VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 25 POSTED ON: 9/1/2011
Early Instinct Approaches Popular in late 1800’s Wm. James and Wm. McDougall Lists Behaviorists Criticisms of Instinct Model Nominal Fallacy Confusion with Learning Concept “dies” in Psychology Ethology Kept instinct concept “alive” Studied animal behavior Evolutionary adaptiveness of behavior Naturalistic Observation Simple Experiments Ethograms Lorenz and Tinbergen Ethology Methods Naturalistic observation Taxonomy of behavior Simple demonstration experiments Ethological Terms Appetitive Behavior Consummatory Behavior Action Specific Energy (ASE) Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM) Key Stimulus (KS) Fixed Action Pattern (FAP) Key Stimuli Sign Stimuli Social Releaser Categories of Key Stimuli Simple Complex/Configurational Supernormal Supernormal Key Stimuli Cuckoo’s egg and chick Rowland’s (1989c) Stickleback study Receptive females Ceramic males Normal 1.5 times normal Measured preference (distance from model) Preference for a supernormal stimulus may be advantageous (survival of offspring) Fixed Action Patterns Characteristics of FAPS Stereotyped Rigid, fixed, species-specific Independent of Immediate External Control Graylag goose FAP vs TAXIS Spontaneous Flycatcher Vacuum Activity Independent of Learning Hailman’s Gull experiment Human Ethology Eibl-Eibesfeldt Research Cross-cultural Challenged children Blind Deaf retarded Universality of Facial Expressions Smiling Laughing Weeping Frowning Eyebrow Flick The Eyebrow Flick Found in his films 1/6 sec Part of “greeting ceremony” Eye contact Smiling Raising eyebrows A FAP Appeasement gesture Eye contact in primates Threat gesture in primates More complex in humans Lockhart’s field study Facial Emotional Expression Ekman’s group Research Cross-cultural Methods Japanese/American Study Display Rules Facial Feedback Hypothesis Muscle feedback from face Ekman, Friesen & Ancoli (1980) FACS Zygomatic Major muscles Strack, Martin & Stepper, (1988) Larsen, Kasimatis, & Frey, (1992) Key Stimuli in Humans Eibl-Eibesfeldt – Physical characteristics of infants Neoteny and survival value Human Infant Characteristics Large head relative to body Large eyes Roundedness Keating et al. (2003) – adults with neotenous faces receive more help Recent Approaches Behavioral Ecology – how do behavior and the environment interact? Cognitive Ethology – information processing in animals Evolutionary Psychology – human genetically controlled behavior Behavioral Ecology Studies the relationships between behaviors and the environment E.g. Predator-prey interactions Competition among species members for limited resources Social interactions in groups Aggressive behavior Sexual behavior Parental Care Group Membership – Why do many animals live in groups? Causes competition for resources; however, group membership provides an overall advantage to the individual Increased protection from predators Dilutioneffect Increased overall vigilance by the group Alarm signals Finding new food sources Following behavior Cognitive Ethology/Animal Cognition Studies how animals interpret information Two main approaches Conscious awareness not assumed E.g. Shettleworth, (2001) Animals have some limited consciousness Griffin (2001) Consciousness Perceptual consciousness Marking Test (Povinelli et al., 1997) Reflective consciousness Self-awareness? Evolutionary Psychology “The analysis of the human mind as a collection of evolved mechanisms,” (Buss, 1999, p.47). Mechanisms to solve specific problems Decision Rules Physiological Activity More decision processes Behavior Evolutionary Psychology (Cont.) Hinsz, Matz & Patience (2001). Correlational study Does a woman’s hair provide clues to her reproductive potential? Such signals common in other animals Male lions manes and immune system Birdsong and immune system Hinsz et al. (2001) found: Hair length correlated with age Hair quality correlated with health Barber (1995) - Male physical appearance serves to communciate: Social dominance Female attraction Hair Length Social Dominance?
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