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					West London
Draft Economic Development Strategy
30 March 2004




                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   1
Prepared for West London Partnership in collaboration
with the LDA, WLA and WLB by:




                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   2
                                                                                           4.2      Strategic Context ...................................................34
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................5
                                                                                           4.3      Key Issues ..............................................................51

1     VISION...........................................................................7   4.4      Draft Objectives and Rationale .............................53

2     WEST LONDON CONTEXT........................................10                        5     LAND AND PROPERTY .............................................55

2.1      International Context .............................................10             5.1      Background ............................................................55

2.2      National Context.....................................................13           5.2      Strategic Context ...................................................57
2.3      Drivers.....................................................................19    5.3      Capacity and Demand Issues................................62

2.4      Permeability............................................................20        5.4      Shaping Objectives and Priorities ........................66

2.5      Sustainability and Diversity ..................................21                 5.5      Draft Objectives and Rationale .............................68

3     SKILLS FOR GROWTH ..............................................22                   6     HOUSING....................................................................71

3.1      Background ............................................................22         6.1      Background ............................................................71

3.2      Strategic Context ...................................................22           6.2      Strategic Context ...................................................71

3.3      Key Issues ..............................................................24       6.3      Key Issues ..............................................................76

3.4      Draft Objectives and Rationale .............................33                    6.4      Draft Objectives and Rationale .............................83

4     BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS ...............................34                           7     TRANSPORT ..............................................................85

4.1      Background ............................................................34         7.1      Background ............................................................85


                                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy    3
7.2      Strategic Context ...................................................88       11  APPENDIX B: TRANSPORT SCHEMES IN WEST
                                                                                       LONDON (VARIOUS SOURCES) ....................................154
7.3      Key Issues ..............................................................89

7.4      Draft Objectives and Rationale .............................91

8     THE ENVIRONMENT AND QUALITY OF LIFE ........107

8.1      Background ..........................................................107

8.2      Strategic Context .................................................108

8.3      Key Issues ............................................................110

8.4      Draft Objectives and Rationale ...........................117

9     BRANDING ...............................................................119

9.1      Background ..........................................................119

9.2      Strategic context ..................................................119

9.3      Record of research ..............................................122

9.4      Propositions .........................................................134

9.5      Draft objectives and rationale .............................150

10  APPENDIX A: SIC DEFINITIONS OF HIGH
TECHNOLOGY MANUFACTURING AND HIGH
TECHNOLOGY SERVICES .............................................153

                                                                                                              West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   4
                                                                               Improving orbital routes and connecting town centres is also a priority.
Introduction
                                                                               While links between rejuvenated town centres will contribute to a broader
                                                                               aim of engaging those at risk of social exclusion, reducing fear of crime
The Economic Development Strategy which is being developed by West
                                                                               will improve the quality of life for everybody
London Partnership, takes as its starting point the economic and cultural
significance of west London and its place in the life of the capital. As a     This document is a framework for future action. It provides the rationale
sub-region, west London functions both as a gateway to the capital and a       for a comprehensive programme to support West London’s economic
doorway to the world.                                                          prosperity and long-term fiscal competitiveness. Informed by an ongoing
                                                                               consultative dialogue, with professionals and stakeholders, it proposes a
The Mayor’s London Plan anticipates enormous growth potential in west
                                                                               strategic direction to focus the energies of all stakeholders towards a
London with thousands of additional homes and jobs forecast.            Our
                                                                               common vision.
challenge is to harness the opportunity this offers, while balancing
economic prosperity with sustainable development.                              A continuing theme is to keep west London forefront in the minds of
                                                                               those who make key investment and policy decisions. Nurturing
This vision is one which reflects people, businesses, work and play. It is     entrepreneurship and promoting technological advance will secure west
carefully measured to reflect the past and look to the future. It celebrates   London’s future as a significant location for corporate management and
diversity, promotes social cohesion and positions west London as a
                                                                               HQ activities. Here, there is an implicit challenge for business strategies
choice location for companies and individuals.
                                                                               to adopt policies which facilitate rapid integration and support for
                                                                               newcomers with transferable skills.
We want to create a place where environmental resources are valued
and enjoyed and high quality education, health care and leisure facilities     Although the publication of a draft strategy is an important milestone, we
are available for everyone. There is general agreement that transport          must continue to harness ideas, galvanise support and draw on the
must be at the heart of the vision and we are committed to connecting          wealth of knowledge and resourcefulness west London has to offer.
key tube, bus, rail and airport hubs.




                                                                                                            West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   5
There will be opportunities for innovative forms of private/public
partnerships to move major proposals forward and we must continue to
draw inspiration from the rich cultural mosaic of our local
neighbourhoods.


I would like to acknowledge the contribution made by many to
strengthening sub regional collaboration across West London in the
recent past. Only with a strong alliance between the public, private and
voluntary sector in West London, working together with the major
regional players, can we deliver a west London which has pride of place
in the capital.


Councillor John Cudmore
Joint Chair, West London Partnership




                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   6
                                                                               whereby declining living and working conditions, heightened barriers
1 Vision
                                                                               towards social inclusion, and a lack of individual employability and
                                                                               business opportunity leads to both people becoming disenchanted with
                                                                               living in west London and businesses deciding to move elsewhere.
This Economic Development Strategy has been established in order to
ensure that sustainable and inclusive development and growth is
                                                                               The following are the strategic goals that will lead to a future reality of
achieved for all those who work and live in west London. The strategy
                                                                               west London as a highly attractive place to live and work:
seeks to build on the unique competitive strengths of west London,
identify new opportunities to develop these strengths, as well as
                                                                                   •   Diversity – Championing west London’s diversity as a means of
addressing west London’s relative weaknesses.
                                                                                       reconciling economic growth with quality of life to ensure that the
                                                                                       sub-region is noted for its diversity, quality environmental assets
At the heart of this strategy is the realisation that economic growth does
                                                                                       and cultural amenities.
not always naturally result in sustained and inclusive development. Even
                                                                                   •   Success – Building on west London’s leading role in the UK
if west London does achieve significant growth in the future, unmanaged
                                                                                       economy, creating a sustainable knowledge-based economy
this growth can result in effects that are harmful to west London’s long-
                                                                                       with a vibrant SME base and an entrepreneurial culture that
term economic, environmental and societal development. The framework
                                                                                       values and prioritises learning and skills.
for the strategy, therefore, is very much based on meshing and
                                                                                   •   Access – Ensuring that west London continues to benefit from
intertwining west London’s future economic agenda with its
                                                                                       its historical pre-eminence in connecting people, business and
environmental and social development.
                                                                                       movement. Ensuring that businesses access the learning and
                                                                                       skills they need for prosperity. Ensuring west London takes a
In order to achieve this, west London must become a motor of progress
                                                                                       leading role in developing transportation for the next 75 years.
for economic and social improvement, underpinned by rising levels of
                                                                                   •   Integration – Continuing to develop the strong record of
economic growth, which effectively enhance and utilise the human
                                                                                       integration, developing a well-connected sub-region, specifically
capital and physical resource-base. It must also incorporate the
                                                                                       connecting the more deprived areas and communities with the
environment as a basis for the sustainability of this growth. Unless this is
effectively achieved west London faces a potential future scenario

                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   7
           most successful parts of the west London sub-region.                     improving literacy and numeracy skills, and fostering a culture for
           Demonstrating the power of effective Partnerships.                       lifelong learning and workforce development amongst the
    •      Assets – Recognising the importance of developing west                   business community.
           London’s environmental and human assets; building a lifelong
           learning culture to ensure that people access they learning and      •   Business Competitiveness – Establish a competitive economy
           skills that they need to life. Re-establishing our town centres as       underpinned by sustained growth and value-added output
           centres of economic activity. Promoting and urban renaissance            principally through ensuring high and effective levels of business
           and design excellence throughout the built environment.                  support for both indigenous businesses and foreign-owned
                                                                                    investors. There is also a need to further develop knowledge-
Synthesising these strategic goals, the overall vision can be stated as             based economic activity through heightened linkages and
follows:                                                                            interaction between businesses in west London and the
                                                                                    academic community, as well as with businesses in surrounding
               ‘West London will be the global hub. A choice location for           sub-regional economies.
               both businesses and individuals, an inclusive society where
               business and communities benefit from a global perspective.      •   Land and Property – Secure a sustainable economy through
               A destination renowned for creating richer solutions and             the appropriate utilisation, including mixed used development, of
               opportunities through its ability to embrace and celebrate           west London’s land and property by maintaining, improving and
               diversity, change and success with all its members.’                 enhancing the quality of the existing stock of key strategic
                                                                                    employment locations, and promoting higher standards of design
The vision, and the strategic goals within which it is set, have resulted in        and a wide-ranging set of environmental standards. Supporting
the formulation of a strategy that identifies six core framework headings:          the development of town centres in west London as centres of
                                                                                    employment, shopping and living.
    •      Skills for Growth – Improve levels of employability and reduce
           the polarisation of west London’s skills economy primarily by        •   Housing - Increase the supply of affordable housing and
           improving training access opportunities for excluded groups,             improve the quality of housing stock and ensuring the


                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   8
    sustainability of housing developments. A focus on developing
    an appropriate mix of housing provision, in terms of types and
    size, and ensuring higher density build where it fits with the local
    character of an area, particularly where there is good access to
    public transport.


•   Transport – Invest in public transport infrastructure, in particular
    to support the suburban centres and also where the main
    employment and housing growth will occur.              Plan public
    transport to link residential areas and the town centres in west
    London.


•   Environment and the Quality of Life - Invest in sustainable
    business communities, and encourage businesses to play a
    greater role in the management, maintenance and improvement
    of their business neighbourhoods. Ensure the sustainability and
    viability of local town and neighbourhood centres, as well as
    quality and design of future housing and employment site
    developments. Heighten access to quality green space and
    minimise the environmental impacts of Heathrow. Quality of life
    issues must also address crime and the underlying causes of
    crime.




                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   9
2 West London Context
                                                                              The locational flexibility in the production of much of the world’s output
                                                                              and the mobility of screen based service activities has had profound
                                                                              effects on the global economy. Many observers, particularly in the
2.1 International Context                                                     developed world, have been pessimistic about the impact this will have
                                                                              on high cost economies. In many industries the brunt of production is in
More than ever before, global trends are relevant to local level economic     the hands of a few, large firms. It is logical to assume that these
prospects. The degree of flexibility in international industry and services   multinational firms would seek the lowest cost bases. As developing
is such that structural industrial changes on a global scale can impact on    economies started to win more and more manufacturing contracts, it
regional economies over a relatively short time frame. The degree to          seemed to many like one-way traffic. The example of call centres is
which all economies are at the mercy of international economic forces         particularly relevant. Re-location and out-sourcing of UK call centres to
and multinational companies is often overstated. However, it is true that     India has renewed fears that UK regions were fighting a losing battle to
local level policy makers must look at the international picture to           keep their jobs.
determine possible areas of opportunity in the medium term.

                                                                              The above view ignores the bigger picture of the world economy. There
Arguably, the most important trends to examine are those taking place in      has been an eastward migration of much labour intensive activity. This
sectors that are liable to changing fortunes and changing location. These     has been a part, and a consequence, of a move towards wider
are the sectors in which growth and investment opportunities lie and          international competition. In this environment a variety of locations retain
where threats to economic success exist. Local level retail and               competitive advantages. Developed countries dominate skilled
decentralised service activity may be a vital part of any economy, but        manufacturing and high technology production. While the location
these activities tend to achieve a degree of stability and their fortunes     decisions of much of the raw materials and unfinished goods production
depend largely on the prospects of other sectors. These other sectors         is based on reducing labour costs, further processing and production
provide goods and services to be consumed primarily outside the local         locations are more dependant on the quality of the workforce. A number
area. They tend to employ more people in fewer business units and add         of sectors have particular relevance to west London – a summary of
higher value to the economy.                                                  global trends of these sectors is presented below.


                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   10
                                                                           tough time recently. Some rebound is expected but modest growth in the
Telecommunications. The Economist predicts a ‘coming of age’ of the        longer run.
telecommunications industry in the medium run. Consumer spending on
telecommunications has risen faster than in any other sector. Despite      The machinery and metals manufacturing sector is one that is
such exponential growth, telecommunications companies have gone            particularly vulnerable to macro economic shocks. The sector looks likely
bankrupt and millions have been wiped off stocks. Following the bursting   to follow the economic cycle with growth over the next few years. Growth
of the telecommunications bubble it seems this sector will see a           in general-purpose machinery being one of the main factors.
sustained recovery. However, growth will be modest and investment
levels moderate in comparison with the early 1990’s.                       The metal goods industry is one of the most important global employers
                                                                           and makes up just around 50% of all manufacturing. However, the
The trend in telecommunications equipment manufacturing will mirror        industry is often at the mercy of production prospects in other areas of
this. However, mobile phone production will continue to rise and the       manufacturing. The relocation of metal processing to the developing
sector will benefit from the proliferation of broadband Internet uptake.   world will continue, albeit at a slower rate. The impact of this will be
Corporate telecommunications services and equipment will be another        minimal however. 88% of value in the industry is in processing rather
area of significant growth.                                                than raw metal production and these activities remain in high skill
                                                                           economies. The overall growth rate should remain around the 3% mark.
Growth prospects for the sector as a whole look very promising in the
short to medium term. However it is expected that in the long term         Biotechnology and pharmaceuticals continue to be high-risk sectors
growth will even out as the emphasis switches to the replacement of old    but at the same time these are areas of potential growth. The developing
technology as the market reaches the point of saturation.                  world will achieve high growth rates due to mass-market chemical
                                                                           production. Developed countries will see modest gains attributed to high
Growth in the chemicals industry has been dominated by the emerging        end, niche chemical production and scientific research.
economies. The European Chemical Industry Council expects this to
continue to be the case. The chemicals industry in the ‘triad’ has had a   The decline of the UK as a base for its own customer                 service
                                                                           operations has been overstated. Most commentators expect some


                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   11
further relocation of activity to the Indian sub-continent. Most of the jobs   major businesses, and similarly as an economy grows advertising is
lost in the UK would be expected to be at the lower end of the pay scale       seen as a quick way to enable a product to enter a flourishing market.
as a result of the outsourcing of basic activities within the sector. Higher   Forecasts predict that the dip in the global advertising market growth at
quality employment opportunities and higher tech services will remain in       the beginning of the millennium will be followed by an increase in
the UK.                                                                        advertising spending in line with overall economic growth throughout the
                                                                               United States and Europe.
The creative industries represent one sector within which west London
is strong, and is likely to be increasingly influenced by international        A March 2003 Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers’
markets. Like many of the creative industries, the TV and Radio market         Association report suggests that the computer games industry is growing
has been characterised by technological change and changes in modes            faster than ever, and the global market has tripled in size between 1995
of delivery. Digital television not only offers a clearer picture for the      and 2003. No other new media sector has witnessed such rapid growth.
consumer, but also offers new methods of generating revenues for the           More importantly the report also states that the current gaming platforms
industry. As a result mainly of advancements in technology, the TV and         – Playstation 2, X-Box and the Gamecube have sold more units at their
radio market size increased by more than 100% during the 1990s,                current stage of development than any previous generation of games
including growth in both the TV network distribution and TV                    consoles during the same stage of their product lifecycle. Such growth in
programming.                                                                   console sales implies an ever-growing market for interactive leisure
                                                                               software producers worldwide, and fuels expectations of continued,
Continued growth in the global TV and Radio market is forecast for at          significant growth. The global console software market is expected to
least the next three to four years. Cable and subscription spending is         grow by 15% per annum over the next five years.
expected to rise by around 8% per annum in the United States and 6%
per annum in Europe between the years 2002 and 2006.                           The beginning of the millennium saw a contraction in growth of the
                                                                               computer software and services sector, partly as a result of global
Within the creative industries, advertising is one of the sectors most         economic conditions, and partly as a result of the ‘dot.com’ boom and
closely linked to the overall performance of the economy. In times of          bust. However, the market is expected to regain strength and display
recession the advertising budget is often one of the first to be cut by        continued significant growth in output over the next few years. IDC


                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   12
estimate that compound annual growth in systems and applications
software will exceed 10% between the years 2002 and 2005. Growth in          2.2 National Context
North America, Western Europe, Asia/Pacific as well as the rest of the
                                                                             West London is located between the economically prosperous areas of
world will remain stable, with proportionally equal growth forecast across
these regions.                                                               central London and South East England. Between them, London and
                                                                                                                                                                                        1
                                                                             South East England contribute 31.1% of the UK’s economic output ,
                                                                             despite comprising only 25.9% of the population. It is these regions that
                                                                             drive forward the UK economy. West London contributes roughly 17% of
                                                                             the output of Greater London.


                                                                             Figure 2.1: Location of west London




                                                                                                                                        M1




                                                                                                                                                                   M11
                                                                                                                                             Hertfordshire
                                                                                                           Buckinghamshire

                                                                                                                                                                               Essex
                                                                                                                                                             M25


                                                                                                                   M40
                                                                                        Oxfordshire
                                                                                                                                   West London
                                                                                                                                   West London

                                                                                                                    M4

                                                                                                                                                  Greater London
                                                                                      Berkshire

                                                                                                                                                                         M20
                                                                                                                  M3



                                                                                                                               Surrey                                            Kent


                                                                                                      Hampshire




                                                                             1
                                                                                 1999 GDP Figures from Regional Trends

                                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy              13
Output per capita within west London exceeds the British average.              Figure 2.3: Output per Worker 1998
However it is important to recognise that we would expect prices -
particularly housing costs - in west London to be higher than most other                          GB


areas in the UK, and hence real GDP per Capita may be slightly lower
than the output figures suggest. West London lags behind the rest of                           London

London in terms of per capita output. 1998 figures reveal that output per
head in west London of £15,900 was some £1,600 short of the average
                                                                                          West London
level of output per head for London as a whole.

                                                                                                   £26,000   £28,000   £30,000   £32,000   £34,000   £36,000

Figure 2.2: GDP per Capita 1998
                                                                               Source: DTZ Locus
            £20,000
            £18,000
            £16,000                                                            In comparison with the UK as a whole west London is a diverse and
            £14,000
            £12,000                                                            dynamic economy. However, whilst the west London economy may look
            £10,000
                                                                               relatively healthy, there are a significant number of economically
             £8,000
             £6,000                                                            deprived areas within the sub-region of London.
             £4,000
             £2,000
                £0                                                             Over recent years, west London has witnessed considerable increases in
                      West London   London         GB
                                                                               employment and population. Figure 2.4 below highlights the employment
Source: DTZ Locus                                                              growth that has been experienced by west London since 1998 exceeding
                                                                               both national and regional growth in employment.
Similarly (as illustrated in figure 2.3 below) output per worker in 1998 for
west London exceeds the British, but lags the London average. Again, if
the data presented below were to be deflated using local price
information we may expect that west London would perform much closer
to the British average.

                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   14
Figure 2.4: Employment Growth (1998 -= 100)                                Table 2.1: Population and Population Growth

 110                                                                                                                         Compound Annual Growth
            Great Britain                                                                      1992             2002             Rate 1992 -2002
            London
 108                                                                        Great Britain   55,939,800       57,532,344                  0.3%
            London West
                                                                            London           6,822,591       7,355,354                   0.8%
 106
                                                                            West London      1,317,146       1,428,999                   0.8%
 104                                                                       Source: NOMIS

 102
                                                                           Unemployment within west London has roughly followed the London
 100                                                                       average for the past 10 years, and despite a considerable fall in

  98
                                                                           unemployment rates in recent years, west London still possesses a
          1998              1999        2000          2001                 higher unemployment rate than the British average.

Source: Annual Business Inquiry


Population growth in west London has closely followed that of Greater
London in the past ten years, and greatly exceeded population growth for
Great Britain. By 2002 west London accounted for 19% of the Greater
London population, a figure that has remained roughly stable in the past
ten years. Table 2.1 below illustrates population and population growth
for Great Britain, London and west London between the years 1992 and
2002.




                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   15
Figure 2.5: Unemployment 1993 to 2003                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Table 2.2: Proportion of claimants claiming benefit for more than 12
                   16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              months 2003
                                                                                                                                                                          Unemployment rate: all of work age Great Britain
                   14                                                                                                                                                     Unemployment rate: all of work age London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Brent                   26.4%           Harrow                     15.3%
                                                                                                                                                                          Unemployment rate: all of work age London West                                                                                                                           Ealing                  16.4%           Hillingdon                 13.4%
                   12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Hammersmith
                   10
Unemployment (%)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and Fulham              21.2%           Hounslow                   8.2%
                   8

                   6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               West London             18.7%           Great Britain              15.5%
                   4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Source: NOMIS
                   2

                   0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               West London’s above average performance with respect to Gross
                        Sep-Nov 1993



                                                      Sep-Nov 1994



                                                                                    Sep-Nov 1995



                                                                                                                  Sep-Nov 1996



                                                                                                                                                Sep-Nov 1997



                                                                                                                                                                              Sep-Nov 1998



                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sep-Nov 1999



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sep-Nov 2000



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sep-Nov 2001



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sep-Nov 2002



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sep-Nov 2003
                                       Mar-May 1994



                                                                     Mar-May 1995



                                                                                                   Mar-May 1996



                                                                                                                                 Mar-May 1997



                                                                                                                                                               Mar-May 1998



                                                                                                                                                                                             Mar-May 1999



                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Mar-May 2000



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Mar-May 2001



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Mar-May 2002



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Mar-May 2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Domestic Product per Capita has already been documented. As a result
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of this we also find that west London also possesses above average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   levels of earnings. Figure 2.6 below highlights the significantly higher
Source: Labour Force Survey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   levels of earnings found in west London in comparison with Britain as a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   whole. West London does, however, lag behind some of its neighbouring
Long-term unemployment is also an issue within west London – as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   regions. East London in particular – boosted by the development of the
illustrated in table 2.2. Variations within west London are also of great
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Docklands area and the financial businesses on its western fringe have
concern. Within table 2.2 we can see that over one in every four claimant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   considerably higher levels of earnings than those found in west London.
within Brent has been claiming benefit for one year or greater. Compare
this with Hounslow where less than one in ten has claimed benefit for
twelve months or more.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   16
Figure 2.6: Gross Weekly Pay (Workplace Based) 2003                                                                                            Figure 2.7: Employment by Sector 2002 (As a proportion of total
                                                                                                                                               employment)
 £800
                                                                     £721                                                                       30%
                                                    £678                                                                                                                     Great Britain                                                     26%
 £700                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       25%                                                                25%
                                                                                                                               £589             25%                          West London
                                           £578                                                                  £564                                                                                                                                                                      21%
 £600                    £550                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           20%
                                                                                   £512                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18%
        £476                                                                                      £497                                          20%
 £500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         14%
                                                                                                                                                15%                                                   13%
 £400
 £300
                                                                                                                                                10%                                                              8%                                                                                                                                  7%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       6%                                                                 5%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5% 4%
 £200                                                                                                                                            5%
                                                                                                                                                       1% 0%                      1% 0%

 £100                                                                                                                                            0%




                                                                                                                                                                                                        Manufacturing



                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Construction
                                                                                                                                                                                   Energy and water




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Other services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       communications
                                                                                                                                                        Agriculture and fishing




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Banking, finance and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Distribution, hotels and




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               administration,education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Transport and
   £0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           insurance, etc
                                           Surrey
         Great Britain




                                                                     East London




                                                                                                  South London
                                                    Central London




                                                                                   North London




                                                                                                                 West London



                                                                                                                               Thames Valley
                         Buckinghamshire




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   restaurants




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       & health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Public
Source: New Earnings Survey
                                                                                                                                               Source: Annual Business Inquiry
West London possesses a considerably larger proportion of employment
                                                                                                                                               West London, like London as a whole, has a considerably higher level of
within the transport and communications sector in comparison with Great
                                                                                                                                               residents with NVQ level 4 or above than the British average. As
Britain as a whole. 14% of all those employed in west London are
                                                                                                                                               illustrated in figure 2.8 below roughly 30% of residents in London and
employed in the transport and communication sector – compared with
                                                                                                                                               west London boast NVQ level 4 or above (or equivalent) qualifications –
just 6% for the UK as a whole. Only two other broad sectors have a
                                                                                                                                               this compares with a figure of less than 24% for Great Britain.
higher proportion of employment in west London than found across
Britain as a whole – these sectors are distribution, hotels & restaurants
and the banking, finance & insurance sectors.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy                                                                                   17
Figure 2.8: % working age population with NVQ4+ - working age 2002          Figure 2.9: % working age population with no qualifications 2002


 35%                                                                         18%
                                                                             16%
 30%
                                                                             14%
 25%
                                                                             12%
 20%                                                                         10%
 15%                                                                          8%
                                                                              6%
 10%
                                                                              4%
  5%                                                                          2%
  0%                                                                          0%
                                      London




                                                            London




                                                                                                                 London




                                                                                                                                       London
               Britain




                                                                                          Britain
               Great




                                                                                          Great
                                                             West




                                                                                                                                        West
Source: Labour Force Survey                                                 Source: Labour Force Survey

At the opposite end of the scale we find that there are less residents in
west London with no qualifications than can be found for London and
Great Britain as a whole. Less than 13% of west London’s residents
have no form of qualifications. This compares with 15% of London’s
residents and over 16% of the residents of Great Britain.




                                                                                                    West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   18
                                                                             Table 2.10: Employment Growth (Compound Annual Growth Rate)
2.3 Drivers                                                                  1998-2002

                                                                                                                                                   West
                                                                                                                                                 London
Much of the west London economy is driven by Heathrow airport. Table
2.10 below highlights those sectors that have displayed the highest          Activities of membership organisations not elsewhere

levels of growth in recent years within west London. Whilst employment       classified                                                           7.2%

within membership organisations (which includes organisations such as        Air transport                                                        6.0%
businesses groups and trade unions) has displayed the highest growth in      Hotels and restaurants                                               5.2%
recent years, this has largely been the result of its low employment base.
                                                                             Real estate activities                                               5.1%
In 2002 fewer than two thousand people were employed within this
                                                                             Recreational, cultural and sporting                                  4.7%
sector in west London, compared with around 40,000 employed in the air
transport sector. Employment within air transport has grown by 6% per        Other service activities                                              3.7%

annum between the years 1998 and 2002 – an increase of over 25%              Manufacture of other transport equipment                              3.6%
during the four year period. Similar high growth has been experienced in     Education                                                            3.4%
the hotels & restaurants sector followed closely by growth in the real
                                                                             Source: Annual Business Inquiry
estate activities sector (where growth has followed the recent growth in
UK house prices).
                                                                             Other drivers in the west London economy include the key employment
                                                                             areas of Park Royal, Wembley and White City. West London’s specific
                                                                             sector strengths in media and the creative industries are becoming
                                                                             increasingly important sector within the economy.




                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   19
                                                                             subject to economic re-structuring, creating the need for regeneration
2.4 Permeability                                                             and support.

West London is not a free-standing city. It is part of Greater London, one
                                                                             Transport provision, and especially public transport, has not changed
of the largest and most economically successful cities in the world. Much    sufficiently in response to these developing economic and spatial
of west London consists of suburbs that grew in response to the need to      patterns. Access to employment is difficult, interchange between different
supply labour to the older core industries and services. The suburban        services is often poor, and travel to destinations other than central
housing areas were linked by rail and tram lines back into the inner         London is often slow and unreliable. Heathrow also has grown with a
areas. The radial connections thus established still handle the bulk of      high level of provision for access by car, and attempts to reduce this will
movement beyond the west London sub region.                                  require significant upgrading of public transport access.


But west London is not just a collection of suburbs attached to the parent
                                                                             At the same time, there are increasing demands on the existing transport
city. It is also an area with substantial employment, business and           system, including rail services to central London. Peak hour trains are
services of its own. Some of these activities are not linked solely to the   expected to be just as crowded in 2016 as they are today, even on the
population of west London, but have catchments and linkages extending        assumption that substantial extra capacity is provided with Crossrail.
into other sub regions and the Thames Valley, and further afield.
Heathrow in particular is not only a national hub but also Britain’s most    The aim of the strategy, therefore, must be to improve the “permeability”
important international gateway. Accessibility to Heathrow is one of the     of the sub region so that travel within it, and to other areas, is more
key advantages for businesses located in west London.
                                                                             reliable, and more pleasant. This must apply to everyone, not just those
                                                                             with access to a car. The most important way of achieving this will be to
Significant local economies have developed, often around a nucleus of        develop transport facilities as an integrated network, where interchange
an older village, or suburban centre, such as Hounslow, Southall or          between services is much simpler than today, and where the entire
Uxbridge, and others with a more specific purpose and identity, such as      network of public transport services is presented and perceived as a
Wembley and Park Royal. Some of these local economies have been              single network.



                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   20
2.5 Sustainability and Diversity

West London is an ethnically diverse sub-region. The sub-region has a
long history of settlement by people from many and varied cultural and
ethnic backgrounds, each bringing a wealth of ideas, knowledge and
skills. West London has a growing population with a relatively high
proportion of young people. This diversity is a great strength and asset
and provides many opportunities.         Interventions arising from the
Economic Development Strategy will be assessed for impact in relation
to equality in order to ensure that they do not have disproportionately
adverse impact on particular sections of the community.


The social and environmental impacts of the Economic Development
Strategy will be assessed against sustainable development principles to
make them transparent and, where adverse impacts are identified, they
should be minimised or mitigated as far as possible and justified in terms
of their contribution towards the overall aim of sustainable development.




                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   21
3 Skills For Growth
                                                                           3.2 Strategic Context
3.1 Background
                                                                           The London West LSC is currently undertaking a two-year strategic area
                                                                           review, which is due to be completed in 2005. This review will highlight
Issues spanning from improving the overall productivity, knowledge base
                                                                           specific plans to meet the needs of learners and workers. It will also
and competitiveness of businesses to improving employability and
                                                                           outline the way in which the LSC will work with key partners to seek and
reducing social exclusion amongst west London residents depend largely
                                                                           ensure that the options arising out of the review are achieved.
on the development and utilisation of skills. The west London Economic
Development Strategy will need to consider skills issues in light of the
                                                                                                                                                          st
                                                                           At a national level, the government’s skills strategy white paper, 2 1
changing policy context as well as the evidence relating to the current
                                                                           Century Skills: Realising Our Potential, highlights that skills are a key
skills and qualifications base of west London’s workforce and residents
                                                                           asset which impact positively on productivity, innovation, profitability and,
as well as the future skill needs of businesses.
                                                                           ultimately, the competitiveness of businesses. Skills are increasingly
                                                                           important for individuals’ employability in an era when ‘jobs for life’ have
The sub-regional strategy will need to take account of the
                                                                           largely become extinct.
recommendations of the wider London Plan and the development of the
Framework for Regional Employment and Skills Action.
                                                                           The London Development Agency (LDA) recently produced their draft
                                                                           Economic Development Strategy Sustaining Success: Developing
                                                                           London’s Economy. Within the document they list the following
                                                                           objectives under the Investment in People Theme:


                                                                               1. Tackle barriers to employment
                                                                                       Improve accessibility, affordability and availability of
                                                                                       childcare


                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   22
       Act to reduce and, where possible, eradicate barriers to          burdens, including women, black and minority ethnic groups
       women, disabled people and those from black and minority          and disabled people
       ethnic backgrounds from entering employment in high-level         Support training for those re-entering employment after
       positions                                                         periods of inactivity, promote progression and ensure
       Increase the accessibility of lower paid employment through       sustainability of outcomes
       better use of in-work support                                     Ensure London businesses are fully engaged in identifying
       Encourage the expansion of flexible and family-friendly           skill needs and developing provision and initiatives to
       employment practices in the public and private sectors            address them
       Support active labour market approaches to developing
       pathways to employment
       Improve the standard of training and business support to
       meet the needs of the wider community
2. Reduce disparities in labour market outcomes between
   groups
       Ensure that employment programmes proportionately benefit
       disadvantaged groups in London
       Target interventions to address specific barriers to the labour
       market faced by particular groups
       Ensure that all London’s employers are ready to implement
       Part III of the Disability Discrimination Act
3. Improve the skills of the workforce
       Promote and improve links between education and business
       Make the case for increased educational resources,
       particularly to help those facing additional economic



                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   23
                                                                                  Table 3.1: West London wards with the highest proportions of
                                                                                                                      2
3.3 Key Issues                                                                    adults with low-level qualifications
                                                                                      Ward name           Borough              % of            Rank in             Rank in
                                                                                                                              adults            west               London
The skills base of west London residents is relatively polarised in nature                                                                     London            (633 wards)
with a relatively high proportion of individuals qualified to level 4 or above                                                               (123 wards)

accompanied by a relatively large proportion of individuals with low-level        Hanworth             Hounslow               56.2%                 1                 28

skills and / or basic skill difficulties. This to a large extent creates a dual   Feltham              Hounslow               54.6%                 2                 38
                                                                                  West
economy; the high skill high pay economy and the low skill low pay
                                                                                  Feltham              Hounslow               54.3%                 3                 39
economy. However the proportion of residents with low skill levels is not         North
evenly distributed across west London, indeed areas such as                       Bedfont              Hounslow               53.4%                 4                 41
Hammersmith and Fulham for example have the eighth lowest proportion              Northolt             Ealing                 52.7%                 5                 46
of residents with low qualifications in England. On the other hand the            West End
highest incidence of low qualifications in west London occurs chiefly in          West                 Hillingdon             51.9%                 6                 53
                                                                                  Drayton
South Hillingdon and West Hounslow. In eight wards across west
                                                                                  Townfield            Hillingdon             51.0%                 7                 64
London over half the adults have no qualifications above level 1.
                                                                                  Hanworth             Hounslow               50.8%                 8                 66
                                                                                  Park
Within west London, migration has created a dual economy. While the
                                                                                  Botwell              Hillingdon             49.7%                 9                 85
immigrant population from abroad often arrive in west London with few
                                                                                  Charville            Hillingdon             49.0%               10=                 96
qualifications and end up in low paid work, migration of highly skilled and
                                                                                  Pinkwell             Hillingdon             49.0%               10=                 97
highly paid ‘city’ workers into west London suburbs has also taken place.
                                                                                  Averages
The combined effect is an increased polarisation of skill levels and the          London                                      36.7%
creation of a dual economy.                                                       England                                     45.5%
                                                                                  Source: 2001 Census of population


                                                                                  2
                                                                                   Adults covered are persons aged 16 to 74 only; low-level qualifications are those at level
                                                                                  1 or lower

                                                                                                                   West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy            24
On average across the west London area 14% of the adult population            On the other hand the range of language skills held by these individuals
has no qualifications, and over a fifth of the population has poor literacy   widens the overall skill base of the area that in itself offers a number of
or numeracy skills. As discussed in more detail below low skill levels and    potential benefits and opportunities. Furthermore a number of asylum
basic skill difficulties not only create barriers to employment for those     seekers are highly qualified with many possessing high level professional
currently unemployed or inactive, but also create potential progression       skills and qualifications which may not necessarily be recognised in the
barriers for those currently in employment.                                   UK but nevertheless demonstrate a high degree of ability which could be
                                                                              utilised in a positive manner. In short although the diverse cultural base
Table 3.2: Proportion of west London residents with poor literacy             and high degree of asylum seekers within west London creates some
and numeracy skills by Unitary Authority
                                                                              potential concerns regarding English language skills, such diversity also
Unitary Authority        Total with Poor      Total with Poor
                         Numeracy (%)         Literacy (%)                    creates a number of opportunities based upon a the range of language

 Brent                          23%                23%                        skills generated as well as the degree of potentially under-utilised skills

Ealing                         23.8%              23.9%                       and abilities.
Hammersmith         &          21.7%              21.4%
Fulham                                                                        3.3.4        Improving the pathways to employment
Harrow                         18.6%              19.4%
Hillingdon                      22%               21.9%                       One of the key areas to be addressed within the thematic area of skills
Hounslow                       24.1%              23.6%                       within the west London Economic Development Strategy is to encourage
National Average                24%                24%                        those individuals currently excluded from the labour market back into
Source: Basic Skills Agency, 2001
                                                                              employment. Lack of English language skills amongst some of the
                                                                              minority ethnic jobless may be a barrier to employment and the potential
The structure of the west London population - with nearly half of the
                                                                              lack of general employability skills amongst some of the socially
population having an ethnicity classed as non-white British, and an
                                                                              excluded groups, including the homeless and ex offenders, illustrate
estimated 60,000 refugees and asylum seekers - has real implications in
                                                                              areas where support is required to develop the skills and confidence to
terms of language skills. Lack of proficiency in the English language is
                                                                              enable them to become employable.
also likely to constitute a significant barrier to entering employment for
these people.

                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   25
Young offenders in particular face a number of barriers to education and       when public transport services are limited or jobs located in areas that
training. The London West LSC needs assessment document identifies             require travelling either north or south across west London. Developing
issues such as poor access to support services and suitable courses, an        skills to reduce involuntary unemployment therefore must be addressed
absence of policies governing the employment of ex-offenders and poor          in conjunction with other barriers to employment. Removing barriers to
basic skills to be the main barriers which they face. Support services         employment as well as improving skill levels are key parts of the wider
such as Minority Ethnic Outreach (MEO) and the London Homeless                 London Plan.
Service Team do currently exist and provide some of the support and
service required to address these issues. The west London Strategy             Developing good pathways to employment for those currently
should aim to build further on these current successful initiatives in order   unemployed or inactive to some degree goes hand in hand with
to enhance the employment opportunities of potentially excluded groups.        achieving equality in accessing opportunities and achieving a more even
                                                                               distribution of prosperity. Ensuring that employers adopt an adequate
An effective strategy will have a preventative element as well as              equal opportunities policy that offers equal employment and progression
elements that address already existing social exclusion issues. While the      opportunities for ethnic minority individuals as well as other
process of economic development will reduce the severity of inequalities       disadvantaged groups including lone parents and the disabled is
and the degree of alienation, the strategy should in particular target         therefore essential. Although the proportions of employers adopting
those groups seen to be at risk of social exclusion and alienation, as well    equal opportunities policies across the five London LSC areas are
as assisting individuals who have already ‘dropped out’.                       similar, it is worth noting that the lowest proportion of employers adopting
                                                                               such policies is recorded in west London (See table 3.3).
Improving pathways to employment is also particularly relevant to
individuals who wish to return to employment but face practical barriers.      Employers are beginning to take such issues seriously as more research
This includes parents who want to work but first require accessible and        suggests that perceptions of corporate social responsibility impact on
affordable childcare. Other prospective workers are often prevented from       consumer and investor behaviour. The Corporate Social Responsibility
gaining paid employment due to a lack of a suitable means of transport,        (CSR) Monitor carried out annually by Globescan shows that the UK has
which prevents them from even considering or applying for some jobs.           a high level of ethical consumer activism. Establishing a reputation for
This is particularly applicable to jobs associated with anti-social hours      socially responsible practice can increase a business’ competitiveness


                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   26
through attracting socially aware consumers and investors. The more           recognised within the London framework document developing the skills
employers in west London who recognise this, the more widespread              of the existing workforce is key to achieving the FRESA vision.
appropriate equal opportunities policies will become.
                                                                              Addressing current skill gaps
Table 3.3 Proportion of employers with an equal opportunities
policy                                                                        The London West LSC Needs Assessment 2003 recognises as noted

                                                        %                     above that although the proportion of workers and residents within west
All employers                                           71                    London are qualified to level 4 or above that there remain too few with
LSC Area                                                                      qualifications at levels 2 and 3. The relative gap in skills at this level
Central                                                 71                    potentially acts as a brake on the productivity and overall
East                                                    73                    competitiveness of businesses. Generating sufficient demand for work
North                                                   70                    based learning aimed at driving up these mid range skills and
South                                                   71                    qualification levels therefore form an essential element of addressing the
West                                                    68                    skill development needs of businesses. From the table below it is clear
Source: London Employers Survey 2002                                          that employers across west London record the lowest training spend per
                                                                              employee in London. This would suggest that employers in west London
3.3.5       Workforce Development Training
                                                                              do not value the potential gains from workforce training investment to the
The London Framework for Regional Employment (FRESA) outlines that
                                                                              extent that some other areas do. Indeed the average spend on training
future skills and employment needs of the economy will be at an
                                                                              per employee in west London is below the London average and is
increasingly high level, predicting that 46% of all jobs by 2010 are likely
                                                                              significantly lower than per employee spend recorded across all other
to demand skills at NVQ level 4 or above. This is partly due to the
                                                                              London LSC areas.
increasing focus on the development of the knowledge economy and the
continued and rapid movement away from production towards services.
                                                                              However the issue extends further than that for individual employees
As such it will be increasingly important to encourage greater
                                                                              who only possess level 1 qualifications or even no qualifications. For
participation in learning across the spectrum and to encourage a greater
                                                                              individuals in these positions, the rate of return to training aimed at
ethos of lifelong learning amongst existing employees. Indeed as
                                                                              achieving a moderate increase in qualification levels is often less visible

                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   27
as the costs are perceived to be greater than the benefits. Encouraging        Table 3.4: Variation in average spend on training per employee
the demand for training investment amongst these individuals, therefore,                                 Average spend per employee
is often more difficult. Individuals qualified to only a relatively low base                                         £
often encounter career progression ceilings. On the other hand,                All employers                            239
individuals with higher level qualifications tend to be equipped with skills   LSC Area
that enable them to be more adaptable to change and as a consequence           Central                                  248
are often more able to capitalise on career progression opportunities. As      East                                     235

a result the majority of workforce development training is aimed at            North                                    274

individuals who are already qualified to a relatively high level.              South                                    231
                                                                               West                                     209

Efforts should be made to improve the visibility and therefore                 Source: London Employers Survey 2002

appreciation of the rates of return generated by training aimed at low
                                                                               An additional barrier exists for individuals with basic skills difficulties. For
skilled individuals. Enhanced appreciation of, and as a consequence
                                                                               many of these individuals the lack of literacy and / or numeracy skills
demand for, training could be achieved through initiatives aimed at
                                                                               creates a barrier to other training participation. Many employees with
reducing training costs and therefore enhancing the visibility of the
                                                                               basic skills difficulties are often reluctant to admit that they have such
returns. Pilot initiatives in twelve areas across England aim to generate
                                                                               difficulties and prefer to avoid training opportunities than addresses their
increased demand for workforce development training of this nature
                                                                               basic skill development needs. The roles of Union Representatives within
through various cost reducing incentive schemes. The pilot initiatives are
                                                                               unionised workplaces offer the opportunity to encourage these
currently being evaluated by the Institute of Employment Studies (IES),
                                                                               individuals to address their basic skill needs in a non-threatening
and lessons emerging from the evaluation findings should be considered
                                                                               manner. Indeed Union Representatives have the opportunity to identify a
within the implementation of similar programmes in west London.
                                                                               number of skill needs within workplaces, especially amongst low skilled
                                                                               workers, and as such have the potential of stimulating further demand for
                                                                               work based training at this level. This only applies to workers within
                                                                               unionised workplaces, which in the case of west London is in the order of
                                                                               25% of all workers.

                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   28
The LDA draft Economic Development Strategy emphasises the need to          As such the vast majority of west London businesses require additional
ensure London businesses are fully engaged in identifying skill needs       support to overcome these barriers.
and developing provision and initiatives to address them. It must be
made clear to west London businesses that appropriate workforce             Addressing potential skill shortages to meet the changing needs of
development structures will not only improve their reputation as            priority growth sectors
employers but will lead to their company being perceived as socially
                                                                            As well as stimulating the demand for workforce development training
responsible.
                                                                            that meets current skill requirements, it is also essential that this strategy
                                                                            document considers the future and changing skill requirements of
As outlined in the business competitiveness section of this document the
                                                                            emerging growth sectors within the west London area. The London West
west London business base consists of a relatively large proportion of
                                                                            LSC identifies in its first Local Strategic Plan, a number of sectors that
micro businesses (employing between one and ten employees). The
                                                                            have particular importance in the west London area. They are:
London West LSC recognises that there is a direct correlation between
the employment size of businesses and the degree to which businesses
                                                                                •   Hospitality and leisure;
participate in workforce development training. This is largely due to the
                                                                                •   Engineering;
fact that micro businesses encounter additional barriers to training
                                                                                •   Construction;
including:
                                                                                •   Retail;
                                                                                •   Health and social care;
    o   Fewer resources to allocate to training needs
                                                                                •   Media;
    o   Less internal labour mobility to enable staff to be released for
                                                                                •   Transport and logistics; and
        training
                                                                                •   Information Technology (cross sectoral).
    o   Weaker / less formalised links with training providers
    o   Information mismatches regarding the training needs of
                                                                            In addition, it must be realised that charting skills needs within private
        employees and
                                                                            industry alone will provide an incomplete picture. The strategy must also
    o   the training opportunities available
                                                                            engage the public sector as it is one of the largest employers within west

                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   29
London accounting for almost one in five of all employment opportunities      number of recruitment difficulties and employers within the sector report
(see table 4.1 of the Business Competitiveness section). Establishing         that new entrants lack ‘work readiness.’ A number of specific skill
and fulfilling skills needs in the public sector will benefit public sector   shortages have also been cited especially in the following areas:
agencies, current and prospective employees, and will contribute to the
quality of service provision in west London.                                      o   Broadcasting engineering / cable and satellite
                                                                                  o   Film animation and commercials
The London West LSC Needs Assessment 2003 outlines key                            o   Interactive media, facilities and corporate production
recommendations associated with a number of these sectors. For the
engineering manufacturing sector the document recommends:                     The London West LSC recognises that efforts to increase employer
                                                                              engagement, develop and fund training provision and drive up the quality
    o   A focus on the development of generic skills                          of work-based learning must include clear responses to the needs of
    o   Skill audits for businesses operating in the sector to identify       these sectors if it is to be successful in achieving its objectives.
        current skills gaps
    o   Developing better links between businesses and providers              Skills shortages in the construction industry in London have been
    o   Raising the awareness of training benefits                            described as chronic by the London Development Agency. The number
    o   Raise the awareness of employers within the sector to training        of big construction projects in the pipeline in London is considerable
        opportunities                                                         including the National Stadium and Heathrow’s T5 and there is the
                                                                              potential that shortages in skilled labour in the industry may prove a
The Media and Creative Industries are becoming an increasingly                considerable headache for the residential construction industry in
important sector within the west London economy. Connections with the         London over the next few years (Source: Market failure and the London
creative industries are probably strongest within Hammersmith and             housing market, GLA Economics, May 2003). These rapid expansions
Fulham due to the presence of the BBC at White City. As the BBC is also       within the industry create additional demands on skill requirements
planning to relocate all employees from central London to Shepherd’s          across all areas of the sector.
Bush/White City during the next year the presence of the sector in the
area will naturally increase further. The sector however, encounters a


                                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   30
It is essential that a full understanding of the emerging skill needs of        It is essential that the west London Economic Development Strategy
these sectors is gained and that provision is aligned and planned to meet       works with its partners and stakeholders to ensure that employers audit
them. The demand for training within some sectors such as construction          and become aware of their own skill gaps and training needs. In addition
outlined above already outstrips the supply or provision. in particular the     the strategy must aim to ensure that work based training provision
west London LSC have identified the following specific issues relating to       adequately meets these demands and is delivered in a manner that
the sector:                                                                     stimulates sufficient participation.


    •   Existing training is not meeting requirements.                          3.3.6        Creating the links between Higher Education
    •   Requirement for more part-time and weekend requirements.                        and Business
    •   Need to engage women, black and Asian workers who are
        under-represented in the sector.                                        West London can be regarded as a successful area in many respects,
                                                                                however, the area does not fully realise its innovative potential, which in
Ensuring that the supply of training opportunities meets the needs of           turn acts as a brake upon the overall growth and performance of its
businesses is not just about ensuring that courses based around the             economy. This inability to fully harness this innovative potential stems
relevant subject areas are provided, although this is clearly an important      from the apparent gaps that exist in terms of innovation and knowledge
factor. The delivery of these courses is also an essential element as           transfer.
employers increasingly require more flexible training delivery modes.
Employers often require training provision that fits around the operation       Knowledge and expertise held within Higher Education Institutions
schedules of their business, to cater for shift workers and / or part-time      (HEI’s) is often embedded and the transfer and exchange of such
employees. This may require training provision delivered during evenings        knowledge is often limited. Higher Education institutions often have
and / or weekends etc. However, training providers and colleges                 excellent facilities that could be very beneficial to private sector
currently find it difficult to offer the degree of flexibility that employers   businesses, entrepreneurs as well as researchers and innovators.
desire due to funding stipulations.                                             Forging strong links between HEI’s and private sector enterprises
                                                                                creates the potential to enhance knowledge exchange opportunities. The
                                                                                LDA draft Economic Development Strategy encourages improved links

                                                                                                            West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   31
between education establishments and business and the WestFocus              The west London Economic Development Strategy should support the
partnership seeks to ensure that the knowledge, expertise and resources      aims of the WestFocus partnership and ensure that the knowledge
of west London and Thames Valley are fully realised.                         exchange opportunities that arise from its development are fully utilised
                                                                             by ensuring that the outcomes of the partnership activities address the
Details regarding the nature of the gaps in innovation and knowledge         needs of west London businesses.
transfer are highlighted in the business competitiveness section of this
document. However, it is worth emphasising again here the lack of
effective technology and knowledge transfer identified by the WestFocus
review across west London despite the apparent strength in research
and development employment (See figure 4.13 in the business
competitiveness section). It is also worth noting that this state of
innovation review revealed underdeveloped intermediary support
structures within the area which could act as a ’bridge’ between HEI’s
and business sectors. It is these gaps amongst others that the
WestFocus partnership aims to address.


WestFocus is a flexible partnership involving 7 HEI’s, led by Brunel
University, extending in an arc from the M40 to the North around to the
A3 in the South West of London. The main objectives of WestFocus are
to encourage innovation and entrepreneurship through the exchange of
knowledge; support the creation and growth of successful businesses;
ensure that existing knowledge, expertise and best practice is capitalised
upon; integrate and improve access to facilities and services in order to
improve the commercialisation of knowledge and to ensure that higher
education is relevant to and linked to innovation.


                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   32
3.4 Draft Objectives and Rationale


Draft Objectives                                      Rationale
Ensure adequate provision of English for              Over a third of the population of west London is classed as ‘non-white British’ and an estimated
Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses            60,000 refugees and asylum seekers live in the sub-region. Language skills are usually
                                                      necessary to overcome barriers to employment.
Improve numeracy and literacy skills                  Over a fifth of the west London population have poor literacy or numeracy skills, constituting a
                                                      significant barrier to accessing local employment.
Stimulate the demand for workforce development        The west London business base consists of a relatively large proportion of micro businesses that
training amongst west London employers                encounter a number of barriers to participating in workforce development training.
Help foster a culture of workforce development        It is generally accepted that providing skills and training for employees will lead to increases in
amongst businesses in west London                     productivity. Workforce development also fits into the wider ‘lifelong learning’ agenda.

Focus skills provision on the needs of key and        The government advocate a demand-led approach to skills provision. Skills provision should be
emerging sectors in west London                       targeted at local skills shortages in west London’s key sectors.

Improve training access opportunities for currently   Groups such as single parents, the disabled, non-English speakers and ex offenders are often
excluded groups                                       excluded from training and education participation.
Ensure that skill development programmes meet         West London business agenda aims towards expanding activity within the higher value sectors,
the changing skill needs of businesses                skill development strategies should aim to complement these business aims and objectives.




                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   33
4 Business Competitiveness                                                4.2 Strategic Context


4.1 Background                                                            In terms of sectors, if the west London economy is to be differentiated
                                                                          from other sub-regional economies, it is the high level of employment
West London lies within the heart of the UK’s most competitive regional   within transport and communications that affords this differentiation. In
                                                                                                                                                   3
economies. On its eastern edge is central London, by far the UK’s most    Heathrow, west London has one of the world’s busiest airports , but also
productive region and also the focus of knowledge-based business          has a particular concentration of employment within the distribution,
activities in the UK. To the south and west of west London are Surrey     hotels & restaurants sector.
and the Thames Valley which are key drivers of the UK’s high-technology
sectors. Although west London lies within the boundaries of Greater       West London employs a small proportion of its workforce (in comparison
London, the influence of the surrounding areas outside the London         with neighbouring sub-regions) within banking, finance and insurance. It
region should not be ignored. Motorway links bring west London close to   also has a relatively small proportion of employment in public sector
the neighbouring Thames Valley area, with the M4 and A40 being            activities, compared with surrounding areas.
important linkage routes. The location of Heathrow on the ‘border’
between west London and the Thames Valley area should also promote        Despite having a relatively low proportion of employment within finance
economic interaction between the two neighbouring sub-regions.            and related industries, these sectors account for almost one-half of all
                                                                          vacancies within local job centres in west London. The other sectors that
                                                                          have by far the highest level of vacancies are for distribution, hotels and
                                                                          restaurants.




                                                                          3
                                                                              World’s fourth busiest airport according to Airport Council International Data

                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy     34
Table 4.1: Employment by Sector 2002


                                                                                                                  Banking,        Public
                                                                             Distribution,
                     Agriculture   Energy &                                                  Transport &          finance &       administration,       Other
                                              Manufacturing   Construction   hotels &
                     & fishing     water                                                     communications       insurance,      education &           services
                                                                             restaurants
                                                                                                                  etc             health


Buckinghamshire        0.2%          0.1%        12.5%           4.5%          27.3%              4.6%              23.8%              20.5%             6.6%
Surrey                 0.4%          0.5%         6.8%           4.4%          25.4%              6.5%              29.1%              20.9%             5.8%
London Central         0.0%          0.3%         4.4%           1.9%          22.5%              6.8%              33.9%              20.9%             9.2%
London East            0.0%          0.2%         6.3%           3.3%          17.4%              6.3%              43.4%              18.7%             4.3%
London North           0.1%          0.2%         7.7%           4.8%          27.6%              5.8%              20.4%              27.7%             5.6%
London South           0.2%          0.1%         6.6%           5.8%          26.5%              6.1%              25.5%              23.0%             6.3%
London West            0.0%          0.1%         8.0%           4.5%          25.9%             14.4%              21.4%              18.3%             7.3%
Thames Valley          0.0%          1.1%         9.9%           2.7%          25.0%              8.2%              29.6%              18.8%             4.7%
Buckinghamshire        0.2%          0.1%        12.5%           4.5%          27.3%              4.6%              23.8%              20.5%             6.6%
Source: Annual Business Inquiry




                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   35
                                                                                            Job Centres. The exception is for process, plant and machine operatives,
Figure 4.1: Job Centre Vacancies by Sector in the west London                               for which the operation of transport equipment would dominate the
Job Centre Plus Districts 2003                                                              demand for workers – during December 2003, 12.4% of all vacancies
                        Other services            7.0%                                      within west London were for transport drivers and operatives.
      Public admin, education & health               9.3%

    Banking, finance and insurance, etc                                         45.9%

        Transport and communications              7.2%                                      Figure 4.2 highlights that the demand for finance related employees is
    Distribution, hotels and restaurants                          24.1%
                                                                                            particularly high in west London in comparison with surrounding areas.
                          Construction        3.2%

                         Manufacturing        2.7%                                          The chart depicts job vacancies by surrounding Job Centre Plus districts.
                     Energy and water      0.3%

                 Agriculture and fishing   0.5%
                                                                                            The level of vacancies is particularly high in west London, even
                                         0%     10%         20%    30%    40%   50%         compared with areas such as central London, where the demand for

Source: Job Centre Plus                                                                     finance workers is traditionally high.


Figure 4.1 illustrates the relatively low demand for workers outside the                    Figure 4.2: Percentage of Job Centre Vacancies within Finance,

finance and distribution sectors. For example, transport and                                Banking and Insurance, 2003

communications employs almost 15% of the west London workforce –                             West London Job Centre Plus Districts                      45.9%
                                                                                                                           Surrey                          50.6%

but vacancies within the west London Job Centre Plus districts account                             Buckinghamshire & Oxfordshire                      43.0%
                                                                                                                        Berkshire                     43.1%

for just 7.2% of all vacancies. Whilst Job Centre vacancies do not                                              North East London                 38.4%
                                                                                                               London South East                34.8%

account for all job vacancies, a significant proportion are advertised via                                          London South
                                                                                                                    London North
                                                                                                                                                  39.1%
                                                                                                                                                          47.7%

local Job Centres. Estimates suggest that between one third and a half                       Lambeth, Southwark and Wandsworth                30.6%
                                                                                                             City and East London             30.9%
                                                                                        4
of all vacancies are handled by Jobcentre Plus .                                                                   Central London               35.0%

                                                                                                                                 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%



West London performs fairly similarly to the surrounding areas in terms
                                                                                            Source: Job Centre Plus
of the broad occupations that constitute the vacancies advertised in local


4
    ONS Vacancy Survey

                                                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   36
West London has a relatively high business density compared with            business density and economic output for all local authority districts
neighbouring areas in the London region. Only central London has a          within Great Britain for the year 1998.
higher business density than west London. However, west London has
lower levels of business density than all its neighbouring sub-regions      Figure 4.4: Relationship between business density and economic

outside London – namely Surrey, the Thames Valley and                       output

Buckinghamshire.                                                                                                   £90,000




                                                                            GDP per Capita by GB District (1998)
                                                                                                                                  2
                                                                                                                   £80,000       R = 0.5148
Figure 4.3: VAT registered businesses per 1,000                                                                    £70,000
inhabitants 2002                                                                                                   £60,000

                                                                                                                   £50,000
                                                                                                                   £40,000
  Thames Valley                          37.6

    London West                        33.8                                                                        £30,000
   London South                       31.7
                                                                                                                   £20,000
    London North                 29.1

    London East                  28.7                                                                              £10,000
  London Central                                            66.0                                                       £0
          Surrey                              42.3
                                                                                                                             0           0.05           0.1            0.15           0.2
 Buckinghamshire                                47.2

                   0   10   20   30      40      50    60   70
                                                                                                                                 Workplaces per Capita by GB District (1998)
Source: NOMIS                                                               Source: Annual Business Inquiry; ONS Mid Year Population Estimates;
                                                                            Robert Huggins Associates

High levels of business density are generally associated with high levels
of economic competitiveness, earnings and economic output.
Fundamentally, the more businesses there are within an area the greater
the level of competition, causing an increase in economic
competitiveness. Figure 4.4 below highlights the relationship between



                                                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   37
Figure 4.5 highlights the association between business density and                                         Figure 4.5: VAT Registered Business Registrations per 1,000
earnings for the regions of Great Britain. This is an intuitive link – the                                 Inhabitants
more businesses within an area the greater the demand for labour, and                                        6

the greater the demand for labour the higher its price.
                                                                                                            5.5


Figure 4.4: Relationship between business density and earnings                                               5

                                     £650
Gross Weekly Pay (2002) GB Regions




                                                                                                            4.5

                                     £600
                                                                                                             4
                                                                                              2
                                     £550                                                R = 0.6073
                                                                                                            3.5          Greater London
                                     £500                                                                                West London
                                                                                                             3
                                     £450                                                                         1994    1995     1996   1997   1998   1999   2000    2001   2002

                                     £400                                                                  Source: NOMIS

                                     £350
                                                                                                           Business start-up rates in west London lag the regional average by some
                                     £300
                                            15         20         25         30          35           40   way. Figure 4.5 illustrates the differential in business start-up rates
                                                                                                           (measured as the number of VAT registered business registrations per
                                             VAT Registered Businesses per 1,000 Inhabitants (2002)
                                                                                                           1,000 inhabitants) between west London and Greater London.
Source: Annual Business Inquiry; ONS Mid Year Population Estimates;
New Earnings Survey, Robert Huggins Associates
                                                                                                           This large differential has been a constant throughout much of the late
                                                                                                           1990s. Whilst the gap has diminished slightly in recent years, much of
                                                                                                           this can be attributed to falling registration rates across London as a
                                                                                                           whole rather than a rise in registrations in west London.




                                                                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   38
Figure 4.6: VAT registered Finance businesses per 1,000                    Figure 4.7: VAT registered Transport and Communication
inhabitants 2002                                                           businesses per 1,000 inhabitants 2002

               Thames Valley         0.3                                        Thames Valley                                         1.8

                London West         0.2                                          London West                                               1.9

                London South         0.3                                         London South                           1.1

                London North        0.2                                          London North                       1.0

                 London East                            1.3                       London East                                 1.3

               London Central                                  1.5             London Central                                         1.8

                      Surrey                0.5                                        Surrey                                        1.7

             Buckinghamshire              0.4                                 Buckinghamshire                                        1.7

                                -          0.5    1.0    1.5         2.0                        0.0    0.5        1.0          1.5         2.0

Source: NOMIS
                                                                           Source: NOMIS

West London’s business density for finance related businesses is lower
than a number of nearby areas. All of the areas bordering west London,     As we would expect, there is a relatively high proportion of transport and

with the exception of London North, have a greater level of business       communication businesses within west London. This, along with the

density within the finance sector.                                         number of vacancies within the sector, indicates the importance of
                                                                           transport and communications to the sub-region.


                                                                           Businesses within west London are, on average, smaller than their fellow
                                                                           London and British counterparts. Over 87% of businesses within west
                                                                           London employ ten people or less. This is broadly similar (if slightly
                                                                           higher) than the London figure of 86.3%, and significantly higher than the
                                                                           British figure of just over 83%. The large proportion of small businesses

                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   39
within west London can be partly attributed to the large number of small   Table 4.3: Sources of business advice used in the past three years
retail and personal services businesses that operate within west London,                                                             %
a characteristic that is common amongst many urban areas.
                                                                           Accountants                                              43

                                                                           Banks                                                    34
Table 4.2: Percentage of businesses by employee size-band
                                                                           Trade Associations                                        9
                     1-10           11-49           50-199    200+
                                                                           Business Link for London                                  8
West London         87.1%           9.7%            2.6%      0.7%
                                                                           Business Consultancies                                    7
London              86.3%          10.4%            2.7%      0.7%
                                                                           Local Authority                                           5
Great Britain       83.1%          13.1%            3.1%%     0.7%
                                                                           Central Government Departments                            4
Source: Annual Business Inquiry
                                                                           Chamber of Commerce                                       4

                                                                           Other                                                     2
Ensuring that some of these micro businesses within west London grow,
as well as developing routes for new businesses to emerge, is an           None of these                                            43

integral element of developing the west London economy. However, as        Source: London Annual Business Survey 2003
illustrated in table 4.3 below, 43% of businesses within London have not
sought any advice in order to develop their business in the past three     A number of business support services are available in west London.
years. These businesses should be made more aware of the businesses        The list below highlights some of the organisations that offer support
services made available to them. Business Link for London in particular    services within the area.
was only used by 8% of businesses within London between the years
2000 and 2003. Businesses should be signposted to the correct
                                                                               •   Brent Business Venture
organisation in order to meet their requirements.
                                                                               •   Business Enterprise Centre, Hammersmith & Fulham
                                                                               •   Business Link for London
                                                                               •   Gateway Enterprise


                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   40
    •     Harrow in Business                                                    active, rather than just reactive, approach towards attracting inward
    •     Park Royal Partnership Ltd                                            investment.
    •     Regenasis
    •     Southall Regeneration Partnership                                     4.2.4           High          Technology                 Businesses       and      the
    •     West London Business                                                             Knowledge Economy
    •     Winning in Business

                                                                                Figure 4.8: Proportion of Total Employment in High-Tech
Despite the wealth of support services available, provision of more             Manufacturing 2002
specialist business support advice is also required within west London.
                                                                                    Thames Valley                                 2.6%
Currently the support offered to businesses within west London tends to
                                                                                      London West                     1.5%
be quite generic, and does not cater specifically for high-technology,
                                                                                     London South                 1.1%
knowledge-based businesses. High-technology based business growth
                                                                                     London North                  1.1%
is also being restricted by a lack of business incubation facilities that are
                                                                                      London East           0.5%
required to enable such businesses to flourish.
                                                                                    London Central         0.3%

                                                                                            Surrey                         2.0%
West London Business is the main point of contact in west London for
                                                                                Buckinghamshire                                            3.9%
international companies considering re-location and for growing SMEs to               Great Britain                        2.1%
find new premises. Last year WLB received over 650 property enquiries
                                                                                                      0%      1%          2%      3%       4%     5%
assisting 60 businesses to either re-locate or stay in the area, creating or
safeguarding 800 jobs.                                                          Source: Annual Business Inquiry


Historically, inward investment has been under-resourced within the sub-        Just 1.5% of employment in west London is within the high-technology
region.    However, this issue is currently being addressed and has                                           5
                                                                                manufacturing sectors . This represents a divide with the neighbouring
improved in the last year or two. The increased resources dedicated to
                                                                                5
inward investment will allow West London Business to adopt a more pro-              See Appendix for definition

                                                                                                                   West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   41
areas of Thames Valley, Berkshire and Surrey, all of which have
                                                                              Thames Valley                           26.6%
significantly higher levels of employment within these sectors.                London West                    18.5%

                                                                               London South                    19.9%

On the other hand, west London has higher levels of high-technology            London North                14.5%

manufacturing employment than the other sub-regions of London.                  London East                                    38.5%
                                                                              London Central                          26.4%

                                                                                      Surrey                       22.6%
The question this raises is whether the economy of west London is more
                                                                            Buckinghamshire                  18.4%
economically linked with other parts of London or parts of the South East
                                                                                Great Britain              15.2%
region. The issue is undoubtedly more complex than this, and in many
                                                                                                0%   10%    20%       30%     40%      50%
respects a business competitiveness strategy for west London should
                                                                            Source: Annual Business Inquiry
not be one that becomes either increasingly west or east facing in terms
of its economic development outlook. The opportunity for west London is
                                                                            West London does possess a number of strengths within the high-tech
to act as the economic and business bridge predominately between
                                                                            service sectors. These include a relatively high proportion of employment
Central London and the wider Thames Valley area.
                                                                            within the digital media sector. However, if we compare west London
                                               6                            with the Thames Valley we find that there is a considerable differential in
Employment within high-technology services is lower in west London
                                                                            the IT and communications sector (which includes software
than in most of the surrounding areas. Although west London has a
                                                                            development) – a substantial differential given that these two areas
proportion of employment within high-technology services that exceeds
                                                                            neighbour each other. Similarly we find that west London is under-
the national average, given the proliferation of high-technology service
                                                                            represented in comparison with a number of its neighbours in the
sector employment in neighbouring areas, it is a figure that could be
                                                                            business and management consultancy sector. Only north London has a
expected to be higher.
                                                                            lower proportion of its employment within this sector. This is another
Figure 4.9: Proportion of Total Employment in High-Tech Services
                                                                            sector that we may expect to be more prevalent with west London given
2002
                                                                            its location in the heart of the UK’s knowledge economy.

6
    See Appendix for definition

                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   42
Table 4.4: Employment (as a proportion of total employment) in
selected service sectors 2002                                                   This all suggests that there is a lack of economic interaction between
                  Business/management                                           west London and its surrounding localities. In particular, given their
Area                   consultancy       Digital Media   IT and Communication   locations next to the knowledge hotspots of Westminster and the
Buckinghamshire           2.6%              5.5%                5.3%            Thames Valley, the localities of Hillingdon and Brent have significantly
Surrey                    1.6%              6.0%                5.9%            low levels of knowledge-based employment. Modern economic growth
London Central            2.4%              6.0%                4.0%            theory points to the importance of spillovers as key generators of wealth.
London East               1.3%              4.0%                4.1%            Also, spillover creation is not a zero-sum game – all areas can benefit at
London North              0.8%              3.3%                3.0%            the expense of none. If west London can generate wealth as a result of
London South              1.7%              4.5%                4.3%            geographic spillovers then we would expect to see a significant increase
London West               1.2%              7.6%                4.4%            in knowledge-based activities. Schemes to encourage such spillovers
Thames Valley             1.4%              11.8%               12.5%           could include:
Source: Annual Business Inquiry
                                                                                    •   The establishment of an Inter-Trading initiative looking, for
Increasing levels of employment within key high-technology service                      example, to link creative industry businesses in west London
sectors will be the crucial factor in developing west London’s role as a                with technology firms in Thames Valley or to link wholesale
high added-value business bridge between the areas lying to its east and                businesses in west London with retailers in Central London.
west.                                                                               •   A Multinational Sourcing initiative could be established whereby
                                                                                        opportunities are sought for indigenous businesses across the
The map below illustrates the density of employment within knowledge-                   western London Corridor to supply the large multinationals.
based sectors. At present, we can see that rather than acting as a bridge
between the knowledge economies of Central London and the wider                     •   A common marketing initiative for potential investors could be
Thames Valley area, its role is more akin to that of a partition, since its             established expounding the benefits of the western London
overall levels of knowledge-based employment are lower than both its                    Corridor as a whole.
counterparts.


                                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   43
                  •       The development of collaborative business support mechanisms                   variation in economic performance between localities in the UK, they do
                          would appear to be an area that Economic Partnerships could                    account for a large proportion of such variation, although price
                          explore, particularly within the area of innovation and linkage                differentials (in terms of economic output) also have a bearing.
                          with solution makers within the academic institutions of the
                          whole of the western London Corridor.                                          Figure 4.11: Relationship between proportion of knowledge-bas
                                                                                                         businesses and economic output
Figure 4.10: Employment within Knowledge-Based Businesses                                                                                        £90,000




                                                                                                         GDP per Capita by GB District (1998)
                                                                                                                                                 £80,000
                                                           Dacorum
                                                           Dacorum         St.Albans
                                                                           St.Albans
                                                                                                                                                 £70,000

                                                                                                                                                 £60,000
                                                                        Watford Hertsmere
                                                                       Watford Hertsmere
                                                   Chiltern
                                                   Chiltern    Three Rivers
                                                               Three Rivers                                                                      £50,000
                                   Wycombe
                                   Wycombe
             South Oxfordshire
             South Oxfordshire                                                                                                                                 R2 = 0.3282
                                                                                        Barnet
                                                                                        Barnet                                                   £40,000
                                                                               Harrow
                                                                               Harrow
                                                                 Hillingdon
                                                                 Hillingdon
                                                                                                                                                 £30,000
                                                                                   Brent
                                                                                   Brent
                                                 South Bucks
                                                 South Bucks                                                                                     £20,000
                                                                               Ealing
                                                                               Ealing
                                                                                                                                                 £10,000
                                    Windsor and Maidenhead
                                    Windsor and Maidenhead                     Hammersmith and Fulham
                                                                               Hammersmith and Fulham
                                                                                                                                                      £0
                            Wokingham
                            Wokingham                                  Hounslow
                                                                      Hounslow
  Newbury
  Newbury                                                                                                                                                  0        5        10    15     20      25     30      35      40
                                                              Spelthorne
                                                              Spelthorne

                                        Bracknell Forest
                                        Bracknell Forest

                                                                      Elmbridge
                                                                      Elmbridge
                                                                              Epsom and Ewell
                                                                              Epsom and Ewell                                                   % of Knowledge-Based Businesses by GB District (1998)
                                                           Woking
                                                           Woking
                                                                                                         Source: Annual Business Inquiry; Robert Huggins Associates
                                 Hart
                                 Hart
  Basingstoke and Deane
  Basingstoke and Deane                  Rushmoor
                                         Rushmoor                                 Reigate and Banstead
                                                                                 Reigate and Banstead
                                                               Guildford
                                                               Guildford
                                                                              Mole Valley
                                                                              Mole Valley

Source: Annual Business Inquiry; Robert Huggins Associates
             There is a significant correlation between the proportion of knowledge-
             based businesses and the levels of economic output across localities in
             the UK. Although knowledge-based activities do not account for all the


                                                                                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy    44
                                                                            workers tending to be employed in relatively low-skilled and low-earnings
Figure 4.12: Gross Weekly Full-Time pay 2003                                occupations.

 £660
 £640                                                                       4.2.5                   The Innovation Economy - Research and
 £620
                                                                                        Development
 £600
 £580
 £560
 £540
                                                                            Within west London 0.7% of the workforce are employed within research
 £520                                                                       and development – this compares with a national average of 0.4%.




                                       London
                Greater
                London




                                        West
                                                                            Research and development is not only a high value-added sector within
                                                                            its own right, but also indicates the presence of other knowledge-based

Source: New Earnings Survey                                                 businesses within the area. The Thames Valley sub-region has a
                                                                            relatively high density of research and development employment.

Earnings in west London are almost 12% lower than the Greater London
average. Whilst earnings in west London are some way above the Great        Figure 4.13: Employment in Research and Development as a
Britain average, the cost of housing and other day-to-day costs reduce      proportion of total employment
the earnings differential significantly.                                     Thames Valley                                             1.4%
                                                                               London West                               0.7%

                                                                              London South                 0.2%

Low levels of earnings within west London are the result of a number of        London North                0.3%
                                                                               London East          0.1%
factors. Firstly low levels of business density lead to lower levels of      London Central                       0.4%

competition, which can have an effect on earnings. Secondly, sector                  Surrey                              0.7%
                                                                            Buckinghamshire                                     1.0%
composition also has an important effect on overall levels of earnings –       Great Britain                      0.4%

for example the relatively low levels of employment with the finance                           0%                 1%            1%      2%

sectors in comparison with other London areas will inevitably lead to a     Source: Annual Business Inquiry
reduction in overall pay levels. Also, sectors such as transport and
distribution tend to have long ‘occupational tails’, with the majority of

                                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   45
West London has a significant opportunity to grow employment within the            •   A lack of quality incubation space for SME development –
R&D sector, particularly if there is increased linkage and interaction with            including a lack of appropriate space and associated services for
the high-technology driven Thames Valley area and the concentration of                 inward investment.
research universities within Central London.                                       •   Underdeveloped intermediary support structures between HEIs,
                                                                                       research institutions and business sectors.
Foreign direct investment attraction in west London has traditionally              •   Weak business support structures in the areas of: information
focused on administrative headquarters functions, as opposed to higher-                and business support, business planning, design, finance,
value added R&D functions. This a UK-wide issue, in that many                          manufacturing and service development, quality, marketing and
multinationals are happy to place their headquarters in the UK, but look               human resources.
for other sites elsewhere in Europe when locating their R&D facilities.            •   A lack of emphasis on skilled workers and little provision
However, west London should develop aftercare and business                             available for training in ways that is appropriate to industry sector
expansion programmes that will encourage existing investors to consider                needs.
creating R&D functions within the area.                                            •   Lack of specific skills relating to ICT and technical occupations,
                                                                                       and also in managerial positions and administrators.
WestFocus is a partnership of Higher Education Institutions in the west            •   Shortage of seed funding.
London and Thames Valley area. The geographical focus of the
partnership is flexible and also includes areas of south west London. A        Source: WestFocus Strategic Framework and Business Plan
recent study undertaken by WestFocus highlights that the innovative
performance of the area is not being fully realised - and this is inhibiting   4.2.6       The Creative Industries
the growth potential of the wider London and South East regions.               The creative industries are an important element of west London’s
                                                                               economy. A strong presence in the TV and Radio sector is centred on
WestFocus identifies a number of gaps in innovation and knowledge              the BBC studios in White City. Film studio facilities in Ealing also embody
transfer within the region that are restricting the commercialisation of       west London’s presence in the creative industries sector. However, it is
technology and knowledge. These gaps include:                                  not just these large visible examples that constitute the creative



                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   46
industries sector in west London – the sector is also heavily reliant upon   precisely these sectors that can develop the business bridge between
small businesses and freelance workers.                                      central London and Thames Valley. In essence, it is the applications side
                                                                             of the creative industries that provides the platforms for the technologies
Figure 4.14: Proportion of Total Employment in TV and Radio 2002             being developed in Thames Valley and the content within Central
 Thames Valley        0.2%                                                   London.
   London West                                      2.6%

  London South     0.1%
   London North    0.1%
                                                                             4.2.7       Transport
   London East        0.1%
 London Central                      1.4%

         Surrey       0.1%                                                   The transport and communications sector is an obvious area of strength
Buckinghamshire    0.1%
   Great Britain       0.3%                                                  for west London. The development of terminal 5 at Heathrow would have
               0.0%    0.5%   1.0%   1.5%   2.0% 2.5%   3.0%                 a significant impact upon the economy and environment of west London.

Source: Annual Business Inquiry                                              The area is already heavily reliant upon the airline industry. Over one in
                                                                             every twenty employees within the sub-region is employed within the

An important factor in the decision of small businesses and freelance        scheduled air transport sector. Much employment is also reliant upon this

workers within the TV and radio sector to locate in west London is the       sector, including other transport sectors and cargo, storage and

quality of life on offer within the area, and also the importance of         warehousing. Table 4.5 below highlights employment within selected

clustering within the sector.                                                transport sectors.


Digital TV and radio are expanding the scope of the industry, and are
offering new methods of generating revenues. Overall, growth in the
global market is expected to outstrip UK growth, as the market for TV
and radio in lower income countries expands. There is a significant
opportunity for west London, as a cornerstone of the international TV and
Radio industry, to take hold of the new prospects that are opening within
the industry as a result of recent technological advancements. Also, it is

                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   47
Table 4.5: Employment (as a proportion of total employment) in selected transport sectors 2002

Industry                                           West London                        London                       Great Britain

Transport via railways                                 0.1%                            0.3%                             0.2%

Other scheduled passenger land transport               1.1%                            1.0%                             0.5%

Taxi operation                                         0.2%                            0.1%                             0.1%

Other passenger land transport                         0.1%                            0.1%                             0.1%

Freight transport by road                              0.7%                            0.4%                             1.0%

Scheduled air transport                                5.6%                            1.0%                             0.3%

Non-scheduled air transport                            0.1%                            0.0%                             0.1%

Cargo handling                                         0.2%                            0.0%                             0.0%

Storage and warehousing                                0.5%                            0.2%                             0.4%

Other supporting air transport activities              1.1%                            0.2%                             0.1%

Source: Annual Business Inquiry




                                                                                                 West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   48
4.2.8       Employment Growth
                                                                                 Growth in real estate activities, whilst substantial, mirrored the UK growth
West London’s employment growth in recent years has been highest in              rate and is more likely to have been the result of continued house price
so-called ‘Other Services’, which includes businesses such as                    inflation as opposed to any west London specific characteristic, and a
recreational and personal services. This growth has, however, been               cooling down of the house market will be expected to lead to a similar
mirrored by the areas surrounding west London.                                   result in employment within the sector.


West London has experienced annual growth of over 2% in the transport            Much of the west London economy is driven by Heathrow airport. Table
and communications sector between 1998 and 2002. Other areas of                  4.7 below highlights those sectors that have displayed the highest levels
substantive growth include the distribution, hotels & restaurants sector         of growth in recent years within west London. Whilst employment within
and the public sector. Worryingly for west London, between the years             membership organisations (which includes organisations such as
1998 and 2002, employment fell within the finance sector, and                    businesses groups and trade unions) has displayed the highest growth in
surprisingly within the construction sector. Despite the recent falls in         recent years, this has largely been the result of its low employment base.
employment in the construction industry, the number of jobs in this sector       In 2002 fewer than two thousand people were employed within this
is expected to increase in the short-to medium-term as a result of large         sector in west London, compared with around 40,000 employed in the air
construction projects such as the new Wembley development. Falls in              transport sector. Employment within air transport has grown by 6% per
employment within the manufacturing sector mirrored trends in                    annum between the years 1998 and 2002 – an increase of over 25%
surrounding areas.                                                               during the four year period. Similar high growth has been experienced in
                                                                                 the hotels & restaurants sector followed closely by growth in the real
Those sectors that have experienced the highest growth in west London            estate activities sector (where growth has followed the recent growth in
include air transport, hotels & restaurants as well as real estate activities.   UK house prices).
It is important to note that the effects of September 11th may have
actually dampened growth within the transport and hotels and
restaurants sectors and recovery in the tourism sectors may well result in
even greater growth in employment within these sectors.


                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   49
Table 4.6: Employment Growth (Compound Annual Growth Rate) 1998-2002
                                                                   London      London   London         London         London         Thames
                                             Bucks    Surrey
Industry                                                           Central     East     North          South          West           Valley
Energy and water                              -2.2%    -18.4%          -6.5%     8.3%    -26.7%          -20.9%          -12.5%         2.9%
Manufacturing                                 -4.8%    -5.7%           -3.5%    -7.1%    -6.0%           -3.8%           -3.2%          -1.1%
Construction                                   2.6%    -0.8%            1.7%     0.3%    -3.3%            2.3%           -1.3%          -3.8%
Distribution, hotels and restaurants          -1.2%     1.7%            1.7%     2.6%     0.5%            0.6%           2.0%           0.7%
Transport and communications                   6.2%    -6.0%           -1.9%     0.3%    -1.7%            1.9%           2.6%           9.9%
Banking, finance and insurance, etc            2.1%     3.7%            3.1%     2.7%    -1.1%           -3.3%           -1.6%          2.5%
Public administration, education & health     -0.2%     1.5%            1.0%     1.9%     1.9%            1.1%           2.3%           6.9%
Other services                                 1.0%     5.3%            2.9%     4.0%     1.8%            3.5%           5.3%           0.6%
Source: Annual Business Inquiry

Table 4.7: Employment Growth (Compound Annual Growth Rate) 1998-2002
                                                                 GB                                          West London
Activities of membership organisations nec                      2.2%                                              7.2%
Air transport                                                   1.1%                                              6.0%
Hotels and restaurants                                          1.7%                                              5.2%
Real estate activities                                          4.4%                                              5.1%
Recreational, cultural and sporting                             4.8%                                              4.7%
Other service activities                                        3.3%                                              3.7%
Manufacture of other transport equipment                        -1.6%                                             3.6%
Education                                                       3.7%                                              3.4%
Source: Annual Business Inquiry




                                                                                                  West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   50
4.3 Key Issues                                                                In order to develop the west London economy it should also seek to
                                                                              integrate more with its surrounding sub-regional economies. Whilst the
                                                                              Thames Valley, Surrey, Buckinghamshire and Central London have a
The key constraint to business growth in west London is the apparent
                                                                              large density of knowledge-based employment the same cannot be said
lack of economic connectivity with neighbouring areas such as Central
                                                                              of west London – which is wedged between all the aforementioned sub-
London and Thames Valley. It has its obvious strength in the transport
                                                                              regions. Significant opportunities exist in west London to ‘bridge’ these
and communications sectors, but also needs to develop more tradable
                                                                              areas and increase the sub-region’s endowment of knowledge-economy
specialisms in the knowledge-based sectors. The creative industries is
                                                                              employment.
perhaps the best example such of activity within which west London can
excel and create opportunities across sectors and geographies.
                                                                              An example worth looking at here is the economic interaction that has
                                                                              developed across the wider Bay Area of San Francisco, which has a
Other constraints, highlighted within the analysis so far, holding back the
                                                                              spatial dynamic that is not unlike that encountered by west London. First,
development of the west London economy include recruitment problems
                                                                              there is the city of San Francisco itself, which is the financial
within the finance, business and insurance sectors, problems in recruiting
                                                                              administrative centre of the Bay Area (not unlike Central London);
transport operators, a lack of knowledge-based businesses and a lack of
                                                                              second, there is the southern Silicon Valley strip (similar to the Thames
interaction between west London and the Thames Valley, Surrey and
                                                                              Valley/M4 Corridor), and third, there is the rest of the Bay Area which
Buckinghamshire areas.
                                                                              provides the linkage between the city and Silicon Valley. In this case, it is
                                                                              a very real linkage with a high density of value-added economic activity
It is important that the recruitment problems that exist in west London,
                                                                              that provides the support for both the city and the Valley. There is much
particularly any transport related occupations (given the importance of
                                                                              here than west London can learn from.
the sector within west London) are addressed quickly.




                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   51
Further constraints include skills shortages within the construction       The creative industries are one area of activity where west London has a
industry which have been described as chronic by London Development        current competitive advantage and also particular opportunities for the
Agency. There are a considerable number of construction projects           future. The advancements made in digital media mean that there are
planned for west London, and a failure to resolve the skills problem       many more outlets for creative energies – and the current density of
within the sector may result in a contraction of any possible employment   creative sectors that exist in west London suggest that the sub-region is
growth within the sector.                                                  an ideal area to locate such businesses.


Another constraint to growth in west London is the breadth of business
support offered in the sub-region. Whilst the overall business support
infrastructure is sufficient for many businesses, there is a lack of
specialist support for the higher value-added, knowledge-based
businesses.


West London boasts a number of attractions for businesses. The
proximity of central London, as well as its proximity to Thames Valley
and other high-performing South East England sub-regions, means that
West London is within the centre of the UK’s most competitive regions.


Significant opportunities exist for west London’s businesses if they can
make full use of the resources open to them. Initiatives such as HEI
commercialisation programmes (especially with the success of Brunel
University’s commercial activities) and the development of further links
with knowledge institutions would significantly aid economic development
within the area.



                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   52
4.4 Draft Objectives and Rationale


Draft Objectives                                                       Rationale

Establish a platform aimed at improving business and economic          Whilst the Thames Valley and central London are two of the most
interaction and connectivity between west London and the localities    prosperous areas in the UK, west London does not fare quite so well.
lying to its east and west.                                            Given its location and transport links, west London has a massive
                                                                       opportunity to capitalise upon the opportunities on offer as a result of
                                                                       its location, and benefit all the areas involved.

Ensure provision of training in business skills and foster a strong    Business start-up rates in west London lag the regional average, and
entrepreneurial culture, particularly targeted towards high growth     are not occurring in those sectors that have a high growth potential.
and/or high employment sectors.

Provide an integrated support service for businesses that caters for   There is little evidence that current business support mechanisms are
the wide range of business activity undertaken in west London.         creating the level of business growth required in west London,
Additional business support services should be aimed at high value-    particularly for high value-added businesses.
added businesses.

Provide a world-class and targeted inward investment and aftercare     Over recent years an increasing amount of foreign investment in the
service.                                                               UK has come from expansions by existing investors rather than from
                                                                       new investors. West London should also focus on seeking to ensure
                                                                       that investment projects have as high an R&D element as possible.

Further develop links between industry and academia through the        Potential benefits of industry-academia links, particularly across
activities of WestFocus.                                               knowledge economy sectors, will be a vital catalyst for stimulating
                                                                       future economic growth.


                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   53
Develop the growth and competitiveness of key sub-sectors within   West London trails behind the rest of London and other counterpart
knowledge-based industries. These should seek to incorporate       areas in its level knowledge-based business activity.
where relevant those growth sectors already identified by the
London Development Agency, but should concentrate on the
creative industries and ICT, as they will provide the economic
linkage highlighted by Objective 1 above.




                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   54
5 Land and Property
                                                                             Securing a sustainable economy also must entail securing the future of
                                                                             west London’s towns as centres of economic activity. The town centres
                                                                             throughout west London still play a vital role as centres for business,
5.1 Background                                                               commerce, leisure and recreation and in knitting communities together.
                                                                             However, falling employment, low levels of investment and the

The potential for the west London economy to grow will depend mostly         construction of out-of-town retail and leisure facilities have taken much of

on the competitiveness and productivity of businesses. A critical issue      the social and economic life from many town centres. Co-ordinated

will be the capacity and ability of the sub region to accommodate            action will be required to promote and intensify retailing, services,

population and economic development in physical terms.                       employment, leisure and housing in town centres across the sub region.
                                                                             Boosting the confidence and image of town centres will play a critical role

The west London Economic Development Strategy will need to take into         in reinforcing the culture and character of communities.

account the spatial policies set out within the London Plan, which will be
implemented in the sub region through the Sub Regional Development           West London has a clear and successful identity in the property market

Framework.                                                                   underpinned by London Heathrow Airport, an economic driver of national
                                                                             significance and a major contributor to the success of the London and

All businesses need appropriate premises for their operation – whether a     South East economies.

small office or a major development site. West London has to ensure a
supply of appropriate sites and premises to meet projected employment        The west London sub region can be characterised as having a number of

growth over the next 15 years. In particular, the sub region has to          key employment areas:

develop property that can support and encourage higher value
enterprises and investment, specifically high technology and growing             •   Park Royal/Wembley area is dominated by distribution and

clusters, e.g. creative industries; and needs to ensure the development              service business serving the West End and Central London.

of strategic sites that provide major opportunities for investment and               Park Royal is a significant employment area in west London

growth.                                                                              characterised by a large concentration of industrial activity.


                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   55
    There is a strong demand and relatively short supply of industrial           to compete (together with Stockley Park) as an office investment
    land in the area. Manufacturing of food and other businesses are             location.
    concentrated in the area. Its property and infrastructure are
    ageing but is has shown itself to be capable of regeneration             •   The area around the A4 / M4 corridor includes a significant
    through market processes. Rising values are also acting to                   concentration of employment activity. Along the “Golden Mile” of
    displace lower value activities. Wembley also has an old                     the A4 is situated the national and international headquarters of
    industrial stock and is less well served by the road network.                companies that include Glaxo SmithKline, Carrillion, Gillette and
                                                                                 Data-General. It is also important for distribution and servicing of
•   Hayes/West Drayton is a varied business location, which                      the west end and Central London.
    includes a modern high quality business park at Stockley Park
    and older industrial estates along the Great Western railway line        •   The specialised market area of Heathrow, the vast majority of
    between Southall and Yiewsley. Market-driven property                        the businesses being airport related with distribution,
    investment is underway and will be significantly enhanced with               administration and service sectors often combined. Heathrow
    improvements to rail connections. BAA’s £30 million investment               airport is clearly of major importance to the London / UK
    in the Heathrow Express will see trains stopping half-hourly at              economy as well as the immediate catchment area. Certain
    Ealing Broadway, West Ealing, Hanwell, Southall and Hayes.                   types of businesses will base their location decisions on
                                                                                 proximity to Heathrow, particularly those with important HQ
•   Hounslow / Bedfont Lakes. Within Hounslow the town centres                   functions. Around 90% of the worldwide GDP is accessible from
    of Hounslow, Brentford and Feltham, together with the key                    Heathrow (Estates Gazette January 2004).
    employment locations of the Great West Road, Chiswick
    Business Park and Bedfont Lakes, offer the greatest opportunity      It is likely that the future development activity in west London is likely to
    for new development and growth. The Great West Road needs            be dominated by:
    to regain its position as a prime employment area and Bedfont
    Lakes needs to consolidate its position as a key employment              •   The redevelopment of Heathrow Airport, specifically the
    location for commercial activity within west London, which is able           construction of Terminal 5;


                                                                                                    West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   56
•   The concentration of new investment in Wembley associated
    with the building of the national stadium;                  5.2 Strategic Context
•   The continuing modernisation of Park Royal; and
•   The development of White City.
                                                                The strategic context in terms of land and property is set out within the
                                                                newly adopted London Plan. In delivering land for employment, industrial
                                                                policies in the London Plan reflect the broader policy concerns and over-
                                                                riding need to achieve sustainable development patterns. Critically in the
                                                                context of west London and strategic sites development, there should be
                                                                a closer relationship between public transport accessibility, making
                                                                efficient use of land and encouraging a diversity of uses. The strategic
                                                                objectives that relate to the economic development spatial element for
                                                                west London as set out in Table 5.1.




                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   57
Table 5.1                                                                  Within the London Plan period, the forecast is for the sub region to
                                                                           accommodate in the region of 45,000 additional homes and 86,000 new
The London Plan (Selected) Strategic Priorities for west London: 2004      jobs. Much of this growth is expected to be located in the Western
                                                                           Wedge, the London part of which extends from Paddington through Park
    •   Capture the benefits of the economic generators, including         Royal and Wembley to Heathrow and its environs.
        Heathrow, within the sub region for residents, whilst ensuring
        that this development improves not degrades the environment;       The London Plan recognises that west London, unlike east London, has
    •   Realise the potential of Wembley as a national and international   a relatively limited amount of brownfield development land and therefore
        sports, leisure and business location;                             much of the planned growth will need to be realised through higher
    •   Identify capacity to accommodate new job and housing               density development, exploiting locations with good existing or potential
        opportunities and appropriate mixed-use development;               access by public transport.
    •   Promote and intensify retailing, services, employment, leisure
        and housing in town centres and opportunities for mixed-use        In terms of strategic context, a number of pan-London and sub regional
        development;                                                       studies are currently being undertaken to assess demand and supply
    •   Improve the variety, quality and access to available employment    issues with regard to employment land. The Sub Regional Development
        sites, especially within Strategic Employment Locations, to meet   Framework will need to balance demand and supply issues to encourage
        the identifiable demands for employment land;                      continued economic development in a way which is compatible with
    •   Ensure that new development is sustainable, safe, secure and       environmental objectives, which may include protecting valuable
        well designed, improves the environment, and takes account of      industrial sites from competing uses, particularly residential.
        the sub-region’s heritage;
    •   Identify areas suitable for tall buildings                         The SRDF will set a clear framework for the development necessary for
                                                                           west London to fulfil its ambitions for balanced economic success as well
                                                                           as for social inclusion and a quality environment.




                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   58
Opportunity Areas in west London                                               Strategic Employment Locations


Within west London, there are a number of strategic “areas of                  The London Plan also identifies a number of Strategic Employment
opportunity”, which are areas of substantial concentrated economic             Locations (SELs) across London. These are sub divided to reflect the
activity with significant development potential. The scope is to ensure        locational needs of different businesses, recognising that industries of
that these areas and specific sites realise their development potential        different types will have different spatial and environmental requirements:
and make a significant contribution to supporting a prosperous, dynamic,
inclusive and sustainable sub regional economy.                                    •   Industrial Business Parks (IBPs) for businesses requiring a high
                                                                                       quality environment; and
The west London Opportunity Areas are shown in Table 5.2, with                     •   Preferred Industrial Locations (PILs) for businesses with less
indicative estimates for homes and jobs growth.                                        demanding requirements.


Table 5.2: Opportunity Areas in west London – indicative estimates             The SELs located within the study area are listed in Table 5.2 and Table

of growth                                                                      5.3 below.

Opportunity Area            Area (ha)        New jobs to     New homes
                                             2016            to 2016           In line with PPG12, the Mayor’s Supplementary Planning Guidance
Wembley                               238            5,000              400    (SPG, September 2003) and the London Plan, there will be a clear need
White City                              30          11,000             1,200   to ensure that west London manages and provides an adequate stock of
Park Royal                            470           10,000                     industrial employment capacity to meet the future needs of different
Heathrow, Feltham,                      91           5,500              930    types of industry, including the need for good quality and affordable
Bedfont Lakes, Hounslow                                                        space. This will mean working in partnership to provide choice and

Hayes, West Drayton,                  371           35,000             5,800   flexibility to meet the requirements of different types of developer and

Southall, Stockley Park                                                        occupier. However, there is also a requirement to ensure that the sub

Source: The London Plan                                                        region plans, monitors and manages the release of genuinely surplus



                                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   59
industrial land so that it can better contribute to strategic and local    Table 5.4: Industrial Business Parks
planning objectives.                                                       Borough                               Preferred Industrial Business
                                                                                                                 Park name
The development of the Sub Regional Development Framework will be          Brent, Ealing, Hammersmith &          Park Royal (part)
the mechanism to identify and justify any changes to the SELs to ensure    Fulham
that a balance is maintained to promote economic growth whilst utilising   Brent                                 East Lane
land assets.                                                               Hammersmith & Fulham                  Wood Lane (part)
                                                                           Harrow                                Stanmore (part)

Table 5.3: Preferred Industrial Locations                                  Hillingdon                            North Uxbridge Industrial Estate

Borough                             Preferred Industrial Location          Hounslow                              Great Western Road (part)

                                    name                                   Source: The London Plan

Brent, Ealing, Hammersmith &        Park Royal (part)
Fulham                                                                     The SELs are priority locations for employment use and clear planning

Brent                               Wembley Stadium (part)                 frameworks need to be in place to manage, protect and enhance these

Brent, Barnet                       Staples Corner                         designated strategic employment opportunities.

Ealing                              Great Western Road (part)
Ealing                              Northolt, Greenford, Perivale (part)   Town Centres

Harrow                              Wealdstone Industrial Area
Hillingdon                          Uxbridge Industrial Estate             West London has strong urban centres but also vulnerable or declining

Hillingdon                          Stonefield Way / Victoria Road         secondary town centres and suburban areas. Some of these provide

Hillingdon                          Hayes Industrial Area                  both the need and the opportunity for significant redevelopment.
                                                                           Maintaining and improving the competitive performance of town centres
Hounslow                            North Feltham Trading Estate
                                                                           in west London will be an important strand of the Economic Development
Source: The London Plan
                                                                           Strategy. Economically, town centres continue to dominate retail activity,
                                                                           with nearly two thirds of retail floorspace located in town centres despite

                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   60
the growth of out-of-town formats over the last 20 years (ATCM).              Ealing                              Southall
Socially, town centres remain the focus for the delivery of a wide range of   Hammersmith & Fulham                Hammersmith
both public and private sector services. Town centres in west London          Hammersmith & Fulham                Fulham
have an important role to play in accommodating some of the projected         Hillingdon                          Uxbridge
growth in housing and employment.                                             Hounslow                            Chiswick


The London Plan sets out the strategic context to support the                 District Centres
development of London’s town centres over the lifetime of the plan to         Borough                             Centre
meet the needs and aspirations of local communities. Further work on          Brent                               Harlesden
categorisation will be provided through the Sub Regional Development                                              Willesden Green
Framework. The classification of town centres in west London is set out                                           Wembley Park
below.                                                                                                            Preston Road
                                                                                                                  Neasden
Table 5.5: Town Centre Classifications                                                                            Ealing Road
Metropolitan Centres                                                          Ealing                              Acton
Borough                               Centre                                                                      Greenford
Ealing                                Ealing                                                                      Hanwell
Harrow                                Harrow                                  Hammersmith & Fulham                Shepherds Bush
Hounslow                              Hounslow                                Harrow                              Pinner
                                                                                                                  Wealdstone
Major Centres                                                                                                     Rayners Lane
Borough                               Centre                                                                      South Harrow
Brent                                 Wembley                                                                     Stanmore

Brent / Camden                        Kilburn                                                                     North Harrow



                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   61
Hillingdon                           Yiewsley / West Drayton
                                     Ruislip                              5.3 Capacity and Demand Issues
                                     Hayes
                                     Eastcote
                                                                          The extent to which west London can continue to be attractive to
                                     Northwood
                                                                          businesses will be its ability to maximise its competitive advantage,
                                     Ickenham
                                                                          specifically London Heathrow, transport network, the quality of the urban
Hounslow                             Feltham High Street
                                                                          environment and continued provision of attractive sites and premises.
                                     Brentford
Source: The London Plan
                                                                          In terms of developing a land and property programme to secure
                                                                          economic development objectives, it is important to understand capacity
The west London Economic Development Strategy will need to enhance
                                                                          issues that currently exist within the west London sub-region. Detailed
and strengthen the role played by town centres, specifically the
                                                                          work is being undertaken to assess current and future capacity issues,
Metropolitan and Major Centres as a focus for employment, service and
                                                                          which will inform the development of the SRDF. This may impact on the
leisure functions.
                                                                          key spatial economic development objectives set out within this strategy.

A comprehensive approach will be required to fully optimise development
                                                                          In general terms, land values are high and are themselves a reflection of
potential in these key locations, ensuring the provision of sustainable
                                                                          the area’s ability to maintain its economic popularity and performance at
transportation links, attractive development opportunities and an
                                                                          a high level. As identified within the Western Wedge Technical Report
appropriate range of housing. It is vital that policy is developed and
                                                                          (GLA August 2002):
implemented in such a way to strengthen the ability of town centres to
compete for economic activity and investment.
                                                                          “There is very explicit evidence to suggest that the Wedge has faced
                                                                          specific capacity constraints over the last few years.”
                                                                          Source: Western Wedge Report 2002 SDS Technical Report 14




                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   62
However, higher values and costs do act as a disincentive and have              Although there has been a significant decline in the office market, the
accelerated sectoral restructuring and squeezed lower value activities          area is forecast to account for nearly 40% of all demand for office space
across the wider sub region and beyond.                                         outside central London (London Office Policy Review 2001, London
                                                                                Property Research).
In terms of future capacity, the critical issue for west London is the extent
to which current land supply will be maintained. A report on the demand         With regard to future capacity, the Western Wedge report includes a
and supply of business space in London (RTP Report on the Demand                review of potential developments within west London between 2000 –
and Supply of Business Space in London) confirms that there is forecast         2021, based on a review of current UDPs and an assessment of the
to be available land to accommodate the likely growth in both office and        London Development Database. This information is included in Table 5.6
industrial jobs up to 2016 across west London.                                  below.


Currently, demand for investment property seems to be fairly healthy,           The indication is that there is sufficient potential development coming
however evidence suggests that in the medium term there will be some            forward to meet population and employment growth projections. Clearly,
downward pressure exerted by rising interest rates on the value of both         the potential developments are subject to a number of conditions, not
commercial and residential land.                                                least the state of the property market.


The decline in the office market has had a significant impact in the sub        Key issues that will impact on the future success of the west London
region. In west London, Heathrow has been badly affected by falling             Economic Development Strategy will include:
demand, with availability of premises surrounding the airport more than
doubling. The largest schemes outstanding in the west London area are               •    The need to ensure that key strategic sites will be coming
the Hounslow town centre re-development (with an office component of                     forward as a key resource for attracting inward investment and
250,000 sq.ft.), the 780,000sq.ft. at Chiswick Park and the 500,000 sq.ft.               accommodating indigenous growing firms;
extension at Stockley Park.                                                         •    The need to ensure that the right mix of opportunities come
                                                                                         forward to meet market needs and “cluster” opportunities
                                                                                         specifically within higher value added sectors;

                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   63
    •    The need to ensure that potential developments are accessible
         particularly in terms of public transport provision;


A pressing challenge is to promote an appropriate mix of development
opportunities. These should include distinctive residential opportunities, a
hierarchy of linked employment and business sites and accommodation
(from incubator units for start-up enterprises to facilities for inward
investors), thriving town centres, an unrivalled green environment and
easy access and movement throughout the sub region.


In terms of land and property, an important consideration is where
employment growth and future demand is likely to come from.
Employment is forecast to grow in the region of 10%-14% between 2001
– 2016. There are significant regional variations, with Hammersmith &
Fulham predicated to see the largest growth (19%). In terms of sectors,
there is expected to be growth in the following sectors in west London:
     •    Higher value logistics and distribution;
     •    Media and creative industries;
     •    Knowledge based enterprises, which are likely to require high
          quality sites in accessible locations;
     •    Medium tier value activities in finance and business services;
     •    Construction (until the completion of Terminal 5 and Wembley);
     •    Retailing.




                                                                               West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   64
Table 5.6: Potential Developments 1999-2021
BOROUGH         SITE AREA (HA)    OFFICES (M2)      INDUSTRIAL (M2)    B-SPACE               NON    B-SPACE      A1;A2;A3 (M2)    D1;D2 (M2)     FINAL ALL JOBS
                                                                       FLOORSPACE (M2)       FLOORSPACE (M2)                                     ESTIMATED

Hillingdon                104.8          144,105             121,118              265,223              13,067            13,067                               29,653

Hounslow                     18          236,445             112,878              351,904                  0                  0          2,581                26,861

Ealing                       48          102,022              85,700              214,542             330,085            10,360       319,725                 14,474

Brent                      46.4          160,975             136,595              319,440              66,802            49,040         17,762                21,371

H&F                          16          195,532              44,725              255,992             157,555            95,660         61,895                17,420

Harrow                     19.6          147,839             159,390              796,179              19,445            11,768          7,677                27,962

West London               252.7          986,918             660,406             2,203,280            586,954          179,895        409,640                137,740

Source: Western Wedge Report 2002 SDS Technical Report 14




                                                                                                                West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   65
                                                                              those lower cost premises, which are critical in providing scope for low
5.4 Shaping Objectives and Priorities                                         cost industrial accommodation.


                                                                              Because of size, scale and location, there are a number of key strategic
West London has an important role in providing space for the activities
                                                                              locations, which provide the opportunity for an integrated development
that support London’s position as a world city and the international hub of
                                                                              agenda, which will contribute to economic growth as well as for social
Heathrow. Land, sites and premises are important in attracting inward
                                                                              inclusion and a quality environment. Specific characteristics of strategic
investors and supporting home-grown businesses. In west London, there
                                                                              locations include:
are a number of headline issues, which will shape strategic objectives
and priorities for the sub region.
                                                                                  •    Catalyst sites, where new investment will have a significant
                                                                                       economic impact throughout the sub-region;
There is a need to retain and enhance key strategic employment
                                                                                  •    Key “gateway” locations close / adjacent to current or planned
locations throughout the sub region. The contraction in manufacturing,
                                                                                       transport improvements;
utilities or public sector may lead to sites becoming available which could
                                                                                  •    Sites which have the scale and scope to provide an integrated
be utilised to find new uses in growing sectors, though there may be
                                                                                       approach that realises strategic objectives in terms of jobs,
transitional and market-orientated barriers.
                                                                                       homes, transportation improvements and improved quality of life;
                                                                                  •    Sites that contribute to sustainability objectives.
There is a need to ensure that industrial land is protected to support a
range of higher, medium and lower grade activities. Although there is an
                                                                              The choice of sites will be subject to review as part of the SRDF but are
overall aim to protect and retain sites for employment use, this is now
                                                                              likely to include:
being challenged by changes to policy at the national level (PPG3 and
PPG4) as a result of the demand for new housing. The issue will be to
                                                                                  •    Park Royal;
ensure that local authorities not only retain those sites in industrial use
                                                                                  •    Wembley;
which are considered to be most important for industrial uses, but also
                                                                                  •    White City;
                                                                                  •    Bedfont Lakes;


                                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   66
    •   Hayes / West Drayton;                                               Strategy. This requires them to attract and retain investment and
    •   Hounslow Town Centre, and                                           enhance their competitive position as centres for retail, business, leisure
    •   Southall                                                            and social activity.


The future development of these strategic sites in west London will be an   Partners in west London are committed to ensure that businesses in the
important factor in supporting competitiveness and growth prospects.        sub region are able to grow and develop in response to rapidly changing
They will enable local partners to focus on large-scale projects with a     technologies and new business opportunities. There is a need to ensure
timeframe beyond 5 years.                                                   that the planning system is able to provide certainty and speed of
                                                                            response to proposals for development.
New opportunities for commercial property development are scarce, and
housing needs are placing pressure on those major sites still available,
but in overall terms there is little evidence of unfulfilled demand for
industrial or office property in west London. Analysis of the demand for
industrial and warehousing property shows a likely decline to 2016, due
mainly to a fall in manufacturing jobs.


There is evidence of unfulfilled demand for small, managed workspaces
at sub-marketplace rentals to support start-ups, specifically business
incubators to support growing clusters and help stimulate local
enterprise. There may be a requirement to specify interventions to
procure development that the market and the underlying economy are
less likely to produce.


Maintaining and improving the competitive performance of town centres
in west London is central to the west London Economic Development


                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   67
5.5 Draft Objectives and Rationale


The Strategic Objectives are setting the scene for actions for the next 5-
10 years. This is very much a “live” document and the objectives and
programme will need to evolve over time. The Strategic Objectives are,
at this stage, indicative and will need to be refined in line with the
evolving spatial plan and priorities that are being developed for the sub
region.




                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   68
Objectives                                            Rationale

Inform and contribute to land use policy objectives   SRDF will be the key spatial policy framework for west London.
for west London, specifically the Sub Regional
Development Framework, to ensure delivery of          EDS will be informed by and need to contribute and influence future land use policies in
spatial elements of the economic development          west London to meet economic development objectives.
vision.

Maintain, improve and enhance the quality of the      There is a need to concentrate actions and realise the potential of future development on
existing stock of key strategic employment            established industrial and commercial locations (PILs and IBPs) in the area.
locations.

Identify and agree a programme for development        There are a number of key strategic opportunity areas in west London, which will need to
of appropriate strategic sites, which provide a mix   be the focus for support and intervention to meet the anticipated needs for land and
of development opportunities to meet current and      buildings for industries and services.
future demand.
                                                      An important determinant will be locations close / adjacent to current or planned transport
                                                      improvements.

Promote higher standards of design and a wide-        West London needs to make better use of urban / brownfield land and empty properties.
ranging set of environmental standards.               Important to promote and secure high quality urban design and ensure better management
                                                      of the urban fabric.




                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   69
Promote and secure a balance of employment        There is a need to ensure that a mix of employment opportunities are available within the
opportunities, including inward investment,       sub region to meet new investment, indigenous growth and future cluster opportunities.
indigenous growth and business incubator
facilities.                                       Pan London and local research has identified a need for quality business incubator units to
                                                  support higher value enterprises and emerging small companies and graduate businesses
                                                  in west London.

Support the development of town centres in west   Key policy objective to encourage economic development in town centres, specifically the
London as centres of employment, shopping and     reuse of vacant and underused land. Economic growth must be concentrated within
living.                                           modern built environments, which offer good public transport provision.


                                                  A major objective will be to boost the confidence and image of town centres in west
                                                  London.




                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   70
6 Housing                                                                   6.2 Strategic Context


                                                                            The Government set out its review of the housing agenda in its Housing
6.1 Background
                                                                            Policy Statement, The Way Forward for Housing, published in 2000.
                                                                            This sets out the following key strategic objectives that the Government
The provision of housing in west London will play a crucial role in the
                                                                            expects local housing authorities to deliver:
future growth potential of the sub-region. Increased housing provision is
                                                                                    A more strategic role for Housing Authorities
necessary to meet the forecast substantial growth in population (60,000
                                                                                    Promoting private rented housing
additional homes) and employment (89,000 new jobs) in the sub-region
                                                                                    Supporting sustainable home ownership
between now and 2016.
                                                                                    Providing new affordable housing
                                                                                    Raising the quality of social housing
In terms of housing, the west London Economic Development Strategy
                                                                                    New forms of tenure for social housing
will need to take account of the policies set out in the Spatial
                                                                                    Implementing a new system of affordable rents
Development Strategy for London, the London Plan, which is discussed
                                                                                    Improving Housing Benefit
in more detail below. The London Plan will be implemented in the west
                                                                                    Promoting choice in social housing lettings
London sub-region through the Sub-Regional Development Framework.
                                                                                    Stronger protection for homeless persons
                                                                                    Tackling social exclusion
It is important to recognise that, in order to sustain the projected
population and employment growth, consideration will need to be given
                                                                            In 2003, the Chancellor and Deputy Prime Minister asked Kate Barker,
to the location of housing development, the type and size of houses to be
                                                                            member of the Monetary Policy Committee, to undertake a review of
built, the affordability of housing, as well as the quality and design of
                                                                            issues affecting housing supply in the UK. Kate Barker’s interim report
housing. These issues will be discussed in the sections that follow.
                                                                            was published on 10 December 2003. The key findings of the interim
                                                                            report are summarized below.



                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   71
   •   The number of houses being built in the UK is not keeping pace      particular, its response to risk which leads to reluctance to build out large
       with demand and damaging the wider economy.                         sites quickly. The regulatory relationship and control over the use of land
   •   In 2001, around 175,000 dwellings were built in the UK – the        also influences the way in which land is made available for development.
       lowest level since the Second World War. And over the past ten
       years, the number of new dwellings built has been 12.5% lower       The author of the report, Kate Barker, has argued that:
       than in the previous decade.
   •   Over the last 30 years, UK house prices went up by 2.4% a year      “The consequence of (housing) shortages is not simply a matter of unmet
       in real terms – compared to the European average of 1.1%. In        housing need. Housing has profound and often unappreciated impacts
       Germany it was 0%, and in France 0.8%.                              upon our lives. It directly affects our quality of life, our health and well-
   •   If UK house prices had risen in line with the European average,     being; it determines our transport needs and often our choice of work; it
       since 1975, the UK would have been £8 billion better off. As a      affects our family structures and our friendship networks. Housing also
       result of these price rises first time buyers in 2001 paid on       affects our national economic well-being: the rate of economic growth
       average £32,000 more for their homes.                               and our prosperity.     It also influences the distribution of resources
   •   In 2002, only 37% of new households in England could afford to      between regions, individuals and generations.”
       buy a house, compared to 46% in the late 1980s.
   •   The ratio of lowest quartile house prices to lowest quartile        The report argues further that:
       earnings has increased significantly in most English regions. In
       1993, a London house cost around four times the annual income       “Lower rates of house building constrain economic growth, reducing
       of a low income household. By 2002, the same house had risen        standards of living for everyone in the UK. Reduced housing supply
       to almost eight times annual income.                                damages the flexibility and performance of the UK economy, having a
                                                                           negative impact on business location decisions and competitiveness.
The Review considers a range of factors that might be constraining the     Regional price differentials reduce labour mobility and lead to increased
supply of housing in the UK arising from industry failures or the policy   national unemployment.”
environment.   The main constraint identified by the Review is land
supply. This problem relates in part to the house building industry, in    On the issue of affordable housing, the report argues that:


                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   72
                                                                              “Ensure an adequate supply and mix of housing that is accessible to all
“Higher house prices create affordability problems.              An           income levels and is suitable to meet the diverse needs of all of London’s
increasing number of people cannot afford to buy houses. In                   people.”
2002, only 37% of new households could afford to buy a
property, compared to 46% in the late 1980s.               Declining          Also at a London level, the London Plan states as its aim:
affordability also has wider consequences, restricting labour
market flexibility, hampering the delivery of public services and             “…to build up development around locations with good public transport
leading to longer commuting times affecting individuals’ quality              and create more locations people can get to easily without using cars. At
of life and environment.”                                                     the same time there will be a new drive to achieve quality in
                                                                              development: in new buildings, by getting design principles enshrined in
The Deputy Prime Minister announced a new key worker                          project master-planning, and in a new focus on the public realm: the
                                                                  st
programme to succeed the Starter Home Initiative (SHI) on 21                  street scene and our green spaces.”
                                                      st
October 2003. The new programme will start on 1 April 2004.
It will focus on those delivering frontline public services, such as          Key housing-related policies in the London Plan include:
health workers and teachers, where there are significant                                 Increasing the overall supply of housing
recruitment and retention issues. It builds on the foundations of                        Making better use of existing housing
the SHI and will extend housing assistance to key workers at                             Improving housing choice
different life-stages, not just first time buyers. Around 6,000 key                      Increasing the provision of affordable housing
workers are expected to be helped in each of the next 2 years
(2004/05 and 2005/06) in London, the South East and Eastern                   The London Plan also sets out the strategic priorities for west London
Regions.                                                                      specifically. In terms of housing, these include:
                                                                                   •      Realise the potential of Wembley as a nationally and
At a London-wide level, one of the key strategic actions in the LDA’s draft               internationally significant sports, leisure and business location,
Economic Development Strategy is to:                                                      co-ordinated with town centre regeneration and new housing
                                                                                   •      Identify capacity to accommodate new job and housing


                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   73
         opportunities and appropriate mixed-use development. This is         inform a new London-wide target.
         especially important in relation to the Western Wedge,
         Heathrow Airport, Opportunity Areas and Areas for                    Table 6.1: Provision for additional ‘homes’ targets, 1997 – 2016
         Intensification. It will include co-ordinating skills development,
                                                                                 Area              Total target              Annual monitoring target
         transport and planning to improve access to jobs for people
                                                                              Brent                               13,510                               680
         from deprived communities in the sub-region
     •   Maximise the number of additional homes, including affordable        Ealing                              12,930                               650

         housing, by exceeding housing provision targets set out in this      H&F                                  8,040                               400
         plan and secure mixed and balanced communities                       Harrow                               6,620                               330
     •   Promote and intensify retailing, services, employment, leisure
                                                                              Hillingdon                           8,890                               440
         and housing in town centres and opportunities for mixed-use
                                                                              Houslow                              9,450                               470
         development
     •   Ensure that social and community infrastructure is retained,         Sub-total                           59,440                             2,970

         enhanced and expanded where needed                                   Source: London’s Housing Capacity, GLA, 2000
     •   Ensure that new development is sustainable, safe, secure and
         well designed, improves the environment, and takes account of
         the sub-region’s heritage


The London Plan sets out targets for the provision of additional homes
(Table 6.1), and highlights the spatial dimension of its housing policies
(Table 6.2 and 6.3). The Plan also sets out the targets for affordable
housing (Table 6.4), which are 50% for each of the west London
Boroughs, apart from Hillingdon, which has a 35% affordable housing
target. The Mayor of London will carry out a new housing capacity study
in 2004 in order to update the borough figures set out in Table 6.1 to

                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   74
Table 6.2: Opportunity Areas in west London – indicative estimates        Table 6.4: Borough affordable housing targets for private residential
of growth                                                                 or mixed-use schemes

     Opportunity Area            Area (ha)        New homes to 2016       Area                                Affordable Housing Target

Wembley                                   238                      400    Brent                                                                50%

White City                                30                      1,200   Ealing                                                               50%

Heathrow, Feltham, Bedfont                91                       930    H&F                                                                  50%
Lakes, Hounslow                                                           Harrow                                                               50%
Hayes, West Drayton,                      371                     5,800   Hillingdon                                                           35%
Southall, Stockley Park
                                                                          Houslow                                                              50%
Source: GLA 2003
                                                                          Source: The London Plan

Table 6.3: Area for Intensification in west London – indicative
                                                                          The 2002 London Housing Statement, jointly developed by the
estimates of growth
                                                                          Government Office for London and the Housing Corporation, provides a
Area for Intensification     Area (ha)       New homes to 2016
                                                                          steer and emphasis for local housing strategies. It identifies the key
Willesden Junction                   96                     500           priorities for action in London as the following broad objectives:
Source: GLA 2003
                                                                              •    To increase affordable housing
                                                                              •    To decrease homelessness and develop more suitable forms of
                                                                                   temporary accommodation and support for vulnerable people
                                                                              •    To develop an effective private sector strategy
                                                                              •    To ensure social housing achieves the decency standard by
                                                                                   2010 and that housing renewal is contributing effectively to wider
                                                                                   regeneration strategies.


                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   75
The West London Alliance are pursuing a housing strategy that will:           6.3 Key Issues

        Increase the supply of housing – to ensure that there is sufficient
                                                                              The Greater London Authority (GLA) predicts that by 2016 there will be
        housing to meet the expected growth in population and support
                                                                              substantial population growth across west London, particularly in
        the projected growth in employment over the next 10 years.
                                                                              Hammersmith & Fulham and Brent.              The rate of growth of housing
        Increase the provision of affordable homes – to ensure that
                                                                              demand is also rising substantially. The main contribution to recent
        those who are not able to access private sector solutions to their
                                                                              household growth has come from net in-migration (mostly attributable to
        housing needs are able to continue to live in west London
                                                                              net international in-migration) and natural growth, but with an additional
        Improve the quality of housing – to ensure that all housing in the
                                                                              and growing contribution from social factors such as the tendencies
        social rented and private sectors is of a decent standard and that
                                                                              towards a higher divorce rate and people living alone, resulting in
        housing services are excellent and continuously improving.                                                    7
                                                                              decreased average household size . Another contributor to household
        Create sustainable communities – to ensure that the social and
                                                                              growth is longer life expectancy. Although the number of people living
        ethnic diversity of the population of west London is effectively
                                                                              alone has increased, this does not necessarily translate into demand for
        served and that housing plays a full part in promoting the well
                                                                              small, one-bedroom flats or bedsits, as many people want a spare
        being of local communities and supporting community cohesion.                                          8
                                                                              bedroom for visitors and family .


                                                                              In addition to meeting the housing needs of the forecast growth in
                                                                              population and employment, it is essential that housing policies are able
                                                                              to meet the substantial existing housing needs of the sub-region. In
                                                                              particular, housing policies need to meet the needs of those who are




                                                                              7
                                                                                  Market failure and the London housing market, GLA Economics, May 2003
                                                                              8
                                                                                  London Plan

                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   76
unable to afford private sector solutions to their housing need (Figure 6.1                                          Table 6.5: Estimated dwelling stock by tenure, 1 April 2002
and Table 6.5).                                                                                                                      Public sector %        Private sector %     Total dwellings

                                                                                                                     Brent                             24                  76             104,264
Figure 6.1: Households on LA housing registers, 1997 - 2002
                                                                                                                     Ealing                            19                  81             119,644

                                                     16,000                                                          H&F                               35                  65               75,206
   Number of households on local authority housing




                                                     14,000                                                          Harrow                            10                  90               82,550

                                                                                                                     Hillingdon                        18                  82               99,983
                                                     12,000
                                                                                                        Brent        Hounslow                          24                  76               87,560
                                                     10,000                                             Ealing
                                                                                                                     Source: Housing Investment Programme, 2002
                     registers




                                                                                                        H&F
                                                      8,000
                                                                                                        Harrow
                                                      6,000                                             Hillingdon   An important issue in meeting current housing needs within the sub-
                                                                                                        Hounslow
                                                                                                                     region is the quality and status of existing housing stock. Tables 6.6 and
                                                      4,000
                                                                                                                     6.7 show that a relatively high proportion of dwellings fall below the
                                                      2,000
                                                                                                                     decent homes standards or are unfit.
                                                         0
                                                              1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002                Table 6.7 highlights the crucial role of the private sector in the overall
                                                                                                                     housing market in west London. Around 90% of all unfit dwellings are
Source: Housing Investment Programme, HSSA, Section C
                                                                                                                     owner occupied or in the private rented sector. The private rented sector
                                                                                                                     can therefore play a key role in housing economically active individuals if
                                                                                                                     improvements in standards are made to these dwellings.


                                                                                                                     The west London Housing Strategy has argued that the private rented
                                                                                                                     sector is a valuable resource, especially for groups such as those


                                                                                                                                               West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   77
                                                                                                                10
requiring employment-related mobility, single people and childless                          Table 6.7: Unfit         dwellings, 2002
couples and key workers. The overall aim of the west London Housing                                                                                         Owner
Strategy with regard to private sector renewal is to “ensure effective                                                                                     occupied
regulation while supporting and encouraging expansion of the sector”.                                                                                     and private
                                                                                                                                           Unfit 'Other     rented
                                                                                     9                                                        public       dwellings
Table 6.6: Dwellings that fall below the ‘decent homes standard’
                                                                                                               Unfit LA      Unfit RSL       sector'        that are      Total unfit
                      % of LA Dwellings that fall below the 'Decent Homes                                     dwellings      dwellings      dwellings         unfit       dwellings
                                            Standard', 2002
                                                                                            H&F                 1,265           149             0           8,745          10,159
H&F                                                33.6
                                                                                            Brent                 62             44           1,455         11,499         13,060
Brent                                              58.7
                                                                                            Ealing               287            124             0           5,789          6,200
Ealing                                             29.4
                                                                                            Harrow                53             0              0           2,852          2,905
Harrow                                             27.9
                                                                                            Hillingdon            68             74             29          4,882          5,053
Hillingdon                                         36.9
                                                                                            Hounslow             885             2              0           7,682          8,569
Hounslow                                           71.3
                                                                                            Source: National Statistics
Source: National Statistics

                                                                                            Increasing housing density is another potential source of supply. Local
                                                                                            Authorities are encouraged to tap capacity through the application of

9
                                                                                            higher densities, including initiatives such as development over existing
  The government has issued detailed guidance on how to define a 'decent home' for the
purposes of measuring progress against the target. In brief, a decent home will pass four
tests:
                                                                                            10
                                                                                              According to the 1989 Local Government and Housing Act a dwelling fit for human
                                                                                            habitation must be structurally stable, free from disrepair, free from damp as a health
1. It must meet the current statutory minimum standard for housing
                                                                                            hazard and adequately heated, lit and ventilated with a supply of wholesome water.
2. It must be in a reasonable state of repair
                                                                                            Properties should have effective systems for the drainage of foul, waste and surface water
3. It must have reasonably modern facilities and services
                                                                                            with an exclusive and suitably located WC. Occupants should have the exclusive use of a
4. It must provide a reasonable degree of thermal comfort
                                                                                            suitably supplied bath or shower and basin along with satisfactory facilities for the
                                                                                            preparation and cooking of food.

                                                                                                                            West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy           78
buildings. The London Plan has advocated the intensification of housing    Table 6.8: Population density, 2001
provision through development at higher densities particularly where                                                Population Density
there is good access to public transport.                                                                          (people per hectare)

                                                                               Brent                                        60.9
Table 6.8 shows the population density in the six west London Boroughs.
                                                                               Ealing                                       54.2
This table reveals the stark contrast between population density in west
London and the average density in England and Wales. Even the most             H&F                                         100.8

sparsely populated area, Hillingdon, is over 6 times more densely              Harrow                                       41.0
populated than the average GB local authority. It also reveals the wide        Hillingdon                                   21.0
variations that exist within west London: Hammersmith and Fulham is,
                                                                               Hounslow                                     37.9
itself, almost 5 times more densely populated than Hillingdon. With over
                                                                 th            London                                       45.6
100 people per hectare, the 2001 Census revealed that it is the 4 most
densely populated authority in the UK. Two other boroughs, Brent and           England and Wales                             3.4

Ealing, are more heavily populated than the London average.                Source: National Statistics


                                                                           In west London there is evidence of rapidly increasing house prices (see
                                                                           Table 6.9), increasing homelessness (see Figure 6.2) and numbers of
                                                                           households in temporary accommodation running well above the
                                                                           average for London (Table 6.10).




                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   79
Table 6.9: House Prices, 1996 - 2003                                                       Figure 6.2: Homeless acceptances in west London 1996/97 –

Borough      Year Semi-detached Terraced                 Flat         / Overall price      2001/02
                   house                house            maisonette
                                                                                                                               1,600




                                                                                              Number of homeless acceptances
                                                                                                                               1,400
Brent        1996 92,775                85,615           58,148           77,393
                              217%                208%             186%             190%
                                                                                                                               1,200
             2003 279,173               264,153          166,067          224,652
                                                                                                                               1,000
Ealing       1996 114,792               91,216           63,401           93,225
                              147%                163%             163%             145%
                                                                                                                                800
             2003 283,708               236,432          166,751          228,710
                                                                                                                                600
H&F          1996 295,519               188,056          116,979          151,141
                              114%                145%             124%             117%
                                                                                                                                400
             2003 633,851               461,231          262,388          327,730
                                                                                                                                200
Harrow       1996 94,067                76,302           64,161           86,610
                              132%                200%             158%             154%
                                                                                                                                  0
             2003 265,446               228,961          165,557          228,473
                                                                                                                                         1996/97       1997/98     1998/99       1999/00    2000/01     2001/02
Hillingdon 1996 77,515                  71,292           51,968           80,570                                                                                          Year
                              189%                156%             171%             154%
             2003 223,767               182,320          140,667          204,857
                                                                                                                                 Brent        Ealing        H&F         Harrow        Hillingdon      Hounslow
Houslow      1996 101,586               91,149           70,348           92,571
                              142%                149%             167%             142%   Source: Housing Investment Programme, HSSA/Housing Operational
             2003 246,140               226,666          187,484          224,254
                                                                                           Information
London       1996 104,799               92,839           82,822           96,244
                              159%                163%             148%             149%
             2003 271,536               244,454          205,609          240,126
                                                                                           A key issue for west London is the in-balance of supply and demand at
Source: Land Registry Bespoke Reports
                                                                                           ‘affordable prices’. The shortage of affordable housing impacts on the
                                                                                           quality of life for people having to pay too much of their budget on
                                                                                           housing, on those who have to travel long distances to work and school
                                                                                           and on the ability of businesses and public services to attract and retain


                                                                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   80
     11
staff . There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to suggest that housing     The shortage of affordable housing has led to increasing number of
problems are a major factor in the recruitment crisis in both education   households in priority need being forced to live for longer periods in
                                                                                                                                  13
and the health service. The high house prices in west London threaten     temporary housing and in overcrowded conditions . Many others are
to undermine government aspirations to raise the quality of public        being squeezed out of living in London and are either travelling longer
                                                                                                                                   14
services in the sub-region.                                               distances to work or are leaving the capital altogether .


This shortage of affordable housing in London has been compounded by      People living in temporary accommodation may be living in reasonable
the fact that, in the last ten years, the number of low rent homes in     quality leased accommodation and being charged a relatively high rent
London has fallen by more than 50,000 due to the impact of Right to Buy   which may make them benefit dependent, thus reducing the opportunity
                                       12
sales and demolitions on housing estates .                                for them to be an active part of the west London workforce.


Table 6.10: Homeless households in temporary accommodation, by            Another of the growing consequences of the overall housing crisis is that
borough 31 December 2002                                                  tenants of both councils and housing associations are increasingly living

              Borough                              Total                  in overcrowded accommodation, as the opportunity for them to gain a
                                                                          transfer to larger accommodation is reduced because of the overall
 Brent                                                          3,632
                                                                          pressure on housing.
 Ealing                                                         2,314

 H&F                                                            1,743

 Harrow                                                         1,736

 Hillingdon                                                     2,001

 Hounslow                                                       1,422

Source: London – GLA, England – DTLR P1E returns

                                                                          13
                                                                             Homes and Communities in London, London Housing Strategy 2003, London
11
   The London Plan                                                        Housing Board
12                                                                        14
   The London Plan                                                           The London Plan

                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   81
Table 6.11: Households in overcrowded accommodation

                             Number Overcrowded             % Overcrowded       One of the ways to build more cohesive and sustainable communities is
                                                                                to provide greater choice of affordable housing. An example of a choice
H&F                                 12,219                       16
                                                                                based lettings agency is LOCATA. LOCATA currently consists of five
Brent                               13,093                       13             west London Boroughs (Brent, Ealing, Harrow, Hillingdon and Hounslow)
Ealing                              13,883                       12             and three Housing Associations (PCHA Housing Association, Ealing

Harrow                               5,809                        7             Family and Paradigm Housing) that have joined forces to provide greater
                                                                                choice in lettings.
Hillingdon                           7,360                        8

Hounslow                             8,691                       10

Source: National Statistics


The implications of market failure in the housing market are serious,
profoundly affecting the London economy and the well being of its
people.      The consequences include families living in sub-standard
accommodation, homelessness, key public sector workers unable to
afford to live near to where they work, and private companies unable to
                                                      15
recruit the staff that the need to function effectively .


The west London Housing Strategy outlines the challenge of creating
mixed and healthy communities within the sub-region.              Indeed, the
diversity of the sub-region coupled with high levels of disadvantage and
exclusion, highlights the key role housing can play in building cohesive
and sustainable communities.

15
     Market failure and the London housing market, GLA Economics, May 2003

                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   82
6.4 Draft Objectives and Rationale


Draft Objectives                                        Rationale

Increase supply of affordable housing for:              Need to provide housing for those unable to afford private sector housing. The London Plan has
       Key workers;                                     argued that the bottleneck in moving families into permanent social housing must be addressed.
       Rented; and
       Shared ownership.                                Key workers and other lower paid workers are essential to the west London economy, the social
                                                        economy and social infrastructure of the sub-region, and they need to be able to live in reasonable
                                                        accommodation well located for employment and the full range of community and social facilities.
                                                        Key workers such as teachers and social workers, earning public sector wages, face a significant
                                                        equity gap.


                                                        Affordable housing is necessary to reduce the number in people in temporary housing and caught in
                                                        the poverty trap.

Improve quality of housing stock and add to the         The amount of newly built housing in London in any one year represents a tiny proportion of the total
                                                                                        16
public realm.                                           stock (less than half a per cent) . The older housing stock in the poorer areas is deteriorating and
                                                        needs investment in it and the public realm around it.       This will also contribute to improving
                                                        sustainability of housing.

Ensure sustainability of housing design.                 Houses need to be built to a high standard of design (whilst controlling costs) so that they enhance
                                                        and sustain communities.




16
     Market failure and the London housing market, GLA Economics, Mar 2003


                                                                                                              West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   83
Develop an appropriate mix of housing provision,   There are both social and economic reasons for maintaining the broadest possible mix of
in terms of types and sizes.                       households. This is essential to the continued economic growth of west London and particularly in
                                                   encouraging a range of professional skills necessary to maintain the sub-region’s role as a key driver
                                                   in London (see Business Competitiveness section).

Ensure higher density build, particularly where    Higher density build is an additional source of supply of housing. It also means there is less demand
there is good access to public transport.          on open spaces.

Provide greater choice of affordable housing.      This is necessary to meet demands of different target groups. A choice-based letting agency for
                                                   west London has been established – LOCATA. Not all of the west London Boroughs have yet
                                                   signed up to it, although it is expected that they will do so in due course.

Develop more cohesive and sustainable              Will improve the overall well being of people from diverse backgrounds living within the same
communities.                                       communities.

Engage with the private sector.                    The private sector has an important role to play in terms of providing and improving rented
                                                   accommodation as well as new housing developments.




                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   84
                                                                              order (i.e. around 10% by 2016). At present there are about 4 million
7 Transport
                                                                              journeys a day starting in the west London sub region, and a similar
                                                                              number of return trips are made, altogether over 8 million daily trips (not
                                                                              including those that pass through the sub region). Of these trips, 29% are
7.1 Background
                                                                              journeys to work, with about half of these being made in the peak period
                                                                              (7-10am and 4-7pm).
Transport is an important aspect of the economy and of most other
aspects of life in west London, as elsewhere. A growing economy and a
                                                                              Trips by car account for about 55% of all daily journeys WITHIN west
rising number of jobs and people will lead to more journeys undertaken in
                                                                              London. This is the average figure. The percentage will be higher in the
the sub-region. However, the manner in which travel is undertaken is not
                                                                              outer boroughs (where road and parking space is more plentiful and
pre-determined, and in fact can be influenced through a range of actions.
                                                                              public transport supply is less so), and lower in the inner boroughs
The level of traffic on the roads, for example, is to some degree a matter
                                                                              (where the converse is true). The car also accounts for the majority of
of policy choice, as has been amply demonstrated by the central London
                                                                              travel between the west sub region and adjacent sub regions. For travel
Congestion Charge.
                                                                              outside London the car accounts for 86% of trips. However, for travel to
                                                                              the central sub region public transport accounts for the majority of trips
In this section we outline some of the basic facts and parameters as
                                                                              (56%).
background to the strategic objectives and choices that follow.

                                                                              Unless effective counter-actions are taken, road traffic will grow not
West London’s population was in decline until the 1990s, but by 2001
                                                                              only because of the increased number of people and jobs in the sub-
was back to a level higher than in 1961 1.4 million in 2001). Population is
                                                                              region but also because of the trend towards higher car ownership and
forecast to continue to increase, by 139,000 (an increase of 10%)
                                                                              car use amongst the existing communities. This lies behind the strategy
between 2001 and 2016. Jobs are expected to grow by 86,000 over the
                                                                              of switching sufficient proportion of trips to non-car modes to enable
same period, a growth of 11%.
                                                                              growth to occur without creating intolerable conditions on the roads.

These increases will mean an increase in person journeys of a similar
                                                                              The traffic problem cannot be “exported” (for example by widening the


                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   85
M25 or other major routes). The great majority (71%) of car trips starting   Trips passing through (without origin or destination in west London) are
in west London also finish in west London.                                   likely to account for a relatively small proportion of total movement
                                                                             although no specific data are currently available.
For public transport trips starting in west London the pattern is
different. A smaller proportion is internal to the sub region (54%) and a    It should be understood that most trips are short. In London, about 1 in
correspondingly larger proportion is to other areas, most of them not        5 of trips by all modes including walking are less than 1 kilometre, and 2
surprisingly the central sub region, where the largest concentrations of     out of 3 are less than 5 kilometres (about 3 miles). Car driver trips vary
employment, shopping, and other facilities are found. The strategy needs     greatly in length, with 13% under 1 km, but 5% over 50kms. The longer
to address the issue of balance between providing for radial rail and bus    car trips result in more traffic, and thus any reduction in their number (or
trips into central London, and providing for better internal movement by     length) will have a beneficial impact, especially at peak hours. The
public transport. The Economic Development Strategy should aim to            strategy aims to tackle this.
increase west London’s “self-containment” in population and
employment, as a means of both containing growth in traffic and              Travel to work is the trip purpose of particular interest to the business
commuting to central London. This involves actions in relation to            community. Some basic facts (2001) regarding the journey to work by
housing, employment and town centres, not just transport.                    employed residents of west London are:


For the 71% of trips wholly within the west sub region, the mode split is            •    40% of employed residents drive to work
as follows:                                                                          •    26% travel by national rail or Underground (mostly out of the
                                                                                          sub region to central London)
        Car and other private motor vehicle      55%                                 •    10% go by bus (probably mostly within the sub region)
        Public transport                         16%                                 •    Of the remainder, 7% walk, 2% cycle, and 9% work at home.
        Non motorised travel                     29%
                                                                             Hillingdon has the highest proportion in London (60%) of employed
                                                                             residents travelling to work by car. Moreover, two thirds of Hillingdon’s
                                                                             jobs are filled by non-residents, most of whom travel to work by car.


                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   86
However, employment densities are higher in the other west London            The eastern part of the sub region is within 30 minutes journey time by
boroughs (except Harrow). Again, a strategy to improve the home-work         public transport to one or more centres. But large areas of the sub region
balance will have potentially important benefits in terms of limiting        have no centre accessible within 30 minutes by public transport,
congestion and environmental problems.                                       especially Hillingdon, and parts of Hounslow and Harrow.


Overcrowding on national rail commuter lines in the morning peak             Accessibility to public transport services also is relatively poor for the
has been predicted to be more severe in 2016 than now, even with             outer parts of the sub region, particularly much of Harrow and Hillingdon,
Crossrail 1 (based on Crossrail running via the Hayes, Heathrow and          south west Hounslow, and the Ealing-Hounslow borders. There are even
Harrow lines). Overcrowding on the Underground network in west               inner parts of the sub region poorly served, such as the Chiswick
London is expected to be similar to today, again assuming Crossrail 1 is     peninsular, south Fulham, and the Brent-Barnet borders.
built. The adoption of a Crossrail route to Kingston rather than to Harrow
may improve its impact on overcrowding, but may take longer to               Although road congestion is widely believed to be a constraint on
implement.                                                                   economic growth, the west London sub region does have the fastest
                                                                             journey speeds by road of the five sub regions. However, the prospects
Huge increases in public transport use are forecast.          Passenger      for the future are of steady deterioration. A 19% increase in vehicle travel
kilometres on national rail are expected to increase by two thirds (mainly   time is forecast for 2016, only part of which is explained by the expected
due to Crossrail), and kilometres travelled in crowded conditions are        increase in vehicle distance travelled of 11%. Speeds are expected to
expected to increase by 18%. Passenger kilometres on the Underground         drop by 7% over the period, compared to 4% for London as a whole.
are expected to increase by a quarter, although the number of passenger      Delays in vehicle hours are expected to increase by almost a third. All of
hours spent in crowded conditions is expected to fall by 10% (mostly due     these projections assume the full implementation of the public transport
to transfer to Crossrail). Passenger kilometres by bus are expected to       and other transport measures in the London Transport strategy.
rise by almost a third.
                                                                             Air quality is poor, although with the exception of Carbon Dioxide it was
High levels of car use in the outer parts of west London may be              expected to improve between 2001 and 2005, due mainly to improved
associated with relatively poor access to centres by public transport.       engine efficiency. Noise is also a significant problem.


                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   87
Finally, it is important to recognise that we are not starting from a blank   7.2 Strategic Context
sheet. West London has been the subject of a number of reports and
studies in recent years tackling the issue of transport and accessibility.
                                                                              The London Plan produced by the GLA for the Mayor (2004) emphasises
This study has paid particular attention to the following:
                                                                              a sub-regional approach to development and transport. The Transport
                                                                              Strategy may also be revised to reflect this approach. The Economic
•   “A transport manifesto for West London”, West London Transport
                                                                              Development Strategy for London being pursued by the LDA is also
    Forum, 2003
                                                                              following a sub regional approach. In addition to these processes and
•   West London Transport Strategy – Borough Spending Plan 2004/05
                                                                              plans for Greater London there is a range of guidance at the regional and
    – 2006/07
                                                                              national levels that will have to influence what is produced for west
•   “Sub Regional Development Frameworks: West Sub-Region –
                                                                              London, including guidance produced for the South East region beyond
    problems and opportunities”, Llewelyn Davies for Transport for
                                                                              the west London boundary.
    London, 2003.
•   “Delivering Integrated Transport in West London”, West London
                                                                              This represents the strategic framework (or set of frameworks) within
    Leadership, 1997.
                                                                              which the west London Economic Development Strategy sits. It is
•   “Green Areas Plan”, MTRU, 1997.
                                                                              therefore appropriate to build on what has already evolved.
•   The Mayor’s Plan for London (2004) and Transport Strategy for
    London (2002)
                                                                              The London Plan 2004 sets out a policy to ensure the integration of
                                                                              transport and development by:


                                                                              •   Encouraging patterns and forms of development that reduce the
                                                                                  need to travel especially by car;
                                                                              •   Seeking to improve public transport capacity and accessibility where
                                                                                  it is needed, for areas of greatest demand and areas designated for


                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   88
    development and regeneration, including the Thames Gateway,                7.3 Key Issues
    Central Activities Zone, Opportunity Areas, Areas for Intensification
    and town centres;
                                                                               Transport objectives must be based on an understanding of the
•   In general, supporting high trip generating development only at
                                                                               relationship between transport and quality of life issues. They must take
    locations with both high levels of public transport accessibility and
                                                                               account of three headline propositions
    capacity, sufficient to meet the transport requirements of the
    development. Parking provision should reflect levels of public
                                                                               1. Travel generated by population and employment growth will lead to a
    transport accessibility.
                                                                                   deterioration of urban quality unless there is a proportionate shift
                                                                                   away from cars to travel by other means;
In addition, the Transport Strategy includes a set of schemes and
                                                                               2. This deterioration in travel and environmental conditions will in turn
policies that are designed to tackle existing problems, not just those
                                                                                   act as a brake on economic success;
arising from employment and housing growth. In outer London, the
                                                                               3. Both the business and social environment will benefit from better
Strategy aims to promote the transfer from cars to public transport,
                                                                                   accessibility between homes, jobs and facilities, and this is most
walking and cycling. A range of public transport, interchange and other
                                                                                   easily and efficiently provided to town centres.
measures are planned to help bring this about. These are listed in the
second part of this paper. It is recognised that local transport
improvements will be important, both as a complement to strategic rail         Taking this further, there are a number of strategic choices that must be
schemes and as a means of delivering results in the shorter term.              made.


Particular emphasis is given in the London planning documents to               Strategic Choices
exploiting the growth potential of Heathrow, to focusing retail, leisure and
other trip generating activities in the town centres, and to regenerating or   We set out below, in no particular order, a number of issues that have
intensifying key areas within west London such as Hayes, Park Royal            been raised concerning strategic choices and programmes. They will
and Wembley. This is picked up in the objectives set out below.                need to be clarified and debated, so that the necessary strategic choices




                                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   89
can be made. The case for transport resources will be weakened if there            infrastructure. The management of roads and parking, including
is disagreement about the strategy within the Partnership.                         pricing, and public transport fares, information and marketing may
                                                                                   have equal importance, and can be an alternative to investment if

•   The use of public transport and non-motorised modes should be                  demand is thereby reduced.

    promoted in their own right, and encouraged by limiting provision for      •   Which trips are to be restrained (and by implication which trips to be

    private cars (roads and parking).                                              switched to public transport, walking and cycling), or what traffic to

•   Crossrail should not be advocated as an element of the strategy.               be restrained? Journey to work by car in west London is a clear

    There is a very real risk that Crossrail would result in fewer                 target, but the rationale needs to be developed. Our preference is to

    resources (planning and construction as well as financial) being               target long distance car journeys (because they result in more traffic)

    available for other schemes serving west London such as west                   and very short car journeys (because they are relatively easy to

    London Tram, Heathrow Express local services, other rail links to              replace, and because they cause disruption out of proportion to their

    Heathrow, bus priority and interchange development. Moreover,                  utility, including occupying scarce parking space. Longer distance

    Crossrail may be inconsistent with a strategy that aims to reduce              car travel can be deterred by not providing high-speed roads, by

    travel distances and to encourage a closer relationship between                prioritising local movement on the roads, and by pricing for road use

    homes and jobs.                                                                related to the distance travelled. Hourly parking charges that

•   Priority should be given to actions that serve to alleviate present            increase with duration of stay will also tend to deter longer distance

    problems while at the same time serving additional households and              trips, especially by all-day commuters. In west London a high

    jobs. Focussing growth in town centres and raising the quality of              proportion of commuter parking is likely to be in private off-street car

    public transport to these and other employment locations meets this            parks, and the introduction of workplace parking charges could be

    criterion. Improving access to town centres is clearly an important            effective.

    priority in this context. For this to be effective, intensive employment   •   A key choice for west London is the extent to which Heathrow airport

    and non-residential activity must be curtailed in locations that do not        should expand. Air quality is a critical issue for Heathrow expansion,

    have good public transport accessibility. Local planning policies              linked to quality of life objectives, and this underpins the need for

    should be reviewed to ensure that this is achieved.                            traffic limitation for surface access to the Heathrow area. The choice

•   Transport strategy will not consist only of “investment” in new

                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   90
    regarding Heathrow also has a wider dimension in terms of the future
    overall level of air transport, and its distribution between UK airports.   7.4     Draft Objectives and Rationale
•   Parking in new developments is subject to maximum limits in the
    London Plan and national and regional planning guidance. There are
                                                                                Strategic objectives are set out, against which actions and projects
    concerns, however, that local authorities outside London could, by
                                                                                specific to west London can be tested and evaluated. They include
    allowing higher levels of parking, gain competitive advantage in
                                                                                objectives in the form of personal and corporate aspirations and choices.
    attracting inward investment. West London Partnership bodies
                                                                                The topic headings for related actions are given in brackets.
    should persuade all authorities in and around west London to
    conform to the maximum parking levels when deciding upon new
                                                                                First, in this section, five priority objectives for business are set out.
    developments, and to adopt maximum standards that harmonise
                                                                                Second, priorities are briefly discussed. Third, further explanation is
    across borders.
                                                                                given regarding the recommended focus on development of town centres
                                                                                and accessible locations. Finally, a table setting out all 15 transport
                                                                                objectives and their rationale is included.


                                                                                      1. Problems of congestion, pollution and communities divided or cut
                                                                                          off by busy roads should be reduced throughout west London, so
                                                                                          that neither businesses nor residents in west London feel
                                                                                          compelled to locate or relocate outside London to avoid poor
                                                                                          environmental conditions.
                                                                                          (Traffic and demand management)
                                                                                      2. Plan transport and land use development together so that people
                                                                                          employed in west London can live within 30 minutes public
                                                                                          transport (or walk) travel time of their workplace, and so that
                                                                                          businesses can to recruit staff from within a 30 minutes public



                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   91
        transport catchment.                                                  promoted as having top priority for investment and action. The influence
        (Town centre accessibility and public transport planning)             of west London authorities and partnerships varies between different
    3. Protect buses (and trams) from delays caused by other traffic as       types of action. On some issues, such as rail investment, they will be
        of right, in compensation for the economic and commercial             lobbying Government and transport providers (e.g. SRA, TfL). On other
        handicap imposed on them by current methods of paying for the         issues they will have greater power to act, for example on bus priority,
        use of private cars. Road user charging throughout west London        parking standards and management, cycle provision, walking networks,
        could be an alternative to this. Either would be expected to result   public realm improvements, and the introduction and monitoring of Travel
        in reduced congestion.                                                Plans.
        (Traffic planning and management)
    4. Increase the reliability and convenience of freight and deliveries.    The relative influence on delivery could be an important factor in drawing
        Remove from residential and town centre areas activities that         up the EDS. For example, it might be risky to adopt a strategy that relies
        generate large volumes of heavy goods vehicle traffic, and            too heavily on measures over which west London bodies have no
        rationalise the movement of other goods traffic including delivery    decision making power.
        systems.
        (Accessibility planning and logistics)                                The objectives have been drawn up to satisfy the following criteria:
    5. Ensure that parking is always available at a price, subject to time
        limits in town centres and around railway stations, and to the        •   Feasible, and can be influenced by business
        total supply of parking being related to the traffic that can be      •   Can be achieved in the next 10 years
        handled by the road system.                                           •   Can have an effect in the short to medium term
        (Parking management)                                                  •   Important for supporting economic growth
                                                                              •   Important for solving present problems

Priorities and delivery
                                                                               The programme for investment and other transport actions should be
The five objectives regarded as most important from a business                drawn up according to the role of the West London Partnership bodies in
perspective are separated in the list of objectives. These should be


                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   92
the short, medium and longer term. A framework for this is shown in the              Town centre focus
table below.
                                                                                     The transport objectives have both a general application to west London
                                      Scheme Implementation Programme                and a specific spatial dimension, requiring the integration of development
                           Short Term          Medium Term          Long Term        planning with transport actions. By far the most important element will be
                          (Next 3 years)        (4-6 years)      More than 7 years   the treatment of town centres. Existing town centres, and the areas
Provide                                                                              around them, offer opportunities for major economic and housing growth,
“in principle” support
                                                                                     and this greater intensity will also require transport investment. Although
and lobbying
                                                                                     the development potential may consist of a large number of relatively
Participate in the
                                                                                     small sites, in combination they present major opportunities, and will give
planning and
monitoring of transport                                                              rise to significant extra travel demand. There will, however, be a synergy
schemes                                                                              between more intensive development, and the desire for a greater
Active participation,                                                                proportion of travel to be undertaken by public transport, walking and
funding and
                                                                                     cycling. These modes are much better supported by intensive
implementation
                                                                                     development.

The key issue to ensure that objectives are achieved, however, is for the
                                                                                     Specific plans will need to be drawn up for town centres and other
strategy to command widespread support and acceptance across the
                                                                                     accessible locations (where they do not already exist) to investigate
business community, and amongst the local authorities and other
                                                                                     development capacity and to guide development and transport decisions.
partners. Without this, the sub-region runs the risk of being sidelined
                                                                                     The town centres in west London can each be developed to
when resource decisions are being made.
                                                                                     accommodate a greater share of employment, leisure and retail facilities,
                                                                                     and pubic transport can be planned to serve them, along with other
                                                                                     transport improvements. The town centre classifications have already
                                                                                     been set out in Section 5 of this report. The table below lists those



                                                                                                               West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   93
centres and sub centres that have relatively good “inbound” accessibility   “opportunity areas”, namely White City, Park Royal and Feltham /
by public transport.                                                        Bedfont Lakes.


Borough                Metropolitan   Major Centre       Other
                       centre                            accessible
                                                         locations and
                                                         centres *
Brent                                 Wembley            Harlesden
                                                         station
                                                         Neasden
                                                         Willesden
                                                         Willesden
                                                         Junction
Ealing                 Ealing         Southall           Acton
                                                         Hanger Lane
Hammersmith            Hammersmith                       Fulham
& Fulham                                                 Broadway
                                                         Shepherd’s
                                                         Bush
Harrow                 Harrow                            Harrow-on-the-
                                                         Hill
Hillingdon                            Uxbridge           Hayes &
                                                         Harlington
                                                         Heathrow
Hounslow               Hounslow       Chiswick
* Here defined as having a minimum of bus services from 8 or more
directions, plus a rail or Underground station close by


In addition there are further areas where development could work in
tandem with public transport improvements to create new hubs of
accessibility and activity. The London Plan lists three such additional


                                                                                                  West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   94
Business Priority Transport          Rationale
Objectives

1.   Congestion, pollution and       If traffic growth continues without regard to negative social and environmental impacts, these impacts will act as
     community severance             a brake on growth. The aim is to reverse the trends to create a virtuous circle of improved environmental and
     reduced throughout west         living conditions as a pre-condition of economic growth that can be sustained in the long term.
     London so that neither
     businesses nor residents in     A significant reduction in per-capita car travel is required to accommodate growth in homes and jobs without
     west London feel compelled      exacerbating negative transport impacts. Significant mode shift away from car cannot be achieved solely by the
     to locate or relocate outside   improvement of other forms of travel. Deliberate traffic limitation measures will be required.
     London to avoid poor
     environmental conditions.       Objectives into actions:
     (Traffic and demand                 •   Reducing those car trips that make disproportionate demands on road capacity (long trips, peak trips),
     management)                             or on parking supply (such as commuter trips), or for which alternatives can most easily be found (e.g.
                                             very short trips which can switch to walking).
                                         •   “Push” measures such as parking charges and controls, reallocation of road space or road user
                                             charging.
                                         •   Travel Plans for all large businesses in west London, and collectively for small and medium sized
                                             business. West London businesses commit themselves to a programme of action. West London
                                             businesses have been leading in this respect, e.g. Travel Plans at Stockley Park and Heathrow.
                                         •   Local authorities provide incentives for reduced car use, e.g. encouraging redevelopment of off-street
                                              parking spaces.




                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   95
2.   Plan transport and                 This means concentrating employment growth at locations that are accessible by multiple public transport
     development together so that       routes (nodes or hubs in the network with good “inbound” accessibility) and creating new accessible hubs to
     people employed in west            serve major development sites. New business in town centres can help to intensify and improve bus services
     London can live within 30          and interchanges; new business at out-of-centre locations cannot. Although bus services have received
     minutes public transport (or       financial support from some out-of-centre businesses, they are of small importance relative to the totality of
     walk) travel time of their         movement associated with such businesses (e.g. only 12% of journeys to work at Stockley Park in 1999, not
     workplace, and businesses          including visitors).
     can to recruit staff from within
     a 30 minutes public transport      Objectives into actions
     catchment. (Town centres               •    Invest in and manage transport to support and promote regeneration and intensification opportunities,
     accessibility and public                    particularly in town centres and large opportunity areas such as Hayes, Park Royal, Southall, Wembley,
     transport planning)                         Willesden.


                                        Note: Accessibility planning is about matching transport facilities to the trip generating characteristics of
                                        businesses (and other activities). The term (confusingly) is often used to refer to planning for people with
                                        mobility impairment – an important topic at the detailed planning level but not relevant here.

3. Protect buses (and trams)            The key objective of improving environmental conditions while accommodating travel growth cannot be
     from delays caused by other        achieved without a higher proportion of travel being undertaken by public transport. This in turn cannot be
     traffic as of right, in            achieved unless the bus network operates reliably and efficiently, and unless a culture of bus use is created.
     compensation for the               This requires heavy investment in quality and marketing, but also providing priority over other traffic where
     economic and commercial            capacity is constrained. This may be difficult and contentious to achieve but is regarded as non-negotiable if
     handicap imposed on them by        wider aims are to be met.
     current methods of paying for




                                                                                                                  West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   96
    the use of private cars. Road    Growth should be led by public transport and non-motorised modes (see GLA Western Wedge study, August
    user charging throughout         2002). A strategy relying heavily on an expansion of road and parking capacity will in the long run prove to be
    west London could be an          counter-productive.
    alternative to this objective.
    (Transport planning and          Objectives into actions
    management)                         •    Build on existing bus priority initiatives, speed up implementation;
                                        •    Implement comprehensive protection from congestion;
                                        •    As this is achieved, routes can be extended and simplified, making the system easier to understand and
                                             use.
                                        •    As use of public transport increases, upgrade some routes to tram or other form of guided transit.

4. Increase the reliability and      Easier freight movement, loading and deliveries contribute to business efficiency.
    convenience of freight and
    deliveries. (Accessibility       Objectives into actions
    planning and logistics)             •    Priority treatment on the road network where needed;
                                        •    Investment in inter-modal transfer;
                                        •    Remove from residential and town centre areas activities that generate large volumes of heavy goods
                                             vehicle traffic;
                                        •    Rationalise the movement of other goods traffic including delivery systems;
                                        •    Reduced car use (see other objectives) will increase the speed and reliability of freight and delivery
                                             schedules.
                                        •    Facilitate freight movement by rail and water.
                                        •    Enhance Freight Quality Partnerships to secure innovative or other measures that lie beyond the scope
                                             of individual businesses or freight companies to implement.

5. Ensure that parking is always     The total volume of parking must be limited as a component of policy to reduce traffic demand, but the supply




                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   97
available at a price, subject to   must be controlled and priced to ensure that parking is always available. These two policies are consistent and
time limits in town centres and    complementary. Controls and charging regimes are already in place in much of west London. However, large
around railway stations.           stocks of private parking undermine the use of parking as a traffic limitation measure.
(Parking management)
                                   Objectives into actions
                                          •    Reduce the stock of private parking, e.g. through redevelopment of parking space for more
                                               productive use;
                                          •    Convert private to public parking especially in town centres;
                                          •    Slant parking charges to discourage all-day parking and peak hour arrival and departures;
                                          •    Curtail the provision of private parking in new developments, especially dedicated parking;
                                          •    West London has led the way in terms of initiatives to relate parking to public transport accessibility
                                               (Hammersmith and Fulham);
                                          •    West London authorities pressure authorities in the Thames Valley to ensure that parking in new
                                               developments is limited in line with national and regional planning guidance;
                                          •    Parking control schemes to be extended as overall supply is reduced, to protect parking for
                                               residents.




                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   98
Other Objectives                     Rationale


6.   No one in west London with      (See objectives 1-3)
     normal travel requirements
     should feel dependent on the    Car dependence limits people’s opportunities and imposes unnecessary costs on households. There are also
     car for journeys within the     issues of social exclusion, since people without access to cars can be deprived of mobility in car-dependent
     main built-up area of London.   areas.
     Alternatives should be
     improved accordingly.           In addition people should be encouraged to choose travel patterns and modes that do not place a heavy burden
     (Transport and accessibility    on the wider community.
     planning)

7. People should be able to          The rationale is that west London is part of a large metropolis, not a free-standing city. It can only reap the
     reach central London quickly    advantages of this if it is well connected to the highly specialised jobs and facilities of the centre.
     and reliably and in uncrowded
     conditions. (Transport          Objectives into actions
     Planning)                          •     Contain demand for rail commuting by achieving better home-work balance within west London, and by
                                              distributing demand across an enhanced rail network;
                                        •     Create direct rail routes to Heathrow from the south and the west;
                                        •     Enhance access to rail services, e.g. Heathrow Express services stopping at Hayes and Ealing, and
                                              new interchange stations where lines cross (e.g. Gunnersbury, Park Royal;
                                        •     Increase rail capacity at peak times, e.g. better signalling, extra tracks, longer trains;
                                        •     Possible new routes, e.g. Heathrow Express services to St Pancras.




                                                                                                                West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   99
8.   To provide high quality          While radial travel to central London is important, west London also is a major urban conurbation in its own
     access by non-car means to       right, with large scale employment, service and other facilities. Limitations on accessibility undermines the
     all town centres and main        economic viability and strength of these facilities. Accessibility within the sub-region should be enhanced to
     employment concentrations.       town centres and other intermediate destinations on radial corridors, and to destinations involving non-radial
     (Town centre and accessibility   travel.
     planning)
                                      Radial movement should be further strengthened through both land use and transport intensification. The
                                      rational is that patterns of daily movement, but also patterns of business relocation have historically been
                                      predominantly radial. This continues to be efficient and easier to serve than non-radial movement.


                                      The aim should also be to enhance absolute and relative accessibility of town and district centres as a means of
                                      increasing the share of travel by non-car modes, and of strengthening the economy and diversity of centres.
                                      This objective relates to both new and existing activity.


                                      Accessibility should be improved where the main economic growth should take place, and where switch from
                                      car to non-car means of travel can most readily be enhanced. The town centres are the main nodes in the
                                      public transport network, and also are the focus for pedestrian activity. Expansion and improvement of transport
                                      is easier to the centres than to other areas that are currently not well served by public transport or walk or cycle
                                      networks.


                                      This is a key policy of the London Plan. “…focusing retail, leisure, key commercial activity and services in
                                      suburban major, district and local town centres that have good levels of public transport accessibility and
                                      capacity” and “promoting areas around suburban town centres as appropriate for higher-density and mixed-use
                                      development where public transport and accessibility allows”




                                                                                                              West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   100
Objectives into actions
    •    Creating high quality bus routes linking centres. E.g. There are already bus routes linking Richmond,
         Ealing, Wembley and Brent Cross, but these are not provided as a single orbital route;
    •    An example of creating an orbital service that links different centres is Route 140 orbital service
         (Harrow-Hayes-Heathrow) – a high quality bus, that eventually could be upgraded to tram;
    •    An example of a non-radial connection that appears not to be served at present is between Hayes and
         South Ruislip.
    •    The regeneration of Hayes will require good inbound access from all compass points.
    •    West London Tram project is both radial and links town centres. It also can underpin traffic
         management priorities on the road network.


Note: The term “orbital” may be misleading. Travel demand is not orbital, although provision for multiple and
diverse non-radial movements by public transport may sometimes be conveniently grouped into routes that
have an orbital configuration. It is more important, however, to envisage accessibility to centres, hubs and
interchanges rather than “orbital” movement per se. A good pattern of access to a centre will present a “local
radial” pattern, not an orbital pattern.




                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   101
9.   As a specific objective,   Heathrow is the single most important generator of travel and employment in west London. It therefore merits
     people and businesses      (and gets) special planning attention.
     should be able to reach
     Heathrow easily and        The objective is to reduce the proportion of surface access by private motorised modes of travel. The rationale
     directly. (Transport and   is to enable Heathrow to grow within established environmental pollution limits, while also enabling visitors and
     accessibility planning)    employees to reach the airport reliably.


                                A related objective is to widen the labour catchment for Heathrow and to improve accessibility for those without
                                cars.


                                Much of the planned transport investment (especially rail) is linked to air traffic growth, namely passenger,
                                employee and freight growth. This objective should apply equally to travel between Heathrow and adjacent
                                areas – Thames Valley and South sub-region in particular..


                                This focus on Heathrow is justified by its prominence as an employment centre and transport hub. For example,
                                28% of west London employees work in Hillingdon, and Heathrow workers come roughly half and half from west
                                London and the Thames Valley.


                                Objectives into actions
                                    •   There are various rail, tram and bus proposals to be further developed and decided;
                                    •   New rail link(s) from the south (via Staines);
                                    •   Direct rail link from the west (avoiding rail travel into Paddington)
                                    •   A tram between Chiswick and Heathrow;




                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   102
                                           •   An intensified new corridor of development towards Hayes and Ealing) served by stopping Heathrow
                                               Express services, and possibly a tram link to West London Tram at Southall;
                                           •   Further development of bus services to Heathrow
                                           •   Measures to reduce car use to the airport and other activities in the Heathrow area, including parking
                                               charges and controls and road user charges.

10.   To direct the management         The majority of journeys are short, and the intention is not to encourage longer distance movement by car.
      and development of the           Widening of the M25 is in progress, but increasing the capacity of major roads carries the risk of generating
      road network within west         more long-distance traffic, unless accompanied by road user charging.
      London towards the
      requirements of short-           Objectives into actions
      distance traffic. (Traffic and      •    Manage the road network in such a way as to provide reliable travel rather than high speed travel;
      highway planning and                •    The exception to this is the limited network of Trunk and Motorway routes connecting to the national
      management)                              network;
                                          •    Other measures described will support this objective (bus priority, parking management, street
                                               environment enhancement, etc)

11. To invest heavily in the           In order to attract car users, the quality of public transport will have to be increased. This at the same time will
      quality as well as the           provide benefits to those who depend on public transport. To the extent that public transport use increases, a
      capacity of public transport     proportionate response in terms of extra capacity will also be required.
      serving west London
      destinations, as a means of      Objectives into actions
      attracting car users. (Public       •    West London is already benefiting from better bus and other services;
      transport planning)                 •    A major increase in quality will result from the West London Tram on the Uxbridge Road corridor;
                                          •    High quality bus routes in non-radial directions are being developed;
                                          •    There is an emerging bus strategy for Heathrow.




                                                                                                                West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   103
                                       •    Further tram schemes have been suggested e.g. linking to employment areas between Southall and
                                            Heathrow, and taking over heavily used bus corridors;
                                       •    Better marketing, information will be important.

12. People should find public       A fully integrated network of different public transport services is necessary to attract not just “captive” users,
    transport easy and good to      but also users who have the choice of travel by car.
    use, without incurring severe
    time or cost penalties for      The public transport network (services, facilities and information systems) should be planned to make it readily
    interchanging between           understood and simple to use. This contrasts with the current system that is still redolent of its fragmented
    services. (Public Transport     historical development. The objective should be to create a system that presents a single “face” to users, even
    Planning)                       though different services may have multiple owners and operators.


                                    Interchange between different public transport services should be planned to minimise time penalties, and
                                    remove all fare and ticket penalties.


                                       •    This objective can drive the search for more effective organisational integration (The model for this is
                                            the “Verkehrsverbund” found in most major German cities and conurbations.)
                                       •    Integration of national rail and Underground services in the west London area;
                                       •    Possibilities for new technology to assist integrated information, ticketing and payment, and marketing.




                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   104
13.   To continue to improve the        The rationale is to “bundle” traffic onto a limited number of routes, wherever possible chosen for their ability to
      quality of residential and        handle heavy traffic, in order to limit traffic impact and to create safer residential areas.
      other areas by extending
      speed management and              Objectives into actions
      street design measures.              •    This policy has been pursued for many years, with 20 mph zones and other traffic calming measures,
      (Road and traffic planning                but can be further extended, especially if reduced traffic enables current “rat run” traffic routes to be
      and management)                           taken out of the network.

14.   To employ parking control         The rationale is that longer distance car trips have a proportionately greater impact than shorter ones.
      and other measures of
      traffic limitation that, as far   Objectives into actions
      as possible, are not                •     Parking charges that are related to time are more effective than standard charges or season tickets;
      favourable to long distance         •     Road user charges will also be more effective if related to distance travelled;
      journeys by car. (Traffic and       •     See also measures under Objective 10.
      parking management)

15.   Transport system objectives       Generic objectives that local authority plans should address as part of the ongoing requirement to update and
      (Transport planning)              improve the transport system. The relative priority attached to meeting these objectives will be a major issue,
                                        especially in deciding investment priorities. Many of these measures have been included in other objectives
                                        above, but they are brought together here for clarity.


                                        Objectives into actions
                                           •    Better rail reliability (currently not within control of WL authorities)
                                           •    Reduced rail overcrowding (ditto)
                                           •    Better air quality (currently the worst in London)




                                                                                                                   West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   105
•   Better integration of public transport services, fares and information
•   Better bus reliability
•   Protection of buses from delays caused by other road users, especially on the inner borough road
    networks (Brent, Ealing and Hammersmith & Fulham) where reliability is poorer.
•   Better quality bus services: waiting facilities, vehicles, information etc.
•   Better walking conditions according to the “Five Cs” criteria, not just safety
•   Better provision for and encouragement of cycling
•   Encouragement of “city car clubs”




                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   106
                                                                               Whilst many have suggested that geography is no longer important in
8 The Environment and Quality of Life
                                                                               business – as a result of technological change in products such as digital
                                                                               communication – we find that workers will still want to work in places that
                                                                               are desirable living areas.
8.1 Background
                                                                               Clearly the Economic Development Strategy for west London needs to

The environment and quality of life is an area that is becoming an             ensure a balance between exploiting the commercial success of the sub-

increasingly important determinant within companies’ investment                region whilst maintaining and improving the environmental, transport and

decisions. Generally, the better the environment and quality of life, the      social conditions which contribute to that success and to the well-being of

more likely it is that a company will invest in an area. Groundwork West       the resident population.

London has highlighted that congestion and the quality of the
environment are key factors affecting and influencing businesses looking
to locate in west London.


It has been argued by the GLA that parks and open spaces contribute
substantially to London’s marketing image and may have an important
role in encouraging inward investment. Green space is also believed to
contribute significantly to the local economy by attracting new retail units
                                                       17
and generating additional customers for local shops .




17
 Tibbats, David, 2002, Your Parks: The benefits of parks and green spaces,
Urban Parks Forum, Berkshire

                                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   107
                                                                             4. To promote social inclusion and tackle deprivation and
8.2 Strategic Context                                                            discrimination.
                                                                             5. To improve London’s accessibility.
                                                                             6. To make London a more attractive, well-designed and green city.
The London Plan argues that London’s distinctive network of open
spaces, from the Green Belt to local play spaces, should be strongly
                                                                         Good design is clearly central to all of the Plan’s key objectives:
protected, made more accessible and enhanced. It is argued that as the
                                                                                 Good design is a tool for helping to accommodate London’s
use of land becomes more intense, the contribution of open space will
                                                                                 growth within its boundaries (Objective 1).
become even more important.
                                                                                 Given its strong growth, very high standards of design are
                                                                                 needed to make London a better city to live in and one which is
One of the policies of The London Plan is that:
                                                                                 more attractive and green (Objectives 2 and 6).
                                                                                 There is a strong link between good design and the attraction to
Boroughs should, in consultation with local communities, the Mayor and
                                                                                 economic investors to help create a prosperous city (Objective
other partners, produce open space strategies to protect, create and
                                                                                 3).
enhance all types of open space in their area. Such strategies should
                                                                                 Areas of social exclusion are usually associated with poor,
include approaches for the positive management of open space where
                                                                                 hostile environments and far better, more inclusive design must
appropriate to prevent or remedy degradation or enhance the beneficial
                                                                                 form part of their regeneration (Objective 4).
use of it for the community.
                                                                                 Excellence in design can also make higher densities a source of
                                                                                 better, more varied and more sustainable environment in places
The fundamental objectives of the London Plan are:
                                                                                 of high accessibility and reduce the need to travel (Objective 5).
    1. To accommodate London’s growth within its boundaries without
        encroaching on open spaces.
    2. To make London a better city for people to live in.
    3. To make London a more prosperous city with strong and diverse
        economic growth.


                                                                                                   West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   108
The London Plan sets out the following design principles that the Mayor       The Economic Development Strategy for London has identified the
will, and boroughs should, seek to ensure that developments:                  following key areas for investment:


          Maximise the potential of sites.                                            Homes – covered in the Housing Theme.
          Create or enhance the public realm.                                         Social infrastructure – is required to support a growing and
          Provide or enhance the mix of uses.                                         increasingly diverse city and the changing patterns of
          Are accessible, usable and permeable for all users.                         development set in the London Plan.
          Are sustainable, durable and adaptable.                                     Commercial property – covered in the Land and Property
          Are safe for occupants and passers-by.                                      Theme.
          Respect local context, character and communities.                           Environmental infrastructure – a high quality, accessible and
          Are practical and legible.                                                  safe environmental infrastructure – parks, open spaces,
          Are attractive to look at and, where appropriate, inspire, excite           waterways and other opportunities – is needed to enjoy London’s
          and delight.                                                                natural and historic heritage, so important to the city’s social
          Respect the natural environment.                                            cohesion, quality of life and economic success.
          Respect London’s built heritage.                                            Environments, facilities and services – accessible to all, which
                                                                                      comply with the requirements of the Disability Discrimination Act,
These design principles need to be taken into account in the Land and                 are also required.
Property and Housing themes.

                                                                              One of the key objectives identified in the LDA’s Economic Development
The LDA, in its Economic Development Strategy, Sustaining Success –
                                                                              Strategy is:
Developing London’s Economy, has argued that London’s scarce land
                                                                              “To promote the development of a healthy, sustainable, safe and high
resources must be used to best effect, focusing on the re-use of
                                                                              quality urban environment.”
brownfield sites and the protection of London’s green spaces, to ensure it
helps achieve sustainable improvements to the city’s environment and
quality of life.


                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   109
Under this objective, actions include:
        Develop and implement initiatives to improve the design and            8.3 Key Issues
        management of public spaces, while ensuring issues of energy
        efficiency, noise and air quality, safety, health, biodiversity, and
                                                                               As highlighted above, the environment and quality of life are factors in
        sustainable design and construction practices are taken into
                                                                               individuals’ location decisions.        Clearly, economic viability and
        account.
                                                                               sustainability is dependent on having both employers and employees.
        Take action to encourage developers and all businesses to
                                                                               There is anecdotal evidence of significant problems with recruitment and
        adopt environmentally friendly goods and services.
                                                                               retention in west London due to the cost of living and quality of life.
        Support the adoption of sustainable construction and design
                                                                               There is therefore an important link between the quality of the local
        practices and address the strategic location needs of waste,
                                                                               environment and the performance of the local economy. It is for this
        recycling and other environmental industries.
                                                                               reason that the environment and quality of life theme will play such a key
                                                                               role in west London’s Draft Economic Development Strategy.


                                                                               This theme cuts across all of the other themes of the Economic
                                                                               Development Strategy. For example, attracting people to live as well as
                                                                               work in an area would reduce reliance on, and the impact of, high levels
                                                                               of commuting.     As highlighted in the Transport section, time spent
                                                                               commuting has an economic cost and also contributes to poor air quality
                                                                               and traffic congestion.


                                                                               The cross-cutting nature of the environment and quality of life theme can
                                                                               also be highlighted with reference to the value of green spaces. It has
                                                                               been argued by the GLA that green spaces play a vital role in the lives of
                                                                               Londoners. They encourage healthy living, environmental sustainability


                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   110
and community development. They also provide a source of education,          detail below.
preserve London’s heritage and culture, and promote recreation and
tourism.                                                                     Table 8.1: Borough statistics

                                                                             Borough         Dwelling   Overcrowding        Crime     Per        NO2
Green spaces not only provide a pleasant and natural environment but                         density    (%)                 (%)       cent       average
also contribute to improving quality of life in London’s urban areas. They                   (no/km)                                  green      (ppb)
assist sustainable use of housing, jobs and infrastructure.                                                                           (%)

                                                                             Brent           2,977.61              6.73     19.07      12.11             21.80
The links with the Housing, Land and Property and Business
                                                                             Ealing          2,405.76              5.51     13.11      25.33             21.58
Competitiveness sections are clear from the argument set out above.
However, the relationship between the environment and quality of life        H&F             5,971.42              4.71     17.87      14.72             25.19

and the other themes is not a straightforward one. It has been argued by     Harrow          1,928.37              3.20     11.02      28.40             19.31
the GLA that there is a trade-off between protecting and enhancing           Hillingdon      1,342.88              3.26     12.45      44.71             20.92
London’s green spaces whilst addressing the need for affordable
                                                                             Hounslow        1,917.76              4.51     14.70      37.91             21.83
housing. A similar argument can be made with regard to the need for
                                                                             Source: Based on Table 3, Valuing Greenness: Green spaces, house
business premises of all types.
                                                                             prices and Londoner’s priorities

Table 8.1 below highlights a number of environmental and quality of life
indicators.   Dwelling density and overcrowding is discussed in more
detail in the Housing theme. There are relatively high crime rates in both
Brent and Hammersmith & Fulham.           There will be a discussion of
strategies to tackle crime in the section that follows. A relatively high
percentage of both Hillingdon and Hounslow is green. There are also
relatively large variations in air quality across the sub-region. One of
west London borough’s air quality strategies will be discussed in more


                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   111
Table 8.2 outlines the crime reduction priorities, aims and objectives of
the six west London Boroughs.                                               H&F          Reduce crime and fear of crime
                                                                                         Support for the victims of crime
Table 8.2: Crime reduction priorities of the west London Boroughs                        Break the cycle of crime

Borough        Priorities / Aims / Objectives                                            Strengthen communities

Brent               To reduce residential burglary                          Harrow       Street crime and disorder

                    To reduce street robbery                                             Burglary

                    To reduce violent crime in Brent                                     Auto crime

                    To reduce gun related crime                                          Hate crime

                    To reduce crime committed by children and young                      Domestic violence

                    people and against children and young people                         Quality of life

                    To reduce drug and alcohol abuse in Brent                            Fear of crime

                    To reduce fear of crime through regeneration                         Drug and alcohol related crime
                                                                                         Young people and crime
Ealing             Burglary
                   Youth crime                                              Hillingdon   Tackling anti-social behaviour

                   Robbery and theft                                                     Reducing the fear of crime and enhancing quality of

                   Anti-social behaviour                                                 life through improvement and effective maintenance

                   Violence in public places                                             of the environment

                   Drugs and alcohol misuse                                              Tackling local priority crimes of burglary, street crime,

                    Hate crime (domestic violence, homophobic crime                      vehicle crime and the supply of class ‘A’ drugs

                    and race related crime)                                              Protecting vulnerable members of the community and

                   Vehicle crime                                                         those subject to ‘hate’ crime
                                                                                         Diverting young people from crime and anti-social
                                                                                         behaviour



                                                                                               West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   112
  Hounslow           Town centre crimes                                            Crime rates in west London, in all categories of offending, are

                     Domestic violence                                             considerably higher than elsewhere in England and Wales.                Harrow

                     Race crimes                                                   stands out as the borough with the lowest levels of crime and comes

                     Homophobic crimes                                             close to the national average in terms of violent crime. However, levels
                     Young people                                                  of violent crime are over twice the England and Wales average in Brent,

                     Drugs crime                                                   Hammersmith and Fulham and Hounslow. Robbery, burglary and theft

                     Anti-social behaviour                                         from motor vehicles are causes of particular concern in Hammersmith

                     Domestic burglary                                             and Fulham – no doubt largely as a direct result of the borough’s
                                                                                   prosperity.    On a more positive note, both Brent and Harrow can boast
 Source: Crime Reduction / Disorder Reduction / Community Safety
                                                                                   low levels of motor vehicle crime, relative to national averages.
 Strategies of the six west London Boroughs, 2002-2005

                                                                                   Crime is an issue which most directly and personally affects people’s
 Table 8.3: Crime rates per 1,000
                                                                                   perceptions of their quality of life. Furthermore, high crime-rates, such as
                Violence        Sexual                          Theft     Theft
                against        Offences                          of a    from a    those in west London, do have a detrimental economic effect, impacting
                                          Robbery   Burglary
                   the                                          motor     motor
                                                                                   upon consumers, service users and potential investors. Addressing this
                 person                                        vehicle   vehicle
Brent             22.9           1.3        7.7      13.3       6.8       11.5     issue needs to be a key feature of any multi-faceted approach to

Ealing            20.8           1.1        4.9       9.8       8.4       16.6     economic development and regeneration.

H&F               26.8           1.4        5.6      13.3       7.9       27.2
                                                                                   Air quality is an important feature of the environment and quality of life of
Harrow            11.6           0.6        2.6      10.0       3.5       7.7
                                                                                   an area.      Given the location of Heathrow Airport, heavily congested
Hillingdon        16.1           0.8        1.9      10.2       7.8       13.8
                                                                                   roads as well as a number of industries in west London, air quality is
Hounslow          25.5           1.2        3.4       9.7       7.4       16.5
                                                                                   severely affected. Hillingdon Council has drafted an Air Quality Action
England &         11.4           0.7        1.8       7.6       6.4       11.9     Plan that outlines a number of options which have been grouped into a
Wales
 Source: National Statistics                                                       series of packages. These are summarised in Table 8.4.



                                                                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   113
Table 8.4: Summary of options to improve air quality in Hillingdon        4. Ensuring effective                             Actions to be taken in
1. Reduce emissions from road             Increase use of public               collaboration with other                      liaison with the Mayor and
    transport                              transport                           parties                                       neighbouring authorities

                                          Develop transport                                                                 Lobbying International and
                                           infrastructure                                                                    National government on

                                          Further develop traffic                                                            measures that are outside

                                           management systems                                                                the control of local
                                                                                                                             government
                                          Promote cleaner vehicles
                                                                          Source: Hillingdon’s Air Quality Action Plan, Draft, January 2004
2. Emissions from specific                Measures specific to
    sources within the Borough             Heathrow Airport
                                                                          Sustainable Communities: Building for the Future was launched by the
                                          Measures specific to local      Deputy Prime Minister on 5 February 2003. The "Communities Plan" is a
                                           industries                     long-term programme of action backed by £22 billion of investment to
3. Actions to be undertaken by            Use of planning systems to      improve housing and planning in order to build sustainable thriving
    the Council to promote more            improve eco-efficiency in      communities.
    effective use of resources in          the built environment and
    the Borough                            promotion of travel            It covers a wide agenda, which recognises that to develop communities

                                           planning                       in which people wish to live, housing policy needs to be linked to
                                                                          improving economies, public services, transport and the environment at a
                                          Dissemination of
                                                                          local level. In particular, the plan aims to:
                                           information on ways that
                                           the public can contribute to
                                                                                   Increase the provision of high quality and affordable housing in
                                           improved air quality
                                                                                   areas of high demand.

                                                                                   Further tackle the housing shortage in London and the South
                                                                                   East.

                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   114
        Regenerate declining communities.                                            Start one of west London's first "city car clubs" in Acton and/or

        Bring all social housing up to a decent standard by 2010. (The               Ealing.

        government’s guidance on decent home standards is discussed                  Programme of other physical improvement schemes, providing

        in more detail in the Housing section)                                       better access and facilities in parks, improved pedestrian access
                                                                                     to town centre, improved safety (CCTV, street lighting) schemes.
        Improve the efficiency of the planning system.

        Decentralise housing policy and planning by empowering local
                                                                          Local Authorities have an important role to play in promoting clean and
        and regional government.
                                                                          green streets and neighbourhoods/towns. In some of west London’s
        Protect the countryside and improve the local environment.        boroughs, local residents have been asked to volunteer to become street
                                                                          wardens/watchers.        These volunteers are responsible for reporting
The £89 million Liveability Fund is part of a £201 million package of     issues to the Council relating to the street scene, for example, littered
measures to improve the local environment announced in February 2003      streets, fly-tipping, abandoned vehicles, graffiti, fly posting and dog
as part of the Sustainable Communities: Building for the future           fouling.
document.
                                                                          It has been argued that Partnership approaches are a good vehicle for
The London Borough of Ealing has been selected as a pilot authority for   improving the environmental and infrastructure quality of industrial
the scheme. Details of the pilot in Ealing are summarised below:          estates. An example of this is the Park Royal Partnership. The Park
        Improved and integrated environmental services for Acton Town     Royal Partnership is seeking to increase the quality of the environment
        Centre, including town centre rangers.                            through, for example, tree planting, public squares, public areas in
        Creation of new "Green Town Square" linking Acton College and     general, lighting and pedestrian links, as well as the canal.
        South Acton Estate to the town centre.
        Develop a series of multi-purpose "pavilions" in Acton parks to   Linked to this is the issue of how to get the involvement of businesses in
        provide meeting places, cafes, training and service development   developing sustainable communities. It is argued that companies that
        spaces.                                                           invest in their local communities are likely to see real business benefits
                                                                          from improved rates of recruitment and retention. It is also argued that


                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   115
loyalty and interdependence and a commitment to high-quality work are
                                                 18
more easily established and maintained .


Park Royal Partnership’s ten-year targets for business and the
community are:
           700 businesses benefiting directly from their support services
           100 firms with an exemplary approach to environmental
           sustainability
           50,000 s m of incubator and growth space developed
           A workforce development strategy for Park Royal
           12,000 training opportunities
           200 companies involved in or sponsoring local community and
           education projects
           A 50% increase in the number of people from the surrounding
           areas working in Park Royal.




18
     Park Royal Partnership, ten-year strategy

                                                                            West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   116
8.4 Draft Objectives and Rationale


Draft Objectives              Rationale

Invest in sustainable         To both attract new companies and retain those that have already invested in west London.
business communities,
and encourage                 Create more sustainable business communities, that are vibrant, healthy and safe, that respect the environment and where
businesses to play a          individuals and businesses prosper.
greater role in the
management,                   There is evidence of business benefits associated with the adoption of Corporate Social Responsibility.
maintenance and
improvement of their
business neighbourhoods

Ensure sustainability and     Access, niche role / services provided, management and maintenance of private and public realm.
viability of local town and   (See Land and Property and Transport sections)
neighbourhood centres

Ensure high quality           Need to ensure sustainability of investment in business and housing infrastructure.
landscape / design of         (See Land and Property and Housing sections)
future housing and
employment site
developments




                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   117
Ensure enough quality,          Open space, and particularly green space, is a key factor affecting quality of life and choice of people living and working in
accessible green space          an area.
through, for example,
encouraging and                 Green space can offset the high levels of population density and the need for people to travel far afield to visit and benefit
supporting the west             from such amenities.
London Boroughs to
produce open spaces
strategies

Encourage the                   Enhance quality of life of west London residents and businesses.
establishment of
Partnerships to address
crime and the underlying
causes of crime

Invest in public transport in   Two thirds of employees commute to work by car in west London. Commuting by car has a detrimental impact on air
order to reduce reliance        quality and, hence, health and quality of life.
on car commuting                (See Transport section)

Minimise the                    Air quality, noise pollution and health impacts which all impact on quality of life.
environmental impact of         (See Transport section)
Heathrow through, for
example, supporting and
encouraging development
of air quality action plans




                                                                                                                 West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   118
9 Branding                                                                  9.2 Strategic context

                                                                            Branding is increasingly recognised as part of the development and

9.1 Background                                                              communication not just of products, services and organisations in
                                                                            business, but also of the public sector and the public realm.                 The

In developing the sub-regional EDS, the West London Partnership has         ‘Glasgow’s miles better’ campaign raised the profile and awareness of

identified branding as one of seven major headings of the EDS               Glasgow as a city undergoing transformation. Liverpool’s successful

framework.     This reflects the acknowledgement of branding as a           capital of culture bid integrated a wide range of city interests to present a

significant tool to be used in response to the global and highly            strongly unified message to the judging panel. In turn, the city as a whole

competitive environment that West London operates within. In addition       has added impetus and enthusiasm for regeneration: £15bn inward

to global competition for inward investment, a major driver for the         funding is identified with 14,000 new jobs anticipated in the cultural

branding work is also the political focus shifting East to the Thames       sector alone. Prior to the Olympics Sydney was already a successful city

Gateway region, and the perceived success of Thames Gateway in              but the highly organised approach with a defined ‘look and feel’ for all

capturing significant regeneration attention.                               aspects of the games has significantly enhanced Sydneys global image.


West London has found itself needing to raise its voice with a consistent   In London the GLA and Visit London have implemented a high profile

message to the outside world. The initial stages of work to develop         campaign for visitor attractions under the Totally London brand identity.

branding for West London are concerned with putting in place an             A completely different type of success is the high profile that Thames

accurate understanding of West London as a basis for robust                 Gateway has achieved in the regeneration sector. The 2012 Olympic

foundations to establish the components of a complete brand that will       bidding process is raising the profile of London and regeneration in the

have a clear and useful function in the overall development of the sub-     East of the city, and is identified by a widely publicised brand identity for

region.                                                                     the bidding process.


                                                                            The LDA’s draft EDS recognises the importance of marketing and
                                                                            promotion and also dedicates a framework heading for the subject. But



                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   119
the London examples identified above highlight one of the significant       >   Understanding West London – All effective branding must be
contextual challenges for West London.        There are many potentially        based on truths. Brands that fail to deliver fail. Virgin trains received
conflicting messages and activities associated with promoting London.           considerable criticism in the early days of their franchise, partly
Therefore the branding for West London must acknowledge the                     because of the high expectation of quality of service. Ultimately the
complexity of this context and develop a branding platform that not only        strength of the underlying brand values has helped Virgin focus on
promotes the distinctive qualities of the region to the range of relevant       developing and improving their service.            In West London the
audiences, but also does this in a way that is individually distinctive         underlying qualities must be fully explored and understood and
and/or beneficially collaborative amongst the complete range of brands          effectively coupled to an aspirational framework for development.
in London, both nationally and internationally.                             >   Function and use – London is communicated and promoted by
                                                                                many overlapping brands (identified as an issue in Sustaining
As a professional discipline that incorporates marketing and                    Success). There is a lack of clarity of how individual brands work to
communications, there are a number of good working practices and                achieve aims, how they are used and by whom. In the public realm
processes that need to be put in place in order to fully contribute to          the function and use of brands that represent places is often much
achieving West London’s vision:                                                 more complex than with a brand representing a private company,
                                                                                product or service. There are a number of factors to this complexity
>   Connection – The most effective branding, for example Virgin or             including the need for consensus amongst stakeholders, overlapping
    Orange, or the Sydney Olympics in the public realm, has very strong         functions of organisations and multiple objectives. The effective
    co-ordination between all aspects of the organisation’s activity and        resolution of how a brand for West London functions and is used in
    ‘touch points’. This is achieved through consistent use of messages         relation to a wide range of related brands is a key challenge, but also
    and images and shared values and qualities.                                 an opportunity to introduce clarity and consistency.
>   Audience analysis – Understanding and segmenting audiences,             >   Distinctiveness – Ultimately the overall distinctiveness or distinctive
    both internally and externally.     In the West London context the          qualities of West London must be drawn out and clearly and
    spectrum of audiences is very wide. It is unlikely that one universal       powerfully communicated. The distinctiveness must be true, and to
    message or brand identity can accurately target everyone.                   achieve it’s goals must stand the test of challenging competition.




                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   120
9.2.1     Audience/stakeholder mapping

  Audiences                         Public                             Community                                Private


  Global and European                                                                                The West London brand should fulfil
                                                                                                     the following criteria:
                                                                                                >    Resolve how West London is
                                                                                                     collectively represented to external
  UK national                                                                                        audiences
                                                                                                >    Resolve how West London is
                                                                                                     represented in relation to pan London
                                                                      GOL                            brands such as Visit London
                                                           Mayor of London / GLA                >    Resolve how the West London brand is
  London and SE                                                                                      shared by individual stakeholders
                                                LDA        TfL
                                  London Unlimited
                                  Visit      London       Crossrail    Olympic bid
                                 London       First

                              Totally London

                                                           West London Partnership
  West London
                                               WLA                                             WLB

                                                                               Heathrow City         Park Royal
                     Harrow      Ealing      Hillingdon                                              Partnership
                Hammersmith       Brent                     Wembley         Twickenham
                 and Fulham                  Hounslow




                                                                                               West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   121
9.3 Record of research


9.3.1          Methodology
Within the scope of the early stages of the branding process it was
                                                                            Respondents/participants included:
determined with WLP that the initial research would consist of a one-hour
branding workshop with the WLP EDS steering group together with
                                                                            Peter Handcock & Duncan Burke (GSK)
structured one hour(+), face-to-face depth interviews. The workshop and
                                                                            Gareth Daniel (CE of Brent)
interviews followed a format of open questions relating to the perceived
                                                                            Paul Lakin & Alan Coates (Park Royal Partnership)
need for a brand, the understanding of West London as an area, a
                                                                            Rachel Fryatt (West London Network)
SWOT analysis and exploration of other key issues that impact on West
                                                                            John Stone (Hammersmith and West London College)
London branding. In addition to gaining an accurate insight into the
                                                                            Eryl Smith (BAA)
range of issues, an important outcome is to understand the differential
                                                                            Attendees of steering group workshop on March 2 2004
qualities that make West London stand out against the various forms of
competition.
                                                                            Research was undertaken between March 2 and March 10 2004 with
                                                                            respondent anonymity, to ensure frank, open debate
In addition to the workshop and interviews an e-consultation exercise
based on the same issues and questions is currently in progress. The
                                                                            Over the following pages the key feedback from the initial research
targets for this are also within West London, aiming for 100 responses in
                                                                            exercise is presented in the form of actual quotes and a summing up
each of the following sectors: public, voluntary, private.
                                                                            statement for each area of questioning.




                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   122
9.3.2   Need for a brand?



    “Very much so, it’s about our                      “Yes, we’ve got to unite if
    established strength and                           we’re going to fight Thames
    maturity, our mobility and                         Gateway.”
    productivity.”



                            Yes, unequivocally. An
                            ingredient/endorsement brand to help
                            unite and support businesses and
                            communities and give West London an
                            identity and coherent voice

                                                      “Yes, the structures are there, a
    “We’ve got to have a strategy for                 brand would help people know
    West London with that comes a                     where to look for help and
    need for a brand and proposition.”                support.”



                                                             West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   123
9.3.3     Where and what is West London?




         “There is a place called West                         “We’re a rich multi-cultural
         London. Thames Gateway                                community. Heathrow is the
         does not exist, but we are                            icon that makes us special.”
         blurred.”


                                All sorts of things for all sorts of
                                people, it’s culturally diverse, it’s 6
                                boroughs, it’s defined by its
                                transport links, the M3 round to the
                                M1: It lacks heart but it’s a useful
                                concept

        “It’s the bottom of the M1, the M4                 “It’s the 6 boroughs with Ealing in
        and M40, it’s about Paddington                     the middle, it’s not one area but a
        and Heathrow – it’s about getting                  collection of rings, outer commuter
        in and out.”                                       land to inner city deprivation.”



                                                                   West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   124
9.3.4     SWOT – Strengths




        “Races mix together better in                   “It’s easier and quicker to get in
        West London, we’ve got a                        and out of London from here
        successful buoyant                              than the North, South or East.”
        economy.”

                                Location, location, location. Motorway
                                density, Heathrow, successful growth
                                industries, sporting arenas, cultural
                                diversity/international perspective.
                                Recognised commercial success


        “We’ve got Heathrow, Twickenham               “We’ve got an international edge, a
        and Wembley – world class                     world class location. The most
        venues and everything you could               competitive and productive bits of
        want from all over the world.”                the UK economy are here.”



                                                               West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   125
9.3.5     SWOT - Weaknesses




                                                      “We’ve got a broad spectrum of
        “We haven’t cracked the                       housing but not enough
        relationship between                          affordable housing.”
        unemployment and job
        opportunities.”

                                Lack of orbital movement, lack
                                of identity, loss of public
                                sector investment, skills,
                                housing. Lack of high quality
                                shopping centres


        “You don’t see the level of                   “The main links are radial, we need
        planning and investment for public            orbital, you can get in and out but
        transport in the West as you would            not around.”
        in the East.”


                                                              West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   126
9.3.6    SWOT – Opportunities?




        “Because of high land values                     “Wembley won’t just be a visitor
        you get high quality building                    destination but there’ll be a
        and development – a virtuous                     sports development around the
        circle.”                                         hinterland.”

                                   To build on existing strengths
                                   like Heathrow, Wembley and
                                   the aspiration of the people
                                   themselves

        “The ethnic communities are                     “The Asia Centre and White City
        motivated and dynamic. If we give               developments will put us on the
        them access to the right skills, it’ll          retail map.”
        be a huge pull for employers.”




                                                                 West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   127
9.3.7     SWOT – Opportunities?




        “If we want more public                           “We’ve got a lively cultural
        transport money we’ll have to                     scene at a community level but
        put it in ourselves –                             outside of sporting arenas no
        government won’t do it, we’ve                     national landmarks.”
        got be pragmatic.”



                                  Is it down to government to
                                  rectify transport issues or can
                                  we take a lead?
                                  Give the cultural scene a higher
                                  profile

                                                         “Park Royal is the largest industrial
        “Cross Rail is a biggy, we’ll be able            estate in Europe, it employs
        to pull in labour from a wider area.”            40,000 people and it’s growing.”



                                                                  West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   128
9.3.8     SWOT – Threats?



         “London’s going to be                             “Being overlooked, we’ve never
         accommodating a town the                          had a riot in Brent, but until you
         size of Leeds in the next 15                      do people don’t notice the
         years, we’re going to get our                     problems.”
         share, how will the
         transportation cope?”

                                   Coordinating expansion and
                                   travel, political focus and T5
                                   pollution issues



        “People believe Heathrow will add to the
        congestion; combined with increased noise         “I wouldn’t want to defer to a
        and air pollution, it could be a problem”
                                                          London organisation, they only
                                                          look to the East.”



                                                                    West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   129
9.3.9     Relationship with Thames Gateway and Valley?




        “There’ll be more flexibility in the             “More should go to the East but
        East for development; more                       it has got to be divided more
        choice, less restrictions, more                  equitably, three of our six
        support because Government want                  boroughs are among the most
        it.”                                             deprived in the UK.”

                                 Thames Gateway is competitive for
                                 public rather than private money.
                                 Thames Valley is more complementary,
                                 but competitive from a known business
                                 perspective

        “I think they could be good from a                “We do compete on a number of
        European perspective, whereas                     fronts with Thames Valley. The
        we have more of a global                          Slough Trading Estate is cheaper
        perspective, but where are the                    but still has excellent links to
        senior management going to live?                  Heathrow and London. Bracknell
        Hoxton or Essex. Nah.”                            has become an IT hub.”

                                                                   West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   130
9.3.10     Relationship with Regional Development overall?



          “Need’ is seen as more valid                        “We sit in a unique position
          than ‘opportunity’. We’ve got to                    because of assets like
          help agencies see the                               Heathrow, White City, the M4
          importance of supporting                            corridor. Our success acts as a
          success, we’re vital to the                         catalyst for boundary regions
          national economy.”                                  like Surrey and Thames Valley.”

                                 We’re a key industrial/commercial
                                 centre with a unique cultural make-
                                 up, a national and regional catalyst
         “It’s about togetherness. The
         cohesion and alignment that we’re
         creating between public, private                    “We have 20 years experience in
         and voluntary sectors will provide a                community cohesion, our ability to
         role model of harmony and                           embrace and harness diversity can
         effective development that’ll be the                inspire other regions.”
         envy of the rest of the country.”


                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   131
                                                                           >   Access to the whole world from your back yard – integrated, diverse,
9.3.11      Summary of research                                                inspiring, exciting – a buzz
                                                                           >   Broad range of housing (but lacking enough affordable housing)
Business strengths/uniqueness summary:
>   Access to markets is unparalleled - into London, the motorway          Summary of findings:
    network to the rest of the UK and Heathrow-international               >   The stakeholders interviewed express a clear need and desire to
>   Better cluster developments in growing industries: media, creative,        build a brand… in tandem with the LDA but distinct and competitive
    food manufacture, transport/logistics, HQ                                  in a sub-regional sense
>   Good access creates a great catchment area for skills and people       >   Views on the priority issues that branding can tackle vary slightly
>   Proven commercial success combined with an established social          >   Branding can be used as part of a defensive move against Thames
    infrastructure                                                             Gateway, to lobby for public investment
>   Global perspective, social/racial diversity                            >   Branding is vital for helping the public sector realise the linked need
>   The successful integration of business, public and community               of supporting business success (a vital regional and national
    sectors through WLP and other partnership arrangements                     resource) with support for socially deprived communities
                                                                           >   The need to define the whole area as a desirable residential and
Social strengths/uniqueness – summary:                                         business destination, for private investment.
The social strengths are not as easily recognised as the commercial        >   There were opposing thoughts on public investment; either lobby
strengths… more anonymous, less well defined and they are countered            harder for a fairer share or, alternatively, West London can
by areas of significant deprivation and a shortfall of ‘premier league’        demonstrate the role of private investment to lead public sector
cultural and shopping destinations, but:                                       investment.
>   Good employment prospects                                              >   Unanimous agreement about the positive cultural diversity of the
>   The benefit of better than average communication links in and out of       area
    town                                                                   >   And the divide between success and deprivation
>   Great sporting arenas                                                  >   The area is defined by its transport links




                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   132
>   London is a brand in its own right, this should be leveraged but the
    relationship with the LDA and its own promotional activity needs to
    be resolved
>   Transport investment for the region is key but who should initiate
    development?


In summary the big challenge is to develop a brand that celebrates
the successes but simultaneously leaves room for the problems to
be seen, heard and dealt with.




                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   133
9.4 Propositions


9.4.1      Brand architecture
In order to clearly communicate the development process for the West
London brand there is a value in providing an overview of an overall
brand architecture. This is the basis for developing and reviewing the
component parts of the brand.




 1       Research to               2 Brand model - the brand model       3   Brand definition –             4        Brand
         understand the              is a tool to capture all the            defining how the                        communication –
                                     factors that constitute a brand.
         context the brand                                                   brand is                                planning and
         operates in:                                                        expressed and                           implementing how
         SWOT                                                                how it is                               the brand
                                                                             positioned in                           communicates in
                                                                             relation to brands                      marketing and

                                                  EXPRESSION


                                                   ESSENCE


                                                DIFFERENTIATOR


                                                   VISION


                                                 PERSONALITY


                                                   ORIGIN




                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   134
9.4.2         Brand models – Iceberg model
The iceberg model introduces the principle of the brand model and the
idea that the part that audiences are aware of is only the tip. The tip
represents the brand expression in all the forms through which it may
manifest itself. For example: Council websites, corporate brochures, LDA
information, etc.




Proposition
What are we offering?

                                                                      EXPRESSION

                                                                       What’s at the heart of
                                                                         West London?
                                                               ESSENCE


                                                               What do we do differently/uniquely?

                                                       DIFFERENTIATOR


                                                                    What do we believe in ?

                                                  VISION


                                                           What do we look like, how do people see us?

                                            PERSONALITY


                                                                      Where are we from?

                                       ORIGIN


                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   135
9.4.3         Brand models – Current model
The existing situation in West London is reflected in this brand model,
indicating that the area currently does not fully capitalise on potential
opportunities and is uncertain how to present itself. This brand model is
not complete in that it is based on research to date, which has been
primarily from an ‘internal perspective’. Ultimately, external views are
vital to understanding how to present the brand.




Proposition
Fragmented opportunities and                                                 EXPRESSION

general ambiguity                                                               Disparate variety


                                                                      ESSENCE

                                                                       Heathrow, 6 boroughs, Wembley,
                                                                 Twickenham, M4, M40, M25, M1, Paddington
                                                                 line, Park Royal, sector clusters, BBC, GSK,
                                                               DIFFERENTIATOR WLP

                                                              We’ve got huge assets and huge liabilities, we’re often
                                                             overlooked (by government) and misunderstood. We’re
                                                               uncertain about how we should portray ourselves to
                                                         VISION             industry and government

                                                          Somewhat schizophrenic: a driven high achiever but with
                                                        some contradictory ‘clothing’. Cosmopolitan, experienced but
                                                                 quiet, inhibited and lacking in confidence
                                                   PERSONALITY

                                                           West London, 6 boroughs. Sub region created by GLA/LDA.
                                                           Heathrow . Population: 1,429,000, 30% born outside the UK
                                                                           780,000 in employment
                                           ORIGIN




                                                                                                                        West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   136
9.4.4       Brand models – Potential future model
This model demonstrates how, based on existing attributes, West
London can position itself significantly more positively and pro-actively.




Indicative propositions
A world of success
Altogether more successful
Performance established
Strength through diversity                                                      EXPRESSION

Prepare for success                                                             Success from diversity


                                                                        ESSENCE

                                                                         Heathrow, 6 boroughs, Wembley,
                                                                   Twickenham, M4, M40, M25, M1, Paddington
                                                                   line, Park Royal, sector clusters, BBC, GSK,
                                                                 DIFFERENTIATOR WLP

                                                                  It is the sharing of: ideas, success and inputs from
                                                                     different industries, organisations, cultures and
                                                                  perspectives that enables us to develop and grow
                                                           VISION            uniquely and more successfully

                                                              Diverse, intriguing, depth, confident but grounded, honest,
                                                                                colourful, relaxed, mature

                                                     PERSONALITY

                                                              West London, 6 boroughs. Sub region created by GLA/LDA.
                                                              Heathrow. Population: 1,429,000, 30% born outside the UK
                                                                              780,000 in employment
                                               ORIGIN




                                                                                                                            West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   137
9.4.5          Brand models – conclusion                                      9.4.6        Brand themes - proposed
We cannot change where we are from, nor in the short-term our physical        Five brand themes have been identified which start to capture the key
attributes.    But we can be more confident in who we are and why             qualities of West London. Each theme has been explored as an
businesses should locate here and why people will enjoy living here.          introductory paragraph and images, graphics and words that aim to bring
Businesses do work and prosper in West London – we are a proven               the themes to life, develop the distinctiveness of West London and to
success story. Different ethnic groups also work and live successfully        make an intuitive connection with people. The brand themes are:
side by side and contribute to the evolving, dynamic face of West
London. This outward looking, global perspective of an organic, diverse       >   Diversity
community which directly contributes to the advantageous development          >   Success
of business.                                                                  >   Access
                                                                              >   Integration
It is this link between diversity and success that we can potentially         >   Assets
celebrate from both an industry and social perspective.         But this is
predominantly a WLB, stakeholder viewpoint…                                   All of these brand themes represent truths about West London. We are
                                                                              not trying to pick a winner, we are developing and understanding how
We need to deconstruct our potential brand and research with                  our new brand can function most effectively. What is the hierarchy of
businesses/people (who have and have not moved to West London) to             appeal; primary, secondary, tertiary, etc? How are people responding
understand if our claims are believable, different and compelling.            emotionally to the visual stimulus?      How far can we go with colour
This is the end of an initial phase of exploratory work….and the              palette, typography, photography, iconography, tone of voice, etc?
beginning of an enlightening phase of work which will seek to bring our
brand to life visually, thus enabling a broader range of audiences and        The themes also represent the DNA of West London and are at the core
interviewees to respond emotionally, as well as rationally, to a potential    of the vision, working as themes cross cutting all the EDS framework
new vision/direction.                                                         headings.




                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   138
9.4.7     Brand themes – Diversity




    “The world’s getting smaller more and more of my business is happening abroad, both from the import and export side.” (SME
    Hounslow)

    As the traditional national and cultural borders are being broken down, we are experiencing an amazing global fusion of tastes,
    beliefs, cultures and customs. New markets are opening up and old markets are changing and evolving at an increasing rate.

    More and more companies and more and more communities are developing a hybrid global perspective – one that is informed
    and shaped by different people and different perspectives.

    Here in West London with Heathrow, the world’s busiest and most important airport, we have become a natural global hub and
    crossroads. Some people stop for 30 minutes, some for 30 years, many have lived here all their lives.

    West London has an amazing blend of people and skills from all over the world, contributing to diverse, rich, stimulating
    communities and helping businesses both large and small develop a real, advantageous global perspective.

    If you want your business to thrive, succeed and be the best it can be in the new global economy, then there’s only one place to
    be:

    West London
    World Party

    Key words
    Fusion
    Global Perspective
    Cultural Diversity
    Strength
    Harmony




                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   139
9.4.8   Brand themes – Diversity




                                   West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   140
9.4.9     Brand themes – Success




        “Business is risky enough, the last thing I need is to take a risk with my relocation. You can keep your ‘untapped potential and
        regeneration grants’. Give me certainty and track record every-time!” (Relocation director, FMCG multinational)

        It’s true West London doesn’t have the ‘category one’ grant status of some of the other areas of London and the rest of the UK.
        There’s a good reason for that: We’re a proven success.

        West London has been a magnet for successful business for generations. GlaxoSmithKline have been on the golden mile of the M4
        for 75 years – been through several name and ownership changes and several building relocations, but they’ve never moved more
        than a couple of hundred yards from their original factory. There’s a good reason for that too: ease of access, accessing the right
        skills, and accessing national and international markets.

        Nothing breeds success like success: Our booming media industry, built from the BBC in Shepherds Bush out to the film studios of
        Pinewood and Ealing, just keeps on growing. New award-winning organisations just keep emerging, year after year, from prop
        suppliers to digital animation studios.

        We attract corporate HQ’s from Coca Cola to Diageo and our food and logistics companies range from profitable entrepreneurial
        start-ups to multimillion Dollar global networks. Whatever your reason for looking to relocate, whether from a business or personal
        perspective, you’ll find a reason to get a head start in the part of London that really works.

        Join us in West London
        Join the winning team

        Key words
        Proven success
        Celebration & sharing of success
        Range of business size
        Opportunity
        Reassurance confidence



                                                                                                            West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   141
9.4.10   Brand themes – Success




                                  West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   142
9.4.11        Brand themes – Access




         “I don’t believe in a remote digital world, people still want to meet people, face to face, goods still have to move from place to place.”
         (Digital entrepreneur)

         While West London has more than its fair share of digital businesses, from global media giants like the BBC to small IT software
         independents, this new remote world has not really happened in the way we all thought. And thank heavens for that. We’re a social
         species, we rely on interaction for progress, self-esteem and just to have fun.

         That’s why even the most digital and high-tech industries with no physical product to distribute still choose to locate in West London.
         We’re better connected to what’s important in life than almost anywhere else on the planet.

         It’s not just our over-indexing on motorways: M3, M4, M40, M25 and M1, or the excellent train links to the South and West, nor the
         concentration of tube lines linking leafy Buckinghamshire and the Home Counties to Notting Hill, nor even the most important international
         airport in the world: It’s what’s at the end of all these – real people, real places, real life.

         West London is unique because it is easier to get in and out of London, up, down and around the UK and all over the world, but what
         many people forget is what that means from a lifestyle perspective. It means you get in and out of work more easily; you have a greater
         range of employers and employees to choose from. You have a buoyant local market, a huge national market and an unbelievable
         international market at your fingertips and, best of all, you can choose to immerse yourself in City culture or rural bliss and not miss-out on
         how the other half lives.

         West London
         Best of both worlds

         Key words
         Connection/linkage
         Lifestyle, work-life balance
         Industrial, inner city, residential, rural
         Gateway, hub, network
         Choice/options



                                                                                                                  West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   143
9.4.12   Brand themes – Access




                                 West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   144
9.4.13    Brand themes – Integration


    “There were the obvious reasons to move to West London, like the airport and transport infrastructure what was a pleasant surprise was the
    well thought-out help and ongoing support.” (Logistics Organisation)

    It’s not that we’re brighter than the other regions; it’s just that we’ve been doing it for longer, co-ordinating business, public sector and
    voluntary sector to help create a self-feeding development initiative.

    It isn’t rocket-science; matching local business needs like media, digital, pharmaceutical, transport, leisure and catering with local education.
    Developing and tailoring college and further education courses to support employers’ needs and employees’ aspirations is just common
    sense, but it takes a bit of experience and a lot of dedication to get it right.

    That’s what West London is all about, helping people to get on. There’ isn’t a lack of resources or a lack of opportunity: It’s more a matter of
    channelling and co-ordinating what’s there to help everyone get the most they can from the area.

    We have co-ordinated an effective team from each of the 6 borough councils, the community leaders, the voluntary sector and local
    businesses from the multinationals to local entrepreneurs.

    It’s called the West London Partnership. It’s part of the West London experience.

    It means you’ll get practical help and support from property search, recruitment, planning application, grant assessment and ongoing skills
    development. It means whether you’re a single parent, a single employee, a major employer or an entrepreneur, we’ll provide you with some
    joined-up thinking to help you get started and get yourself ahead.

    The West London Partnership
    Progress together

    Key words
    Partnership/integration/coordination
    Effortless/smooth performance – well oiled machine
    Progressive
    Supportive




                                                                                                               West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   145
9.4.14   Brand themes – Integration




                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   146
9.4.15       Brand themes – Assets

         “I always thought of West London as leafy suburbs and quiet tranquillity – there’s a lot more to it than you might think”. (Beverage multinational)

         And that’s being polite about it. To be honest there are bits of West London that are shocking, they really need investment and support. There are
         also substantial areas of business, private and cultural riches, but we just wanted to paint a more complete picture. We don’t want you to move
         here under any false pretences.

         Most regions will talk of their cultural vibrancy and amazing local resources, but you probably haven’t got time for the flannel, so here are the
         basic facts:

         Sports - Wembley, Twickenham, Stamford Bridge

         Naturalish features - The Thames, local Parks, Kew Gardens, Grand Union Canal network

         Business – BBC, GSK, BSkyB, Diageo, Walt Disney, Coca Cola, Park Royal, Earls Court and Olympia

         Cultural/social – Notting Hill Carnival, Hammersmith Apollo, Bush Theatre, Sikh Temple, Asia Centre, White City and Paddington Basin
         developments

         Logistics – M1, M40, M4, M3, M25. Paddington, 7 tube lines and Heathrow

         Communities – Hammersmith and Fulham, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Harrow, Brent and Ealing

         We’ve got it all in West London: the good, the bad, the mayor (yes even Ken lives here). With the City to the East and the Thames Valley to the
         West we’ve just about got it covered. If you can’t do it or get to it easily from West London we’d be surprised, but as we said earlier we’re not
         perfect, yet. That’s where you come in. If you want to help bridge the gaps and create an even better, more interesting tomorrow in West London,
         we’d like to hear from you.

         West London
         Get involved

         Key words
         Honest/pragmatic/straightforward
         Physical/cultural/ethnic diversity;
         Involving
         Inspiring, empowering
                                                                                                                West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   147
9.4.16   Brand themes – Assets




                                 West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   148
                                                                              >   Consequences – As stated, a major challenge for the branding is
9.4.17      Brand communication                                                   concurrently communicating the message of success whilst
Branding for West London ultimately has to have a clearly defined                 recognizing the pockets of social deprivation. Consistently presenting
function and use within the complex context in which it operates.                 the idea of a balanced equation, the symbiotic positive and negative.
Branding has a strategic role to draw out and clarify the qualities of West       West London’s incredible success will continue, but only if the right
London, which in turn can be used to support the long term development            infrastructure development happens.
and refinement of aims and objectives. Its most transparent role, though,     >   Facts and spirit - Marshalling the compelling facts and expression
is as a fundamental component to all aspects of marketing and                     of West London spirit in a highly practical, powerful and shareable,
communications, both by West London Partnership and potentially a very            way willproduce brand collateral that can demonstrably add value to
wide range of stakeholders. To help put the initial stages of branding in         individual stakeholder communications as well as communications
context and to support the planning of specific objectives, the following         directly from WLP. For example, a universally used iconic map of
potential approaches to using the brand have been identified:                     the region that clarifies transport nodes and traveling times could
                                                                                  become as iconic and globally recognizable as the London
>   Endorsement - Establishing shared qualities and values that are               Underground map.
    universally recognized through the consistent and wide use of an          >   Reveal the truth of West London spirit and demonstrate how it
    endorsement identity mark, for example on individual council                  drives development: for example, the scale, success and innovative
    collateral from websites to street name signs.                                development of the creative/IT cluster, or the success and character
>   Vision - Make the West London 'vision' or visions tangible and                of Asian-led businesses.
    compelling by defining specific and achievable ambitions which are
    powerfully and consistently communicated. For example, if a key
    vision was defined as partnering to demonstrate best practice in the
    building of a landmark affordable homes scheme, this would have
    huge publicity value for the West London region and all the
    participating organizations.




                                                                                                       West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   149
9.5 Draft objectives and rationale

Objective                                                                   Rationale
Strategic objectives
1 Raising awareness - For West London to be widely recognised                 Significant elements of West London, such as Heathrow, have a
  amongst identified target audiences as distinctive in London, the UK        very high global profile. This highlights the narrow perceptions that
  and globally, with positive association of the identified brand themes      can be formed of the region as a whole. A broader, balanced and
  as a means to drive better performance in public and private inward         distinctive profile will be important in the context of increasing
  investment                                                                  competition for inward investment

2 Re-orientating the business model - For West London to clearly              It has been established that West London is a significant net
   communicate to public and private sector audiences the link between        contributor to the UK economy. But there is an argument that needs
   continued success and the need for strategic investment to                 to be consistently and forcefully made for investment in ongoing and
   overcome social issues including deficits in learning and skills, lack     future success. Particularly through investment in human and
   of affordable housing and pockets of deprivation                           physical infrastructure.      Branding will play an important role in
                                                                              furthering this argument.

3 Influencing consumers - For West London to be widely recognised             The ongoing economic development of West London requires the
   as an attractive place to live, work and participate in cultural and       whole region as a whole as well as individual under-valued physical
   leisure activity. Not just for existing high profile places such as        and social assets to have a positive profile as a place to live, work
   Wembley for sport or Chiswick for upmarket living, but a much wider        and play in order to enable West London. Branding has a key role
   spectrum of places that reflect the diversity and assets of the area       in the marketing and promotion of the region and individual assets,
   that are often hidden                                                      either as the lead brand or as an endorsement brand.




                                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   150
4 Clarifying and unifying - For West London stakeholders to have a        One of the identified strengths of West London is the effectiveness
  clear and consistent understanding of the sub-region’s qualities and    of its partnerships. This can be further strengthened by measures
  vision. For this understanding to be underpinned by a variety of        that will enable all the stakeholders to communicate common West
  initiatives that will support this shared understanding and sense of    London goals and vision, either individually or collectively and with
  purpose for the area.    To capitalise on the effective partnership     power and consistency.       This can be achieved through a wide
  working in the region.                                                  variety of practical devices from printed collateral to one to one
                                                                          meetings

Development objectives

1 Brand definition - Explore and develop brand propositions and           The work to date is based on an informed but primarily internal view
  themes with a wider range of stakeholders and potential                 of West London. To ensure that the brand truly resonates and has
  stakeholders and distil the results to a core architecture of brand     impact with key target audiences, the brand propositions and
  expression elements. For example; refined and distinctive brand         themes need to be tested and refined through consultation with
  themes and overall proposition, a brand identity that works as a lead   these wider target groups.
  identity and an endorsement identity to stakeholder brands

2 Brand communication 1 - Development of brand communication              The strategic brand objectives need to be supported with a variety of
  and application concepts and associated guidelines                      practical devices to communicate the brand amongst a range of
                                                                          audiences. A wide cross section of organisations and individuals
                                                                          will become ambassadors for the brand and need to be able to
                                                                          communicate the brand consistently, effectively and with high
                                                                          quality.




                                                                                                  West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   151
3 Brand communication 2 - Development of brand marketing and   Marketing and communications planning and implementation should
  communications strategy and implementation plans             be carried out with the brand values, and the overall economic and
                                                               social goals at the core of all activity




                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   152
                                                 High Technology Services
10 Appendix A: SIC definitions of High
   Technology Manufacturing and High             642 : Telecommunications
   Technology Services                           651 : Monetary intermediation
                                                 652 : Other financial intermediation
High Technology Manufacturing
                                                 660 : Insurance and pension funding
                                                 671 : Activ. auxil. to finan. intermediation
223 : Reproduction of recorded media
                                                 672 : Activ. auxil. to insur./pension funding
244 : Manufacture of pharmaceuticals etc
                                                 721 : Hardware consultancy
300 : Manufacture: office machinery/computers
                                                 722 : Software consultancy and supply
311 : Manuf: electric motors/generators etc
                                                 723 : Data processing
312 : Manuf: electricity distrib. apparatus
                                                 724 : Data base activities
314 : Manufacture of accumulators etc
                                                 725 : Maintenance/repair:office machinery etc
316 : Manufacture of electrical equipment nec
                                                 726 : Other computer related activities
321 : Manufacture of electronic valves etc
                                                 731 : Research: natural sciences/engineering
322 : Manufacture of TV/radio transmitters etc
                                                 732 : Research: social sciences/humanities
323 : Manufacture of TV/radio receivers etc
                                                 741 : Accounting/book-keeping activities etc
331 : Manuf: medical/surgical equipment nec
                                                 742 : Architectural/engineering activities etc
332 : Manuf: instruments for measuring etc
                                                 743 : Technical testing and analysis
334 : Manufacture of optical instruments etc
                                                 744 : Advertising
335 : Manufacture of watches and clocks
                                                 745 : Labour recruitment etc
353 : Manufacture of aircraft and spacecraft
                                                 921 : Motion picture and video activities
                                                 922 : Radio and television activities




                                                                              West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   153
    11 Appendix B: Transport schemes in west London (various sources)
                                                                                                                              Economic development
Objectives        Scheme/proposal                  Source       Details                                                       objective
served
1, 2, 3, 8, 10,   The West London/Uxbridge         DLP          Linking Uxbridge, Ealing and Shepherd’s                       It would help maintain west
11, 12, 13,       Road Transit                     MTS          Bush using rapid transit technology                           London's economic momentum by
15                                                 WLSF, HCGS                                                                 reducing congestion, assist area
                                                                                                                              regeneration and help socially
                                                                                                                              excluded people gain access to
                                                                                                                              the jobs that are available. (LBHF
                                                                                                                              UDP)

2, 7, 8, 9, 11,   Crossrail 1                      DLP          Including stations at Heathrow, Hayes and Harlington,         Improve links to employment and
12, 15                                             MTS,         Southall, Ealing Broadway, Park Royal/Willesden               labour supply opportunities
                                                   WLSF,        Junction and other locations depending on the                 (HCGS)
                                                   HCGS,        overground routes selected for CrossRail;                     Help to avoid overcrowding
                                                   LBHF UDP     interchange station with the West London Line be
                                                   WLTS         provided at Mitre Bridge (LBHF UDP)
2, 6, 8, 11,      Improved West London Line        DLP          Two additional stations, at White City and Sands End
12, 15                                             MTS          (Chelsea Harbour) - precursor to Orbirail
                                                   WLSF
                                                   LBHF UDP
2, 6, 8, 11       Underground Improvements         LBHF UDP     additional Central Line station between White City and
                                                                East Acton, particularly to assist Hammersmith Hospital's
                                                                Green Travel Plan relating to the concentration of
                                                                medical facilities at the Du Cane Road site (LBHF UDP)
1, 2, 3, 6, 8,    Establish orbital (tangential)   WLTS         Chiswick – Acton
11, 12, 15        bus corridors with express                    Acton – Willesden – Cricklewood – Brent Cross
                  services
1, 2, 6, 7, 8,    Improvements at seven key        WLTS             •     Shepherd's Bush
11, 12, 1512      interchanges                                      •     Ealing Broadway
                                                                    •     South Ruislip
                                                                    •     Uxbridge Station
                                                                    •     Wembley



                                                                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   154
1, 2, 3, 6, 8,   Implementing traffic reduction   WLTS                                                                      Reducing congestion therefore
9, 10, 11, 13,   measures                                                                                                   supporting regeneration (WELTS)
14, 15
2, 6, 8, 11,     OrbiRail                         WLTS       provided by track and signalling improvements and new
12, 15                                                       stations
                                                             on the West London and North London Lines

(Depends on      Opportunity area North of        DLP        to the north of the airport, Hayes, Stockley Business          Part of a coherent sub-regional
transport        Heathrow                         SWELTRAC   Park, West Drayton and Southhall                               framework that “would help
provision)                                                                                                                  improve the economic
                 Opportunity area South of        DLP        to the south, Feltham, Bedfont Business Park and               performance in west London, and
                 Heathrow                         SWELTRAC   Hounslow town centre                                           both address its social and
                                                                                                                            economic needs and relieve some
                                                                                                                            of the problems
                                                                                                                            (such as skills shortages) of over-
                                                                                                                            locating in the Thames Valley
                                                                                                                            area”




9                AIRTRACK                         SWELTRAC   Rail scheme to Heathrow via Staines                            Increase rail access from the
                                                                                                                            South and West
9                Modal Split targets              HATFTP     40 and 50% modal split targets for workers and visitors
                                                             to LHR
7                Chiltern Metro                   WLTS       improvements providing improved service frequency and
                                                             quality on rail lines into Marylebone Station




                                                                                                         West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   155
1, 2, 3, 6, 8,    Tram proposals          WLTS           initial proposals including: on bus corridor 140               (WLTS) these schemes to help
9, 11, 12, 15                                            (Harrow – Hayes-Heathrow), the 220 and 285 bus                 alleviate pockets of intense
                                                         corridors, Greenford, from Hillingdon to Denham, on the        deprivation in Inner West London
                                                         A4 between Chiswick and Heathrow, and Edgware Road             enabling them to benefit from
                                                         routes (orbital/radial).                                       economic growth sustained by
                                                                                                                        high-quality public transport
                                                                                                                        accessibility. The projects must
                                                                                                                        also improve access to Heathrow
                                                                                                                        so that it can continue to be a
                                                                                                                        major engine for economic growth
                                                                                                                        outside central London and
                                                                                                                        sustain the economic viability of
                                                                                                                        the metropolitan centres of
                                                                                                                        Harrow, Ealing and Hounslow.

1, 8, 10, 13,     Green Areas             WLTS           reallocation of road space for pedestrians, cyclists and       sustainable, less car dependent,
15                                                       Public Transport                                               transport systems could have a
                                                                                                                        very positive effect in improving
                                                                                                                        the economic, social and
                                                                                                                        environmental fabric of the
                                                                                                                        designated study areas.

1, 2, 6, 6, 10,   London Cycle Network    Borough UDPs
13

1, 3, 8, 9, 11,   LONDON BUS PRIORITY     Borough UDPs
12, 15            NETWORK PACKAGE AND
                  LONDON BUS INITIATIVE




                                                                                                     West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   156
1, 3, 4, 5, 6,   Mayor’s Transport Strategy   MTS   Topics identified in the MTS on which the ILIPs are
8, 10, 13, 15                                       based
                                                       • Principal road maintenance
                                                       • Bridge strengthening
                                                       • Local Safety Schemes
                                                       • 20 mph Zones
                                                       • Safer Routes to School
                                                       • Controlled Parking Zones (Parking Management
                                                            Areas)
                                                       • Travel awareness
                                                       • Walking
                                                       • Cycling (including London Cycle Network
                                                       • Town Centers
                                                       • Streets-for-People
                                                       • Interchanges
                                                       • Regeneration Area schemes
                                                       • Freight
                                                       • Air quality
                                                       • Accessibility
                                                       • Local bus priority measures
                                                       • Bus stop accessibility works




                                                                                          West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   157
    Area based strategies

2, 4, 8, 9, 11,         Park Royal    WLTS         improvements in strategic rail accessibility including
                        Partnership                extensions of and/or stops on Crossrail 1, Heathrow
                                                   Express and the West Coast main line (DLP)

                                                   Other measures (WLTS)
                                                      • Rail services – new stations
                                                      • A40 Improvements
                                                      • Intermodal transfer
                                                      • Footpath Improvements
                                                      • Changing attitudes of businesses

Appears to be           White City    WCOAFD       Transport plans associated with the project: The LP aims
inconsistent with the                              to “ensure that development is based on public transport
objectives                                         rather than more intensive use of parking provision,
                                                   which is already excessive and damaging and which
                                                   ideally should be reduced over time”

2, 8, 11, 12, 15        Wembley       WR website       Transport schemes associated with the construction
                                                       of the new Wembley National Stadium:
                                                       • Construction of a new Boulevard to help link the
                                                            site with the High Road and provision of a
                                                            coach/car park.
                                                       • Improvements to Wembley Park Station,
                                                            Wembley Central Station and Wembley Stadium
                                                            Station
                                                       • A new transport interchange at Wembley
                                                            Stadium Station, including a new pedestrian
                                                            overbridge and marshalling area and to assess
                                                            and outline the development opportunities in and
                                                            around this area.
                                                       • Improvements to the Great Central Way
                                                       • Event parking arrangements and traffic
                                                            management scenarios




                                                                                                West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   158
2, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 15   Heathrow City   HCGS              The Heathrow City Growth Strategy comments on the             emphasis on creating and
                                                           schemes of major importance that are committed or             implementing locally driven and
                                                           under consideration affecting west London:                    business led regeneration
                                                                   • Improvements to surface access at                   strategies focussing on growth
                                                                       Heathrow, including a rail-bus Interchange at     clusters
                                                                       Hayes, and a stopping direct rail service
                                                                       from Heathrow to Hayes
                                                                   • West London Transit/Uxbridge Road Transit
                                                                   • Crossrail
                                                                   • Opportunity areas North and South of the
                                                                       Airport
1, 2, 4, 8, 10(?)        Southall        Southall          Two major transport programmes                                Insufficient information to judge
                                         Regeneration         • “Southall Gateway Link Road”                             merits of Link Road scheme
                                         Partnership          • West London Tram Scheme
Insufficient             Brent Cross     "Barnet Online"
                                                           Cricklewood, West Hendon and Brent Cross
information to judge
                                                           Regeneration includes plans for
                                                                   •   a new main line railway station
                                                                   •   bridge links across the North Circular Road
                                                                       and the Midland Mainline Railway
                                                                   •   a new main street to integrate the areas to
                                                                       the north and south of the North Circular
                                                                       together
                                                                   •   a new bus station with modern facilities and
                                                                       improved services;
                                                                   •   a high quality transit system from
                                                                       Cricklewood Station to Hendon Central Tube
                                                                       Station via the new town centre and Brent
                                                                       Cross Shopping Centre
                                                                   •   improvements to the highway network




                                                                                                      West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   159
1, 4, 9              Thames Valley    TVMMS            The TVMMS recommends
                                      London Orbital      • eight major hubs, upgrading Reading Station
                                      MMS                     and enhanced frequencies on the study area rail
                                                              network, new rail links between Staines -
                                                              Heathrow and GWML - Heathrow.
                                                          • A new high quality inter-urban bus service
                                                              connecting key towns and destinations in the
                                                              Thames Valley, and supported by priority
                                                              measures on the road network.
                                                       The London Orbital Study recommends
                                                          •    a combination of road construction with
                                                              measures to reduce and control traffic levels.
                                                              The main recommendations are area wide road
                                                              user charging and widening of a substantial part
                                                              of the M25 by one lane in each direction.


    West London Borough’s UDP/ILIPs

                     Harrow           UDP              Promote London wide schemes that affect borough
                                                       e.g. Crossrail, London Cycle Network, London Bus
                                                       Priority Network

                     Hounslow         UDP              Improvements in orbital public transport
                                                          • southern rail
                                                          • link to Heathrow Airport and other measures
                                                              contained in WLTS which improve orbital
                                                              (between north and south) services in west
                                                              London and Hounslow.
                                                          • Access to Heathrow: the Council will promote the
                                                              provision of public transport, particularly rail
                                                              services and improved cycle access, to improve
                                                              surface access to the airport.




                                                                                                 West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   160
Hillingdon          UDP       •    develop the Hayes Hub as a northern gateway to
                                   Heathrow airport and as a major interchange in
                                   its own right.
                              •    Hillingdon contains a section of the west London
                                   tram network, linked to the main eastwest axis
                                   between Uxbridge and Shepherds Bush.
                              •    Uxbridge and West Drayton interchanges – work
                                   already underway.
                              •    Hayes is an integral part of west London transit
                                   system
                              •    Central Railways have proposed a route
                                   alongside the M25, including a freight terminal
                              •    Hillingdon advocates the extension of the
                                   Uxbridge branch of the Metropolitan and
                                   Piccadilly Lines to Heathrow airport.

Hammersmith   and   ILIP   Sub regional                                                the UDP "demonstrates the nee
Fulham              UDP                                                                to   create   links   betwee
                              •    West London Transport Strategy                      employment opportunities in th
                              •    Green Areas                                         borough     and    land    use
                              •    South West London Transport Conference              environmental and transpo
                                   (SWELTRAC)                                          issues"
                              •    Park Royal Partnership
                           Local
                              •    additional Central Line station between White
                                   City and East Acton




                                                                    West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   161
Ealing   ILIP   London wide Initiatives involving Ealing
                   • London Bus Initiative
                   • London Bus Priority Network
                   • London Cycle Network
                   • Bridges

                Sub regional Programmes
                   • West London Integrated Transport Strategy
                        (including West London Transit)
                   • Park Royal Partnership
                   • Green Areas

                Local Proposals
                   • Reducing Congestion
                   • Travel Awareness
                   • Controlled Parking Zones
                   • Bus Stop Accessibility
                   • Walking Initiatives
                   • Local Cycling Initiatives
                   • Safer Routes to Schools
                   • SALSA
                   • Home Zones
                   • 20mph Zones
                   • Local Safety Schemes
                   • Freight Partnerships
                   • Maintenance
                   • Local Area Treatments
                   • West London Transit
                   • A40 Green Corridors




                                                           West London | Draft Economic Development Strategy   162
                   Brent                  UDP               Transport projects affecting Brent:                      These proposals have majo
                                                                • Orbital Rail Services e.g. new stations on the     implications for the Borough
                                                                   West London line                                  terms of improved access to job
                                                                • Channel Tunnel connections                         in Central London;
                                                                • The Chiltern Line; enhanced frequency of           and potential improved access t
                                                                   services (Chiltern Metro);                        the National Stadium
                                                                • East-West Crossrail;
                                                                • Park Royal Interchange
                                                                • Willesden Junction Hub; Improvements.
                                                                • Heathrow-St Pancras rail link



Abbreviations/references

WLSFD West London Strategic Framework Document, DTZPieda, Oct 2003
HCGS Southall Regeneration Partnership, Heathrow City Growth Strategy
WLTS West London IntegratedTransport Strategy (WELL/WLA)
SWELTRAC South and West London Transport Conference
HATFTP Heathrow Area Transport Forum Travel Plan
DLP Draft London Plan
MTS Mayor’s Transport Strategy
WCOAFD White City Opportunity Area Framework Document
WR Wembley Regeneration www.brent.gov.uk
TVMMS Thames Valley Multi Modal Study
Barnet Online www.barnet.gov.uk
ILIP Interim Local Implementation Plan

Other documents reviewed

Sub-Regional Development Frameworks – West Sub-Region (June 2003) Llewelyn-Davies/TfL
Transport Manifesto (Oct 2003) WELL/WLA
Bannock Consulting (Aug. 2002) Review of the New Economy Manifesto
Greater London Authority (2001) The Mayor’s Draft Transport Strategy,
West London Alliance & West London Leadership (2003) A Transport Manifesto for West London
UDPs of all the six London Boroughs in WL




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