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					Early Instinct Approaches

 Popular in late 1800’s
 Wm. James and Wm. McDougall
 Lists
Behaviorists

 Criticisms of Instinct Model
      Nominal Fallacy
      Confusion with Learning
      Concept “dies” in Psychology
Ethology

 Kept instinct concept “alive”
 Studied animal behavior
 Evolutionary adaptiveness of behavior
 Naturalistic Observation
 Simple Experiments
 Ethograms
 Lorenz and Tinbergen
Ethology Methods

 Naturalistic observation
 Taxonomy of behavior
 Simple demonstration experiments
Ethological Terms

 Appetitive Behavior
 Consummatory Behavior
 Action Specific Energy (ASE)
 Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM)
 Key Stimulus (KS)
 Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)
Key Stimuli

 Sign Stimuli
 Social Releaser
 Categories of Key Stimuli
     Simple
     Complex/Configurational
     Supernormal
Supernormal Key Stimuli

 Cuckoo’s egg and chick
 Rowland’s (1989c) Stickleback study
      Receptive females
      Ceramic males
         Normal

         1.5 times normal

 Measured preference (distance from model)
 Preference for a supernormal stimulus may be
  advantageous (survival of offspring)
Fixed Action Patterns

 Characteristics of FAPS
      Stereotyped
          Rigid, fixed, species-specific

      Independent of Immediate External Control
          Graylag goose
               FAP vs TAXIS
      Spontaneous
         Flycatcher
               Vacuum Activity
      Independent of Learning
          Hailman’s Gull experiment
Human Ethology

 Eibl-Eibesfeldt
 Research
     Cross-cultural
     Challenged children
        Blind

        Deaf

        retarded
Universality of Facial
Expressions
 Smiling
 Laughing
 Weeping
 Frowning
 Eyebrow Flick
The Eyebrow Flick

 Found in his films
 1/6 sec
 Part of “greeting ceremony”
     Eye contact
     Smiling
     Raising eyebrows
 A FAP
 Appeasement gesture
Eye contact in primates

 Threat gesture in primates
 More complex in humans
 Lockhart’s field study
Facial Emotional Expression

 Ekman’s group
 Research
     Cross-cultural
     Methods
     Japanese/American Study
     Display Rules
Facial Feedback Hypothesis

 Muscle feedback from face
 Ekman, Friesen & Ancoli (1980)
 FACS
 Zygomatic Major muscles
 Strack, Martin & Stepper, (1988)
 Larsen, Kasimatis, & Frey, (1992)
Key Stimuli in Humans

 Eibl-Eibesfeldt – Physical characteristics
  of infants
 Neoteny and survival value
 Human Infant Characteristics
      Large head relative to body
      Large eyes
      Roundedness
 Keating et al. (2003) – adults with
  neotenous faces receive more help
Recent Approaches

 Behavioral Ecology – how do behavior
  and the environment interact?
 Cognitive Ethology – information
  processing in animals
 Evolutionary Psychology – human
  genetically controlled behavior
Behavioral Ecology

 Studies the relationships between
  behaviors and the environment
     E.g. Predator-prey interactions
     Competition among species members for
      limited resources
     Social interactions in groups
        Aggressive behavior
        Sexual behavior

        Parental Care
Group Membership – Why do
many animals live in groups?
 Causes competition for resources;
  however, group membership provides an
  overall advantage to the individual
     Increased protection from predators
        Dilutioneffect
        Increased overall vigilance by the group

        Alarm signals

     Finding new food sources
        Following   behavior
Cognitive Ethology/Animal
Cognition
 Studies how animals interpret
  information
 Two main approaches
 Conscious awareness not assumed
     E.g. Shettleworth, (2001)
 Animals have some limited
  consciousness
     Griffin (2001)
Consciousness

 Perceptual consciousness
 Marking Test (Povinelli et al., 1997)
 Reflective consciousness
      Self-awareness?
Evolutionary Psychology

 “The analysis of the human mind as a
  collection of evolved mechanisms,”
  (Buss, 1999, p.47).
     Mechanisms to solve specific problems
 Decision Rules
     Physiological Activity
     More decision processes
     Behavior
Evolutionary Psychology
(Cont.)
 Hinsz, Matz & Patience (2001).
     Correlational study
 Does a woman’s hair provide clues to
  her reproductive potential?
 Such signals common in other animals
     Male lions manes and immune system
     Birdsong and immune system
Hinsz et al. (2001) found:

     Hair length correlated with age
     Hair quality correlated with health
 Barber (1995) - Male physical
  appearance serves to communciate:
     Social dominance
     Female attraction
Hair Length
Social Dominance?

				
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posted:9/1/2011
language:English
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