fornicationisasfornication
you, and such is not so
the Gentiles, that one
with fornicators :
10 Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this
world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, - or
should have his father's wife. with idolaters ; for then must ye needs go out of
2 And ye are puffed up, and have not rather the world.
mourned, that he that hath done this deed might 1 t But now I have written unto you not to
be taken away from among you. keep company, if any man that is called a brother
3 For I verily, as absent in body, but present in be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a
spirit, have judged already, as though I were pre- railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner ; with such
sent, concerning him that bath so done this deed, an one no not to eat.
4 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when 12 For what have I to do to judge them also
ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the that are without ? do not ye judge them that are
power of our Lord Jesus Christ, within ?
5 To deliver such an one unto Satan for the 13 But them that are without God judgeth.
destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be Therefore put away from among yourselves that
saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. wicked person.
6 Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that
a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump ?
7 Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye ZEipiration.] How lamentable is it to reflect on the vices
CHAP. V. Ver. 1 - 6. It is reported commonly that there is for- by a most artful digression, to his darling topic, a crucified Sa-
nication, tic.] A member of the society was guilty of incest with viour. Who would have expected it on such an occasion ? Yet,
his mother-in-law, probably while his father was yet alive, 2 Cor. when thus admitted, who does not see and admire, both the pro-
vii. 12. This flagrant crime was connived at by the Corinthians ; priety of the subject, and the delicacy of its introduction ? Christ
yet it was an offence which the most licem ions among the Gentiles the true passover has been sacrificed for us, to atone for our sins,
never named without indignation and abhorrence. This man and to be the food of our souls. " Let us then keep the sacred
seems to have habitually cohabited with his father's wife. Yet feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice ad
the Corinthians were so puffed up with pride, and a high conceit wickedness ; but with the unleavened bread ofsincerity and truth."
of their gills and attainments, that they overlooked this scandalous This is not to be confined to the ordinance of the Lord's supper,
proceeding. They ought rather to have mourned, and imme- but may be understood or the habitual feast of communion with
diately to have excluded the guilty person from among them. God, by faith in Christ. Sincerity and purity are requisite to
" For I verily, as absent in body, but present in spirit, have judged" both.
and determined, " as though I were present," that the sentence Ver.9, Sze. I wrote unto you in an epistle, &c.] It is not necessary
of exclusion must be passed upon this criminal without delay. to suppose, that all the letters, any more than all the sermons, of
That is, when ye are all assembled together, in the name of our the apostle Paul must have been preserved as a part of the sacred
Lord Jesus Christ, my spirit being present with you, according to canon of scripture. He here refers to a letter which he had writ-
tile efficacious power of the Redeemer, that " this man be deli- ten to the Corinthians, some time before, warning them not to asso-
vered to Satan for the destruction of the flesh," with a view that ciate with fornicators, as Corinth was a very licentious place, and
his soul " may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus." It may particularly notorious for lewdness. But, says he, I did not entirely
here be observed, that the recovery and salvation of the offender intend to forbid all converse with the lewd people of this world, or
is the object to be aimed at, and this object was happily effected with covetous men, or extortioners, or idolaters ; for persons
in the present case, as appears afterwards. The delivering of addicted to these vices are so generally found among mankind iii
such a one unto Satan must be understood of an act peculiarly this degenerate state, that " then you must needs go out of the
apostolical. No man, nor set of men, since the ceasing of the world," and seek some solitary hermitage in a wilderness ; which ,
extraordinary gifts of the Spirit, can have power to do this. Per- therligonfJsudtreqi.BhnofwatI
haps the man's body might be greatly tortured and afflicted for a then said, and of what I now write unto you is, " that if
while, to bring him to i sense of his sin, to repentance respecting any man called a Christian brother be known to be a lewd per-
it, and an entire forsaking of it. The expression of " delivering to son, or a covetous man, or an idolater, or a railer, who
Satan," denotes the extraordinary power which the apostles had injures absent persons by slanderous reports, or a drunkard,
in those days, in inflicting temporal chastisement, as well as in or an extortioner, you should not converse too familiarly with
delivering men froin such chastisement. " Your glorying" in him, nor so much as frequent his table, and eat with him by choice,
your supposed prosperity " is not good." Know ye not, " that in common life, much less in the sacred ordinance of the Lord's
a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump." The leaven of sin, in supper. For what have I to do, as an apostle, to judge them
a church, if not taken notice of, will diffuse itself through the that are without, and make no sort of pretensions to religion ? Of
whole community. " Purge out therefore the old leaven," by others I may speak more freely. And do not even you, in your
proper discipline, " that ye may be a new lump." private capacity, judge those who are, by profession, within what
Ver. 7, 8. Chri6t our passover, &c.] Let the reader observe may be called the pale of the church ? But those that are without
the exquisite skill which here and every where conducts the zeal God judgeth, and will, sooner or later, testify his displeasure
of the apostle. The Odes of Pindar are celebrated for their fine against them for their crimes. In conclusion, therefore, let it be
transitions, which, though bold and surprising, nre perfectly your immediate care, for the honour of God, the credit of his
natural. We have, in this place, a masterly stroke of the same cause, and the welfare or your community, to " put away from
kind.—The apostle, speaking of 1,he incestuous criminal, passes, among you that wicked person" whom I have mentioned,
..-inno Domini 57. 1. CORINTHIANS. 4411,20 Domini 57.
Which prevail among mankind. But it is most awful to think, 7 Now therefore there is utterly a fault among
that any one who is called a Christian brother should be you, because ye go to law one with another. Why
found guilty of such evil practices as are here mentioned. May
Cod preserve us from all such detestable crimes ; and may the
do ye not rather take wrong ? why do ye not rather
societies of his people be stirred up to a proper discharge of holy 646- yourselves to be defrauded ?
discipline, so as to put away from among themselves every one, 8 Nay, ye do wrong, and defraud, and that your
who, by his disorderly conduct, proves the wickedness of his brethren.
heart, and the insincerity of his profession. 9 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not
inherit the kingdom of God ? Be not deceived :
CHAP. -VI. neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers,
—s 77w cautions the Corinthians against going to law
one with another, in heathen courts. 9 11 He ?nentions
nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with
.5everut ,.!;1"OSS 5i125, WhiCh, U men lived and died in them, mankind,
would exclude them from the kingdom cf God. 12 20 He
- 10 Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards,
particularly caution.> against all impure practices. nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the
ARE any of you, having a matter against kingdom of God.
another, go to law before the unjust, and not 11 And such were some of you : but ye are
before the saints ? washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified
2 Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of
world ? and if the world shall be judged by you, are our God.
ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters ? 12 All things are lawful unto me, but all things
:3 Know ye not that we shall judge angels ? how are not expedient : all things are lawful for me,
anuch more things that pertain to this life ? but I will not be brought under the power of
4, If then ye have judgments of things pertaining any.
to this life, set them to judge who are least esteemed 13 Meats for the belly, and the belly for meats :
in the church. but God shall destroy both it and them. Now the
5 I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is body is not for fornication, but for the Lord ;
not a wise man among you ? no, not one that shall and the Lord for the body.
he able to judge between his brethren ? 14 And God hath both raised up the Lord, and
6 But brother goeth to law with brother, and will also raise up us by his own power.
that before the unbelievers. 15 Know ye not that your bodies are the mem-
CHAP. VI. Ver. 1 S. Dare any of you, having a matter against
— the common cause of religion, and wound the hearts of the sincere
*nother, &e.] If any dispute arise among you about civil afairs, and upright among you.
dare not to bring the matter before heathen magistrates, who lie Ver. 9, 10. Know ,ye not that the unrighteous, &c.] The ex-
under so many imputations of being unjust in their decisions. Let pression, " Know ye not ?" occurs six times in this chapter, 'and
your disputes be decided by those who sustain the character of that with peculiar force, as being addressed to those who thought
saints, or Christians. Do ye not know, that such holy men "shall highly of themselves in respect of their knowledge. Know ye not,
judge the world," or be assessors with Christ, in the solemn day that, whatever be a man's profession of religion, if' he be an unjust
of accounts ? Matt. xix. 28. " And if the world is to be judged or unrighteous man, habitually so, " he shall not inherit the king-
by you are ye incapable, or unworthy, of being judges in the dom of God." I beseech you, suffer not yourselves to be deceived ;
trifling differences which may occ ur in your secular glint's? Ye ought for you will certainly find, that persons who live in the vices and
to know, that, by the appointment of God, we shall judge even iniquities which I am about to mention, will be excluded from
the fallen angels themselves. " How much more then should we heaven at last, nor ought they to have any place in the church
be able to judge in things pertaining to this life ?" Men, even of upon earth. Neither " fornicators," single persons, who unlaw-
inferior abilities among you, and who are " least esteemed in the fully cohabit together ; nor " the worshippers of images, or false
church," should be able to decide in the trifling differences which gods ;" nor such " as defile the marriage bed by adultery ;" nor
may arise among you. At present, you act in such a manner as " the effeminate," who live in luxury, indolence, and sensual
is disgraceful to the Christian cause. " I speak to your shame. pleasure ; nor those who are guilty of the detestable crime for
Is it so, that there is not a wise man among you ?" Not one who which Sodom was burned to ashes ; nor " thieves," such as invade
would be able to act as an arbitrator between his brethren ? Is it the property of others by force or fraud ; nor " the covetous,"
not a disgraceful thing that brother should go to law with brother, in whom the love of this world prevails and reigns, who serve
and that before the tu:believers ?" Whoever may have the right Mammon rather than God ; nor " habitual drunkards ;" nor
on his side, in respect to this or the other particular question, " revilers," who are in the habit of injuriously blasting the repu-
" there is utterly a fault among you, because ye go to law one tation of all about them ; nor " extortioners," who oppress those
with another." Your little quarrels prove, that you are actuated under their power, and exact from men more than is reasonable
by carnal and selfish principles. If you were as you ought to be, and just ;—persons living and dying under the power of these
no one would give his brother cause 'fin- litigation. If the excellent crimes " shall not inherit the kingdom of God," whatever their
rule were observed, which our divine Master has given to his fol- pretensions or expectations may be. In that kingdom, holiness
lowers, brethren would no longer go to law with one another ; and love for ever reign ; and polluted souls cannot be admitted
" All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do within its gates.
ye even so to them," Matt. vii. 12. There is a fimit among you Ver. 11. And such were some yf you, &c.] Such detestable
that ye go to Jaw at all, but the injurious party is most criminal ; creatures were some of you, in your unconverted state. " But
yet it may be asked, Why do you not rather bear some injuries, ye are washed" from your former impurities, by converting grafe;
than thus seek to redress them ? " Why do ye not rather take " ye are sanctified" from the love and practice of sin ; your former
wrong," in matters of no great consequence ? Why do ye not offences are forgiven, and " ye are justified," or acquitted, through
suffer yourselves to be defrauded ?" That is, in affairs respecting faith in " the blood of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our
-which it would be more honourable to suffer than to contend. God."
But, to speak freely, I fear that, in some instances, " ye do wrong Ver. 12-19. All things are lawful unto me, &c.] As to things
AThd defraud, and that your brethren ;" by which ye greatly injure of an indifferent nature, which are not contrary to the holy Jaw of
Anno Domini 57. CHAPTER VII. Anno Donzini 57.
hers of Christ ? shall I then take the members of 36-38 Parents should be prudent in disposing of their
Christ, and make them the members of an harlot ? daughters. 39, 40 Widows should be careful how they
16 What ? know ye not that be which is joined
to an harlot is one body ? for two, saith he, shall
be one flesh.
N OW concerning the things whereof ye wrote
unto me : It is good for a man not to touch
17 But he that is joined unto the Lord is one 2 Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every
f • man have his own wife, and let every woman have
i s Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth her own husband.
is without the body ; but he that committeth forni- 3 Let the husband render unto the wife due
cation sinned' against his own body. benevolence : and likewise also the wife unto the
19 What ? know ye not that your body is the husband.
temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which 4 The wife hath not power of her own body, but
ye have of God, and ye are not your own ? the husband : and likewise also the husband bath
20 For ye are bought with a price : therefore not power of his own body, but the wife.
glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which 5 Defraud ye not one the other, except it be
are God's. with consent for a time, that ye may give your-
selves to fasting and prayer ; and come together
ae•piration.] HELP US, 0 Lord, to reflect on the value of again, that Satan tempt you not for your incon-
that price with which we are bought. Hast thou, gracious tinency.
Redeemer, paid such a ransom for us ! 0 that we may then 6 But I speak this by permission, and not of
give up ourselves to thee, to be entirely thine, and to glorify commandment.
thee in all things ! Amen.
7 For I would that all men were even as I
self. But every man bath his proper gift of God,
CHAP. VII. one after this manner, and another after that.
1-9 An answer to several questions about marriage. 10-16 8 I say therefore to the unmarried and widows,.
A married Christian should not seek to be separated from an
unbelieving wife or husband. 17 - 24 Every one should It is good for them if they abide even as I.
abide in his calling. 25 - 35 In perilous times, a single life 9 But if they cannot contain, let them marry
was to be preferred; but all should sit loose to the world. for it is better to marry than to burn..
God, and have no moral evil in them, they may be said to be also another view, in which the baseness of this crime must appear
lawful unto me ; but some of them may be such things as are not to all who profess themselves to be followers of Christ: " What ?
always " expedient" to be done ; as when the doing of them know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy , Ghost, which
would injure the peace, comfort, and edification of others, or ye have of God, and ye are not your own ?" Hereby, according
would offend and grieve the weak and scrupulous. " All things to your profession, ye are consecrated to God, that ye may be
are lawful for me, " but I will not be brought under the power of prepared for glory ; so that, in this respect, ye are not your own,
any ;" I will not allow myself' to use any such liberty in lawful but the property of the Holy Spirit. Add to all this the conside-
things, as that 1 cannot refrain from them when it is requisite that ration, that ye are bought with a price of infinite value.
I should do so. All meats, capable of ministering to the nourish- Ver. 20. For ye are bought, &e.] We are said to be bought,
nlent of' the human &awe, are originally made for the use of the not in a metaphorical sense, but really and properly. Here the
belly ; and the bowels are made for receiving and digesting them. price is mentioned ; and by the apostle Peter, the same is also
But it ought to he remembered, that, in a little while, God shall specified. It was real, and perfectly satisfactory. In considera-
destroy both the one and the other, and the human body must tion of which price, our freedom from every penal evil is granted.
moulder in the dust. TherefOre no man should be a slave to Ids Thus Priam recovered the dead body of Hector from the hand of
appetite in respect to this or that kind of meat. It should also be Achilles, by paying a price; and thus Fabius recovered the cap-
most seriously remembered, that " the body was not made for tives who were taken by Hannibal. He paid the sum required,
fornication, hut to he kept pure for the service of the Lord, who and the prisoners were discharged from their confinement. By
dwells in it by his Holy Spirit, and will hereafter beautify and such transactions as these, the great truth is illustrated, which is
glorify it. For that God, who raised up the Lord Jesus, will also, the foundation of all our hope, redemption by the price of the
in like manner, raise up our bodies by his divine power. This Saviour's blood. The conclusion is, " Therefore glorify God witly
consideration should excite us to purity and holiness. " Know ye your body, and with your spirit, which are God's ;" exert your-,
not that your bodies are the members of Christ," and under his selves to the utmost, in a course of constant obedience to his holy'
care, in order to their being finally happy with hint. Shall we will, avoiding every thing displeasing in his sight
then take witat we are taught to look upon as the members of CIAP. VII. Ver. 1-9. Nola concerning the thins, &c.] It
Christ, and " make them the members of an harlot ? God forbid!" appears, that the apostle had received a letter from time church at
Who can think of such a thing without the utmost abhorrence ! Corinth, about sonic points of conscience, concerning which they
The law of marriage is most wickedly and disgracefully perverted requested his advice.. The first question related to the lawfulness,.
by the sin of fornication, Gen. ii. 21. " But he that is joined to or expediency, . of marriage; and the apostle observes, that in
the Lord," by a true and living faith, is " one spirit" with him. many cases and circumstances, provided a man were master of
The divine Spirit, which dwells in Christ as the head, is communi- himself, it might be profitable for him to live a single life, sup-
cated to the believer through him. Let this consideration operate posing he could conduct himself according to the rules of chastity
upon your minds more than ten thousand arguments, to engage you and purity. The expression, " not to touch a woman," in this
" to flee from fornication." Flee from it as from an enemy place, means no more than abstaining from marriage, or living a •
which you dare not face ; and shun, with the utmost care, all in- single life. Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, and remove the
centives to it. He that is guilty of it sins against " Ids own temptation to it, it might be adviseable " for every man to have
body" as well as ins soul. He pollutes and debases it to the his own wife, and every woman to have her own ,husband ;"- in •
highest degree ; and the most dreadful diseases often follow upon many eases, it was far the best that it should be so, according to
the commission of it, as a just judgment from God. There is the original appointment of God. Tim husband should show great
Anno Dontini 57. I. CORINTHIANS. Anno .Domini 57.
10 And unto the married I command, yet not 17 But as God bath distributed to every man, as
but the Lord, Let not the wife depart from her the Lord bath called every one, so let him walk.
husband : And so ordain I in all churches.
11 But and if she depart, let her remain un- 18 Is any man called being circumcised ? let .
married, or be reconciled to her husband : and let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in
not the husband put away his wife. uncircumcision ? let him not be circumcised.
12 But to the rest speak I, not the Lord : If 19 Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision
any brother hath a wife that believeth not, and she is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments '
be pleased to dwell with him, let him not put her of God.
away. 20 Let every man abide in the same calling
13 And the woman which hath an husband that wherein he was called.
believeth not, and if he be pleased to dwell with 21 Art thou called being' a servant ? care not
her, let her not leave him. for it ; but if thou mayest be made free, use it
14 For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by rather.
the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by 22 For he that is called in the Lord, being a
the husband : else were your children unclean ; but servant, is the Lord's freeman : likewise also he
now are they holy. that is called, being free, is Christ's servant.
15 But if the unbelieving depart, let him depart. '23 Ye are bought with a price ; be not ye the
A brother or a sister is not under bondage in such servants of men.
cases : but God Lath called us to peace. 24 Brethren, let every man, wherein he is called,
16 For what knowest thou, 0 wife, whether therein abide with God.
thou shalt save thy husband ? or how knowest thou, . 25 Now concerning virgins I have no .command-
0 man, whether thou shalt save thy wife ? ment of the Lord : yet I give my judgment, as
kindness and affection to his wife on all occasions, and likewise marriage being valid, the children were holy, in a civil and legal
the wife unto her husband, consulting the happiness of each other's sense. They were not bastards, but legitimate children. This is
life. They should not imagine that there is any virtue, or any apparently the apostle's meaning.
perfection, in living separate from each other, as if they were in a Ver. 15-19. But if the unbelieving depart, Sze.] If an un-
single state; much less should they keep at a distance from each believing husband be so great an enemy to religion, that he will
other for fear of having children. By the marriage covenant, not live with his wife after she is converted to Christianity, but is
their engagements to each other are mutual ; so that they are resolved to depart from her, unless she will deny Christ, and re-
bound in conscience to consult their mutual comfort and happi- nounce her religion, " let him depart ;" for the fault entirely be-
ness. They should not, therefore, withdraw from the company of longs to himself. The same may be said with respect to an un-
each other, " except by consent for a time, that they might give believing wife. " But God hath called us to peace," which
themselves to fasting and prayer," upon extraordinary occasions. should be sought after, especially between persons so nearly re-
—The apostle wrote these things as what were allowable, and not lated ; and therefore the departure should not be easily admitted.
as giving express commands. For he knew that men might use " For what knowest thou, 0 wife, whether thou shalt," by a
their own discretion about marrying ; yet he could have wished kind and winning behaviour," save thy husband ? Or how knowest
that his Christian brethren might have been as free from dis- thou, 0 man, whether thou shalt save thy wife ?" If thy behaviour
quietude of mind on this subject, as he himself was, without being be as it ought to be, it may be the means of winning her heart to
necessitated to marry, when otherwise it might not have been ad- Christ. Yet if this should not be the effect, it becomes you to do
visable. But he knew, that no certain rule could be laid down in your duty. " But as the Lord bath distributed to every man, and
this case, " for every man has his proper gift of God, one after as he bath called every One, SO let bim walk ; and this is what I
this manner, and another after that." If the unmarried and ordain in all the churches." For instance, " Is any man called
widows have not attained to such a degree of temperance, as to being circumcised ? let him not be dissatisfied with that. Is any
be able to live single with a peaceful and quiet conscience, let one called in uncircumcision, let him not become circumcised,"
them marry ; for it is undoubtedly much better to do so, than to as if that rite were now a thing necessary to he observed. For, in
be disquieted and tormented with restless passions. fact, " circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing ;"
Ver. 10 11. And 1t7110 the married I command, Sre.] Indeed
- it will neither obstruct nor promote a man's spiritual interests,
it is the injunction of the Lord himself, "that the wife should not under the present dispensation ; " but the keeping of the com-
depart from her husband." This was common among the Gen- mandments of God " is always necessary to the prosperity of the
tiles, ELS well as the Jews, and that on very trifling pretences. soul.
Should a wife take any inconsiderate step of this kind, she ought Ver. '20-24. Let every 2nan abide, &c.] In common cases,
to seek to be reconciled to her husband, and by no means to think every man should continue in that occupation in which he was
of being married to another. The same rules were to be observed employed when divine grace called him to the knowledge of
by the husband; " let him not put away his wife." Supposing a Christ, supposing his employment to be a lawful one. " Art thou
brother had an unbelieving partner, and she were mindful to called being a servant ?" Be not uneasy in that situation, but if
dwell with him, he ought not to put her away. The same counsel thou mayest be made free," without 1/-)37 material difficulty, " use
is given by the apostle, respecting a woman who had an unbeliev- it rather ;" for though this is not essential to the happiness of a
ing husband ; if he were pleased to dwell with her, she ought not good man, it is desirable. " For he that is called, being a servant,
to leave him. For though a converted person should not marry is the Lord's freeman," being a partaker of the liberty wherewith
an unbeliever, yet, when the union has taken place, it ought to be he makes sinners free, John viii. 36. And he who is called, being
considered as sacred. " For the unbelieving husband is sanctified free from the authority of any human master, " is Christ's ser -
by the wife." This cannot possibly be understood of inward vant" and property. " Ye are bought with a price ; be not ye
sanctification, but of the legality of the marriage contract between the servants," or the slaves " of men," when it may be lawfully
the parties ; they had been lawfully " set apart," chosen and avoided ; since many evils and dangers are attendant on such a
espoused to each other ; the marriage therefore was valid, and station. My general advice is this, " Let every man, wherein he
would abide so, even after the conversion of one of the parties to is called, therein abide with God ;" taking care to behave himself
Christianity. This must be allowed ; otherwise the children born in that station, in a manner agreeable to the divine will.
to theni.would be " unclean," or unlawfully begotten. But the Ver. '25-31. .Arotu concerning virgins I have no commandment,
Anna Donzini 51. CHAPTER VIT. Ann° Domini 57,
one that bath obtained mercy of the Lord to be things of the rodd, how she may please heis
26 I suppose therefore that this is good for the 35 And this I speak for your own profit ; not
present distress, I say, that it is good for a man so that I may cast a snare upon you, but for that which
to be. is comely, and that ye may attend upon the Lord
27 Art thou bound unto a wife ? seek not to be without distraction.
loosed. Art thou loosed from a wife ? seek not a 36 But if any man think that he behaveth him-
wife. self uncomely toward his virgin, if she pass the
28 But and if thou marry, thou hast not sinned; flower of her age, and need so require, let him do
and if a virgin marry, she hath not sinned. Never- what he will, he sinneth not : let them marry.
theless such shall have trouble in the flesh : but I 37 Nevertheless he that standeth stedfast in hi
spare you. heart, having no necessity, but bath power over his
29 But this I say, brethren, the time is short : it own will, and hath so decreed in his heart that he
remaineth, that both they that have wives be as will keep his virgin, doeth well.
though they had none ; 38 So then he that giveth her in marriage doeth
30 And they that weep, as though they wept well ; but he that giveth her not in marriage doeth
not ; and they that rejoice, as though they rejoiced better.
not ; and they that buy, as though they possessed 39 The wife is bound by the law as long as her
not ; husband liveth ; but if her husband be dead, she is
31 And they that use this world, as not abusing at liberty to be married to whom she will ; only in
it : for the fashion of this world passeth away. the Lord.
32 But I would have you without carefulness. 40 But she is happier if she so abide, after my
He that is unmarried careth for the things that be- judgment : and I think also that I have the Spirit
long to the Lord, how he may please the Lord. of God.
33 But he that is married careth for the things
that are of the world, how he may please his wife. afipiratiOn.] WHAT a lesson is here taught us of the short-
34 There is difference also between a wife and a ness of time, and the uncertainty of this world May our
virgin. The unmarried woman careth for the things affections be loosened from every earthly object, that we may
not set our eyes and our hearts on that which is not ; for the
of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body fashion of this world passeth away. Instead of these transient
and in spirit : but she that is married careth for the vanities, and empty shows, may we aspire after that kingdom
&c.] I have received no express commandment from the Lord virgin ; "the unmarried woman careth for the things of the Lord,
concerning those who may be called virgins, of either sex, as I that she may be holy both in body and spirit," being more at
had in a case considered before ; but I give my opinion, as one leisure for the exercises of devotion ; but she that is married has a
that " bath received mercy of the Lord to be faithful." I lay it husband to please. " And this I speak for your own profit ; and
down as a general observation, that during the present distress, not that I may, by any means, cast a snare upon you, and forbid .
while the church is in this state of persecution, " it is good for a thawicGodls,nhteaofumnr
man who is in a single state to continue so." But art thou generally requires ; but I would recommend that which is comely
bound and united to a wife already ? seek not to be loosed," in itself, and could wish " that you may attend upon the Lord
whatever difficulties may arise. Hath Providence not brought without worldly distraction ;" or, as some read it," without any
thee into this engagement ? If thou canst conveniently and chastely violent constraint."
continue as thou art at present, " seek not a wife." Yet I Ver. 36-38. But if any man think, &c.] If any man be con-
must observe, if thou marry, thou dost not sin, nor violate any vinced, that he acts improperly towards his daughter who is un-
divine command. The same may be said of a virgin. " Never- married, if she pass the flower of her age in that state, and if any
theless," it may be expected that such shall have trouble in the attachment, or other circumstance, render it expedient for her to
flesh," from a burden of temporal affairs. But I speak with caution be married, let him put no restraint upon her ; he sinneth not in
on this subject ; for " I spare you." This, however, I may say disposing of her to a proper person ; "let them marry." But, on
with great freedom and confidence, that the time of our continu- the other hand, " he that standeth stedfast in his heart, having on
ance in this world "is short." It therefore remains, that we the side of his daughter no apprehension of any necessity in con-
should be on our guard against too fond an attachment to any sequence of what he perceives of her disposition, and being at
earthly object. " They who have wives should, in a manner, be liberty to act as he pleases, bath determined in his own mind,
as if they had none ;" remembering how soon the union must be that, with her free consent, he will endeavour to keep his daughter
dissolved ; they "who weep " for the loss of earthly things should single, the part he acts, in present circumstances, is so far from
moderate their grief, and be " as though they wept not ;" they being blameable, that it may be said, " he does well." Indeed it
that " rejoice in worldly prosperity should be " as though they may be owned, that he who giveth his daughter in marriage doeth
rejoiced not ;" they that " purchase " houses and lands should well ; but he that giveth her not in marriage," the present state
be as though " they possessed them net ;" and they that " use of the church considered, " doeth still better."
this world, as not abusing it," by any kind of excess ; " for the Ver. 39, 10. The wife is bound by the law, Sze.] She is bound
fashion of this world passeth away," being subject to perpetual to continue with hint, and to submit to him, so long as he lives.
changes. This cannot be disputed. " But if her husband be dead, she
Ver. 32-35. But I would have you tvithout carefulness.] I free, and " at liberty to be married to whom she will ;" only let
could wish you to be without anxiety about worldly things. "He her take care that she marry " in the Lord." Let her not con-
that is unmarried careth fin- the things of the Lord, how he may sent to be united fbr life to a man destitute of the fear of God,
please and glorify him," having more leisure to employ himself in and a stranger to that way in which she deems it her chief hap-
the Lord's service. " But he that is married careth for the things piness to walk. I have said, that she may lawfully venture on a
of the world, how he may please his wife," so conducting him- second marriage ; but, in my opinion, she is happier if she con-
self in his daily exertions and labours, as to make hcr easy and tinue in her widowhood. And I think also that I have the Spirit
comfortable. There is also this difference between a wife and a of God" to guide me iu thi*. an.d ia other matters.
Anno Domini 57. 1. CORINTHIANS. 411110 Domini 57.
h'eh cannot be moved, and that city which bath foundations, ledge : for some with conscience of the idol unto
whose Builder and Maker is God. Amen. this hour eat it as a thing offered unto an idol ; and
their conscience being weak is defiled.
CHAP. VIII. 8 But meat commendeth us not to God : for
1 -3 Humble love is preferable to that knowledge which Nffeth neither, if we eat, are we the better ; neither, if
up. 4 6 Idols are nothing ; the proper object of worship is
we eat not, are we the worse.
ane God, through the Alediator. 7-11 Care should be
taken, in using Christian liberty, not to wound the minds of 9 But take heed lest by any means this liberty of
the weak. i .2, 7 3 The apostle would choose rather to ab- your's become a stumblingblock to them that are
stain pom meat Jim ever, thwi to wound the mind (fan!! weak weak.
believer. 10 For if any man see thee which hast knowledge
N OW as touching things offered unto idols, we
know that we al! have knowledge. Know-
ledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.
sit at meat in the idol's temple, shall not the con-
science of him which is weak be emboldened to eat
those things which are offered to idols ;
2 And if any man think that he knoweth any 11 And through thy knowledge shall the weak
thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to brother perish, for whom Christ died ?
know. 12 But when ye sin so against the brethren,
But if any man love God, the same is known and wound their weak conscience, ye sin against
of him. Christ.
4 As concerning therefore the eating of those 13 Wherefore, if meat make my brother to
things that are offered in sacrifice unto idols, we offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth,
know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that lest I make my brother to offend.
there is none other God but one. -----0.--
5 For though there be that are called gods, 2opiration. MAY we ever maintain the tenderest concern
whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods for the comfort and welfare of our brethren, and guard against
many, and lords many,) whatever might grieve or ensnare them, remembering, that,
6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of when we injure the weakest of these ; we sin against Christ,
whom arc all things, and we in him ; and one Lord who died for them. May the example of this blessed apostle
have its due weight upon us, who resolved to abstain for life
:Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by from that which is lawful and harmless, rather than the use of
him. it should be injurious to the weakest believer, or draw him into
7 Howbeit there is not in every man that know- any snare. Amen.
CHAP. VIII. Ver. 1 3. Now as touching things iffered, &c.]
- Christ, the appointed Mediator between God and men, by whom,
The apostle proceeds to consider another point, concerning which with the Father, were all things created, and are still supported
the Corinthians had desired his advice, nainely, the eating of and guided. These are the grand principles in which all true
things sacrificed to idols. For the understanding of this, it must Christians are agreed, and which they should always keep steadily
be observed, that it was customary with idolaters to feast on part in view. But it ought to be remembered, that " there is not in
of the flesh of those animals which had been sacrificed to their all men this knowledge." Some do even until now, with con-
false deities, both in their temples and in their own houses. Part sciousness of some religious regard to the idol, eat the things in
of this flesh was also publicly sold the shambles. Some of the question as sacrificed unto it; and " their conscience, being weak"
Corinthian converts could eat of this flesh without any scruple of and uninformed, " is defiled," and brought under a load of guilt.
conscience, while others considered the doing of such a thing as But meat commends us not to the favourable regards of God ;
highly criminal in the sight of God. The apostle dissuades from "for neither, ifwe eat, are we the better" in that respect;" neither,
this practice, and refutes the arguments which were used in de- if we eat not, are we the worse." You ought therefore to be
fence of it. And the general foundation on which those pro- more cautious and circumspect in using what you call Christian
ceeded who pleaded for it being their knowledge of Christian liberty, and not to act in such a self-confident and imprudent
liberty, he begins with that, and distinguishes between such manner, as tends to seduce those into sin who are weak in faith
knowledge, and true charity. " We know that we all have know- and knowledge. Let not this liberty which you talk of become a
ledge," a general knowledge of the vanity of these fictitious deities. stumblingblock to such. " For if any man see thee who liast
But there is a kind of knowledge Ivhich often " puffeth up," as knowledge sit at meat in the idol's temple, will he not be em-
being the occasion of self-conceit and arrogance ; whereas charity, boldened to follow thy example, and even to pay some kind of re-
or Christian " love, edifieth," and has a happy effect in promoting ligious regard to the idol, as thinking that it may net perhaps be
the general welfare of the brethren. I most be free to declare, inconsistent with Christianity so to do ? This would bring him into
that if a man be conceited of his knowledge, so as to neglect and a dangerous snare. And thus, through thy pretended knowledge
despise his brethren, " he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to of Christian liberty, shall thy weak brother perish, for whom
know ;" he has even to begin to learn the first principles of that Christ died ?" For though infinite mercy will prevent that filtat
knowledge xvhich is truly valuable and useful. " But if any man consequence, in respect of those whose faith, though weak, is
love God," and show the truth of that love, by a prevailing re- sincere; yet sin, in its own nature, tends to ruin; and, conse-
gard to the divine glory, and the welfiire of those that are the quently, he that draws a man into sin, by that very act, leads him
siocere t'ollowers of God, " the same is known and approved of into danger. Let it therefore be remembered, that when ye sin
and will be so in the great day of accounts. thus against the brethren, and wound and ensnare their weak con-
Ver. rd, &e. As concerning--the eating (if those things, &c.] Those sciences, ye sin very grievously against Christ ; and your conduct
.,,tho are enlightened by the doctrine of Christ " 'know that an will sooner or later be resented and rebuked by him. Therefore
idol is nothing in the world ;" nothing hut a mass of senseless it is a settled point with me, for these very reasons, " that if meat
matter, and that the supposed deity represented by it has no of any kind make my brother to offend," and lead him into sin, I
existence whatever. The Gentiles have many of these imaginary will not only abstain from it now and then, but " I will eat no
deities ; but though there he that are called gods, whether in flesh . while the world standcth, if, in doing that, I should audiv
i:enven or earth, " to us there is hut (inc God, the Father of all, my brother to offend.,"
ii I et are ci ho ugs
, ud we by him ; and one Lord Jesus
Ann° Domini 57. CHAPTER IX. - .iinno Domini 57. ,
CHAP. IX. our sakes, no doubt, this is written : that he that
ploweth should plow in hope : and that he that
1 14 The apostle asserts his authority, and skews that the
ministers of the gospel have a right to marry, and to & sup-
thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hope.
ported by the people. 15 23 Ye/ he had not availed him-
if If we have sown unto you spiritual things,
self of this right ; for his aim was, in a way of self-denial it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things ?
and dilifeuce, to promote the salvation of souls. 24 27 He
12 If others be partakers of this power over you
speaks of the Christian life as a race to te run, in the view of are not we rather ? Nevertheless we have not used
C heavenly prize. this power ; but suffer all things, lest we should
hinder the gospel of Christ.
not an apostle ?
AworkI in theJesus ?Christam I Lordfree ? haveyeI
? are not 13 Do ye not know that they which minister
about holy things live if the things of the temple ?
2 If I be not an apostle unto others, yet doubt- and they which wait at the altar are partakers with
less I am to you : for the seal of mine apostleship the altar ?
are ye in the Lord. 14 Even so hath the Lord ordained that they
3 Mine answer to them that do examine me is which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.
this, 15 But I have used none of these things: neither
4 Have we not power to eat and to drink ? have I written these things, that it should be so
5 Have we not power to lead about a sister, a done unto me : for it were better for me to die,
wife, as well as other apostles, and as the brethren than that any man should make my glorying void.
of the Lord, and Cephas ? 16 For though I preach the gospel, I have no-
6 Or I only and Barnabas, have not we power to thing to glory of: for necessity is laid upon me ;.
forbear working ? yea, woe is unto me, if I preach not the gospel I
7 Who goeth a warfare any time at his own 17 For if I do this thing willingly, I have a re-
charges ? who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not ward ; but if against my will, a dispensation of elm
of the fruit thereof? or who feedeth a flock, and gospel is committed unto me.
eateth not of the milk of the flock ? 18 What is my reward then ? Verily that, when
8 Say I these things as a man ? or saith not the I preach the gospel, I may make the gospel of Christ
law the same also ? without charge, that I abuse not my power in the
9 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou gospel.
shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth 19 For though I be free from all men, yet have I
out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen ? made myself servant unto all, that I might gain tho
10 Or saith he it altogether for our sakes ? For more.
ClIAP. IX. Ver. 1 10. Am I not an apostle? am I notfree?
- shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn," Dent. xxv.
Sze.] This eminent servant of Jesus Christ met with opposition Doth God so take care for oxen, as that he intended this precept
from all quarters, and constantly laboured under reproach. False solely for their relief? Or cloth he not say this also for the sake
brethren questioned his apostleship, and took great pains to lessen of his ministers ? " For our sakes, no doubt, this is written : that
his character, and sink his reputation. " Am I not an apostle ?" he that ploweth should plow in hope of snece, and that he that
Will any among you assert that I am not ? " Am I not free," or thresheth in such hope should not ho disappointed, but possess the
at liberty to demand support from those whom I serve, even as good fin- which he has laboured.
others do ? " Have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord ?" Did he ver. 11 15. Ii wc hare sown unto you spiritual thiogs, Sx...] If
not show himself to me, after his ascension into heaven ? If it be by our continued exertions, we have sown unto you such spiritual
essential to the apostolic office to have seen Christ in person, this things as may spring up into a harvest of eternal blessings, is it
is not wanting in my case. " Are not ye my work in the Lord ?" any great thing if we should reap a tempo' al subsistence ? " If
Have not I raised a church among you, through his blessing on others be partakers of thus power over you, are not we rather?" May
my labours ? " If I be not an apostle to others, yet, doubtless, I am we not claim it with greater reason ? Necerthelcss we have made no
unto you." Above all others you ought to own my authority in such claim, nor used any such power. V%.'2 have chosen, rather,
this office ; " for the seal of mine apostleship are ye in the Lord." to suffer all hardships and cHicuities, " that we may not occasion
What God has wrought among you, through my labours, puts this any hinderance to the gospel of Christ," from the reflections and
matter out of doubt. " Mine answer to them that examine me is cavils of ill-disposed persons, who are ready, on all occasions, to
this," respecting the right of being supported by you ; " Have censure our conduct. Yet I do not give up the justice of the de-
we not power to cat and drink " at the expense of those among mand; " for do ye not know, that they which minister about holy
whom we labour ? " Have we not power to take us a sister, that things live of the things of the temple ? and that they who wait
is, a wife, as sonic of the other apostles do, particularly Peter ?" at the altar are partakers of the victims oifered there ?" In like
What is there in my case that should rob me of the liberties which manner, it is the order and appoiatment oh C iod , " that they which
others enjoy ? " Or I only and Barnabas, have we not power to preach the gospel should live of the gosiml," :74- att. x. 10. Lulze-
forbear working" with our Own hands for our support ? Is it not an x. 7. " But I have used none of these things," during my con-
equitable thing, that they who devote themselves to the service of tinuance among you; nor have I written thus, " that it should iii
the public should be supported by the public whom they serve ? future be so done unto Inc : for it were better for me to die,' 3
" Who goeth a warfare at his own charges ? Who planteth a vine- youforwanthesupfli,"tanhymog
yard, and cateth not of the fruit of it ? Or who feedeth a flock, should make my glorying void."—It may be observed here, that
and partaketh not of the milk of the flock ?" Is it not reasonable the apostle had some particular reaons toe refusing to be sup-
then, that those who spend their time and strength for the good ported by the Corinthians, with which we are not acquainted. It
of souls should have food and raiment provided ter them ? " Say was contrary to his conduct in other places, particularly among
I these things as a man," upon the principles of human reason the Macedonian churches, as well as to the conduct of the other
alone ? " or saith not the law the same also ?" You know that apostles.
there is a passage in the writings of 31106es to this purpose,
" Thou Ver. 16 23. Fur though I preach the gospd,, &c.] Though
6 A 2
Anno Domini 57. I. CORINTHIANS. Ann° Domini
20 And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that CHAP. X.
I might gain the Jews ; to them that are under the 1 - 5 The Israelites were favoured with great privileges in the
law, as under the law, that I might gain them that wilderness, yet many of them perished through disohedien( P.
are under the law ; 6 13 Hence, the Corinthians are cautioned against those
21 To them that are without law, as without law, evils by which they fell. 14 22 The apostle shows w hat was
(being not without law to God, but under the law incostewhrmuniotChsa le.
23 33 He considers in what sense the eating of things (21.-
to Christ,) that I might gain them that are without -
fered to idols might be allowed.
22 To the weak became I as weak, that I might
gain the weak : I am made all things to all men,
that I might by all means save some.
MOREOVER, brethren, Ipassed through the
would not that ye
should be ignorant, how that all our fathers
were under the cloud, and all
23 And this I do for the gospel's sake, that I sea ;
inight be partaker thereof with you. 2 And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud
24 Know ye not that they which run in a race and in the sea ;
run all, but one receiveth the prize ? So run, that 3 And did all eat the saint spiritual meat ;
ye may obtain. 4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink : for
25 And every man that striveth for the mastery they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed
is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain them : and that Rock was Christ.
a corruptible crown ; but we an incorruptible. 5 But with many of them God was not well
26 I therefore so run, not as uncertainly; so fight pleased : for they were overthrown in the wilder.
I, not as one that beateth the air : ness.
27 But I keep under my body and bring it into 6 Now these things were our examples, to the
subjection : lest that by any means, when I have intent we should not lust after evil things, as they
preached to others, I myself should be a castaway. also lusted.
-.1911111s-•- 7 Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them ;
agitation.] WHEN we consider to what labour, self-denial, as it is written, The people sat down to eat and
and self-abasement, men willingly subject themselves, for the drink, and rose up to play.
fading honours and corruptible interests of this world, how 8 Neither let us commit fornication, as some of
should we be ashamed of our sloth and indolence in the pursuit them committed, and fell in one day three and
of an eternal inheritance ! 0 that our eyes and hearts may be
fixed on things above, that we may lay aside every weight, and twenty thousand.
the sin that easily besets us, and run with patience the race set 9 Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them
before us, looking unto Jesus ! Amen. also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.
thus exert myself in my Master's work, I have nothing whereof to You have formerly been well acquainted with the Isthmian games,
boast in so doing. " For necessity is laid upon me" to be thus which have been long celebrated in your city. Those who run in
employed; " yea, woe is unto me, if I preach not the gospel," the foot race run all, and vigorously contend with one another ;
since I have received such an express commission to preach it. yet but one receiveth the prize. You have much greater en-
" If, indeed, I do this willingly, I have a reward ; but being called couragement to exert yourselves, in the prospect of the heavenly
to preach the gospel, without any previous choice or willingness reward. " So run, that ye may obtain." Lay aside every thing
of mine, a line of conduct is particularly marked out for me, that would be a hinderance to you, and run with earnestness,
whereby I may convince my opposers, that I am not actuated by with self-denial, with patience and with perseverance, having the
mercenary principles. For had this been the case, where would '
celestial prize full in view. Remember, " that every man that
have been my reward? My desire has been to make the gospel striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things," abstaining
without charge to you. " For though I be free from all men," from every thing that might impair his strength, and submitting
and under no obligation to devote my life and labours to their ser- to a regular course of diet, that he may be the more capable of
vice, " I have freely made myself the servant of all, that I might exerting himself with success. You know that they do all this for
gain the more" souls to Christ, and to the love and practice of the empty honour of obtaining " a corruptible crown," a garland
religion. With this view, " to the Jews I became as a Jew ;" I of leaves, which will soon fade and wither ; but we have before us
preached to them, and conversed with them freely ; I complied " an incorruptible crown," a crown of glory which cannot fade
with some things to avoid giving them offence, as in the circum- away. For my part, I am enabled so to run in this race, as not
cising of Timothy. Thus I endeavoured to gain the Jews. I com- to leave the event of it at uncertainty. I would so fight, that I
plied with the prejudices of those who were attached to the ritual may not be like those whose blows only beat the air ; but I keep
law, as far as I could with safety, that I might gain upon them, under my body, and bring it into subjection, refusing my appetites
and win their hearts to the evangelical system. Among the Gen- such indulgences as are unlawful and inexpedient, practising con-
tiles, who were " without law," I conversed as freely as if I had tinual self-denial, and habituating myself to labour and suffering
been a Gentile myself, that I might gain upon their minds, and be with patience, lest after I have preached to others, I myself might,
useful to them. But still I took care, both by word and deed, to through some misconduct, " become a castaway," or be disap-
make it appear, that I did not look upon myself to be " without proved, and my services rendered unacceptable and useless in the
law to God, but under the law to Christ." Moreover, " to the church. There may be some danger of this, even though my
weak I became as weak, that I might gain the weak." In a word, eternal interests be safe. This consideration excites me to con-
" I became all things to all men," so far as I could with a good tinual care, watchfulness, and circumspection.
conscience, " that by all possible means I might save some." This CTIAP. X. Ver. 1-13. Moreover, brethren, I would not, &c.]
bath been my governing aim and design. And this I do for the I would wish you to know and consider, bow many of those mis-
sake of that precious gospel which is committed to my trust, to d's
carried who were once, by profession, Go peculiar people, and
promote its success to the utmost of my power, " that I might be favoured by him in a very extraordinary manner. The Israelites
a partaker thereof with you." came out of Egypt under the protection and guidance of a mi-
Ver. 21, &c. Know ye not that they which run in a race, &v..] raculous clod, which gave them light in the night season, and
Anno Domini 5'7. CHAPTER X. Ano Domini 57.
10 Neither murmur ye, as some of them also and I would not that ye should have fellowship with
murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer. devils.
11 Now all these things happened unto them for 21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the
ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, cup of devils : ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's
upon whom the ends of the world are come. table, and of the table of devils.
12 Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth 22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy ? are
take heed lest he fall. we stronger than he ?
13 There hath no temptation taken you but such 23 All things are lawful for me, but all things
as is common to man : but God is faithful, who will are not expedient : all things are lawful for me, but
not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; all things edify not.
but will with the temptation also make a way to 24 Let no man seek his own, but every man
escape, that ye may be able to bear it. another's weafth.
14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from 25 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat,
idolatry. asking no question for conscience sake :
15 I speak as to wise men ; judge ye what I 26 For the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness
16 The cup of blessing, which we bless, is it not 27 If any of them that believe not bid you to a
the communion of the blood of Christ ? The bread feast, and ye be disposed to go ; whatsoever is set
which we break, is it not the communion of the before you, eat, asking no question for conscience
body of Christ ? sake.
17 For we being many are one bread, and one 28 But if any man say unto you, This is offered
body : for we are all partakers of that one bread. in sacrifice unto idols, eat not for his sake that
18 Behold Israel after the flesh : are not they shewed it, and for conscience sake : for the earth
which cat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar ? is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof:
W What say I then ? that the idol is any thing, 29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the
or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols is any other : for why is my liberty judged of another man's
thing ? conscience ?
20 But I say, that the things which the Gentiles 30 For if I by grace be a partaker, why am I
sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God : evil spoken of for that for which I give thanks ?
was a canopy over their beads by day. They had that which was great consolation te you, that "there hath no temptation taken
an emblem of Christian baptism, when they all passed through the you but such as is common to man: and God is faithful, who will
sea, with the watery cloud over their heads. And as they went not suffer you to.be tempted above that ye are able, but will, with
on in their journey, " they did all eat the same spiritual food," the temptation" wherewith he permits you to be tried, " make a
the manna, which was an emblem of the bread of God that way to escape, that ye may be able to bear it."—This cannot mean,
cometh down from heaven, on which account it may be called that all believers should be rendered victorious over every parti-
spiritual meat. They also "drank of the same spiritual drink ;" cular temptation ; for then they must never fall into sin, which is
for they drank the water of that mysterious rock, the streams of contrary to what we know to be tact; but the meaning is, that
which " followed them ; and that rock was a representation of they shall be so preserved as not to fall into final condemnation.
Christ," smitten for our transgressions, that we might partake of Ver. 14-30. Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry,
his healing, cleansing, and refreshing grace. And yet it is well &c.] Stand at the greatest distance from all approaches to ido-
known, that with many of them " God was not well pleased ; for latry, whatever temptations you may have for some degree of com-
they were overthrown in the wilderness," by awful judgments pliance. " I speak as unto wise men ; judge ye what I say." Is
from his vengeful hand. Now these things were examples, types, there not danger in some of those liberties which some of you are
and figures, set before us, that we should not trust in external so ready to defend ? " The cup of blessing which we bless,!'"
privileges, nor " lust after evil things, as they also lusted," Psalm setting it apart to a holy and religious use, is it not the com-
lxxviii. 30, 31. "Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them ;" munion of the blood of Christ ?" Even of that blood which was
for even at mount Sinai, the people "sat down to eat and drink, shed for the remission of sins ? " The bread which we break," in
and rose up to play" and dance around the calf which they had the sacred ordinance of the Lord's supper, " is it not the com-
made to worship. " Neither let us commit fornication," or any munion of the body of Christ ?" For " we being many" are
other kind of lewdness, as some of them committed, at Baal Peor, but different parts of the same broken bread ; " for we are all,"
" and there fell in one day," by a plague, " twenty three thou- by sweet communion, " partakers of that one bread." Consider
sand," Num. xxv. 1-9. " Neither let us tempt Christ," by how it was with " Israel according to the flesh: are not they who
unbelief and distrust, after all that he hath done to engage our eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar ?" Their doing this is
dependence upon him. You know that some of them tempted to be considered as an act of communion with God. On the same
him in this way, and were destroyed by serpents, Num. xxi. 6. ground, they who share in the sacrifices presented to idols hold a
" Neither murmur ye," under the afflictive dispensations of Pro- kind of communion with them. " What do I then say ? that the
vidence, " as some of them murmured, and were destroyed of the idol is any thing, or that which is offered in sacrifice to it any,
destroying" angel, who was commissioned to cut them off, by one thing sacred in itself? No. But I say, " that the things which
judgment or another.—Now all these things happened unto them the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice in reality to devils, and not to
as examples to us, that we might learn what we are to expect, God ;" for evil spirits lead men on to such idolatrous worship. A
should we daringly provoke the Almighty ; " they are written for sufficient reason why you should keep at a distance from every
our admonition, on whom the ends of the world are come," or thing relating to it. For I would not, by any means, that you
the last dispensation which God will give to men. " Wherefore should have, or seem to have, " fellowship with devils." This
let him that thinketh be standeth," and may be ready to trust in would be totally inconsistent with your holy profession ; " for ye
his own strength, and imagine himself secure, let him " take heed cannot drink of the cup of the Lord" at one time, " and of the
lest he fall." Let him beware lest he fall into some grievous sin, cup of devils at another.—Ye cannot be partakers of the table of
and e.-xpose himself to severe rebukes and corrections. It may be a the Lord, and of the table of devils." .Shall we, by such conduct
Anno Domini 51. I. CORINTHIANS. Anno Domini 57+
.31 Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or what- 4 Every man praying or prophesying, having his
soever ye do, do all to the glory of God. head covered, dishonoureth his head.
;2 Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor .5 But every woman that praycth or prophesieth
to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God : with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head :
33 Even as I please all men in all things, not for that is even all one as if she were shaven.
seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, (i For if the woman be not covered, let her also
that they may be saved. be shorn : but if it be a shame fbr a woman to be
shorn or shaven, let her be covered.
260mi-ion.] 0 THAT it may ever be our care to cat and 7 For a man indeed ought not to cover his head,
drink, and do whatsoever we do, in the whole of our conduct, to forasmuch as he is the image and (dory of God :
the glory of the God of our salvation ; then we shall be con- but the woman is the glory of the man.
cerned to give no needless offence to any ; we shall endeavour, 8 For the man is not of the woman ; but the
as far as we can, with a __, ood conscience, to please others rather woman of the man.
than ourselves, not seeking our own profit, but the profit of
9 Neither was the man created for the woman ;
many, even of all to whom our influence extends, that they may
be saved. Amen. but the woman fbr the man.
10 For this cause ought the woman to have power
CHAP. XI. on her head because of the angels.
1-16 The apostle proceeds to the regulation of several things 11 Nevertheless neither is the man without the
respecting public worship. 17-22 And respecting the Lord's woman, neither the woman without the man, in
Supper. 23 - 34 He gives them directions how to attend to
that ordinance. the Lord.
12 For as the woman is of the man, even so is
ye followers of me, even as I
B EChrist.praise you, brethren, that yealso am of
the man also by the woman ; but all things of God.
13 Judge in yourselves : is it comely that a
2 Now woman pray unto God uncovered ?
me hi all things, and keep the ordinances, as I de- 14 Doth not even nature itself teach you, that,
livered them to you.. if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him ?
3 But I would have you know, that the head of 15 But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to
every man is Christ ; and the head of the woman is her : for her hair is given her fin. a covering.
the man ; and the head of Christ is God. 16 But if any man seem to be contentious, we
as this, " provoke the Lord to jealousy ? are we stronger than fulness, not consulting his own profit, but the profit of many, that
he ?" Can we either resist or endure the effects of his displeasure? they might be saved.
If it should be pleaded that " all things," all kinds of meat, " are CHAP. XI. Ver. 1-6. Be ye follorcers of flu', &c.] Imitate my
lawful for me," as a Christian ; it must be observed, " that all example in what I have before mentioned, especially in the cha-
things are not expedient, and that all things edify not." I may ritable and cautious use of Christian liberty ; he followers of me
have sufficient reasons for declining many things, indifferent in in those things in which I arn endeavouring to follow Christ ; for I
themselves, for fear of ennaring others. I would, therefore, pro- do not wish You to follow me any further. 1 must do you the
pose this as a rule, " Let no one seek his own," the gratification justice to commend you for " remembering my instructions in all
of his own humour; " but let every one seek another's welfare." things," and, in the general, " for keeping the ordinances, as I
I am not meaning to lay any unnecessary restraints upon you ; delivered them to you." But it is necessary to remind you of
' whatsoever meat is sold in the shambles, that you may buy and some abuses which seem to have taken place in your public as-
eat, asking no question for conscience sake ; for the whole earth semblies. One of these relates to your women's laying aside their
is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof, Psalm xxiv. 1. Again, " if' veils, and assuming an air of authority over the men, beyond what
any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, and you be dis- seems to be sanctioned by any divine rule. For if the different
posed to go, you may eat whatsoever is set befbre you," without sexes be compared, " the head of the woman is the man," to
making inquiries, " asking no question for conscience sake." But whom, therefore, she ought, at all times, to pay due respect. Our
if any one say to you, This flesh has been offered in sacrifice to Lord Jesus Christ, in his mediatorial character, is subject to the
idols, that would be a sufficient reason for abstaining from it ; " eat Father ; so that, in this respect, it may be said, " the head of
it not," out of regard to him that shelved thee this, " and for con- Christ is God." According to the prevailing custom of present
science sake." The Lord can provide for thee some other way ; times, a veil on the head is a token of subjection to superiors ; if
for, as I have said, " the earth is his, and the fulness thereof." I a man, therefore, should pray or prophesy under such a covering,
advise thee to abstain for the sake of conscience; I mean, the con- he would dishonour Christ, his head, by appearing as if he were
science of him who gave thee the information. " For why is my subject to the woman, contrary to the divine order. " But everv
liberty judged of another man's conscience ?"—Some consider woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered
these words as an objection; but they may be taken as the apostle's dishonoureth her head."—It is apparent, that divine gifts were so .
inquiry, Why they should so incautiously use their liberty, as to abundtlypore hCintas,ocer -
give occasion for its being condemned in the consciences of other sions, some of their females prayed or prophesied in their assem-
men ? Or, why they should so use the gifts of God, which they re- blies, under diine iwpiration. This was the only case in which
&ived with thanksgiving, as to give cause for slander or offence ? they could regularly speak in public. But it would be inconsistent
Ver. 31, &c. Whether therelbre ye eat, or drink, &c.] Instead with modesty, and the state of subjection in which God hath
of uncharitable contentions with one another, or any thing that placed the woman, to lay aside her veil, and to affect authority ;
looks like mutual contempt, let this general rule be observed, that this would dishonour the man, whom the Governor of the world
44 whether ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, ye may do all to has appointed to be her head. It was deemed a dishonourable
the glory of God." This is the fundamental principle of all holy thing for a Woman to appear in pulbic %vith her hair shon» . off, or
practied ; and when this great end is kept in view, we shall " be her head shaved ; and if this was thought disgraceful, let the wo-
carefid to give no offence to the Jew, nor to the Gentile, nor to man be covered with her veil, in the circumstances referred to.
the church of God."—As for Paul himself, he endeavoured to Ver. 7-16. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, &c.3
Rican men of all descriptions, as far as was consistent with faith- It is decent and proper that he should appear with Illose marks of
"Inn° Domini .17. . CHAPTER XI. /inn° Domini 57.
have no such custom, neither the churches of 25 After the same manner al So he took the cup,
God. when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new
17 Now in this that I declare unto you I praise testament in my blood : this do ye, as oft as ye
you not, that ye come together not for the better, drink it, in remembrance of me.
but for the worse. 26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink
18 For first of all, when ye come together in the this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he
church, I bear that there be divisions among you ; come.
and I partly believe it. 27 Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread,
19 For there must be also heresies among you, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily,
that they which are approved may be made manifest shall be guilty of the body and blood of the
among you. Lord.
20 When ye come together therefore into one 28 But let a man examine himself, and so let
place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper. him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup.
. 21 For in eating every one taketh before other 29 For be that eateth and drinketh unworthily,
his own supper : and one is hungry, and another eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not
is drunken. discerning the Lord's body.
and d rink
22 What ? have ye not houses to eat a 1 30 For this cause many are weak and sickly
in ? or despise ye the church of God, and shame among you, and many sleep.
them that have not ? What shall I say to you ? Si For if we would judge ourselves, we should
shall I praise you in this ? I praise you not. not be judged.
23 For I have received of the Lord that which 32 But when we are judged, we are chastened
also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the of the Lord, that we should not be condemned
same night in which he was betrayed took bread : with the world.
24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, 33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come
and said, Take, eat : this is my body, which is together to cat, tarry one for another.
broken fbr you : this do in remembrance of me. 34 And if any man hunger, let him eat at home;
superiority which are agreeable to the divine appointment, since such divided hearts is highly blameable ; and your subsequent
he is " the image and glory of God ; but the woman is the glory conduct is so carnal, that, though you profess to celebrate a sacred
of the man," being created for his benefit and comfort. For it is ordinance of Christ, you cannot be said to do this, but rather to
well known, " that the man is not of the woman, but the woman substitute a vain feast instead of it. " This is not to eat the
of thc man," in their original formation, Gcn. ii. 21-23. The Lord's supper." For you bring your own provisions with you,
woman was created for the man, that he might have a help meet " and every one taketh before other his own supper." Thus a
for him, which before he found not among all the creatures that selfish and intemperate meal is partaken of; instead of that holy
God had made, Gen. ii. 20. For this reason, besides others al- feast of faith and love, which Christ hath instituted. The poor
ready mentioned, " the woman ought to have power, or a veil go away empty, and the rich eat and drink to excess. This is a
over her head, as a token of her subjection to the man, " because scandalous profanation of the sacred ordinance. " What ! have
of the angels," who are present in religious assemblies, before ye not houses to eat, and to drink in? Or despise ye the holy assembly
whom nothing irregular or indecent should be admitted. But of God, and put the poor brethren to shame, because they have
what has been said of the dignity and superiority of the man not suitable provisions ? What shall I :-ay to you ?" I am grieved to
should not he abused, so as to induce him to be haughty and ty- think of your disorderly conduct. " Shall I praise you in
rannical ; " for the man is not without the woman, nor the woman this ? I praise you not." On the contrary, you deserve a severe
without the man, in the Lord." They have a dependance upon rebuke.
one another. " For as the woman is of the man," being formed Ver. 23-26. For Piave received of the Lord, &c.] Consider
of a part of Ids body, even so the man is also by the woman," the original institution of this sacred ordinance. I received the.
being born of her ; " hut all things are of God." But " judge in order respecting it, by special revelation from the Lord Jesus
yourselves ; is it comely' that a iroman pz'ay unto God uncovered ?" Christ himself; even the ,same " which I delivered unto you,
;Nature seems to dictate in this ease. " _For it is looked upon as a for your direction ; "that the Lord of lire and glory, the same
shame tor a man to have very long hair," artfully adjusted and night in which he was betrayed," after he had finished the paschal
adorned, This is thought to he a mark of an effeminate disposi- supper, " took bread ; a.nd when he had given thanks," and
tion. But if a woman have long hair, it is rather thought to be prayed for a blessing upon it, " he brake it" into several
her glory ; " or her hair is given her fer a covering," or instead pieces, and distributed it to his disciples, saying, " Take, and
of a veil. " But if any seem to be contentious," I would observe, eat" this bread, as a representation of " my body, which is
that in other churches we have no such custom as prevails among broken for you," or just ready to be broken, by awful pains and
1.ou at Corinth, of women appearing in public assemblies with agonies ; " this do in remembrance of me ;" that my love, and
their heads uncovered. my sufferings and death, may be kept in mind. " After the same
Ver. 17-2'2. Now ia ?ht I declare unto ?Jo u, &c.] I have manner also he took the cup," after the supper appropriated ta
praised you, in general terms, ter keeping the ordinances of God, the passover. He took the cup in the s;itne manner as he hail.
ver. 2 ; but, in what I mu now going to mention, " I praise you taken the bread ; that is, giving thanks for it, and saying, " This
not," namely, that when ye come together for religious purposes, cup is the sign and seal ot the new covenant in my blood," by
there are such irregularities and indecencies among you, that ye which all the blessings of it descend upon you ; " this do ye, as
come together io the church, or assembly, " not for the better, oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me," that you may keep in
but for the Ivorsc." I hear " that there are divisions and dissen- your minds the memory of my dying love. And remember, that
sions among you ; arid I partly believe " that this report is true; " as oft as ye cat this bread, and drink this cup," in a proper
for, according to the nature of things, it is to be expected, that manner, ye perform a very solemn action, even " the sliming
c , there must be heresies among you," erroneous notions and opi- fOrth or the Lord's death," in a striking and affecting manner ;
nions, tending to disunion, " that men of approved dispositions, and it is his will that this practice sboultrbe continued. " until he
:4entiments, and characters, might he made manifest among you," come" thc second time without sin unto salvation.
Uy their catalpa and steadiness.. Your assembling together with Ver. 27, Sc(..:. When:fore tykosoc.ver illall eat. this bread, without.
Anno Domini 57. T. CORINTHIANS. Anno Domini 57.
that ye come not together unto condemnation. to another divers kinds of tongues ; to another the
And the rest will I set in order when I come. interpretation of tongues :
11 But all these worketh that one and the self-
2IViration.1 WHEN we attend to the sacred ordinance same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he
- Imre spoken of, may we come with due preparation, examining will.
ourselves as to our repentance, our faith, and our subjection to 12 For as the body is one, and hath many mem-
Christ, that we may discern, in a spiritual sense, the Lord's
body, and feed upon him by faith, with thanksgiving. Thus
bers, and all the members of that one body, being
may we preserve the memory of his dying love, and show forth many, are one body : so also is Christ.
his death, in expectation of his second coming. Amen,. 13 For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one
body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we
CHAP. XII. be bond or free ; and have been all made to drink
- Instructions concerning the origin, the nature, the va- into one Spirit.
riety, and the use of spiritual gifts. 12 26 The members of
14 For the body is not one member, but many.
the human body perform their several offices for the benefit of 15 If the foot shall say, Because I am not the
the whole. 27-31 This is applied to the church.
hand, I am not of the body ; is it therefore not of
NOWknownot have you ignorant. carried awayI
Ye2 that ye were Gentiles,
gifts, the body ;
16 And if the ear shall say, Because I am not
the eye, I am not of the body ; is it therefore not
unto these dumb idols, even as ye were led. of the body ?
3 Wherefore I give you to understand, that no 17 If the whole body were an eye, where were
man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus the hearing ? If the whole were hearing, where
accursed : and that no man can say that Jesus is were the smelling ?
the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. 18 But now hath God set the members every
4 Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same one of them in the body, as it bath pleased him.
Spirit. 19 And if they were all one member, where
5 And there are differences of administrations, were the body ?
but the same Lord. 20 But now are they many members, yet but
6 And there are diversities of operations, but it one body.
is the same God which worketh all in all. 21 And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I
7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to have no need of thee : nor again the head to the
every man to profit withal. feet, I have no need of you.
8 For to one is given by the Spirit the word of 22 Nay, much more those members of the body,
'wisdom ; to another the word of knowledge by the which seem to be more feeble, are necessary :
same Spirit ; 23 And those members of the body, which we
9 To another faith by the same Spirit; to another think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow
the gifts of healing by the same Spirit ; more abundant honour ; and our uncomely parts
10 To another the working of miracles ; to have more abundant comeliness.
another prophecy ; to another discerning of spirits ; 24 For our comely parts have no need : but
due reverence, humility, faith, and love, shall be counted guilty supper, and promises to regulate other matters when he should
of the body and blood of the Lord ; that is, of profaning what was come to Corinth.
designed to represent his body and blood. Let none of you, CHAP. XII. Ver. 1-3. Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren,
therefore, come to this ordinance in a rash and irreverent manner; &c.] Abundance of extraordinary gifts and powers were conferred
but let a man " examine himself," as to his knowledge of the upon the Corinthians, by the operation of the Holy Spirit ; but as
nature of the ordinance, and as to his faith and love, "and so let they were divided into parties, they seem to have vied with one
him eat of this bread, and drink of this cup. For he that eateth another in the ostentatious display of these endowments; in con-
and drinketh unworthily, or profanely, eateth and drinketh judg- sequence of which, various irregular passions were excited among
ment to himself, not discerning the Lord's body," nor making a them. The apostle introduces the subject of spiritual gifts, by
proper distinction between the elements used in this ordinance, putting the Corinthians in mind of what they all were before their
and common food.—It is to be regretted, that our translators have conversion. "Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried away with
rendered the word, here used, in the manner they have done; as it dumb idols, even as ye were led ;" and since God has bestowed
has often raised terrors in weak and tender minds, which have such grace, and so many divine gifts, upon you, you are under
been greatly injurious to them. " For this cause, many among great obligation to improve these gifts to his honour and glory.
you have already brought judgments, afflictions, and calamities One thing must be particularly noticed by you, that no one, speak.
upon themselves ; " many are weak and sickly, and a con- ing by the spirit of God, speaketh any thing that may be disho-
siderable number of your community have slept the sleep of nourable to the character and dignity of the Lord Jesus Christ ;
death." It is high time, theYefore, to lay the matter seriously and, consequently, that all pretensions to a divine gift of the
to heart. " For if we would judge ourselves," and seriously Spirit, made by those Jews who call Jesus accursed, are notoriously
repent and humble ourselves on account of our misconduct, false and wicked ; and, on the other hand, none can sincerely say,
" we should not be judged of the Lord." But according to from the principles of true knowledge and faith, " that Jesus is
his infinite mercy, when we are thus judged," it is not to the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost." I speak of embracing his re-
our final condemnation ; " but we are chastened of the Lord, ligion most heartily, and of professing his truth in uprightness and
that we may not be condemned with the impenitent and unbeliev- integrity. For a true faith in his name is the work of the Spirit
ing wolid."—The apostle concludes with a necessary caution of God upon the heart, Eph. ii. S.
ruspecting the orderly celebration of the ordinance of the Lord's .Ver. 4---21. Now there are diversities of gifts, &c.] But these
Arm Domini 57. CHAPTER XIII. ItIO Dtmihi s.
God hath tempered the body together, having ritual gifts bestowed - on the primitive church, and for those
ordinary abilities which arc still continued in the societies of his
given more abundant honour to that part which people. May they all be used for the purposes of edification.
lacked : May those who are united together in Christian fellowship, have
25 That there should be no schism in the body ; the same care for One another's welfare, which is known to pre-
but that the members should have the same care vail among the members of the natural body, for the honour of
one for another. Christ, their common head, and for the promoting of the inte-
26 And whether one member suffer, all the rest and happiness of the whole community. Amen.
members suffer with it; or one member be honoured,
all the members rejoice with it. CHA P. XIII.
27 Now ye are the body of Christ, and members 1-13 The apostle here gives a most body description of charily,
in particular. and concludes his account of it with a reflection on its per-
28 And God hath set some in the church, first petual duration, in which it excels bothfizith and hope.
apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers,
after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps,
governments, diversities of tongues.
T of angels,speakhave not charity, I of men
with the tongues
come as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.
29 Are all apostles ? are all prophets ? are all 2 And though I have the gift of prophecy, and
teachers ? are all workers of miracles ? understand all mysteries, and all knowledge ; and
30 Have all the gifts of healing ? do all speak though I have all faith, so that I could re-
with tongues ? do all interpret ? move mountains, and have not charity, I am no-
31 But covet earnestly the best gifts : and yet thing.
shew I unto you a more excellent way. 3 And though I bestow all my goods to feed the
poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and
aopiration.] BLESSED be God for the rich variety of spi- have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.
gifts are all derived from one and the same Divine Spirit. " And the body . is maintained and fed. " And the head cannot say to
there are diversities of administrations," or services, to which the feet," mean as their offied seems to be, " 1 have no need of
these gifts are directed, and for which they are designed, " but vou ;" since by them the whole frame is supported, and moved
the same Lord." And, moreover, " there are diversities of ope- from place to place. Nay, even those members, which seem the
rations," or effects, produced, " yet it is one and the same God more feeble, are still necessary.. And even those parts, which we
which worketh all in all," producing all these effects in different think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant
persons. But this general observation must ever be kept in mind, honour," by the dress which we wear.
that the benefit of the church is intended by the bestowment of all Ver. 25, Sze. That there should be no schism in the eve.]
these divine gifts; " for the manifestation of the Spirit is given to That is, no division of separate interests in the body, " but that.
every man to profit withal," for the edification and happiness of all the members might have the same care one for another," ag
the whole body. " To one is given by the Spirit the word of being important parts of the whole. " So that if one member
wisdom," to open and explain the great mysteries of the gospel ; suffer, all the members suffer with it," and endeavour to remove
" to another the word of knowledge,' so that he understands, the grievance, be it what it may ; " or if one member be honoured,
and is capable or explaining, the prophecies and fignics of the Old all the members rejoice with it." Let this be all applied to the
Testainent ; another is endowed with a remarkable degree of purpose for which it is introduced. " Ye are the body of Christ,
!Intl), by which he is enabled to encounter the greatest difficulties. and members in particular." And as some members in the body
This is bestowed by the same Spirit, for the profit of others. are placed in more eminent stations than others, so also are some
Some are endowed with the power of performing miraculous cures ; Christians in the church. Apostles are placed in the first rank ;
others, of working miracles of various kinds. Some are inspired to in the second place are found prophets, who foretell future events,
!hi-etch future events ; and sonic have the power o ['discerning of spi- or speak by immediate inspiration, for the e.dification of the whole
rits. Sonic are enabled to speak. forth the truth in various languages, church. In the third rank are teachers of a more ordinary kind;
which they have never learned ; and others are qualified to inter- afterwards those who are endowed with miraculous powers, and
pret those languages to those who do not understand them.—All those who have the gift of healing diseases, with tho.se who are
these endowments the Holy Spirit freely bestows, " dividing to helpers in the distribution of the church's bounty, and those who
every one severally as he will." This may be illustrated by re- are useful in government, together with such as speak divers
ferring to the 'Ionian body, which is one, and hath ninny members. tongues. Now all are not apostles, nor prophets, nor teacher:.
So also is the mystical body of Christ. " Jews and Gentiles, bond All are not workers miracles ; all do not speak with tongues,
and free, are, by one Spirit, baptized into one body, and have nor do all interpret. Let these things be well considered by you.
been all made to drink into one Spirit," by which the divine life " But covet earnestly the best gifts."—The words nevi with equal
is at first produced, and afterwards continually preserved. " The propriety be rendered, " Ye do covet the best gifts." The apos-
natural body is not one member, but many," which have various tle's design was, to repress that ambitious temper which prevailed
offices, and answer various purposes. " If' the foot should say, too much among the Corinthians ; and he therefore adds, " Yet
Because I am not the hand," but am placed in the lowest station, show I unto you a more excellent way."
" I am not ofthe body," every one must perceive the conclusion CHAP. hIll. Var. 1---3. Though 1?" speak wit/n the tongues of
would be wrong. " And it' the ear should say, Because I am not men, &c.] The original word, used by the apostle in this chapte'r,
the eye, I ant not of the body," would not that evidently appear is often rendered love, and is not L.e properly translated charity.
to be a mistake ? " Ti. the whole body were an eye," where would It intends such a love to the whole church, as ultimately centres
be the sense of hearing ? In like manner, " if the whole were in God. The inspired writer had told the Corinthians, that he
hearing, where were the smelling ?" God bath wisely set the would show them " a more excellent NSfly " than that of overvalu-
members of the body, every one of them, as it bath pleased him. ing spiritual gifts, and seeking their own ;amour in the use of them.
A detached ineuiber could not be supposed to exist alone. But To avoid giving offinice, he speaks of' himself, and personates his
there are many members, thrilling one harmonious and regular own case. " Though I speak with the tongues of taco and of
body, capante of a great variety of sensations and actions. And angels, and have pot love, I am become as sounding brass, or a
no one member can reasonably despise the rest. " The eye can- tinkling cymbal ;" 1 should only resemble the unmeaning noise of
not say to tile hand, I have no need of thee ;" for by the hand, the most common, and less harmonious, „instruments of music.%—A
VOL. II. 6
Anno Domini 57. I. CORINTHIANS. !inn° Domini 57.
4 Charity suffered' long, and is kind ; charity CHAP. XIV.
cuvieth not ; charity vaunted' not itself, is not 1-1.1. Prophecy is to be preferred to ,rpeaking with longues, as
puffed up, 1
more conducive to ed:1 icatica. 12---20 All gilts should le
5 Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not vsed with a view to that. 21-25 Tonaves ore ciesined to
conoince unbelievers. 26-33 Rules j*Gr the orderlo exercise
her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil ; ,rifts. 34, 35 Trimien are not to speak in the chur(h,
6 Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the apt cH in a case before stated. 36 — 38 The so(fs.ullniency
truth ; of some teachers 7-enroved. 39, 40 All things should be done
7 Beareth all things, believed' all things, hoped' decently and in order.
all things, endured' all things.
8 Charity never failed' : but whether there be FIOLLOW after charity, and desire spiritual
prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, but rather that ye may prophesy.
they shall cease ; whether there be knowledge, it 2 For he that speaketh in an unknown tongue
shall vanish away. speaketh not unto men, but unto God : for no man
9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. understandeth him; howbeit in the spirit he speaketh
10 But when that which is perfect is come, then mysteries.
that which is in part shall be done away. 3 But he that prophesied' speaketh unto men to
n. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I edification, and exhortation, and comfort.
understood as a child, I thought as a child : but 4 He that speaketh in an unknown tongue
when I became a man, I put away childish things. edified' himself; but he that prophesied' edified'
12 For now we sec through a glass, darkly ; but the church.
then face to face : now I know in part ; but then 5 1 would that ye all spake with tongues, but
shall I know even as also I am known. rather that ye prophesied : for greater is he that
13 And now abided' faith, hope, charity, these prophesied' than he that speaketh with . tongues,
three ; but the greatest of these is charity. except he interpret, that the church may receive
6 Now, brethren, if I come unto you speaking
IF love to God and love to men • with tongues, what shall 1 profit you, except I shall
Be wanting, all our hopes are vain ; speak to you either by revelation, or by knowledge,
or tongues, nor gifts, nor fiery zeal, or by prophesying, or by doctrine ?
The work of love can e'er fulfil. 7 And EVC11 things without life giving sound,
Love is the grace that keeps her pow'r,
whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction
When faith and hope are known no morel
In the bright realms of peace above, in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped
The saints for ever dwell in love. or harped ?
cymbal was made of two pieces of hollow brass, which, being struck an adversary fall into sin; for " it rejoiceth not in iniquity." The
'together, made a tinkling noise, with very little variety of sound. subject of its rejoicing is " the truth" of God. As for as it can,
--" And though I have the gift of prophecy," so as to foretell the consistently with integrity, " it beareth" and covered] all things
Most important events ; " and understand all mysteries, and all that are amiss. It " believeth and hopeth" all things for the
knowledge," respecting natural things, or the system of religion ; best, being not apt to suspect the integrity and veracity of others,
and though I have that miraculous " faith that I could remove without sufficient reasons. And as it is long-suffering with re-
mountains," to the astonishment of all beholders, and yet should spect to human provocations, so " it endureth" trials from the
I be destitute of the divine principle of love, I should be no true hand of God, even the sharpest and heaviest afflictions, acquiescing
Christian, I should be nothing in the sight of' God. Nay, if in his holy will, and trusting in his divine care.
through ostentation, or other low motives, I should " give all my Ver. 8, &c, Charity neveriaileth, &c.] It will accompany us to
;oods to feed the poor ;" or if, to gain the glorious name of a a future world, and, in part, constitute our happiness there. In
martyr, I should give my body to be burned, at the same time that this respect, it is for superior to those gifts of which we have been,
1 am destitute of heavenly love, " it would profit me nothing."' speaking. " Whether there be prophecies, they shall thil," and
This may be understood of that love which is the fruit of the Spirit have an end; " whether therm be tongues, they shall cease ;" one
in the heart of a believer. He who is the subject of it is taught speech and one language will be spoken in the heavenly world. A
to love God and holiness, and to love the person, the truth, and great deal of that " knowledge," which is now so much admired,
the precepts of Christ ; but the apostle here enumerates the exer- " shall vanish away," as of no importance. " For now we know
cises of that holy affection, with respect to mankind, and especially but in part, and we prophesy but in part ;" great imperfection at-
to those who bear the image of Christ. tends us in both. " But when that which is perfect is come, that
Ver. 1 - 7. Charity supreth long, and is kind, Sze.] It endures which is in part" will be abolished. This will be like the state of
Injuries, affronts, and provocations, without being kindled into adult age, when compared with that of feeble infancy. " When I
rage and resentment. It is " kind" and gentle, even under ill- was a child," &c. Such will be the heavenly state, when compared
usage. It " envieth not" the advantages which others enjoy, but with the present. The most noble objects which we have before
rather takes pleasure in them. It is not insolent and over-bearing. us, we see but in a very obscure manner, as we discern things by
it is not " puffed up" with arrogant self-conceit, on account of means of " a glass, darkly ;" but then we shall see " face to
any distinguished station or attainments. " It cloth not behave face," in as clear a manner as we can desire. "Now I know but
itself unseemly," or indecently, and in a manner unbecoming a in part ;" for a great part yet remains undiscovered ; " but then
• person's station or condition. " it seeketh not its own" things, I shall know even as I am known." And " now abideth faith,
but gives up self-interest, where the interest of others is in ques- hope, charity, these three ; but the greatest of these is charity."
tion. It is " not easily provoked," or exasperated, even when It transthrms us into the image of God, and will live and reign
the treatment it meets with is unjust. It puts the kindest con- when faith is changed into sight, and hope is lost in fruition.
struction On the conduci, of others, and is tams illing to " think CLIA P. XIV. Ver. 1-14. Follow after charit y, ad desire spiri-
tvil," except when compelled to it. It takes no pleasure in seeing tual gifis,,&c.] It is so difficult to attain and preserve that spirit
Anno Domini 57. CHAPTER XIV. Anna Domini 57.
8 For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, 18 1 thank my God., I speak with tongues more
who shall prepare himself to the battle? than ve all :
9 3o likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue 19 Yet in the church I had rather speak five
words easy to be understood, how shall it be known words with my understanding, that by my voice I
what is spoken ? thr ye shall speak into the air. might teach others also, than ten thousand words
10 There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in an unknown tongue.
in the world, and none of them is without signifi- 20 Brethren, be not children in understanding :
cation. howbeit in malice be ye children, but in under-
I Therefore if I know not the meaning of the standing be men.
voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a bar- 21 In the law it is written, With men of other
barian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people;
unto me. and yet lbr all thaL will they not hear me, saith the
12 Even so ye, forasmuch as ye are zealous of Lord.
spiritual gifts, seek that ye may excel to the edify- 22 Wherefbre tongues are thr a sign, not to them
ing of the church. that believe, but to them that believe not : but pro-
13 Wherefore let him that speaketh in an unknown phesying serveth not for them that believe not, ,but
tongue pray that he may interpret. for them which believe.
14 For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my spirit 23 If therelbre the whole church be come toge-
prayeth, but my understanding is untruitfill. ther into one place, and all speak with tongues,
15 What is it then ? I will pray with the spirit, and there come in those that are unlearned,
and I will pray with the understanding also : I will or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are
sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the under- mad ?
standing also. 24 But if all prophesy, and there come in one
16 Else when thou shalt bless with the spirit, that believeth not, or one unlearned, he is convinced
bow shall he that occupieth the room of the un- of all, he i3 judged of all :
learned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing 25 And thus are the secrets of his heart made
he understandeth not what thou sayest ? manifest ; and so falling down on his face he will
17 For thou verily givest thanks well, but the worship God, and report that God is in you of a
other is not edified. truth.
of love which I have been recommending, that I entrerit you to .
let this be your prevailino object, that "ye may excel - to the
pursue it with an eagerness like that with which hunters follow edifying of the church." 0n this account, let him that speaketh
their game. (So the word signifien.) Cultivate it to the utmost in an unknown tongue pray that he may be able to interpret what
of your power in your own breasts, and promote it in all around he otters. As to prayer, if I offer up my requests in an unknown.
you. The force of self-love is great on the one hand, and the tongue, " my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful,"
-provocations to be met with on the other are many. As to spiri- producing no benefit to those that are present with me.
tual gifts, you may desire them, in subordination to the will of Ver. 15-19. What is it then? Sze.] What is my duty in these
God, but especially that you may be able to prophesy, or preach circumstances ? " I will pray with the Spirit, and I will pray with
the divine word; for by this you may be enabled to do the greatest the understanding also ;" I will offer up my requests from the
-good. " For he that speaketh in a tongue" which is unknown to fulness of my affections, and, at the same time, in the sober exercise
his hearers " speaks not to men, but to God," who knows the of my understanding, by using . such words as may edify others
truth and importance of what he says; " but he that prophesieth," who join with me. In singing the praises of God, I will observe
or preacheth the word, " speaketh unto men to edification, and the same rule, using the language best understood by those about
exhortation, and comfort." So that he who speaketh in an un- rue. Should a man, in returning thanks to God for his mercies, be
known tongue may edify himself; but he that preacheth the word most fervent in the exercise, but express himself in an unknown
cdifieth others, particularly the church of God. Though I could tongue, how could be, who understood it not, give his assent to the
wish that ye might all speak with tongues, I had much rather that thanksgiving, by adding his Amen to it ? Should he that gave
ye might all prophesy ; " for he that prophesieth is greater, - and thanks do it in the most proper manner, the other could derive no
ram.e generally useful, than he that speaketh with tongues, " ex- benefit from it, being a stranger to the language made use of.—
cepc he interpret what he s ,.ys, that the church may receive edifi- The apostle says, that when he had to speak to people of different
cation." Should I myself conic to you speaking in a variety of nations, he spake with tongues more than all the Corinthians, and
-unknown tongues, Ivied should i profit you ? It would be of no use he thanked God that he was enabled to address those who spoke
except I spake intelligibly, by immediate revelation from God, by languages so very different, in their own native tongue. For he
explaining the scriptures, or by - advaneingsome point of doctrine. had rather speak five words, so that others might understand him,
Musical instruinents can give no direction to those who are to and be edified by what he said, than ten thousand words in a
sing or dance to them, unless a proper distinction he made in the tongue with which they were unacquainted. Why was the gift of
sound. " And if the trumpet give ;:n uncertain sound, who shall tongues conferred, but that every nation might be instructed in
prepare him4elf to the battle ?" If the trumpet should be •blown their own native language ? Acts h. 8.
at random, without that distinction which calls the combatant to Ver. 20- 25. Brethren, be not children in understanding, Sec.]
tile field, and that which calls him .to retreat, what soldier could The vain ostentation of speaking with tongues indicates a childish
understand when to gird on his harness ? Even so, unless intelli- weakness ; but though in respect to malice you should be like little
gont words are used, how can the hearers understand what is children, yet in understanding you should be men. I know it is
spoken ? The preocher might as well speak to the empty air. written in the law, or the Old Testament, Isai. xxviii. 11, 12,
There are many different languages in the world, and none of them " With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this
• without signification to those who understand them. But then, people; and yet for all that will they not hear me, saith the Lord."
if in conveimtion I know not the meaning of what is uttered, " I These words at least imply, that God would instruct his people by
should be unto him that speaketli a barbarian, and be would be a persons endued with the gift of tongues, in order to convince them
barbarian to me." Now, " as ye are zealous of spiritual gifts," of the truth. " Wherefore tongues are fbr sign" to unbelievers,
6 11 2
Ann° Domini 57. I. CORINTHIANS. Anno Domini 57.
26 How is it then, brethren ? when ye come to- spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that
gether, every one of you bath a psalm, bath a doc- write unto you are the commandments of the
trine, bath a tongue, bath a revelation, hath an in- Lord.
terpre%1Lion. Let all things be done unto edifying. 38 But if any man be ignorant, let him be igno. ,
'27 If any man speak in an unknown tongue, let rant.
it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by 39 Wherefore, brethren, covet to prophesy, and
cou,c,;e ; and let one interpret. forbid not to speak with tongues.
28 But if t:1,2re be no interpreter, let him keep 40 Let all things be done decently and in order.
silenc::: in the church ; and let him speak to himself;
and to God. 2,piraticit] HELP us to rer;arl thee, 0 Lord, as the Au-
29 Let the prophets speak two or three, and let thor, not a cniusoe last of peace, in the societies of thy
the ot tenjudge. people. Delivc ail and self-conceit, which have
:;) If ,':1;rj thing be revealed to another that sitteth often occas.o!-ied in at InLcinef, disercier, and confusion, among
those who have hoci edloci hy thy name. May we have a pre-
by, let he fiNt hold his peace. vailing ca en' 3r the wellire of thy church ; daily following
way all prophesy one by one, that all after the thit.;.s ci lih make for peace, and things wherewith
may learn ; and all may be comforted. one may edifv another.
L'z: And the spirits of the prophets are subject
to tile proldiets. CHAP. XV.
For God is not the author of confusion, but The apostle leaves the .resurrection of Christ from the
in all churches of the saints. dead. 1'2— I thence in/his the doctrine o_f the general
i..ct your women keep silence in the churches : ection. :20 — 41 :this in probes ty many arguments.
42 - 53 lie describes the manner in which the dead shall rice.
for it is not permitted unto them to speak ; but 51 - 57 And shows that death be swallowed 2,1) in vic-
they are conananded to be under obedience, as also tory. 58 fie dien coultalcs widi an animated exhortation.
said] the law.
071F.OVER, brethren, I declare unto you
35 And if they will learn any thing, let them ask
their husbards at home : for it is a shame for women 11 the gospel which I preached unto you, which
also ve ione received, and wherein ye stand ;
to speak in the church.
S6 What P came the word of God out from you? 2 By which also ye arc saved, if ye keep in me-
or came it unto you only ? mory what I preached unto you, unless ye have be-
37 If any man think himself to be a prophet, or lieved in vain.
in order to their conversion ; but prophesying is for the benefit of gifts, " may all prophesy, one by one, that all may learn, and all
them that believe also. Supposing the whole church at Corinth be comforted." For the gifts and impulses of the Spirit are sub-
should be gathered into one place, and all who have the gin: ject to those who are endued with them, so that they may be able
should speak with tongues, while the rest were whclly ignorant of to speak or hold their peace, as occasion requires. For you may
what was said ; and supposing an unbeliever should come into the rest assured of this, " that God is not the Author of disorder or
assembly, such an irrational mode of proceeding would incrense confusion, but of peace and regularity, in all the churches of the
is prejudices against religion, Sc) that he would say, " These people saints."
are all mad." But if all prophesy, and one teacher after another Ver. 31, 35. Let your women keep silence, Sze.] Let them be
speak by the Ppi ,at of God, in an instructive and edifying manner, silent in your religious assemblies, unless, as I have observed be-
the stranger who comes in among yoa wili lieu something which fore, they have some extraordinary revelation from God to deliver,
piny iMinan his mind, or awaben his conscience; S9 that he wifi under the immediate inspiration of the Holy Spirit, chap. xi. 3-
find " convinced of Ml and judged of all" the speakers ; 16 For, that case excepted,' it is not permitted to women to
"the secrets of his heart will be made inaMi'est" unto him, in eon- speak iu public assemblies. They are commanded to be in sub-
soqueiee of which, from a curious mid carelthn, heif-er, he inny be- jection, as eiso said' the law, Gen. iii. 16. If they are desirous of
come humble worshipper ; and, prostrating himselfin be presence learning he meaning of any tiling which they do not understand,
of the *Jost 111gb he will be constrained to acknowledge, " that
, let them ask their husbands at home ; For it is deemed an indecent
God is anionn: you of a trutli." tiling ibr a woman, on ordinary occasions, " to speak in the
-Ver. (26--9:i. Hon' is it then, ethren &c.] When ye come church." Modesty and reserve are peculiarly ornamental to fe-
tegother for divine worship, those among .yo;1 who are endued with males.
gifts arc too eager to seine the opportunity of exercising then), Ver. 36, &c. 11/tat? came the word rf God out from you ?] I fear
without due attention to order and decorum. One begins to sina- that you, my friend: at Corinth, have too high an opinion of your-
a psalm ; another is resolved to speak on some point of doctrine; selves. Do not look on yourselves as models for other churches.
another would declare some special revelation which has been The preachers of' the gospel did not first come out from you, nor
made to him ; one weell speak with tongues, and another would did the word of God reach you alone. Many churches were
interpret that which is spoken. Let this general rule be always planted before yours had any existence. " If' any man think him-
kept in remembrance, " Let all things be doae with a xiew to self to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him own and acknowledge
ree ere l edificntion." 20y- speak in an unknown tongue, let that the things which I write unto you are no other than the
two, or at the most three, spcnk one after another ; and let one in- commandments of the Lord." But it' any man affects to be ig-
norant, doubtful, or uncertain, about this, I shall not enter into any
tell): at what is. spoken. But if there be no interpreter present, lit
him thnt wished to exercise the g ig of speabing in an unknown debate with hini ; " let him be ignorant." My concluding advice
tongue, bn silent in the church, or only speak to himadf and to is, thnt ye covet to prophesy, and forbid not to speak with tongues,
God, in meditation -ad prayer. As to those that prophesy, let under such regulations as I have laid down ; but let all things
two or three speak in their circler, and let the rest jadge respecting among you be done decently, to prevent disturbances, and every
what is rpoken. If any thing of importance be revealed to ooe thing unsuitable to the religion of Christ ; and let all things be
that sitteth hy, which requires present attention, let the first, done in order. This will tend most to your own profit, and to the
when he has finished his address, hold his peace, while his brother honour of God.
speaks. For those of you on whom God has bestowed suitable CHAP, XV. Ver. 1 - 22. Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you,
Ann° Domini 57. CHAPTER XV. Anno Domini 57.
3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which 12 Now if Christ be preached that he rose from
also received, how that Christ died for our sins the dead, how say some among you that there is no
according to the scriptures ; resurrection of the dead ?
4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again 13 But if there be no resurrection of the dead,
the third day according to the scriptures : then is Christ not risen :
5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the 14 And if Christ be not risen, then is our preach-
twelve : ing vain, and your faith is also vain.
6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred 15 Yea, and we are fbund false witnesses of God;
brethren at once ; of whom the greater part re- because we have testified of God that he raised up
main unto this present, but some are fallen Christ : whom he raised not up, if so be that the
asleep. dead rise not.
7 After that, he was seen of James, then of all 16 For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ
the apostles. raised :
8 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of 17 And if Christ be not rased, your faith is vain 5
one born out of due time. ye are yet in your sins.
9 For I am the least of the apostles, that am not 18 Then they also which are fallen asleep in
meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted Christ are perished.
the Church of God. 19 If in this life only we have hope in Christ,
Hi But by the grace of God I am what I am : we are of all men most miserable.
and his grace which was bestowed upon Inc was not 20 But now is Christ risen from the dead, and
in vain ; but I laboured more abundantly than they become the firstfruits of them that slept.
all : yet not I, but the grace of God which was 21 For since by man came death, by man came
with rue. also the resurrection of the dead.
ii Therefore whether it were I or they, so we 22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall
preach, and so ye believed. all be made alive.
&c,] Some of the Corinthians were infected with the Sadducean resurrection of Christ, and ye at Corinth professed to receive that
spirit of Jewish sceptics, and with the notions of' the Greek philoso- testimony. How is it, then, that some among you now presume to
phers, who denied the possibility of a resurrection. The apostle say that there is no resurrection from the dead ? How can you
here, in a long and nervous discourse, first proves the resurrection allow of the rising again of the head, and deny the rising again of
Of Christ, and then that of the human race in general, but more the members of the body ? For it is certain, that what was accom-
particularly the resurrection of' Christians. " I declare" or repeat plished in Christ is not a thing impossible in its own nature. " But if
" to you, brethren," the substance of' " the gospel which I there be no resurrection from the dead," if that doctrine be deemed
preached to you " from the beginning, " which also ye received, incredible, then it mustbe concluded, " that Christ is not risen." A ad
and in which ye stand ;" for your stability depends on your hold- what will be the consequence of tins? " If Christ be not raised, then
ing fast the truth as it is in Jesus ; " by which also ye are saved, our preaching is vain ;" for this is the very ground and foundation of
if ye keep in memory what I preached onto you, unless ye have it, and your faith most consequently "be vain." Then we the apostles
believed in vain," with an empty and insufficient faith. In the would be found false witnesses ofGod, because we testified that he
first place, I constantly held forth unto you, as a matter of the raised up Christ, whom it is certain he raised not up, if so be that
greatest importance, " that which I received of the Lord, how there be no resurrection. I therefore repeat it again, as a matter
that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures," offering of the highest importance, " if the dead are not to be raised, then
up himself as a sacrifice to divine justice, as the Lamb of God Christ himself is not risen ;" and the consequences above mentioned
which taketh away the sin of the world. Being really dead, he must follow ; " if Christ be not raised, all your fitith in him is vain,
was also buried, in the sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea ; but on and ye are yet in your sins ;" since the efficacy of the atonement
the third day he rose again, as it had been foretold in the scrip- of Christ is inseparably connected with his resurrection. This
tures. To show the truth of' his resurrection, on which the whole melancholy conclusion would likewise follow, on the denial of
or his religion depends, he first appeared unto Cephas, or Peter, Christ's resurrection, that they who have died in the faith of' Jesus
and to the women who went to see the sepulchre. He then ap- must have perished, whether they died as martyrs, or otherwise ;
peared to that company who were called the twelve apostles. for they lost their life and being together, in the cause of' One,
After this he was seen of " above five hundred brethren" in Ga- who, if still among the dead, must have been an impostor, and a
lilee at once, according to his appointment, where he gave the most false prophet. But who can, fbr a moment, endure the thought ?
iocomrstable proofs of the reality of his resurrection. Of this I may likewise add, " that if' in this life only we his persecuted
compony, says the apostle, the greater part continue alive unto and afflicted apostles have hope in Christ, we should be of all 'ilea
this day, but sonic are fallen asleep. After this he was seen of in the world the most pitiable and miserable ;'' since in these trying
Janvec, and then of all the apostles together, just before his ascen- circumstances, nothing could comfort and support us, but the
sion into heaven. " And last of all he was seen of rue also, as I hopes and prospects of' immortality, If this hope and consolation
have often told you, as of one born out of due time. For indeed I were taken from us, we should be more unhappy than other men,
lock upon inpelf as the least of all the apostles, and not meet to be because we have lost all relish fbr those enjoyments which in that,
called in apioole, hardly deserving to be numbered among the case only could be hoped fbr ; and the comfort we now enjoy has
rest, bieelose I persecuted the church of God with savage fury, an immediate connection with futurity. BiA, dismissing these
bofore his grace changed my heart. " But by the grace of God I gloomy thoughts, we joyfully declare, that " now is Christ riseu.
am what I am," both as a Christian and an apostle. And his from the dead, and become the firstfruits of' them that slept,"
grace lem,iFosted towards me, I may venture to say, was not dis- even of the whole harvest of all believers who have died from the
played in vain ; " hut I laboured more abundantly than they all," beginning, and of all who shall die to the end of the world. Christ
io order to promote the cause I had once endeavoured to sup- was the first who rose to die no more. He rose as a public persor:,
prss ; vs t, to speak more properly, " it was not I, but the grace and as the representative of all his people. " For as by man, sin'
of God u hich was with me," exciting me to diligence and zeal. and death entered into the world, so by man, by One in human
But whctlice• I or my brethren laboured most, " so we preached, nature, came also the resurrection of the dead. All men, in con-
and so ye believed." We all bare our testimony to the death and sequence of their relation to Adam, must die ; and even ‘0 irs
Domini 51. 1. CORINTHIANS. A nno Domini 57.
23 But every man in his- own order : Christ the have not the knowledge of God : I speak this to
firstfruits ; afterward they that are Christ's at his your shame.
coming. 35 But some man will say, How are the dead
24 Then conical the end, when he shall have de- raised up ? and with what body do they come ?
livered up the kingdom to God, even the Father ; 36 Mon fool, that which thou sowest is not
when he shall have put down all rule and all autho- quickened, except it die :
rity and power. 37 And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not
25 For he must reign, till he hath put all ene- that body that shall be, but bare grain, it may
mies under his feet. chance of wheat, or of some other grain ;
26 The last enemy that shall be destroyed is 38 But God giyeth it a body as it halt pleased
death. him, and to every seed his own body.
27 For be hath put all things under his feet. 39 All flesh is not the same flesh : but there is
But when he saith, all things are put under him, it is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts,
manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things another of fishes, and another of birds.
under him. 40 There are also celestial bodies, and bodies
28 And when all things shall be subdued unto terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one,and
him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto the glory of the terrestrial is another.
him that put all things under him, that God may be 41 There is one glory of the sun, and ,another
all in all. glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars :
29 Else what shall they do which are baptized for for one star differed' from another star in glory.
the dead, if the dead rise not at all ? why are they 42 So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is
then baptized for the dead ? sown in corruption ; it is raised in incorrup-
30 And why stand we in jeopardy every hour ? tion :
31 I protest by your rejoicing which I have in 43 It is sown in dishonour ; it is raised in glory :
Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily. it is sown in weakness ; it is raised in power :
32 If after the manner of men I have fought with 44 It is sown a natural body ; it is raised a spi-
beasts at Ephesus, what advantaged' it me, if the ritual body. There is a natural body, and there is
dead rise not ? let us eat and drink ; for to morrow a spiritual body.
we die. 45 And so it is written, The first man Adam
33 Be not deceived : evil communications cor- was made a living soul ; the last Adam was made a
rupt good manners. quickening spirit.
34 Awake to righteousness, and sin not ; for some 46 Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual,
Christ shall all that believe in him be made alive—For of these " that God may be all in all," we are to understand it, not of the
the apostle particularly treats in this chapter. person of the Father, but of the Godhead, comprehending the
Ver. 23-28. But evelyj man in his own order, &c.] It was pro- Father, the Son, and ;he Holy Ghost, governing all things without,
per that Christ, after a short abode in the grave, should rise as the intervention of a Mediator. But this is one of the deep things
the firstfruits, and that afterwards, at his second cooling, all his of God, and it almost overpowers our comprehension.
followers should be raised, as a glorious harvest. " Then cometh
. Ver. 29-34. Else what shall Huy do, Sze.] The apostle goes on
the end" of the present state of things, when he shall have de- to prove and illustrate the doctrine of the resurrection. Baptism
livered up the mediatorial kingdom to God, even the Father, for is often to be understood in a figurative sense, to signify over-
whose glory it had always been administered ; he will then deliver whelming sufferings, even to death itself. With such a baptism
it up, when he shall have put down " all principality, and all au- many of the primitive Christians were baptized, enduring all kinds
thority, and power," which has opposed itself to his government, of sufferings, even to martyrdom. But if there were no resurrec-
whether among men, or fallen angels. " For he must reign," as tien of the dead, and no future state of hapniness, they certainly
Mediator, "till he has put all his enemies under his feet," Psalm acted a most foolish and irrational part. Why did they suffer all
cx. 1. The triumph will then be universal ; " and the last enemy the cruelties that men could invent, and sacrifice their lives in this
that shall be destroyed is death." This enemy will continue to manner, if there be no resurrection ? This sense best agrees with
prevail till then, and will hold the subjects of Christ under subjec- what follows ; " and why stand we in jeopardy," or in the very
tion in the grave ; but then his power will be abolished. It is same danger, " every hour " of our lives. " 1 protest by our re-
elsewhere said, that the Father bath put all things under the feet joicing which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily," or am
of Christ, Psalm viii. 6. But, when he saith, " all things are put every day exposed to the danger of martyrdom. I have lately been
under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all in great danger, at Ephesus, of fighting with wild beasts in the
things under him." But when the Father shall have fulfilled his public shows, or in contending with men of dispositions not less
promise, and all things are subjected to Christ, then shall the Re- savage and ferocious ; but what advantageth it me, if the dead rise
deemer himself give up his commission as Mediator, the end of it not ? The Epicurean maxim is, " Let us eat and drink," indulge
being completely answered in the salvation of his people. Then every appetite without restraint ;" for to morrow we die." This
" God shall be all in all." There is a distinction between the ab- would be a natural conclusion, supposing the doctrine of the re-
solute, universal kingdom of God, and the mediatorial kingdom of surrection not to be true. But the heathen poet, Menander, can
Christ, which was instituted for the benefit of fallen man. At the teach you, "that evil communications corrupt good manners."
period referred to, the whole scheme of redemption will be com- Therefore " awake to righteousness, and sin not," in countenancing
pleted, and Christ will surrender his commission relating to it, a doctrine subversive of all real religion ; " for some of you
having finished the work which the Father gave him to do. Yet he have not the true knowledge of God. I speak this to :;-our shame,"
will no more cease to reign, when he gives up his mediatorial king- a have boasted so much of your religious attainments.
dom, than the Father ceased to reign when he appointed his Son to Ver. 35, &c. But seine mail will sag, How are the dead raised?
t hat kingdom. For the dominion of Christ is an everlasting domi- &c.] When they are quite dissolved, and the particles of them
nion, and of his kingdom there shall be no end. When it is said, • scattered abroad, with What kind of bodies can they be raised ?
Ann° Domini 57. CHAPTER XVI, AM10 Domini 57.
but that which is natural; and afterward that which 2opiration.] TEAEH US, 0 God, to curb that vain curiosity,
is spiritual. which is so apt to arise in our minds, respecting the mysterion
truths of religion. What thou bast declared to be thy purpose
47 The first man is of the earth, earthy : the to effect, may we be enabled firmly to believe, leaving it with
second man is the Lord from heaven. thee to overcome every difficulty which may seem to lie in the
48 As is the earthy, such are they also that are way of its accomplishment. Blessed be thy name, that when, by
earthy : and as is the heavenly, such are they also our relation to the first Adam, we were under a sentence of con-
that are heavenly. demnation and death, thou didst ordain, that in Christ, the se s
49 And as we have borne the image of the earthy,
that we, by faith, may see death disarmed of his sting, and the
we shall also bear the image of the heavenly. grave deprived of its victory, that we may render due praise lo
50 Now this I say, brethren', that flesh and blood thee, through Jesus Christ our Lord, while we are endeavouring
cannot inherit the kingdom of God ; neither cloth to be steadfast, immoveable, and ever active in thy service.
corruption inherit incorruption. Amen.
51 Behold, I shew you a mystery ; We shall not CHAP. XVI.
all sleep, but we shall all be changed.
52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at 1-4 The apostle gives orders dont a collection for the poor.
the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the 5-9 Mentions his design of visiting Corinth. 10-12 Re-
commends Timothy and Apolloc. 13 - 18 _Exhorts to watch-
dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be fulness, faith, and love. 19 - 21 Sends Christian salutations,
changed. and concludes with .a solemn lenedict ion.
53 . For this corruptible must put on incorruption,
and this mortal must put on immortality.
54 So when this corruptible shall have put on in- N OW concerning the collection fOr the saints,
as I have given order to the churches of Ga-
latia, even so do ye.
corruption, and this mortal shall have put on im-
mortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying 2 Upon the first day of the week let every one of
that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. you lay by him in store, as God bath prospered him,
55 0 death, where is thy sting ? 0 grave, where that there be no gatherings when I come.
is thy victory ? 3 And when I come, whomsoever ye shall ap-
56 The sting of death is sin ; and the strength of prove by your letters, them will I send to bring
sin is the law. your liberality unto Jerusalem.
57 But thanks he to God, which giveth us the 4 And if it be meet that I go also, they shall go
victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. with me.
58 Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye sted- 5 Now I will come unto you, when I shall pass
fast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of through Macedonia : for I do pass through Mace-
the Lord, fbrasnmeh as ye know that your labour is donia.
not in vain in the Lord. 6 And it may be that I will abide, yea, and
Thou thoughtless and inconsiderate man, that seed which thou thren, " that flesh and blood," or such weak and corruptible
sowest in the ground is not quickened, except it appear to die. frames as ours, " cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor can cor-
And thou sowcst not that body which shall be produced, but hare ruption inherit ineorruption." " - Behold, Ishew you a mystery,"
grain, suppose of wheat, or of some other grain," in which there is which is this, that we shall not all sleep in death, or Fallby the
no appearance of either stalk or root: but God giveth it a body stroke of mortality, " but we shall all be changed." And this
according to his pleasure, " and to every seed its own body," change may take place " in a• moment, in the twinkling of an
though different in its form. We know that all flesh is not the eye ;" for •when,the trumpet shall sound, the dead shall be raised,
same kind of flesh, &c. and we know that of bodies, some are and the IHng.shall be immediately changed, whoever are ali ve at
earthly and others heavenly; and there is a wonderful variety in that day. Then this corruptible shall put on incorruption, and
the brightness and splendour of those bodies.—" So also is the re- this mortal shall put on immortality ; and the saying of the prophet
surrection of the dead. A great change will then take place in the shall have its accomplishment, " Death is swallowed up in vic-
body. "It is sown," or committed to the ground, in " corruption," tory," or is perfectly overcome, Isaiah xxv. 8. In the prospect of
as is well known, " but it is raised in incorruption," never to suffer this, the believer may say, " 0 death," &c. Sin is that sting
any future decay ; " it is sown in dishonour," being unfit even to winch arms death with its terror ; and that which gives such a for-
be kept above ground; " it is raised in glory," fashioned like to midable power to sin is the law, which denounces condemnation
Christ's glorious body ; " it is sown in weakness," deprived of all on the transgressor. " But thanks he to God, who criveth us the
strength or ability for anything; "it is raised in power," enduedlwith victory " over sin, and the condemnation of the law, " through
a great degree of' strength, vigour, and activity ; " it is sown a mere
- the perfect atonement of our Lord Jesus Christ." Be excited,
natural body, but it is raised a spiritual both'," somewhat resembling animated, and encouraged, theretbre, my beloved brethren, by these
the angels in heaven ; fbr there certainly is both a natural and a views, to " be steadfast, Immoveable, and always abounding in the
spiritual body. So " the first man Adam was made a living soul," work of the Lord," in every work which may be acceptable to him,
Gen. ii. 7 ; but Jesus Christ, the great Head of the church, who " forasmuch as ye know that your labour shall not be in vain in
may be called the second Adam, as being the representative of his the Lord," since the great reward is clearly set before yon.
spiritual °Spring, " is a quickening spirit." The first man was CIIAP. XVI. Ver. 1-9. NOW concerning the collection for the
from the earth, and so. was earthy ; but the second man is no other saints, &c.] It appears, from the apostle's manner of' address to
than " the Lord from heaven," who came to raise us thither. They the Corinthians, that they had been previously informed of his de-
who descended from Adam are mean, mortal, and corruptible sign of raising a contribution from the Gentile churches, for the
cre:ture.:. But the spiritual seed of Christ are, in some measure, relief of the poor brethren in Judea, who were in great distress,
heavenly, being conformed to his image; for as we have borne the both on account of the famine, and time persecution to which they
iumge of the earthy, we shall also be made to bear the image ofthe had been exposed. As he had given orders to the churches in
Loavenly, bath in body and soul ; being made to resemble him in Galatia to prepare for tins, so he requested that the Corinthians
purity, glory, and immortality. It ought to be remembered, bre- would also attend to it. they held their Christian assemblies on
Anno Domini 57. I. CORINTHIANS. Ann° Domini 57,
winter with you, that ye may bring me on my jour- 17 I am glad of the coming of Stephanas and
ney whithersoever I go. Fortunatus and Achaicus : fbr that which was lack-
7 For I will not see you now by the way ; but I ing on your part they have supplied.
trust to tarry a while with you, if the Lord permit.
- 18 For they have refreshed my spirit and your's:
8 But I will tarry at Ephesus until Pentecost. therefore acknowledge ye them that are such.
9 For a great door and effectual is opened unto 19 The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and
me, and there are many adversaries. Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the
10 Now if Timotheus come, see that he may be church that is in their house.
with you without fear ; for he worketh the work of 20 All the brethren greet you. Greet ye one
the Lord, as I also do. another with an holy kiss.
11 Let no man therefore despise him : but con- 21 The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand.
duct him fbrth in peace, that he may come unto me: 22 If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ,
for I look for him with the brethren. . let him be Anathema Maranatha.
12 As touching our brother Apollos, I greatly 23 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with
desired him to come unto you with the brethren : you.
but his will was not at all to come at this time : but 24 My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.
he will come when he shall have convenient time. IV The first epistle to the Corinthians was writ-
13 Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, quit you like ten from Philippi by Stephanas, and For-
men, be strong. tunatus, and Achaicus, and Timotheus.
14 Let all your things be done with charity.
15 I beseech you, brethren, (ye know the house
of Stephanas, that it is the firstffuits of Aehaia, and 20piration.
that they have addicted themselves to the ministry We read thy word with love,
of the saints,) And gladly would obey ;
16 That ye submit yourselves unto such, and to Lord, send thy Spirit from above,
every one that helpeth with us, and laboureth. To guide us lest we stray.
the first day of the week, in commemoration of the resurrection of have convenient opportunity ;" for he retains a cordial affection
Christ. , and he requested that every one of them would, on that for you.
day, lay something up, or collect together a proportion of their Ver. 13, &c. Watch ye, standfitst in the faith, &c.] You are in
gains, according as God had prospered them during the preceding the midst of formidable enemies ; be watchful against all their as
week ; thus a larger sum would be provided than could perhaps ; instead of presuming upon your gifts and abilities, be on
have been raised by one collection ; and, by attending to this me- your guard against the temptations which attend you. Be con-
thod, there would be no necessity for gathering when the apostle cerned to " stand fast" in the faith ; for some among you have be-
came among them. He adds, " When I come, whomsoever you gun to waver; stand your ground firmly, be valiant and prudent, as
shall approve by your letters, them ‘vill I send to carry our military trier), who have to fight the good fight of faith ; and be
bounty unto Jerusalem." And if it be thought convenient that I strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might. But, above all,
should go thither myself, they shall go with me, that every thing be carefid to manage all your concerns according to that spirit of
may be conducted in an honourable manner. My purpose is to love which I have recommended. Ye know the house of Ste-
come unto you, when I shall pass through Macedonia ; and I am phanas, that it is among the firstfruits of Achaia ; and they of that
now intending to go thither. It may be that I shall abide and family have addicted themselves to every service in which they
winter with you, that you may bring me fbrward on my journey could minister to the good of the saints ; I beseech you that ye
to Jerusalem, or whithersoever else I shall be ordered in pro- submit yourselves unto such, and to every one that helped] with
vidence to go. From the place where I now am, I might easily us, and laboureth in the Lord's work. " I am glad of the coming
come to you by sea ; but I will not now see you, in this transient of Stephanas," that worthy person, whom I have just named,
manner, in my way ; for I purpose, if the Lord permit, to spend " and of Fortunatus, and Achaicus " who accompanied him; " for
some time with you. But I shall continue at Ephesus till Pente- that which was lacking on your part they have supplied ;" for they
cost ; for a great door and effectual is opened to me for usefulness refreshed my spirit greatly, by their edifying conversation, as they
in this populous city ; and, at the same time, there are many ad- have often refreshed yours by their ministrations. " The churches
versaries and opposers, who might do much mischief were I to of Asia salute you," with whom I have frequent opportunities of'
leave the young converts here at present. conversing. They heartily wish you peace and prosperity. Your
Ver. 10-12. Now if Timothens come, &c.] It is my request, friends Aquila and Priscilla salute you affectionately in the Lord,
that he may be with you without disquietude, or fear ofbeing in- with that large number of Christians assembling with them, who
jured in any respect ; " for he worketh the work of the Lord with may be called " the church in their house." You are so highly
sincerity and zeal, as I also do." Let no one therefore despise him, esteemed in these parts, "that all the brethren greet you." Greet
though he be but a yonng man, 1 Tim. iv. 12. But, when he has one another in a holy manner, as be,cometh saints, when ye receive
been amoiv you a convenient time, conduct him forth in pence, this epistle, Rom. xvi. 22. I have hitherto dictated what you now
that he may come unto inc ; for I expect him here with the bre- receive to a friend ; but, to assure you that tins epistle is genuine,
thren. - As to our brother Apollos, who is so well known unto you, I here add, " the salutation of me Paul, written with my own hand.
you are not at present to expect a visit from him. I did indeed If any man among you love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be
greatly desire him to come with the brethren, hoping that, in [we-
t, . Anathema Maranatha," accursed when the Lord comes. " The
sent circumstances, his labours among you might have been very grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. My love be with you
useful ; but he was by no means willing to come now, for reasons all in Christ Jesus. Amen."
which need not be mentioned ; " but he will come when he shall