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					Chapter 4
SECTION 1
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS:

1. Anna is reading her psychology text. The activation of receptors in her retina is called
    ________; her interpretation of the stimuli as particular words is termed _______.
a. perception; transduction
b. sensation; transduction
c. sensation; perception
d. transduction; perception
Answer: c; Easy

2. Regarding sensation and perception, which of the following statements is true?
a. Perception generally precedes sensation in our processing of a stimulus.
b. Sensation and perception are essentially synonyms.
c. Sensation involves the interpretation of a stimulus, whereas perception does not.
d. Sensation involves the activation of sense receptors; perception involves interpretation.
Answer: d; Medium

3. In the visual system, ganglion cells convert the light detected by the retina into electrical
    impulses, which then travel to the brain. This example illustrates the process of _________.
a. translation
b. transduction
c. detection
d. transmission
Answer: b; Easy

4. Dr. Breiland examines the influence of physical stimuli on sensory perceptions and mental
    states. Which of the following terms most accurately describes Dr. Breiland‘s field of study?
a. sensation
b. psychophysics
c. perception
d. experimental psychology
Answer: b; Moderate

5. The field of psychophysics was founded by the German psychologist __________.
a. Weber
b. Wundt
c. Ebbinghaus
d. Fechner
Answer: d; Difficult

6.    The stimulus intensity that one can just barely detect is termed the _______ threshold.
a.   difference
b.   absolute
c.   adaptation
d. Weber
Answer: b; Moderate

7. We can detect a single drop of perfume diffused in an area the size of a one-bedroom
    apartment. This is a(n):
a. absolute threshold
b. difference threshold
c. just noticeable difference
d. psychophysical minimum
Answer: a; Moderate

8. The purpose of signal detection analysis is to:
a. identify the psychological effects of physical stimulation
b. determine a perceiver‘s cognitions
c. investigate an observer‘s subliminal perceptions
d. determine a perceiver‘s ability to distinguish true signals from background stimulation
Answer: d; Moderate

9. Which alternative pairs a signal detection outcome with the correct definition?
a. hit; the observer responds ―no‖ when the stimulus is not presented
b. miss; the observer responds ―yes‖ when the stimulus is presented
c. false alarm; the observer responds ―yes‖ when the stimulus is not presented
d. correct rejection; the observer responds ―no‖ when the stimulus is presented
Answer: c; Moderate

10. Which signal detection outcomes represent erroneous responses?
a. misses and false alarms
b. misses and hits
c. misses and correct rejections
d. correct rejections and false alarms
Answer: a; Easy

11. Randy is really hoping to see Lady Gaga after the concert. He sees a person who looks like
    her and exclaims ―Hey, Lady Gaga!‖ But really, it‘s just a fan and not Lady Gaga. In signal
    detection terms, Randy‘s response reflects a __________.
a. hit
b. false alarm
c. miss
d. correct rejection
Answer b; Moderate

12. Arlene goes to her closet to look for her pink cashmere sweater. She looks but doesn‘t see it
    and says ―my sweater isn‘t in the closet.‖ Later, her roommate finds the sweater in the
    closet. In the language of signal detection analysis, Arlene‘s statement is a _________.
a. hit
b. false alarm
c. false rejection
d. miss
Answer: d; Moderate

13. Braden is a strict vegetarian. He is always on the alert in case a meal he eats as a restaurant
    might actually contain some meat. Last night he became convinced that a dish contained
    meat even when it did not. Which alternative best expresses this example in signal detection
    terms?
a. Braden has an extreme response bias, resulting in many hits.
b. Braden has an extreme response bias, yielding many false alarms.
c. Braden has an extreme response bias, leading to many misses.
d. Braden is extremely sensitive, resulting in many hits.
Answer: b; Moderate

14.     Which of the following best defines the difference threshold (jnd)?
a. the minimum absolute threshold
b. the maximum absolute threshold
c. the change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected
d. the minimum likelihood of a false alarm
Answer: c; Easy

15.     A snack manufacturer finds that it must increase the salt content of its chips by 8 percent
    in order for a sample of consumers to notice that the chips are saltier than they were before.
    This example most nearly illustrates the concept of a(n):
a. absolute threshold
b. difference threshold
c. just noticeable difference
d. subliminal stimulus
Answer: b; Easy

16. For a given stimulus dimension, such as weight, a jnd is a:
a. fixed value
b. constant proportion
c. positive integer
d. variable proportion
Answer: b; Difficult

17. Acme Foods wants to make its chips saltier, but it doesn‘t want to spend more than it has to
    on salt. A sample of consumers are asked to compare its current chip (saltiness = 100) with
    saltier versions and to say whether the new version is saltier. On average, sample consumers
    reliably say the new chip is saltier when its saltiness value is 108, but not when its saltiness
    value is below 108. Assuming Acme Foods‘ sample consumers are representative of people
    in general, which of the following best represents the JND for saltiness?
a. 8 percent
b. 108
c. 80 percent
d. 100
Answer: a; Moderate

18. The function relating the value of a stimulus along some dimension to the just noticeable
    difference is known as __________‘s law.
a. Tichener
b. Wundt
c. Weber
d. Jung
Answer: c; Easy

19. Events that occur below the absolute threshold are termed _________ stimuli
a. subconscious
b. subthreshold
c. preliminal
d. subliminal
Answer: d; Easy

20. Your text reports a study by Karremans et al. (2006) in which students viewed letter strings
    on a screen. The strings were preceded either by the name of a popular beverage, or a
    nonsense anagram containing the same letters as the beverage‘s name. These stimuli were
    presented too quickly for the students to see them. Later, participants were asked if they
    would order the beverage at a café. What was the independent variable in the study? What
    was the main result of the study?
a. The independent variable was the stimulus preceding the letter string. Participants exposed to
the name of the beverage were more likely to say they would order it than were participants
exposed to nonsense anagrams.
b. The independent variable was the likelihood that participants would order the drink.
Participants exposed to the name of the beverage were more likely to say they would order it
than were participants exposed to nonsense anagrams.
c. The independent variable was the stimulus preceding the letter string. Participants exposed to
the name of the beverage were no more likely to say they would order it than were participants
exposed to nonsense anagrams.
d. The independent variable was the stimulus preceding the letter string. Participants exposed to
the name of the beverage were less likely to say they would order it than were participants
exposed to nonsense anagrams.
Answer: a; Moderate

21. Your text states that Trappey (1996) completed a statistical summary of the results of 23
     studies on the influence of subliminal advertising. Recall Chapter 2 in your text: What is
     such a summary called? What did Trappey find?
a. Such a summary is called a meta-analysis. Trappey found that subliminal advertising had a
dramatic effect on consumer choice.
b. Such a summary is called a meta-analysis. Trappey found that subliminal advertising had
little if any effect on consumer choice.
c. Such a summary is called a meta-analysis. Trappey found that subliminal advertising had a
moderate effect on consumer choice.
d. Such a summary is called a significance test. Trappey found that subliminal advertising had
little if any effect on consumer choice.
Answer: b; Moderate

22. Which of the following is true about people with blindsight?
a. They are unable to report on visual stimuli but can answer questions about those stimuli
b. They are unable to report on visual stimuli or to answer questions about those stimuli
c. They are able to report on visual stimuli but unable to answer questions about those stimuli
d. They are able to report on visual stimuli and can answer questions about those stimuli
Answer: a; Easy

23. What does the blindsight phenomenon imply with respect to the relationship between
    conscious awareness and perceptual processing?
a. Conscious awareness is necessary for perceptual processing.
b. Conscious awareness is not necessary for perceptual processing.
c. Perceptual processing only occurs after conscious awareness.
d. Subliminal processing does not occur.
Answer: b; Moderate

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:

24. Signal detection analysis aims to separate true sensitivity and response bias.
Answer: T; Easy

25. The jnd is a constant value.
Answer: F; Moderate

26. Subliminal advertising has only a minimal effect on consumer choice.
Answer: T; Easy

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:

27. Dr. Garner studies the relationship between the objective brightness of visual stimuli and
    observers‘ subjective impression of their brightness. Dr. Garner is a(n) ___________.
Answer: psychophysicist; Moderate

28. A participant in a psychophysics experiment indicates that she did not see rightward motion
    in a patch of dots on the computer screen, even though some of the dots moved slightly to the
    right. In signal detection terms, the participant‘s response is called a(n) __________.
Answer: miss; Easy

29. The difference threshold is also known as a(n) __________.
Answer: jnd, or just noticeable difference; Easy
ESSAY QUESTIONS:

30. Define and provide original examples from your own experience of (a) an absolute threshold
    and (b) a difference threshold.
    Difficult

31. If we pick up two rocks, one that weighs 1 pound and one that weighs 2 pounds, we can
    easily notice the difference in weight. But if we pick up two rocks, one that weighs 21
    pounds and one that weighs 22 pounds, we probably can't tell the difference. Use the
    principles of psychophysics to explain this.
Moderate

32. What is the purpose of signal detection analysis? Make explicit reference to the concepts of
    sensitivity and response bias in your answer. Define hits, misses, false alarms, and correct
    rejections. Select two of these terms and provide an example of each.
Difficult
SECTION 2
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS:

33. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the relationship between the
    electromagnetic spectrum and visible light?
a. ―The electromagnetic spectrum‖ is the same as ―visible light.‖
b. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to a small portion of the spectrum of visible light.
c. A small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is seen as visible light.
d. Most but not all of the electromagnetic spectrum is seen as visible light.
Answer: c; Easy

34. Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light passes through
    the structures of the eye during vision?
a. pupil  cornea  lens  retina
b. pupil  lens  cornea  retina
c. lens  cornea  pupil  retina
d. cornea  pupil  lens  retina
Answer: d; Moderate

35. The thin layer of receptors at the back of the eye is termed the __________.
a. retina
b. fovea
c. cornea
d. ganglion
Answer: a; Easy

36. Which of the following structures of the eye is correctly matched with its function?
a. cornea—focuses light on the retina
b. pupil—regulates the amount of light entering the eye
c. lens—contains the photoreceptor cells
d. retina – protects the eye
Answer: b; Moderate

37. Which of the following is the function of the cornea?
a. It reflects light away from the retina
b. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye
c. It contains the photoreceptor cells
d. It protects the eye
Answer: d; Easy

38. Which of the following is the function of the iris?
a. It reflects light away from the retina
b. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye
c. It contains the photoreceptor cells
d. It protects the eye
Answer: b; Easy
39. Which of the following is the function of the retina?
a. It reflects light away from the retina
b. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye
c. It contains the photoreceptor cells
d. It protects the eye
Answer: c; Easy


40. Which of the following best defines the visual phenomenon of accommodation?
a. A change in the retina that focuses the lens
b. A change in the lens that focuses light on the retina.
c. A change in the iris that moves light into the eye
d. A change in the cornea that prevents too much light from entering the eye.
Answer: b; Easy

41. Abbie is nearsighted. Her vision defect reflects an error in _________, the process by which
    the __________ changes shape to focus an image on the retina.
a. accommodation; cornea
b. assimilation; lens
c. accommodation; pupil
d. accommodation; lens
Answer: d; Moderate

42. Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light stimulates cells
    early in the visual processing of an image?
a. bipolar cells  ganglion cells  rods and cones
b. bipolar cells  rods and cones  ganglion cells
c. ganglion cells  rods and cones  bipolar cells
d. rods and cones  bipolar cells  ganglion cells
Answer: d; Difficult

43. The optic nerve is composed of axons of:
a. bipolar cells
b. ganglion cells
c. rods and cones
d. foveal cells
Answer: b; Moderate

44. Which of the following sequences correctly orders the structures of the visual pathway, from
    the eye to the cortex?
a. ganglion cells  occipital lobe  thalamus
b. thalamus  ganglion cells  occipital lobe
c. ganglion cells  thalamus  occipital lobe
d. thalamus  occipital lobe  ganglion cells
Answer: c; Moderate
45. In comparison to cones, rods
a. are more densely concentrated in the fovea
b. are more responsible for color perception
c. are more sensitive to light
d. are less numerous
Answer: c; Moderate

46. Which of the following best expresses the relationship between the retina and the fovea?
a. The retina is part of the fovea.
b. The fovea is adjacent to the retina.
c. Light passes through the fovea on its way to the retina.
d. The fovea is part of the retina.
Answer: d; Moderate

47. Adelaide notices a flicker of motion out of the corner of her eye as she hurries down a dim
    alley late at night. Sydney deciphers a complex wiring diagram under the bright glare of her
    desk lamp. Adelaide‘s vision is driven mainly by her _________. Sydney is mainly using
    her ________.
a. cones; cones as well
b. rods; rods as well
c. cones; rods
d. rods; cones
Answer: d; Moderate

48. Which of the following statements best describes the path of optic nerve impulses in the
    brain?
a. Impulses from the left eye travel to the right side of the brain; impulses from the right eye
travel to the left side of the brain.
b. Impulses from the left eye travel to the left side of the brain; impulses from the right eye
travel to the right side of the brain.
c. Impulses from the left eye travel to the left side of the brain; impulses from the right eye
travel to both the right and left sides of the brain.
d. Impulses from the left half of each eye travel to the right side of the brain; impulses from the
right half of each eye travel to the left side of the brain.
Answer: d; Moderate

49. Which of the following statements is true regarding the visual cortex?
a. Many neurons in the visual cortex respond only to very specific visual features or stimuli.
b. Most neurons in the visual cortex respond to a broad array of visual features and stimuli.
c. Most neurons in the visual cortex respond to overall patterns, or ‗gestalts.‖
d. Most neurons related to vision are near, but not in, the visual cortex.
Answer: a; Difficult

50. Your text reports a study in which researchers disrupted face recognition areas of the cortex.
    Which brain study method were the researchers using? What did they find?
a. The method is called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The researchers found that
participants could not recognize faces, but could recognize houses.
b. The method is called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The researchers found that
participants could not recognize either faces or houses.
c. The method is called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The researchers found
that participants could not recognize faces, but could recognize houses.
d. The method is called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The researchers found
that participants could not recognize either faces or houses.
Answer: a; Difficult

51. Hue is to brightness as ________ is to _________.
a. frequency; amplitude
b. amplitude; frequency
c. loudness; pitch
d. color; sound
Answer: a; Easy

52. Rods are best at _____; cones are best at _____
a. detecting details and color; detecting black, white and gray
b. detecting black, white and gray; detecting details and color
c. detecting black and white; detecting gray
d. detecting color; detecting details
Answer: b; Easy

53. The trichromatic theory of color perception is associated with:
a. Fechner
b. Helmholtz
c. Weber
d. Hitzig
Answer: b; Difficult

54. Approximately ______% of the population is color-blind. With respect to gender, color-
    blind individuals are mostly ________.
a. 1; men
b. 1; women
c. 2; men
d. 2; women
Answer: c; Moderate

55. Which of the following is NOT one of the shortcomings of trichromatic theory?
a. It doesn‘t explain how colors other that red, blue, or green are perceived.
b. It doesn‘t offer an adequate explanation of the perception of afterimages.
c. It does not explain how color-blind individuals who cannot see red or green hues can still see
yellow shades.
d. It does not explain why yellow does not seem to be a mix of other colors.
Answer: a; Difficult
56. Suppose each pixel on your TV screen or computer monitor codes the color of an image at
    that point in terms of red, blue, and green values. This closely resembles:
a. the way color is represented according to trichromatic theory
b. the way color is represented according to opponent-process theory
c. the way color is represented in both the trichromatic and the opponent-process theory
d. the way color is represented in the cornea
Answer: a; Moderate

57. Which of the following is true of the opponent-process theory of vision?
a. Pairs of color-detecting cells operate together to produce color
b. Color-detecting cells operate independently to create the perception of red, white and blue
c. It assumes there are only two, rather than three, primary colors
d. It cannot explain color blindness
Answer: a; Moderate

58. Suppose you stare at an illustration of the American flag for a while and then glance at a
    blank white page. Why do the red stripes look green when you glance at the blank page?
a. Cones responsive to green light begin firing.
b. Cones responsive to red light stop firing.
c. Opponent-process cells activated by red light become fatigued.
d. Opponent-process cells activated by green light begin adapting.
Answer: c; Moderate

59. With respect to the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color perception, which of
    the following statements is most accurate?
a. Trichromatic theory has largely been discredited.
b. Opponent-process theory has largely been discredited.
c. Both trichromatic and opponent-process theories have largely been discredited and replaced
by newer ideas.
d. The two processes work together to help us perceive color.
Answer: d; Moderate

60. Which of the following individuals is NOT one of the Gestalt psychologists?
a. Helmholtz
b. Kohler
c. Koffka
d. Wertheimer
Answer: a; Moderate

61. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to that of the term gestalt?
a. feature
b. sequence
c. component
d. pattern
Answer: d; Moderate
62. Examining his doctor‘s handwriting on the prescription slip, Ben completes the gaps in some
    of the lower-case letters to perceive an a and an o rather than two u’s. This example
    illustrates the Gestalt principle of:
a. closure
b. proximity
c. similarity
d. complexity
Answer: a; Difficult

63. Artie organizes the binders in his office by color. This color-coding exemplifies the Gestalt
    principle of:
a. proximity
b. similarity
c. continuity
d. chromaticity
Answer: b; Moderate

64. Consider the figure within parentheses: (XX     XX     XX). That we perceive three pairs of
    Xs reflects the Gestalt principle(s) of:
a. similarity
b. continuity
c. figure/ground
d. proximity
Answer: d; Moderate

65. Which of the following Gestalt laws is correctly defined?
a. similarity – we tend to fill in small gaps in objects
b. continuity – stimuli resembling one another tend to be grouped together
c. proximity – stimuli near to one another tend to be grouped together
d. closure – stimuli are perceived in smooth, continuous ways
Answer: c; Moderate

66. Gibson and Walk‘s (1960) ‗visual cliff‘ studies revealed that:
a. even infants as young as 6 months of age perceive depth
b. infants do not perceive depth until they are at least 14 months of age
c. depth perception is very poor in infants
d. depth perception depends largely on experience
Answer: a; Moderate

67. Which of the following is NOT a binocular cue to depth perception?
a. interposition
b. accommodation
c. convergence
d. binocular disparity
Answer: a; Moderate
68. Which of the following terms is the best synonym for ―disparity‖?
a. depth
b. constancy
c. difference
d. similarity
Answer: c; Easy

69. The difference between the image of a scene received by the right eye and that received by
    the left eye can serve as a depth cue termed
a. binocular disparity
b. binocular convergence
c. linear perspective
d. ocular accommodation
Answer: a; Easy

70. You know that a passing bus is nearer than a parked car because the bus momentarily blocks
    your view of the car. This example illustrates the depth cue of ________.
a. position
b. linear perspective
c. aerial perspective
d. interposition
Answer: d; Moderate

71. The Blue Ridge and Smoky Mountains may owe their names to the fact that the distant peaks
    look bluish-gray and hazy, reflecting a ________ depth cue termed ________.
a. monocular; aerial perspective
b. binocular; aerial perspective
c. monocular; linear perspective
d. binocular; linear perspective
Answer: a; Moderate

72. From the window of an office on a skyscraper‘s 90th floor, taxis on the street look tiny. Of
    course, you know they‘re not toy cars; you‘re just really far up. This example illustrates the
    ________ depth cue of _________.
a. monocular; linear perspective
b. binocular; relative size
c. monocular; relative size
d. binocular; aerial perspective
Answer: c; Moderate

73. You are standing on the beach; the sea is choppy. You observe that the crests of distant
    waves appear not only smaller, but also higher in your field of vision than do the crests of
    waves nearer to the beach. Which two monocular depth cues does this example illustrate?
a. linear perspective and position
b. relative size and linear perspective
c. position and aerial perspective
d. relative size and position
Answer: d; Moderate

74. In a beginning drawing class, your instructor suggests that an illusion of depth may be
    created in a two-dimensional picture by including parallel lines that converge at a vanishing
    point. Your instructor is making reference to a monocular depth cue known as:
a. interposition
b. linear perspective
c. relative size
d. position
Answer: b; Easy

75. Which depth cue is correctly matched with a description?
a. interposition – smaller objects are seen as more distant
b. aerial perspective – parallel lines appear to converge with increasing distance
c. relative size – when one object overlaps a second, we perceive the second as more distant
d. position – objects higher in the field of vision are perceived as more distant
Answer: d; Moderate

76. The ________ effect enables the perception of motion in movies.
a. alpha
b. beta
c. psi
d. phi
Answer: b; Moderate

77. Which of the following causes the phi phenomenon?
a. The actual movement of light
b. The amplitude of the wave
c. The frequency of the wave
d. The appearance and disappearance of objects
Answer: d; Easy

78. Which of the following causes the beta effect?
a. The actual movement of light
b. The amplitude of the wave
c. The frequency of the wave
d. Different images are presented next to each other in succession
Answer: d; Easy

79. The motion effect known as the ___________ contributed to the development of the
    ________ perspective in psychology.
a. alpha effect; Gestalt
b. phi phenomenon; cognitive
c. phi phenomenon; Gestalt
d. beta effect; cognitive
Answer: c; Moderate

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:

80. The cones are found mainly in and around the fovea.
Answer: T; Moderate

81. Opponent-process theory has largely supplanted the trichromatic theory of color perception.
Answer: F; Easy

82. The Gestalt psychologists were especially interested in the perception of form.
Answer: T; Easy

83. The development of depth perception depends substantially on experience.
Answer: F; Moderate

84. Accommodation provides a cue to depth mainly at long viewing distances.
Answer: F; Difficult

85. The beta effect underlies our perception of motion in movies.
Answer: T; Moderate

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:

86. The lens changes shape to focus an image on the retina; that is, the lens ________.
Answer: accommodates; Moderate

87. You turn your head to look directly at an unusual butterfly your friend spotted in the garden.
    In doing so, you ensure that the insect‘s image falls on your ________.
Answer: fovea; Moderate

88. Cells in the visual cortex that respond to specific elements or dimensions of an image are
    termed ____________.
Answer: feature detectors; Moderate

89. The trichromatic theory of color perception is also known as the Young-_________ theory.
Answer: Helmholtz; Difficult

90. Gibson and Walk investigated depth perception among infants using a device known as the
    _________.
Answer: visual cliff; Moderate

91. Binocular cues to depth include binocular disparity, accommodation, and _________.
Answer: convergence; Difficult
92. Interposition and linear perspective are two _________ cues to depth.
Answer: monocular; Moderate

ESSAY QUESTIONS:

93. Making reference to specific structures and their functions, review the processing of a visual
    image (a) prior to the retina; (b) from the retina to the cortex; and (c) within the cortex.
Difficult

94. Distinguish between the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color vision. Provide
    evidence in support of each theory.
Difficult

95. Briefly describe three Gestalt principles of form perception. Provide simple diagrams
    illustrating each of these principles.
Difficult

96. Imagine that you have been asked to either draw or paint either an interior scene or a
    landscape for an art class. Using specific examples, explain how you might use three of the
    monocular cues to depth perception described in the text to create an impression of three
    dimensions on the two-dimensional paper or canvas.
Difficult
SECTION 3
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS:

97.     Which of the following is a measure of relative loudness?
a. Pitch
b. Frequency
c. Decibel
d. jnd
Answer: c; Easy

98. Frequency is to amplitude as ______ is to _______.
a. loudness; pitch
b. loudness; hue
c. pitch: hue
d. pitch; loudness
Answer: d; Moderate

99. In vision, the amplitude of a light wave relates to our perception of the brightness of a
    stimulus. To which perceptual dimension might the amplitude of a sound wave correspond
    in hearing?
a. loudness
b. pitch
c. timbre
d. none of these
Answer: a; Moderate

100. People can detect sounds ranging in frequency from ________ to ________.
a. 20 dB – 20,000 dB
b. 50 dB – 50,000 dB
c. 20 Hz – 20,000 Hz
d. 50 Hz – 20,000 Hz
Answer: c; Difficult

101. Which of the following ear structures is correctly paired with its description?
a. tympanic membrane – membrane covering opening of cochlea
b. oval window – external, visible part of the ear
c. pinna – fluid-filled structure in the inner ear
d. ossicles – bones of the middle ear
Answer: d; Difficult

102. Which of the following describes the tympanic membrane?
a. The membrane at the end of the ear
b. The external, visible part of the ear
c. The fluid-filled structure in the inner ear
d. The ear drum
Answer: a; Easy
103. Which of the following describes the ossicles?
a. The membranes at the end of the ear
b. The fluid-filled structures in the inner ear that monitor our bodily positions
c. The base of the auditory nerve
d. The inner part of the ear drum
Answer: b; Easy

104. Which of the following describes the cochlea?
a. The membrane at the end of the ear
b. The external, visible part of the ear
c. The base of the auditory nerve
d. A snail-shaped tube that contains the cilia
Answer: d; Easy

105. The bones of the middle ear include each of the following EXCEPT:
a. hammer
b. anvil
c. saddle
d. stirrup
Answer: c; Difficult

106. The receptor cells for hearing are located in the:
a. eardrum
b. ossicles
c. auditory canal
d. cochlea
Answer: d; Moderate

107. Making an analogy between hearing and vision, the auditory hair cells in the ________
    are similar to the ________ in the __________.
a. cochlea; rods and cones; retina
b. cochlea; ganglion cells; retina
c. eardrum; rods and cones; cornea
d. eardrum; ganglion cells; retina
Answer: a; Moderate

108. Which of the following sequences correctly reflects the order of events in which sound
    waves are converted into neural impulses in the ear, from first to last?
a. movement of fluid in cochlea  vibration of oval window  bending of hair cells
b. bending of hair cells  movement of fluid in cochlea  vibration of oval window
c. vibration of oval window  bending of hair cells  movement of fluid in cochlea
d. vibration of oval window  movement of fluid in cochlea  bending of hair cells
Answer: d; Difficult
109. Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges the structures of the inner ear
    from the largest and most inclusive to the smallest and most specific?
a. cochlea  cilia  hair cells
b. cochlea  hair cells  cilia
c. cilia hair cells  cochlea
d. cilia  cochlea  hair cells
Answer: b; Difficult

110. Frequency theory attempts to explain the perception of _________. Place theory
    attempts to explain the perception of _________.
a. loudness; loudness as well
b. loudness; pitch
c. both pitch and loudness; pitch
d. pitch; pitch as well
Answer: d; Moderate

111. To what extent can the frequency and place theories explain our perception of high- and
    low-pitched sounds?
a. Frequency theory has difficulty explaining our perception of low-pitched sounds.
b. Both the frequency and the place theory have difficulty explaining our perception of low-
pitched sounds.
c. Frequency theory has difficulty explaining our perception of high-pitched sounds.
d. Place theory has difficulty explaining our perception of high-pitched sounds.
Answer: c; Difficult

112. Which figure best approximates the number of Americans who suffer from some type of
    hearing impairment?
a. 10 million
b. 15 million
c. 25 million
d. 30 million
Answer: d; Difficult

113. Mr. Arthur‘s middle ear bones are fused, reflecting a birth defect. Mrs. Benitez is 70
   years old and has lost nearly 50% of her cilia. Which type of hearing loss is each of these
   individuals probably experiencing?
a. Mr. Arthur is experiencing conductive hearing loss. Mrs. Benitez is experiencing
sensorineural hearing loss.
b. Mr. Arthur is experiencing sensorineural hearing loss. Mrs. Benitez is experiencing
conductive hearing loss.
c. Both Mr. Arthur and Mrs. Benitez are experiencing conductive hearing loss.
d. Both Mr. Arthur and Mrs. Benitez are experiencing sensorineural hearing loss.
Answer: a; Difficult

114. On average, an individual will have lost ______% of her cilia by the time she is 65.
a. 15
b. 25
c. 35
d. 40
Answer: d; Moderate

115. Repeated exposure to sounds over _______ dB can damage one‘s hearing; even
    infrequent exposure to sounds over _________ dB can produce hearing loss.
a. 65; 130
b. 85; 130
c. 85; 100
d. 65; 85
Answer: b; Difficult

116. Which statement best expresses the effectiveness of cochlear implants in countering
    hearing loss?
a. They are effective in almost all cases of conductive hearing loss.
b. They can counteract conductive hearing loss, as long as the eardrum is intact.
c. They are effective in almost all cases of sensorineural hearing loss.
d. They can counteract sensorineural hearing loss, as long as the auditory nerve is intact.
Answer: d; Difficult

117. Which of the following is used to help people with sensorineural hearing loss?
a. Pinna replacement therapy
b. Cochlear implants
c. Cilia transplants
d. Auditory canal surgery
Answer: b; Easy

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:

118. Herz is to decibel as frequency is to amplitude.
Answer: T; Moderate

119. The receptor cells for hearing are located in the ossicles.
Answer: F; Easy

120. Conductive hearing loss reflects damage to the auditory nerve or the cilia.
Answer: F; Moderate

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:

121. Jen affixes an earring to her earlobe. She is attaching the jewelry to part of her _______.
Answer: pinna; Moderate

122. The __________ theory of pitch perception is unable to explain our perception of high-
   pitched sounds.
Answer: frequency; Moderate

123. Keisha works in a noisy factory. Damage to her cilia may eventually lead to _________
   hearing loss.
Answer: sensorineural; Moderate

ESSAY QUESTION:

124. Distinguish between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Describe in some detail
    how aging and noise exposure may result in sensorineural hearing loss. How might hearing
    aids and cochlear implants rectify conductive and sensorineural hearing loss? Be as specific
    as possible in your answer.
Difficult
SECTION 4
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS:

125. Your text offers the hypothesis that picky eating among children may be adaptive in
    helping us survive. Which of the following findings would offer the STRONGEST support
    for this hypothesis if it were true?
a. Children are picky eaters in a range of very different cultures around the world.
b. Children‘s pickiness in their food preferences is related to their parents‘ disciplinary styles.
c. In some of the world‘s cultures, children are no pickier than adults in their food preferences.
d. Identical twins raised in different adoptive families are equally picky in their food
preferences.
Answer: a; Difficult

126. According to your text, how many basic types of taste are there?
a. three
b. four
c. five
d. six
Answer: d; Moderate

127. Roast beef with a rich brown gravy is often described as a ‗savory‘ dish. The basic taste
    prominent in such a dish is _____________.
a. bitter
b. salty
c. unami
d. sweet
Answer: c; Moderate

128. Where are the taste buds located?
a. on the back of the tongue
b. on the tongue‘s outer edges
c. on the back of the throat
d. A, B, and C
Answer: d; Moderate

129. Concerning taste buds, which of the following statements is correctly identified as either
    true or false?
a. Taste buds are located not only on the tongue, but also on the walls of the mouth: False
b. Taste buds are activated quickly: True
c. Taste buds live for only a few days: False
d. New taste buds are created only during childhood: True
Answer: b; Difficult

130. Approximately how many olfactory receptor cells do we have in total?
a. tens of thousands
b. hundreds of thousands
c. millions
d. tens of millions
Answer: d; Difficult

131. We have _______ types of receptor cells for smell; we can distinguish more than
    ________ separate smells.
a. 1,000; 10,000
b. 4 or 5; 10,000
c. 1,000; 1,000
d. 4 or 5; 1,000
Answer: a; Difficult

132. Across the lifespan, taste sensitivity peaks during:
a. early childhood
b. middle childhood
c. early adolescence
d. young adulthood
Answer: d; Moderate

133. How many basic sensations are detected by the nerve endings in the skin?
a. 3
b. 4
c. 6
d. 10
Answer: b; Moderate

134. According to your text, our varied and complex sensations of touch reflect the activity of
    a very small number of basic receptor types. This is most nearly analogous to:
a. the way pitch is processed, according to place theory
b. the way color is processed, according to opponent-process theory
c. the way form is processed, according to the Gestalt psychologists
d. the way color is processed, according to trichromatic theory
Answer: d; Difficult

135. Proprioception refers to:
a. our ability to sense the positions of our body parts
b. our sense of smell
c. our sensation of pressure and temperature
d. our experience of pain
Answer: a; Easy

136. The __________ system in the _________ senses the rotations and accelerations of our
    body.
a. proprioceptive; skin
b. vestibular; skin
c. olfactory; inner ear
d. vestibular; inner ear
Answer: d; Moderate

137. In an amusement park ride, the cars spin rapidly while accelerating along a track. The
    ____________ sense the rotational spinning motion. The linear acceleration is processed by
    the _________.
a. vestibular sacs; vestibular sacs, too
b. vestibular sacs; semicircular canals
c. semicircular canals; vestibular sacs
d. semicircular canals; semicircular canals, too
Answer: c; Moderate

138. Cordelia is massaging her shoulders to rid herself of a tension headache. Why should her
    massage relieve her pain?
a. The massage should activate large nerve fibers, shutting the pain gate.
b. The massage should distract Cordelia‘s attention from the pain.
c. The massage should stimulate the release of endorphins, relieving the pain.
d. The massage should stimulate short nerve fibers, blocking pain signals.
Answer: a; Difficult

139. Which neurotransmitter acts as the brain‘s natural pain killer?
a. dopamine
b. serotonin
c. glutamate
d. endorphins
Answer: d; Moderate

140. Which of the following defines the gate-control theory of pain?
a. small nerves create pain; large nerves stop pain
b. large nerves create pain; small nerves stop pain
c. small nerves create pain; small nerves stop pain
d. large nerves create pain; large nerves stop pain
Answer: a; Moderate

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:

141. Taste buds are found only on the tongue.
Answer: F; Easy

142. We have 1,000 different types of olfactory receptors.
Answer: T; Moderate

143. The vestibular system senses the linear and rotational movements of our body.
Answer: T; Easy
144. Massaging a sore foot is effective mainly because the action stimulates the release of
   additional endorphins.
Answer: F; Difficult

145. Taste buds are located not only on the tongue, but also on the walls of the mouth.
Answer: True; Easy

146. Taste buds are activated quickly
Answer: True; Easy

147. Taste buds live for only a few days:
Answer: True; Easy

148. Taste sensitivity remains fairly constant throughout adulthood
Answer: False; Easy

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:

149. Piquancy is to spicy as _________ is to savory.
Answer: unami; Difficult

150. __________ receptor cells detect airborne chemical molecules.
Answer: Olfactory; Moderate

151. Stooping to pick up a knife on the kitchen floor, Benny hits his head on the corner of an
   open drawer on the way back up. Benny‘s inability to sense his head‘s location in space
   reflects a failure of ___________, our implicit knowledge of the position and motion of our
   body parts.
Answer: proprioception; Moderate

152. The brain‘s natural pain killers are termed ________.
Answer: endorphins; Easy

ESSAY QUESTIONS:

153. Review what is known regarding the receptor cells for a) taste and b) smell.
Difficult

154. Review the gate control theory of pain. How might you relieve pain by manipulating the
    "pain gates"? To what extent do higher-level cognitive processes influence our experience of
    pain?
Difficult
SECTION 5
MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS:

155. Jacquie dislikes foreign-language movies dubbed in English: She finds the mismatch
    between the movements of the speakers‘ lips and the dubbed English words jarring.
    Jacquie‘s impaired perception of the dialogue reflects the ________ effect.
a. Muller-Lyer
b. McGurk
c. cocktail party
d. synesthesic
Answer: b; Difficult

156. ___________ is a phenomenon in which one sensation may evoke multiple perceptions,
    even ones associated with different sensory systems.
a. Synesthesia
b. Polythesia
c. Interactive sensation
d. Multithesia
Answer: a; Easy

157. Glenn sees certain shapes in his mind when he listens to music. For instance, horns and
    trumpets sound triangular to him. Glenn‘s example illustrates _________.
a. interactive sensation
b. hyperthesia
c. synesthesia
d. multithesia
Answer: c; Easy

158. The ability to focus on some sensory inputs while tuning out others is termed _________
    attention.
a. specific
b. adaptive
c. targeted
d. selective
Answer: d; Moderate

159. Lassandra is deep in conversation with a friend in the cafeteria. The sound of her name
    spoken at a nearby table, though, immediately rivets her attention. Lassandra is experiencing
    the _________ effect.
a. McGurk
b. synesthetic
c. magnetic attention
d. cocktail party
Answer: d; Easy
160. ―It‘s so noisy! How can you stand it?‖ remarks Caitlyn as the thruway traffic screams
    past her friend Dave‘s ground floor apartment. ―I don‘t even notice it anymore,‖ Dave
    replies. This exchange best exemplifies the perceptual process of:
a. adaptation
b. accommodation
c. adjustment
d. attenuation
Answer: a; Easy

161. In a psychophysical experiment, observers first view a display in which small dots on a
    computer screen all move steadily toward the right. They then view a second stimulus in
    which they have to determine whether a patch of dots is stationary or moving. Based on your
    text‘s discussion and your knowledge of psychophysics, you might predict that the first
    display would:
a. decrease observers‘ absolute threshold for motion detection
b. increase observers‘ absolute threshold for motion detection
c. have little or no effect on observers‘ absolute threshold for motion detection
d. decrease observers‘ difference threshold for motion detection
Answer: b; Difficult


162. Why do we adapt after prolonged exposure to a constant stimulus?
a. so that we continue to respond to ongoing stimulation
b. so that we don‘t become distracted by irrelevant changes in the environment
c. so that we detect potentially important changes in what‘s going on
d. so that we don‘t become overstimulated by the environment
Answer: c; Moderate

163. Ponzo and Muller-Lyer are:
a. cartoon characters
b. psychophysicists
c. specialized neurons in the visual system
d. visual illusions
Answer: d; Easy

164. The ________ illusion is a visual illusion containing a horizontal line terminating in
    inward- or outward-pointing arrowheads.
a. McGurk
b. Muller-Lyer
c. Ponzo
d. moon
Answer: b; Easy

165. According to your text, the Muller-Lyer illusion reflects the operation of:
a. monocular depth cues
b. sensory adaptation
c. perceptual constancy
d. binocular depth cues
Answer: a; Moderate

166. At night, the moon appears smaller when it is overhead than when it is on the horizon.
    According to your textbook, how do psychologists explain this illusion?
a. The retinal image generated by the moon is smaller when the moon is overhead than when it
is on the horizon.
b. We misperceive the moon as more distant when it is on the horizon than when it is overhead;
therefore the retinal image generated by the moon must be of a larger object then than when it is
overhead.
c. The moon is more distant from the earth when it is overhead than when it is on the horizon.
d. The atmosphere scatters the moon‘s light to a greater extent when the moon is on the horizon
than when it is overhead, making the moon appear larger.
Answer: b; Moderate

167. According to your text, visual illusions demonstrate:
a. sensory adaptation
b. the influence of prior knowledge on perception
c. the fundamental inaccuracy of perception
d. the fundamental accuracy of perception
Answer: c; Moderate

168. Which term best describes the effects of our mind-set and our expectations on
    perception?
a. negligible
b. minimal
c. moderate
d. pervasive
Answer: d; Moderate

169. In general, how extensive are the effects of cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors
   on perception? To what extent does specialized knowledge or expertise influence the
   magnitude of such effects?
a. Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors have substantial effects on perception.
Knowledge or expertise reduces the size of such effects.
b. Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors have substantial effects on perception.
Knowledge or expertise tends to magnify such effects.
c. Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors have substantial effects on perception.
Knowledge or expertise has little influence on the size of such effects.
d. Cognitive, emotional, and motivational factors have minimal effects on perception.
Knowledge or expertise tends to amplify such effects.
Answer: c; Difficult

170. Which statement below best describes the effects of culture on the perception of visual
   images, such as pictures?
a. People focus on the foreground than the background of an image, regardless of whether they
belong to individualistic or collectivist cultures.
b. Members of individualistic cultures tend to focus more on the foreground than on the
background of an image.
c. Members of individualistic cultures focus more on the background than on the foreground of
an image.
d. No significant effects of culture on perception have been found
Answer: b; Moderate

171. The field that uses psychological knowledge to improve the design of equipment is
    known as __________________.
a. human factors
b. industrial/organizational psychology
c. technological psychology
d. applied psychology
Answer: a; Easy

172. Contemporary television and computer monitors are based on the _________ theory of
    color perception.
a. place
b. frequency
c. trichromatic
d. opponent-process
Answer: c; Moderate

173. Approximately ______% of the accidents on commercial airplanes reflect human error.
a. 30
b. 40
c. 50
d. 65
Answer: d; Difficult

174. Which of the following basic concepts in perception have informed the design of
    equipment by human factors psychologists?
a. sensory adaptation
b. trichromatic theory
c. visual illusions
d. A, B, and C
Answer: d; Moderate

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS:

175. Prolonged exposure to a stimulus reduces our sensitivity to it.
Answer: T; Easy

176.   Visual illusions indicate that perception is fundamentally inaccurate.
Answer: F; Moderate

177. Cultural influences on perception are virtually negligible.
Answer: F; Moderate

178. Knowledge of sensation and perception has enabled the substantial improvement of
   equipment and technology.
Answer: T; Easy

FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS:

179. Seeing sound. Hearing colors. These phrases describe a phenomenon termed
   _________.
Answer: synesthesia; Moderate

180. The door swings open and then closes again as your roommate enters the apartment. You
   continue to see the door as rectangular even though the shape of its image on your retina
   progresses from a wide rectangle, through a series of parallelograms, to a very narrow
   rectangle, then back again. Your perception of the door as an unchanging rectangle
   exemplifies shape ______.
Answer: constancy; Easy

181. Consisting of a horizontal line segment bracketed by inward- or outward-pointing
   arrowheads, the ________ illusion has been the subject of much psychological study.
Answer: Muller-Lyer; Moderate

ESSAY QUESTIONS:

182. Visual illusions: Perceptual curiosity, or . . .? What have psychologists learned through
    their study of visual illusions, such as the moon illusion or the Muller-Lyer illusion? Justify
    your answer using illustrative examples where possible.
Difficult

183. To what extent is perception influenced by cognitive, emotional, motivational, and
    cultural factors? Cite evidence from empirical research in your answer.
Difficult

				
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