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HIGH SCHOOL M A T H E M A T I C S COMMON CORE STATE HS MATH STANDARDS A Crosswalk to the Michigan High School Content Expectations Introduction In June 2010, the Michigan State Board of Education adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) as the state K-12 content standards for Mathematics and English Language Arts. The complete CCSS standards document can be found at www.michigan.gov/k-12 by clicking the Common Core State Standards Initiative link. Districts are encouraged to begin this transition to instruction of the new standards as soon as possible to prepare all students for career and college. New assessments based on the Common Core State Standards will be implemented in 2014-2015. More information about Michigan’s involvement in the CCSS initiative and development of common assessments can be found at www.michigan.gov/k-12 by clicking the Common Core State Standards Initiative link. The CCSS for Mathematics are divided into two sets of standards: the Standards for Mathematical Practices and the Standards for Mathematical Content. This document is intended to show the alignment of Michigan’s current mathematics High School Content Expectations (HSCE) to the Standards for Mathematical Content to assist with the transition to instruction and assessment based on the CCSS. It is anticipated that this initial work will be supported by clarification documents developed at the local and state level, including documents from national organizations and other groups. This document is intended as a conversation starter for educators within and across grades. While curriculum revisions will be guided by local curriculum experts, ultimately the alignment will be implemented at the classroom level. Educators will need to unfold these standards in order to compare them to current classroom practice and identify adjustments to instruction and materials that support the depth of understanding implicit in these new standards. The crosswalk between the High School Content Expectations and the Standards for Mathematical Content is organized by Michigan Strands and Standards. There is not an attempt to show one-to-one correspondence between expectations and standards because, for the most part, there is none at this level. The alignment occurs when looking across Michigan topics and CCSS clusters. (continued on next page) www.michigan.gov/mde Mathematical Practices The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These standards appear in every grade level and are listed below: Mathematical Practices 1. Make sense of problems, and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments, and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated reasoning. Organization of the Common Core State Standards The high school CCSS Common Core State Standards themselves are organized into six Conceptual Categories, then into Domains (large groups that progress across grades) and finallyby Clusters (groups of related standards, similar to the Topics in the High School Content Expectations). In the example provided, the Conceptual Category is “Number and Quantity” (N) and the Domain is “The Real Number System” (RN). The Cluster is defined by the statement “Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents” and includes two standards. 2 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Progressions of CCSS for 8th Grade and the High School Conceptual Categories 8th Grade HIGH SCHOOL Algebra Functions Geometry Expressions and Equations Seeing Structure in Expressions Interpreting Functions Expressing Geometric • Work with radicals and integer • Interpret the structure of • Understand the concept of a Properties with Equations exponents expressions function and use function • Translate between the • Understand the connections • Write expressions in equivalent notation geometric description and the between forms to solve problems • Interpret functions that arise in equation for a conic section Proportional relationships, lines, Arithmetic with Polynomials applications in terms of the • Use coordinates to prove and linear equations. and Rational Functions context simple geometric theorems • Analyze functions using different algebraically • Analyze and solve linear • Perform arithmetic operations equations and pairs of on polynomials representations simultaneous linear equations • Understand the relationship Building Functions Functions between zeros and factors of • Build a function that models a • Define, evaluate, and compare polynomials relationship between two functions • Use polynomial identities to quantities • Use functions to model solve problems • Build new functions from relationships between • Rewrite rational expressions existing functions quantities. Creating Equations Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models • Create equations that describe numbers or relationships • Construct and compare linear and exponential models and Reasoning with Equations and solve problems Inequalities • Interpret expressions for • Understand solving equations as functions in terms of the a process of situation they model Reasoning and explain the Trigonometric Functions reasoning • Extend the domain of • Solve equations and inequalities trigonometric functions using in one variable the unit circle • Solve systems of equations • Model periodic phenomena • Represent and solve equations with trigonometric functions and inequalities graphically • Prove and apply trigonometric identities M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 3 Progressions of CCSS for 8th Grade and the High School Conceptual Categories (continued) 8th Grade HIGH SCHOOL Number and Quantity Mathematical Expressions and Equations The Real Number System Practices • Work with radicals and integer • Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents 1. Make sense of • Use properties of rational and irrational numbers. problems, and persevere in solving The Complex Number System them. • Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers • Represent complex numbers and their operations on 2. Reason abstractly and the complex plane quantitatively. • Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and 3. Construct viable equations arguments, and Vector and Matrix Quantities critique the reasoning • Represent and model with vector quantities. of others. • Perform operations on vectors. 4. Model with • Perform operations on matrices and use matrices in mathematics. applications 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 8th Grade HIGH SCHOOL 7. Look for, and make Number & Quantity Statistics and Probability use of, structure. Statistics and Quantities Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data 8. Look for, and express Probability • Reason quantitatively and use • Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single regularity in, repeated • Investigate patterns units to solve count or measurement variable reasoning. of association in problems • Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two bivariate data. categorical and quantitative variables • Interpret linear models Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions • Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments • Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments and observational studies Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability • Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data • Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model Using Probability to Make Decisions • Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems • Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions 4 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Progressions of CCSS for 8th Grade and the High School Conceptual Categories (continued) 8th Grade HIGH SCHOOL Geometry Mathematical Geometry Congruence Practices • Understand congruence and similarity using physical • Experiment with transformations in the plane models, transparencies, or geometry software 1. Make sense of • Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions problems, and • Understand and apply the Pythagorean • Prove geometric theorems persevere in solving Theorem. • Make geometric constructions them. • Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres. 2. Reason abstractly and • Understand similarity in terms of similarity quantitatively. transformations 3. Construct viable • Prove theorems involving similarity arguments, and • Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems critique the reasoning involving right triangles of others. • Apply trigonometry to general triangles 4. Model with Circles mathematics. • Understand and apply theorems about circles • Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. Geometric Measurement and Dimension • Explain volume formulas and use them to solve 6. Attend to precision. problems 7. Look for, and make • Visualize relationships between two-dimensional and use of, structure. three-dimensional objects Modeling with Geometry 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated • Apply geometric concepts in modeling situation reasoning. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 5 STRAND 1: QUANTITATIVE LITERACY AND LOGIC Standard L1: REASONING ABOUT NUMBERS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards SYSTEMS, AND QUANTITATIVE SITUATIONS Number Systems and Number Sense Use properties of rational and irrational numbers. Mathematical L1.1.1 Know the different properties that hold in N.RN.3 Explain why the sum or product of rational Practices different number systems, be able to recognize that numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational the applicable properties change in the transition number and an irrational number is irrational; and 1. Make sense of problems, and from the positive integers to all integers, the rational that the product of a nonzero rational number and persevere in solving numbers, and the real numbers. an irrational number is irrational. them. L1.1.2 Explain why the multiplicative inverse of a Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers. number has the same sign as the number, while the N.CN.2 Use the relation i2 = –1 and the 2. Reason abstractly and additive inverse of a number has the opposite sign. commutative, associative, and distributive properties quantitatively. L1.1.3 Explain how the properties of associativity, to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers. 3. Construct viable commutativity, and distributivity, as well as identity arguments, and and inverse elements, are used in arithmetic and critique the reasoning Rewrite rational expressions. algebraic calculations. of others. A.APR.7 (+)Understand that rational expressions L1.1.6 Explain the importance of the irrational 4. Model with form a system analogous to the rational numbers, numbers √2 and √3 in basic right triangle mathematics. closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, trigonometry, and the importance of π because of and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, 5. Use appropriate tools its role in circle relationships. subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions. strategically. 6. Attend to precision. Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. F.TF.2 Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric 8. Look for, and express functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian regularity in, repeated measures of angles traversed counterclockwise reasoning. around the unit circle. F.TF.3 (+)Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and tangent for x, π + x, and 2π - x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number. 6 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard L1: REASONING ABOUT NUMBERS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards SYSTEMS, AND QUANTITATIVE SITUATIONS Representations and Relationships Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. L1.2.1 Use mathematical symbols to represent N.Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems quantitative relationships and situations. and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; Mathematical L1.2.3 Use vectors to represent quantities that choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; Practices have magnitude and direction, interpret direction choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. 1. Make sense of and magnitude of a vector numerically, and calculate problems, and the sum and difference of two vectors. Represent and model with vector quantities. persevere in solving L1.2.4 Organize and summarize a data set in a N.VM.1 (+) Recognize vector quantities as having them. table, plot, chart, or spreadsheet; find patterns in a both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use 2. Reason abstractly and display of data; understand and critique data displays appropriate symbols for vectors and their quantitatively. in the media. magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v). 3. Construct viable N.VM.2 (+) Find the components of a vector by arguments, and subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from critique the reasoning the coordinates of a terminal point. of others. N.VM.3 (+) Solve problems involving velocity and 4. Model with other quantities that can be represented by vectors. mathematics. Perform operations on vectors. 5. Use appropriate tools N.VM.4 (+) Add and subtract vectors. strategically. N.VM.4a (+) Add vectors end-to-end, component- 6. Attend to precision. wise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand 7. Look for, and make that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is use of, structure. typically not the sum of the magnitudes. N.VM.4b (+) Given two vectors in magnitude and 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated direction form, determine the magnitude and reasoning. direction of their sum. N.VM.4c (+) Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where (–w) is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise. N.VM.5 (+) Multiply a vector by a scalar. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 7 Standard L1: REASONING ABOUT NUMBERS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards SYSTEMS, AND QUANTITATIVE SITUATIONS Representations and Relationships (continued) Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. S.ID.1 Represent data with plots on the real number Mathematical line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). Practices S.ID.2 Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the 1. Make sense of data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and problems, and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or persevere in solving more different data sets. them. Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. S.IC.3 Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; 3. Construct viable explain how randomization relates to each. arguments, and critique the reasoning S.IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data. of others. 4. Model with MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (Mathematical mathematics. Practice) 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated reasoning. 8 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard L1: REASONING ABOUT NUMBERS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards SYSTEMS, AND QUANTITATIVE SITUATIONS Counting and Probabilistic Reasoning Use polynomial identities to solve problems. L1.3.1: Describe, explain, and apply various A.APR.5 (+) Know and apply that the Binomial counting techniques; relate combinations to Pascal’s Theorem gives the expansion of (x + y) n in powers Mathematical triangle; know when to use each technique. of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y Practices L1.3.2 Define and interpret commonly used are any numbers, with coefficients determined, for 1. Make sense of expressions of probability. example, by Pascal’s Triangle. (The Binomial Theorem problems, and can be proved by mathematical induction or by a persevere in solving L1.3.3 Recognize and explain common probability combinatorial argument.) them. misconceptions such as “hot streaks” and “being due.” 2. Reason abstractly and Understand and evaluate random processes underlying quantitatively. statistical experiments. 3. Construct viable S.IC.2 Decide if a specified model is consistent arguments, and with results from a given data-generating process, critique the reasoning e.g., using simulation. For example, a model says a of others. spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0. 5. Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to 4. Model with question the model? mathematics. Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample 5. Use appropriate tools surveys, experiments, and observational studies. strategically. S.IC.4 Use data from a sample survey to estimate a 6. Attend to precision. population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for 7. Look for, and make random sampling. use of, structure. Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated S.CP.5 Recognize and explain the concepts of reasoning. conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations. For example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer. Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions. S.MD.7 (+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game). M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 9 Standard L2 CALCULATIONS, ALGORITHMS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards AND ESTIMATION Calculation Using Real and Complex Numbers Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents. L2.1.2: Calculate fluently with numerical Mathematical expressions involving exponents; use the rules of N.RN.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and Practices exponents; evaluate numerical expressions involving rational exponents using the properties of rational and negative exponents; transition easily exponents. 1. Make sense of between roots and exponents. Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers. problems, and persevere in solving L2.1.3 Explain the exponential relationship N.CN.1 Know there is a complex number I, such them. between a number and its base 10 logarithm and that i2 = −1, and every complex number has the use it to relate rules of logarithms to those of form a + bi with a and b real. 2. Reason abstractly and exponents in expressions involving numbers. quantitatively. N.CN.2 Use the relation i2 = –1 and the L2.1.4 Know that the complex number i is one of commutative, associative, and distributive properties 3. Construct viable two solutions to x2 = -1. to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers. arguments, and L2.1.5 Add, subtract, and multiply complex N.CN.3 (+) Find the conjugate of a complex critique the reasoning of others. numbers; use conjugates to simplify quotients of number; use conjugates to find moduli and complex numbers. quotients of complex numbers. 4. Model with Represent complex numbers and their operations on mathematics. the complex plane. 5. Use appropriate tools N.CN.5 (+) Represent addition, subtraction, strategically. multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers 6. Attend to precision. geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation. For example, 7. Look for, and make (-1 + √3i) 3 = 8 because (-1 + √3i) has modulus 2 use of, structure. and argument 120°. 8. Look for, and express N.CN.6 (+) Calculate the distance between regularity in, repeated numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of reasoning. the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints. Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and equations. N.CN.7 Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions. N.CN.8 (+) Extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers. For example, rewrite x2 + 4 as (x + 2i) (x – 2i). N.CN.9 (+) Know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials. 10 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard L2 CALCULATIONS, ALGORITHMS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards AND ESTIMATION Calculation Using Real and Complex Numbers Solve equations and inequalities in one variable. (continued) A.REI.4b Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing Mathematical the square, the quadratic formula, and factoring, as Practices appropriate to the initial form of the equation. 1. Make sense of Recognize when the quadratic formula gives problems, and complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real persevere in solving numbers a and b. them. 2. Reason abstractly and Build new functions from existing functions quantitatively. F.BF.5 (+) Understand the inverse relationship 3. Construct viable between exponents and logarithms and use this arguments, and relationship to solve problems involving logarithms critique the reasoning and exponents. of others. Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems. 4. Model with mathematics. F.LE.4 For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to ab(ct) = d where a, c, and d 5. Use appropriate tools are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate strategically. the logarithm using technology. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for, and make Sequences and Iteration Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve use of, structure. problems. L2.2.1 Find the nth term in arithmetic, geometric, A.SSE.4 Derive the formula for the sum of a finite 8. Look for, and express or other simple sequences. regularity in, repeated geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), L2.2.2 Compute sums of finite arithmetic and reasoning. and use the formula to solve problems. For example, geometric sequences. calculate mortgage payments. L2.2.3 Use iterative processes in such examples as computing compound interest or applying Build a function that models a relationship between approximation procedures. two quantities. F.BF.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems. F.LE.2 Construct linear and exponential functions that include arithmetic and geometric sequences given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table). M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 11 Standard L2 CALCULATIONS, ALGORITHMS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards AND ESTIMATION Measurement Units, Calculations, and Scales Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. L2.3.1 Convert units of measurement within and N.Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems Mathematical between systems; explain how arithmetic operations and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; Practices on measurements both affect units, and carry units choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; 1. Make sense of through calculations correctly. choose and interpret the scale and the origin in problems, and L2.3.2 Describe and interpret logarithmic graphs and data displays. persevere in solving relationships in such contexts as the Richter scale, N.Q.2 Define appropriate quantities for the them. the pH scale, and decibel measurements; solve purpose of descriptive modeling. 2. Reason abstractly and applied problems. N.Q.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to quantitatively. limitations on measurement when reporting 3. Construct viable quantities. arguments, and critique the reasoning Understanding Error Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. of others. L2.4.1 Determine what degree of accuracy is N.Q.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to 4. Model with reasonable for measurements in a given situation; limitations on measurement when reporting mathematics. express accuracy through use of significant digits, quantities. 5. Use appropriate tools error tolerance, or percent of error; describe how strategically. errors in measurements are magnified by Understand and evaluate random processes underlying computation; recognize accumulated error in 6. Attend to precision. statistical experiments. applied situations. S.IC.1 Understand statistics as a process for making 7. Look for, and make L2.4.2 Describe and explain round-off error, inferences about population parameters based on a use of, structure. rounding, and truncating. random sample from that population. 8. Look for, and express L2.4.3 Know the meaning of and interpret statistical S.IC.2 Decide if a specified model is consistent regularity in, repeated significance, margin of error, and confidence level. with results from a given data-generating process, reasoning. e.g., using simulation. For example, a model says a spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0. 5. Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the model? Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. S.IC.4 Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling. S.IC.5 Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant. MP.6 Attend to precision. (Mathematical Practice) 12 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard L3 MATHEAMTICAL REASONING, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards LOGIC, AND PROOF Mathematical Reasoning Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments. L3.1.1 Distinguish between inductive and deductive Mathematical reasoning, identifying and providing examples of S.IC.1 Understand statistics as a process for making Practices each. inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population. 1. Make sense of L3.1.2 Differentiate between statistical arguments Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample problems, and (statements verified empirically using examples or surveys, experiments, and observational studies. persevere in solving data) and logical arguments based on the rules of them. logic. S.IC.3 Recognize the purposes of and differences L3.1.3 Define and explain the roles of axioms among sample surveys, experiments, and 2. Reason abstractly and (postulates), definitions, theorems, counterexamples, observational studies; explain how randomization quantitatively. and proofs in the logical structure of mathematics. relates to each. Identify and give examples of each. 3. Construct viable S.IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data. arguments, and critique the reasoning MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the of others. reasoning of others. (Mathematical Practice) 4. Model with mathematics. Language and Laws of Logic Understand independence and conditional probability 5. Use appropriate tools and use them to interpret data. strategically. L3.2.1 Know and use the terms of basic logic. S.CP.1 Describe events as subsets of a sample L3.2.2 Language and Laws of Logic: Use the 6. Attend to precision. space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics connectives “not,” “and,” “or,” and “if..., then,” in (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, mathematical and everyday settings. Know the truth 7. Look for, and make intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” table of each connective and how to logically negate use of, structure. “and,” “not”). statements involving these connectives. 8. Look for, and express L3.2.3 Language and Laws of Logic: Use the regularity in, repeated quantifiers “there exists” and “all” in mathematical MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning. and everyday settings and know how to logically reasoning of others. (Mathematical Practice) negate statements involving them. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 13 STRAND 2: ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS Standard A1 EXPRESSIONS, EQUATIONS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards AND INEQUALITIES Construction, Interpretation, and Manipulation of Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents. Mathematical Expressions Practices N.RN.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of A1.1.1 Give a verbal description of an expression rational exponents follows from extending the properties 1. Make sense of that is presented in symbolic form, write an of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a problems, and algebraic expression from a verbal description, and notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For persevere in solving evaluate expressions given values of the variables. example, we define 5(1/3) to be the cube root of 5 them. A1.1.2 Construction, Interpretation, and because we want (5(1/3)) 3 = 5(1/3) 3 to hold, so 5(1/3) 3 must Manipulation of Expressions: Know the definitions equal 5. 2. Reason abstractly and and properties of exponents and roots transition Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and quantitatively. fluently between them, and apply them in algebraic equations 3. Construct viable expressions. N.CN.8 (+) Extend polynomial identities to the arguments, and A1.1.3 Factor algebraic expressions using, for complex numbers. For example, rewrite x2 + 4 as (x + 2i) critique the reasoning (x – 2i). example, greatest common factor, grouping, and the of others. special product identities. Interpret the structure of expressions. 4. Model with A1.1.4 Add, subtract, multiply, and simplify A.SSE.1 Interpret expressions that represent a mathematics. polynomials and rational expressions. quantity in terms of its context. 5. Use appropriate tools A1.1.5 Divide a polynomial by a monomial. A.SSE.1a Interpret parts of an expression, such as strategically. terms, factors, and coefficients. A1.1.6 Transform exponential and logarithmic 6. Attend to precision. expressions into equivalent forms using the A.SSE.2 Use the structure of an expression to properties of exponents and logarithms, including identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 – y4 7. Look for, and make the inverse relationship between exponents and as (x2) 2 – (y2) 2, thus recognizing it as a difference of use of, structure. logarithms. squares that can be factored as (x2 – y2) (x2 + y2). 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems. reasoning. A.SSE.3c Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as (1.15(1/12)) 12t ≈ 1.01212t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials. A.APR.1Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers; namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. 14 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard A1 EXPRESSIONS, EQUATIONS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards AND INEQUALITIES Rewrite rational expressions. A.APR.6 Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + Mathematical r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are Practices polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the 1. Make sense of degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for problems, and the more complicated examples, a computer persevere in solving algebra system. them. A.APR.7 (+)Understand that rational expressions 2. Reason abstractly and form a system analogous to the rational numbers, quantitatively. closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, 3. Construct viable subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions. arguments, and critique the reasoning Build new functions from existing functions of others. F.BF.5 (+) Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this 4. Model with mathematics. relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents. 5. Use appropriate tools Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and strategically. exponential models and solve problems. 6. Attend to precision. F.LE.4 For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to abct = d where a, c, and d 7. Look for, and make are numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e; evaluate use of, structure. the logarithm using technology. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated Solutions of Equations and Inequalities Use complex numbers in polynomial identities reasoning. and equations. A1.2.1 Write equations and inequalities with one or two variables to represent mathematical or N.CN.7 Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions. applied situations, and solve. A1.2.2 Associate a given equation with a function Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve whose zeros are the solutions of the equation. problems. A1.2.3 Solve linear and quadratic equations and A.SSE.3a Factor a quadratic expression to reveal inequalities including systems of up to three linear the zeros of the function it defines. equations with three unknowns. Justify steps in the solution, and apply the quadratic formula A.SSE.3c Use the properties of exponents to appropriately. transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as A1.2.4 Solve absolute value equations and (1.15(1/12)) 12t ≈ 1.01212t to reveal the approximate inequalities, and justify steps in the solution. equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is A1.2.5 Solve polynomial equations and equations 15%. involving rational expressions, and justify steps in the solution. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 15 Standard A1 EXPRESSIONS, EQUATIONS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards AND INEQUALITIES A1.2.6 Solve power equations and equations Understand the relationship between zeros including radical expressions, justify steps in the and factors of polynomials. solution, and explain how extraneous solutions may A.APR.3 Identify zeros of polynomials when Mathematical arise. suitable factorizations are available, and use the Practices A1.2.7 Solve exponential and logarithmic equations, zeros to construct a rough graph of the function 1. Make sense of and justify steps in the solution. defined by the polynomial. problems, and Create equations that describe numbers or A1.2.8 Solve an equation involving several variables persevere in solving relationship. (with numerical or letter coefficients) for a them. designated variable. Justify steps in the solution. A.CED.1 Create equations and inequalities in one 2. Reason abstractly and variable and use them to solve problems. Include A1.2.9 Know common formulas and apply quantitatively. equations arising from linear and quadratic appropriately in contextual situations. functions, and simple rational and exponential 3. Construct viable A1.2.10 Use special values of the inverse functions. arguments, and trigonometric functions to solve trigonometric critique the reasoning A.CED.2 Create equations in two or more equations over specific intervals. of others. variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with 4. Model with labels and scales. mathematics. A.CED.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity 5. Use appropriate tools of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving strategically. equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR 6. Attend to precision. to highlight resistance R. Understand solving equations as a process of 7. Look for, and make reasoning and explain the reasoning. use of, structure. A.REI.1 Explain each step in solving a simple 8. Look for, and express equation;.from the equality of numbers asserted at regularity in, repeated the previous step, starting from the assumption that reasoning. the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. A.REI.2 Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise. Solve equations and inequalities in one variable. A.REI.3 Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. A.REI.4 Solve quadratic equations in one variable. 16 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard A1 EXPRESSIONS, EQUATIONS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards AND INEQUALITIES (Solutions of Equations and Inequalities continued) A.REI.4b Solve quadratic equations by inspection 2 (e.g., for x = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as Mathematical appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Practices Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real 1. Make sense of numbers a and b. problems, and persevere in solving Solve systems of equations. them. A.REI.5 Prove that, given a system of two 2. Reason abstractly and equations in two variables, replacing one equation quantitatively. by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions. 3. Construct viable A.REI.6 Solve systems of linear equations exactly arguments, and critique the reasoning and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on of others. pairs of linear equations in two variables. A.REI.7 Solve a simple system consisting of a linear 4. Model with equation and a quadratic equation in two variables mathematics. algebraically and graphically. For example, find the 5. Use appropriate tools points of intersection between the line y = –3x and the strategically. circle x2 + y2 = 3. 6. Attend to precision. Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically. 7. Look for, and make A.REI.12 Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in use of, structure. two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in 8. Look for, and express the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set regularity in, repeated to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the reasoning. intersection of the corresponding half-planes. Model periodic phenomena with trigonometric functions F.TF.7 (+)Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of the context. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 17 Standard A2 FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Definitions, Representations, and Attributes of Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve Functions problems. A2.1.1 Determine whether a relationship (given in A.SSE.3a Factor a quadratic expression to reveal Mathematical contextual, symbolic, tabular, or graphical form) is a the zeros of the function it defines. Practices function and identify its domain and range. Represent and solve equations and inequalities 1. Make sense of A2.1.2 Read, interpret, and use function notation graphically. problems, and and evaluate a function at a value in its domain. A.REI.11Explain why the x-coordinates of the persevere in solving A2.1.3 Represent functions in symbols, graphs, points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) them. tables, diagrams, or words and translate among and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the 2. Reason abstractly and representations. equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions quantitatively. A2.1.4 Recognize that functions may be defined by approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the different expressions over different intervals of their functions, make tables of values, or find successive 3. Construct viable approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or arguments, and domains; such functions are piecewise-defined. g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, critique the reasoning A2.1.5 Recognize that functions may be defined exponential, or logarithmic functions. of others. recursively. Compute values of and graph simple recursively defined functions. 4. Model with Understand the concept of a function and mathematics. A2.1.6 Identify the zeros of a function, the intervals use function notation where the values of a function are positive or 5. Use appropriate tools F.IF.1 Understand that a function from one set negative, and describe the behavior of a function as strategically. (called the domain) to another set (called the x approaches positive or negative infinity, given the range) assigns to each element of the domain 6. Attend to precision. symbolic and graphical representations. exactly one element of the range. If f is a function 7. Look for, and make A2.1.7 Identify and interpret the key features of a and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes use of, structure. function from its graph or its formula(e). the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated F.IF.2 Use function notation, evaluate functions for reasoning. inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. F.IF.3 Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n ≥ 1. Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context. F.IF.4 For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. 18 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard A2 FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Definition, Representation, and Attributes of F.IF.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph functions (continued) and, to the quantitative relationship it describes. where applicable. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble Mathematical n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would Practices be an appropriate domain for the function. 1. Make sense of Analyze functions using different representations. problems, and F.IF.7b Graph square root, cube root, and persevere in solving piecewise-defined functions, including step functions them. and absolute value functions. 2. Reason abstractly and F.IF.7c Graph polynomial functions, identifying quantitatively. zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. 3. Construct viable arguments, and F.IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in critique the reasoning different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain of others. different properties of the function. F.IF.9 Compare properties of two functions each 4. Model with represented in a different way (algebraically, mathematics. graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal 5. Use appropriate tools descriptions). For example, given a graph of one strategically. quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum. 6. Attend to precision. Build a function that models a relationship between 7. Look for, and make two quantities. use of, structure. F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. 8. Look for, and express F.BF.1a Determine an explicit expression, a regularity in, repeated recursive process, or steps for calculation from a reasoning. context. Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model F.LE.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. Operations and Transformations Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials. A2.2.1 Combine functions by addition, subtraction, A.APR.1 Understand that polynomials form a multiplication, and division. system analogous to the integers; namely, they are A2.2.2 Operations and Transformations: Apply closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, given transformations to basic functions and and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply represent symbolically. polynomials. A2.2.3 Operations and Transformations: Recognize whether a function (given in tabular or graphical form) has an inverse and recognize simple inverse pairs. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 19 Standard A2 FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities F.BF.1b Combine standard function types using Mathematical arithmetic operations. For example, build a function Practices that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying 1. Make sense of exponential, and relate these functions to the problems, and model. persevere in solving them. Build new functions from existing functions. F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing 2. Reason abstractly and f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific quantitatively. values of k (both positive and negative); find the 3. Construct viable value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases arguments, and and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the critique the reasoning graph using technology. Include recognizing even and of others. odd functions from their graphs and respective 4. Model with algebraic expressions. mathematics. F.BF.4 Find inverse functions. 5. Use appropriate tools F.BF.4c (+) Read values of an inverse function strategically. from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for, and make Experiment with transformations in the plane. use of, structure. G.CO.2 Represent transformations in the plane 8. Look for, and express using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; regularity in, repeated describe transformations as functions that take reasoning. points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). Representations of Functions Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context. A2.3.1 Identify a function as a member of a family of functions based on its symbolic or graphical F.IF.4 For a function that models a relationship representation; recognize that different families of between two quantities, interpret key features of functions have different asymptotic behavior. graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal A2.3.2 Describe the tabular pattern associated description of the relationship. Key features include: with functions having constant rate of change intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, (linear), or variable rates of change. decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums A2.3.3 Write the general symbolic forms that and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and characterize each family of functions. periodicity. 20 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard A2 FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards F.IF.6 Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph. Mathematical Analyze functions using different representations. Practices F.IF.9 Compare properties of two functions each 1. Make sense of represented in a different way (algebraically, problems, and graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal persevere in solving descriptions). For example, given a graph of one them. quadratic function and an algebraic expression for 2. Reason abstractly and another, say which has the larger maximum. quantitatively. Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities 3. Construct viable arguments, and F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a critique the reasoning relationship between two quantities. of others. Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems. 4. Model with mathematics. F.LE.1a Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals and that exponential 5. Use appropriate tools functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals. strategically. F.LE.1b. Recognize situations in which one quantity 6. Attend to precision. changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. F.LE.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds 8. Look for, and express a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more regularity in, repeated generally) as a polynomial function. reasoning. Models of Real-world Situations Using Families of Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Functions N.Q.2 Define appropriate quantities for the A2.4.1 Identify the family of function best suited for purpose of descriptive modeling. modeling a given real-world situation. A2.4.2 Adapt the general symbolic form of a Interpret the structure of expressions function to one that fits the specification of a given situation by using the information to replace A.SSE.1b Interpret complicated expressions by arbitrary constants with numbers. viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P A2.4.3 Using the adapted general symbolic form, and a factor not depending on P. draw reasonable conclusions about the situation being modeled. Create equations that describe numbers or relationship. A.CED.3 Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or non-viable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 21 Standard A2 FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Models (continued) Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities. F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. Mathematical Practices F.BF.2 Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use 1. Make sense of them to model situations and translate between the problems, and two forms. persevere in solving them. Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. F.LE.1 Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential 3. Construct viable functions. arguments, and critique the reasoning Model periodic phenomena with trigonometric of others. functions. F.TF.5 Choose trigonometric functions to model 4. Model with periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, mathematics. frequency, and midline. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two 6. Attend to precision. categorical and quantitative variables. 7. Look for, and make S.ID.6a Fit a function to the data; use functions use of, structure. fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function 8. Look for, and express suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, regularity in, repeated and exponential models. reasoning. 22 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard A3 FAMILIES OF FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Lines and Linear Functions Represent and solve equations and inequalities A3.1.1 Lines and Linear Functions: Write the graphically. symbolic forms of linear functions (standard, A.REI.10 Understand that the graph of an Mathematical point-slope, and slope-intercept) given appropriate equation in two variables is the set of all its Practices information, and convert between forms. solutions plotted on the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). 1. Make sense of A3.1.2 Graph lines (including those of the form x problems, and = h and y = k) given appropriate information. persevere in solving A3.1.3 Relate the coefficients in a linear function to Analyze functions using different representations. them. the slope and x- and y-intercepts of its graph. F.IF.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and 2. Reason abstractly and A3.1.4 Find an equation of the line parallel or show key features of the graph, by hand in simple quantitatively. perpendicular to the given line, through a given cases, and using technology for more complicated point; understand and use the facts that non-vertical cases. 3. Construct viable parallel lines have equal slopes, and that non-vertical arguments, and F.IF.7a Graph linear and quadratic functions and critique the reasoning perpendicular lines have slopes that multiply to show intercepts, maxima, and minima. of others. give -1. F.IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in 4. Model with different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain mathematics. different properties of the function. Build a function that models a relationship between 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. two quantities. F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a 6. Attend to precision. relationship between two quantities. 7. Look for, and make Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and use of, structure. exponential models and solve problems 8. Look for, and express F.LE.2. Construct linear and exponential functions, regularity in, repeated including arithmetic and geometric sequences given reasoning. a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table). Interpret expressions for functions of the situation they model. F.LE.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. G.GPE.5 Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point). M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 23 Standard A3 FAMILIES OF FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential function A3.2.1 Write the symbolic form and sketch the graph of an exponential function given appropriate A.SSE.3c s. For example the expression 1.15t can Mathematical information. be rewritten as (1.15(1/12)) 12t ≈ 1.01212t to reveal the Practices approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the A3.2.2 Interpret the symbolic forms and recognize annual rate is 15%. 1. Make sense of the graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions; problems, and recognize the logarithmic function as the inverse of persevere in solving the exponential function. Analyze functions using different representations. them. A3.2.3 Apply properties of exponential and F.IF.7e Graph exponential and logarithmic 2. Reason abstractly and logarithmic functions. functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, as quantitatively. well as trigonometric functions, showing period, A3.2.4 Understand and use the fact that the base midline, and amplitude. 3. Construct viable of an exponential function determines whether the arguments, and function increases or decreases and understand F.IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in critique the reasoning how the base affects the rate of growth or decay. different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain of others. different properties of the function. A.3.2.5 Relate exponential and logarithmic 4. Model with functions to real phenomena, including half-life and F.IF.8b Use the properties of exponents to interpret mathematics. doubling time. expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = 5. Use appropriate tools (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify strategically. them as representing exponential growth and decay. 6. Attend to precision. Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated Build new functions from existing functions. reasoning. F.BF.4 Find inverse functions. F.BF.5 (+) Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents. Construct and compare linear and exponential models and solve problems. F.LE.1a Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals.* F.LE.1c Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another. F.LE.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table). 24 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard A3 FAMILIES OF FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards (continued) F.LE.3 Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or as a Mathematical polynomial function. Practices Interpret expressions for functions of the situation 1. Make sense of they model. problems, and F.LE.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear or persevere in solving exponential function in terms of a context. them. 2. Reason abstractly and Quadratic Functions Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems. quantitatively. A3.3.1 Write the symbolic form and sketch the graph of a quadratic function given appropriate A.SSE.3a Factor a quadratic expression to reveal 3. Construct viable information. the zeros of the function it defines. arguments, and critique the reasoning A3.3.2 Identify the elements of a parabola (vertex, A.SSE.3b Complete the square in a quadratic of others. axis of symmetry, direction of opening) given its expression to reveal the maximum or minimum symbolic form or its graph, and relate these value of the function it defines. 4. Model with elements to the coefficient(s) of the symbolic form Solve equations and inequalities in one variable. mathematics. of the function. 5. Use appropriate tools A.REI.4a Use the method of completing the A3.3.3 Convert quadratic functions from standard square to transform any quadratic equation in x strategically. to vertex form by completing the square. into an equation of the form (x – p)2 = q that has 6. Attend to precision. the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula A3.3.4 Relate the number of real solutions of a from this form. 7. Look for, and make quadratic equation to the graph of the associated quadratic function. Represent and solve equations and inequalities use of, structure. graphically. A3.3.5 Express quadratic functions in vertex form 8. Look for, and express to identify their maxima or minima, and in factored A.REI.10 Understand that the graph of an regularity in, repeated form to identify their zeros. equation in two variables is the set of all its reasoning. solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). Analyze functions using different representations. F.IF.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases, or using technology for more complicated cases. F.IF.7a Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima. F.IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function. F.IF.8a Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 25 Standard A3 FAMILIES OF FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Quadratic Functions (continued) Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities. F.BF.1Write a function that describes a relationship Mathematical between two quantities. Practices Interpret expressions for functions of the situation they 1. Make sense of model. problems, and F.LE.5 Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and persevere in solving exponential models and solve problems. Interpret them. the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Power Functions Represent and solve equations and inequalities 3. Construct viable arguments, and A3.4.1 Write the symbolic form and sketch the graphically. critique the reasoning graph of power functions. A.REI.10 Understand that the graph of an of others. equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often 4. Model with forming a curve (which could be a line). mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools Analyze functions using different representations. strategically. F.IF.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and 6. Attend to precision. show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated 7. Look for, and make cases. use of, structure. Build a function that models a relationship between 8. Look for, and express two quantities. regularity in, repeated F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a reasoning. relationship between two quantities. Polynomial Functions Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and equations. A3.5.1 Polynomial Functions: Write the symbolic form and sketch the graph of simple polynomial N.CN.8 (+) Extend polynomial identities to the functions. complex numbers. For example, rewrite x2 + 4 as (x + 2i) (x – 2i). A3.5.2 Understand the effects of degree, leading coefficient, and number of real zeros on the graphs Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve of polynomial functions of degrees greater than 2. problems. A3.5.3 Determine the maximum possible number A.SSE.3a Factor a quadratic expression to reveal of zeros of a polynomial function, and understand the zeros of the function it defines. the relationship between the x-intercepts of the Understand the relationship between zeros and factors graph and the factored form of the function. of polynomial. A.APR.2 Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x). 26 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard A3 FAMILIES OF FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Polynominal Functions (continued) A.APR.3 Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial. Mathematical Practices Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically. 1. Make sense of problems, and A.REI.10 Understand that the graph of an persevere in solving equation in two variables is the set of all its them. solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms 3. Construct viable of the context. arguments, and F.IF.4 For a function that models a relationship critique the reasoning between two quantities, interpret key features of of others. graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and 4. Model with sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal mathematics. description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, 5. Use appropriate tools decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums strategically. and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and 6. Attend to precision. periodicity. Analyze functions using different representations. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. F.IF.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple 8. Look for, and express cases, and using technology for more complicated regularity in, repeated cases. reasoning. F.IF.7c Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. F.IF.8 Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function. Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities. F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 27 Standard A3 FAMILIES OF FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards Rational Functions Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context. A3.6.1 Write the symbolic form and sketch the graph of simple rational functions. F.IF.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph Mathematical and, where applicable, to the quantitative A3.6.2 Analyze graphs of simple rational functions Practices relationship it describes. For example, if the function and understand the relationship between the zeros h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to 1. Make sense of of the numerator and denominator and the assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive problems, and function’s intercepts, asymptotes, and domain. integers would be an appropriate domain for the persevere in solving function.* them. Analyze functions using different representations 2. Reason abstractly and F.IF.7d (+) Graph rational functions, identifying quantitatively. zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations 3. Construct viable are available, and showing end behavior.* arguments, and Build a function that models a relationship between critique the reasoning two quantities. of others. F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a 4. Model with relationship between two quantities.* mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools Trigonometric Functions Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms strategically. of the context. A3.7.1 Use the unit circle to define sine and cosine; 6. Attend to precision. approximate values of sine and cosine; use sine and F.IF.5 Relate the domain of a function to its graph cosine to define the remaining trigonometric and to the quantitative relationship it describes 7. Look for, and make functions; explain why the trigonometric functions where applicable. For example, if the function h(n) use of, structure. are periodic. gives the number of person-hours it takes to 8. Look for, and express assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive A3.7.2 Use the relationship between degree and regularity in, repeated integers would be an appropriate domain for the radian measures to solve problems. reasoning. function. A3.7.3 Use the unit circle to determine the exact Analyze functions using different representations. values of sine and cosine for integer multiples of π/6 and π/4. F.IF.7e Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and A3.7.4 Graph the sine and cosine functions; analyze trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, graphs by noting domain, range, period, amplitude, and amplitude. and location of maxima and minima. Build a function that models a relationship between A3.7.5 Graph transformations of basic two quantities. trigonometric functions (involving changes in period, F.BF.1 Write a function that describes a amplitude, and midline) and understand the relationship between two quantities. relationship between constants in the formula and Build new functions from existing functions. the transformed graph. F.BF.3 Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. 28 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Standard A3 FAMILIES OF FUNCTIONS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards (continued) Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle. F.TF.1 Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by Mathematical Practices the angle. F.TF.2 Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate 1. Make sense of plane enables the extension of trigonometric problems, and functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian persevere in solving them. measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle. 2. Reason abstractly and F.TF.3 (+)Use special triangles to determine quantitatively. geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for 3. Construct viable π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express arguments, and the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for π - x, π + critique the reasoning x, and 2π - x in terms of their values for x, where x of others. is any real number. 4. Model with F.TF.4 (+) Use the unit circle to explain symmetry mathematics. (odd and even) and periodicity of trigonometric functions. 5. Use appropriate tools Model periodic phenomena with trigonometric strategically. functions. 6. Attend to precision. F.TF.5 Choose trigonometric functions to model 7. Look for, and make periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, use of, structure. frequency, and midline. 8. Look for, and express Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems regularity in, repeated involving right triangles. reasoning. G.SRT.6 Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles. Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles. G.C.5 Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 29 STRAND 3: GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY STANDARD G1: FIGURES AND THEIR CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROPERTIES Lines and Angles; Basic Euclidean and Coordinate Experiment with transformations in the plane. Mathematical G1.1.1 Solve multistep problems and construct G.CO.1 Know precise definitions of angle, circle, Practices proofs involving vertical angles, linear pairs of angles perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, 1. Make sense of supplementary angles, complementary angles, and based on the undefined notions of point, line, problems, and right angles. distance along a line, and distance around a persevere in solving circular arc. G1.1.2 Solve multistep problems and construct them. Prove geometric theorems. proofs involving corresponding angles, alternate 2. Reason abstractly and interior angles, alternate exterior angles, and G.CO.9 Prove theorems about lines and angles. quantitatively. same-side (consecutive) interior angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; G1.1.3 Perform and justify constructions, including when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate 3. Construct viable midpoint of a line segment and bisector of an angle, interior angles are congruent and corresponding arguments, and critique the reasoning using a straightedge and compass. angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular of others. bisector of a line segment are exactly those G1.1.4 Given a line and a point, construct a line equidistant from the segment’s endpoints. 4. Model with through the point that is parallel to the original line using a straightedge and compass. Given a line and a Make geometric constructions. mathematics. point, construct a line through the point that is G.CO.12 Make formal geometric constructions 5. Use appropriate tools perpendicular to the original line. Justify the steps of with a variety of tools and methods (compass and strategically. the constructions. straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, 6. Attend to precision. G1.1.5 Given a line segment in terms of its dynamic geometric software, etc.). Copying a segment; endpoints in the coordinate plane, determine its copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an 7. Look for, and make angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the length and midpoint. use of, structure. perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and G1.1.6 Recognize Euclidean geometry as an axiom constructing a line parallel to a given line through 8. Look for, and express system. Know the key axioms. Understand the regularity in, repeated a point not on the line. meaning of, and distinguish between, undefined reasoning. G.CO.13 Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, terms, axioms, definitions, and theorems. and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. G.GPE.4 Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. For example, prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point (1, √3) lies on the circle centered at the origin and contains the point (0, 2). G.GPE.6 Find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio. G.GPE.7 Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula. 30 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 STANDARD G1: FIGURES AND THEIR CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROPERTIES Triangles and Their Properties Prove geometric theorems. G1.2.1 Prove that the angle sum of a triangle is G.CO.10 Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems 180° and that an exterior angle of a triangle is the include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum Mathematical sum of the two remote interior angles. to 180 degrees; base angles of isosceles triangles are Practices G1.2.2 Construct and justify arguments and solve congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two 1. Make sense of multistep problems involving angle measure, side sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and problems, and length, perimeter, and area of all types of triangles. half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at persevere in solving a point. G1.2.3 Know a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, and them. use the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse to solve 2. Reason abstractly and multistep problems. Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles. quantitatively. G1.2.5 Solve multistep problems and construct proofs G.SRT.8 Use trigonometric ratios and the 3. Construct viable about the properties of medians, altitudes, perpendicular Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in arguments, and bisectors to the sides of a triangle, and the angle bisectors applied problems. critique the reasoning of a triangle. Using a straightedge and compass, construct of others. these lines. 4. Model with Triangles and Trigonometry Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems mathematics. involving right triangles. G1.3.1: Define the sine, cosine, and tangent of 5. Use appropriate tools acute angles in a right triangle as ratios of sides. G.SRT.6 Understand that by similarity, side ratios in strategically. Solve problems about angles, side lengths, or areas right triangles are properties of the angles in the using trigonometric ratios in right triangles. triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric 6. Attend to precision. ratios for acute angles. G1.3.2 Know and use the Law of Sines and the Law 7. Look for, and make of Cosines and use them to solve problems. Find G.SRT.7 Explain and use the relationship between use of, structure. the area of a triangle with sides a and b and the sine and cosine of complementary angles. included angle q using the formula Area = (1/2) G.SRT.8 Use trigonometric ratios and the 8. Look for, and express (ab) sin q. Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in regularity in, repeated applied problems. reasoning. Apply trigonometry to general triangles. G.SRT.9 (+) Derive the formula A = (1/2) ab sin(C) for the area of a triangle by drawing an auxiliary line from a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side. G.SRT.10 (+) Prove the Laws of Sines and Cosines and use them to solve problems. G.SRT.11 (+) Understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measurements in right and non-right triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant forces). M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 31 STANDARD G1: FIGURES AND THEIR CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROPERTIES Quadrilaterals and Their Properties Prove geometric theorems. G1.4.1 Solve multistep problems and construct G.CO.11 Prove theorems about parallelograms. proofs involving angle measure, side length, diagonal Theorems include: opposite sides are congruent, Mathematical length, perimeter, and area of squares, rectangles, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a Practices parallelograms, kites, and trapezoids. parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, G1.4.2 Solve multistep problems and construct rectangles are parallelograms with congruent 1. Make sense of proofs involving quadrilaterals using Euclidean diagonals. problems, and persevere in solving methods or coordinate geometry. Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems them. algebraically. G1.4.3 Describe and justify hierarchical relationships among quadrilaterals. G.GPE.4 For example, prove or disprove that a 2. Reason abstractly and figure defined by four given points in the coordinate quantitatively. G1.4.4 Prove theorems about the interior and plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point exterior angle sums of a quadrilateral. 3. Construct viable (1, √3) lies on the circle centered at the origin and arguments, and containing the point (0, 2). critique the reasoning G.GPE.5 Prove the slope criteria for parallel and of others. perpendicular lines and use them to solve 4. Model with geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line mathematics. parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point). 5. Use appropriate tools G.GPE.7 Use coordinates to compute perimeters strategically. of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, 6. Attend to precision. e.g., using the distance formula. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. Other Polygons and Their Properties Explain volume formulas and use them to solve 8. Look for, and express problems. G1.5.1 Know and use subdivision or regularity in, repeated circumscription methods to find areas of polygons. G.GMD.1 Give an informal argument for the reasoning. formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle, and informal limit arguments. Circles and Their Properties Understand and apply theorems about circles. G1.6.1 Solve multistep problems involving G.C.1 Prove that all circles are similar. circumference and area of circles. G.C.2 Identify and describe relationships among G1.6.2 Circles and Their Properties: Solve problems inscribed angles, radii, and chords. Include the and justify arguments about chords and lines relationship between central, inscribed, and tangent to circles. circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter G1.6.3 Circles and Their Properties: Solve problems are right angles; the radius of a circle is and justify arguments about central angles, inscribed perpendicular to the tangent where the radius angles, and triangles in circles. intersects the circle. G1.6.4 Circles and Their Properties: Know and use G.C.3 Construct the inscribed and circumscribed properties of arcs and sectors and find lengths of circles of a triangle, and prove properties of angles arcs and areas of sectors. for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. 32 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 STANDARD G1: FIGURES AND THEIR CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROPERTIES Circles and Properties (continued) G.C.4 (+) Understand and apply theorems about circles. Construct a tangent line from a point outside a given circle to the circle. Mathematical Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles. Practices G.C.5 Derive, using similarity, the fact that the 1. Make sense of length of the arc intercepted by an angle is problems, and proportional to the radius, and define the radian persevere in solving measure of the angle as the constant of them. proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Explain volume formulas and use them to solve 3. Construct viable problems. arguments, and critique the reasoning G.GMD.1 Give an informal argument for the of others. formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Use 4. Model with dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle, and mathematics. informal limit arguments. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. Conic Sections and Their Properties Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section. 6. Attend to precision. G.1.7.1 Find an equation of a circle given its center and radius; given the equation of a circle, find its G.GPE.1 Derive the equation of a circle, given 7. Look for, and make center and radius. center and radius, using the Pythagorean Theorem; use of, structure. complete the square to find the center and radius G1.7.2 Identify and distinguish among geometric 8. Look for, and express of a circle given by an equation. representations of parabolas, circles, ellipses, and regularity in, repeated hyperbolas; describe their symmetries, and explain G.GPE.3 (+) Derive the equations of ellipses and reasoning. how they are related to cones. hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is G1.7.3 Graph ellipses and hyperbolas with axes constant. parallel to the x- and y-axes, given equations. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 33 STANDARD G1: FIGURES AND THEIR CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROPERTIES Three- Dimensional Figures Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems. Mathematical G1.8.1 Solve multistep problems involving surface Practices area and volume of pyramids, prisms, cones, G.GMD.1 Give an informal argument for the cylinders, hemispheres, and spheres. formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a 1. Make sense of circle, and the volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and problems, and cone. Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle, persevere in solving and informal limit arguments. them. G.GMD.3 Use volume formulas for cylinders, 2. Reason abstractly and pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems. quantitatively. 3. Construct viable Apply geometric concepts in modeling situations. arguments, and G.MG.2 Apply concepts of density based on area critique the reasoning and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per of others. square mile, BTUs per cubic foot). 4. Model with mathematics. STANDARD G2: RELATIONSHIPS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards 5. Use appropriate tools BETWEEN FIGURES strategically. Relationships Between Area and Volume Formulas Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems. 6. Attend to precision. G2.1.3 Know and use the relationship between the volumes of pyramids and prisms (of equal base and G.GMD.1 Give an informal argument for the 7. Look for, and make height), and cones and cylinders (of equal base and formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a use of, structure. height). circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle, and 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated informal limit arguments. reasoning. G.GMD.3 Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems. Relationships Between Two-dimensional and Three- Visualize relationships between two-dimensional and dimensional Representations three-dimensional objects. G2.2.1 Identify or sketch a possible three- G.GMD.4 Identify the shapes of two-dimensional dimensional figure, given two-dimensional views. cross-sections of three-dimensional objects, and Create a two-dimensional representation of a identify three-dimensional objects generated by three-dimensional figure. rotations of two-dimensional objects. G2.2.2 Relationships Between Two-dimensional and Three-dimensional Representations: Identify or sketch cross sections of three-dimensional figures. Identify or sketch solids formed by revolving two-dimensional figures around lines. 34 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 STANDARD G2: RELATIONSHIPS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards BETWEEN FIGURES Congruence and Similarity Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions. G2.3.1 Prove that triangles are congruent using the G.CO.7 Use the definition of congruence, in terms Mathematical SSS, SAS, ASA, and AAS criteria, and that right of rigid motions, to show that two triangles are Practices triangles, are congruent using the hypotenuse-leg congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides 1. Make sense of criterion. and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent. problems, and G2.3.2 Use theorems about congruent triangles to G.CO.8 Explain how the criteria for triangle persevere in solving prove additional theorems and solve problems, with congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the them. and without use of coordinates. definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions. 2. Reason abstractly and G2.3.3 Prove that triangles are similar by using SSS, quantitatively. SAS, and AA conditions for similarity. Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations. 3. Construct viable G2.3.4 Use theorems about similar triangles to arguments, and solve problems with and without use of coordinates. G.SRT.2 Given two figures, use the definition of critique the reasoning similarity in terms of similarity transformations to of others. G2.3.5 Know and apply the theorem stating that decide if they are similar; explain using similarity the effect of a scale factor of k relating one two- 4. Model with transformations the meaning of similarity for dimensional figure to another or one three- mathematics. triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of dimensional figure to another, on the length, area, angles, and the proportionality of all corresponding 5. Use appropriate tools and volume of the figures, is to multiply each by k, pairs of sides. strategically. k2, and k3, respectively. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated reasoning. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 35 STANDARD G2: RELATIONSHIPS CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards BETWEEN FIGURES (continued) G.SRT.3 Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar. Mathematical Prove theorems involving similarity. Practices G.SRT.4 Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems 1. Make sense of include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle problems, and divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; persevere in solving the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle them. similarity. 2. Reason abstractly and G.SRT.5 Use congruence and similarity criteria for quantitatively. triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures. 3. Construct viable arguments, and critique the reasoning Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems of others. algebraically. G.GPE.4 Use coordinates to prove simple 4. Model with geometric theorems algebraically. For example, mathematics. prove or disprove that a figure defined by four 5. Use appropriate tools given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; strategically. prove or disprove that the point (1, √3) lies on the circle centered at the origin, containing the point (0, 6. Attend to precision. 2). 7. Look for, and make G.GPE.7 Use coordinates to compute perimeters use of, structure. of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, 8. Look for, and express e.g., using the distance formula. regularity in, repeated reasoning. STANDARD G3: TRANFORMATION OF CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards FIGURES IN THE PLANE Distance-preserving Transformations: Isometries Experiment with transformations in the plane. G3.1.1: Define reflection, rotation, translation, and G.CO.2 Represent transformations in the plane glide reflection and find the image of a figure under using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; a given isometry. describe transformations as functions that take G3.1.2 Isometries: Given two figures that are points in the plane as inputs and give other points images of each other under an isometry, find the as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve isometry and describe it completely. distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). G3.1.3 Find the image of a figure under the composition of two or more isometries and G.CO.3 Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, determine whether the resulting figure is a or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflection, rotation, translation, or glide reflection reflections that carry it onto itself. image of the original figure. 36 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 STANDARD G3: TRANFORMATION OF CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards FIGURES IN THE PLANE G.CO.4 Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments. Mathematical G.CO.5 Given a geometric figure and a rotation, Practices reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure 1. Make sense of using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry problems, and software. Specify a sequence of transformations that persevere in solving will carry a given figure onto another. them. Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions. 2. Reason abstractly and G.CO.6 Use geometric descriptions of rigid quantitatively. motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given 3. Construct viable two figures, use the definition of congruence in arguments, and terms of rigid motions to decide if they are critique the reasoning of others. congruent. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated reasoning. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 37 STANDARD G3: TRANFORMATION OF CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards FIGURES IN THE PLANE Experiment with transformations in the plane. Shape-preserving Transformations: Dilations and G.CO.2 Represent transformations in the plane Isometries using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; Mathematical G3.2.1 Know the definition of dilation and find the describe transformations as functions that take Practices image of a figure under a given dilation. points in the plane as inputs and give other points 1. Make sense of as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve G3.2.2 Given two figures that are images of each distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., problems, and other under some dilation, identify the center and translation versus horizontal stretch). persevere in solving magnitude of the dilation. them. 2. Reason abstractly and Understand similarity in terms of similarity quantitatively. transformations. G.SRT.1 Verify experimentally the properties of 3. Construct viable dilations given by a center and a scale factor: arguments, and critique the reasoning a. A dilation takes a line not passing through the of others. center of the dilation to a parallel line, and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged. 4. Model with b. The dilation of a line segment is longer or mathematics. shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor. 5. Use appropriate tools G.SRT.2 Given two figures, use the definition of strategically. similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain, using similarity 6. Attend to precision. transformations, the meaning of similarity for 7. Look for, and make triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of use of, structure. angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides. 8. Look for, and express G.SRT.3 Use the properties of similarity regularity in, repeated transformations to establish the AA criterion for reasoning. two triangles to be similar. STRAND 4: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 38 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 STANDARD S1 UNIVARIATE DATA – CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards EXAMINING DISTRIBUTIONS Producing and Interpreting Plots Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. S1.1.1Construct and interpret dot plots, histograms, N.Q.1 Use units as a way to understand problems relative frequency histograms, bar graphs, basic and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; Mathematical control charts, and box plots with appropriate choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; Practices labels and scales; determine which kinds of plots are choose and interpret the scale and the origin in appropriate for different types of data; compare graphs and data displays. 1. Make sense of data sets and interpret differences based on graphs problems, and and summary statistics. persevere in solving Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single them. S1.1.2 Given a distribution of a variable in a data count or measurement variable. set, describe its shape, including symmetry or 2. Reason abstractly and skewedness, and state how the shape is related to S.ID.1 Represent data with plots on the real quantitatively. measures of center (mean and median) and number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). measures of variation (range and standard S.ID.2 Use statistics appropriate to the shape of 3. Construct viable deviation), with particular attention to the effects arguments, and the data distribution to compare center (median, of outliers on these measures. critique the reasoning mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard of others. deviation) of two or more different data sets. S.ID.3 Interpret differences in shape, center, and 4. Model with mathematics. spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). 5. Use appropriate tools Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample strategically. surveys, experiments, and observational studies. 6. Attend to precision. S.IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. Measures of Center and Variation Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. 8. Look for, and express S1.2.1 Calculate and interpret measures of center regularity in, repeated including: mean, median, and mode; explain uses, S.ID.1 Represent data with plots on the real reasoning. advantages and disadvantages of each measure number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). given a particular set of data and its context. S.ID.2 Use statistics appropriate to the shape of S1.2.2 Estimate the position of the mean, median, the data distribution to compare center (median, and mode in both symmetrical and skewed mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard distributions, and from a frequency distribution or deviation) of two or more different data sets. histogram. S.ID.3 Interpret differences in shape, center, and S1.2.3 Compute and interpret measures of spread in the context of the data sets, accounting variation, including percentiles, quartiles, for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). interquartile range, variance, and standard deviation. Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies. S.IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 39 STANDARD S1 UNIVARIATE DATA – CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards EXAMINING DISTRIBUTIONS The Normal Distribution Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable. S1.3.1 Explain the concept of distribution and the relationship between summary statistics for a data S.ID.1 Represent data with plots on the real Mathematical Practices set and parameters of a distribution. number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). S1.3.2 Describe characteristics of the normal S.ID.2 Use statistics appropriate to the shape of 1. Make sense of distribution, including its shape and the relationships the data distribution to compare center (median, problems, and among its mean, median, and mode. mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard persevere in solving them. deviation) of two or more different data sets. S1.3.3 Know and use the fact that about 68%, 95%, and 99.7% of the data lie within one, two, and three S.ID.4 Use the mean and standard deviation of a 2. Reason abstractly and standard deviations of the mean, respectively, in a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to quantitatively. normal distribution. estimate population percentages. Recognize that 3. Construct viable there are data sets for which such a procedure is S1.3.4 Calculate z-scores, use z-scores to recognize arguments, and not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and outliers, and use z-scores to make informed critique the reasoning tables to estimate areas under the normal curve. decisions. of others. Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample 4. Model with surveys, experiments, and observational studies. mathematics. S.IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data. 5. Use appropriate tools Calculate expected values and use them to solve strategically. problems. S.MD.1 (+) Calculate expected values and use 6. Attend to precision. them to solve problems. Define a random variable 7. Look for, and make for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical use of, structure. value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the 8. Look for, and express same graphical displays as for data distributions. regularity in, repeated Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions. reasoning. S.MD.7 (+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game). STANDARD S2 BIVARIATE DATA – CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards EXAMINING RELATIONSHIPS Scatter plots and Correlation Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two S2.1.1 Construct a scatter plot for a bivariate data categorical and quantitative variables. set with appropriate labels and scales. S.ID.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables S2.1.2 Given a scatter plot, identify patterns, on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables clusters, and outliers. Recognize no correlation, are related. weak correlation, and strong correlation. Interpret linear models. S2.1.3 Estimate and interpret Pearson’s correlation S.ID.8 Compute (using technology) and interpret coefficient for a scatter plot of a bivariate data set. the correlation coefficient of a linear fit. Recognize that correlation measures the strength of S.ID.9 Distinguish between correlation and linear association. causation. 40 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 STANDARD S2 BIVARIATE DATA – CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards EXAMINING RELATIONSHIPS S2.1.4 Differentiate between correlation and Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample causation. Know that a strong correlation does not surveys, experiments, and observational studies. imply a cause-and-effect relationship. Recognize the S.IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data. role of lurking variables in correlation. Mathematical Practices 1. Make sense of Linear Regression Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems. problems, and S2.2.1 For bivariate data that appear to form a persevere in solving linear pattern, find the least squares regression line F.LE.2 Construct linear and exponential functions, them. by estimating visually and by calculating the equation including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a of the regression line. Interpret the slope of the graph, a description of a relationship, or two input- 2. Reason abstractly and equation for a regression line. output pairs (include reading these from a table). quantitatively. S2.2.2 Use the equation of the least squares Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the 3. Construct viable regression line to make appropriate predictions. situation they model arguments, and F.LE.5 Interpret the parameters in a linear or critique the reasoning exponential function in terms of a context. of others. Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample 4. Model with surveys, experiments, and observational studies. mathematics. S.IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data. 5. Use appropriate tools Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two strategically. categorical and quantitative variables. S.ID.6 Represent data on two quantitative variables 6. Attend to precision. on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables 7. Look for, and make are related: use of, structure. a. Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the 8. Look for, and express data. Use given functions or choose a function regularity in, repeated suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, reasoning. quadratic, and exponential models. b. Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals. c. Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association. Interpret linear models. S.ID.7 Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 41 STANDARD S3 SAMPLES, SURVEYS, CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards EXPERIMENTS Data Collection and Analysis Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments. S3.1.1 Know the meanings of a sample from a Mathematical population and a census of a population, and S.IC.1 Understand statistics as a process for making Practices distinguish between sample statistics and population inferences about population parameters based on a parameters. random sample from that population. 1. Make sense of S3.1.2 Identify possible sources of bias in data Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample problems, and surveys, experiments, and observational studies. persevere in solving collection, sampling methods and simple them. experiments; describe how such bias can be S.IC.3 Recognize the purposes of and differences reduced and controlled by random sampling; explain among sample surveys, experiments, and 2. Reason abstractly and observational studies; explain how randomization the impact of such bias on conclusions made from quantitatively. analysis of the data; know the effect of replication relates to each. 3. Construct viable on the precision of estimates. S.IC.6 Evaluate reports based on data. arguments, and S3.1.3 Distinguish between an observational study critique the reasoning and an experimental study and identify, in context, of others. the conclusions that can be drawn from each. 4. Model with mathematics. STANDARD S4 PROBABILITY MODELS AND CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards 5. Use appropriate tools PROBABILITY CALCULATIONS strategically. Probability Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments. 6. Attend to precision. S4.1.1 Understand and construct sample spaces in simple situations. S.IC.2 Decide if a specified model is consistent 7. Look for, and make with results from a given data-generating process, S4.1.2 Define mutually exclusive events, use of, structure. e.g., using simulation. For example, a model says a independent events, dependent events, compound spinning coin falls head side up with probability 0. 5. 8. Look for, and express events, complementary events and conditional Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to regularity in, repeated probabilities; use the definitions to compute reasoning. question the model? probabilities. Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data. S.CP.1 Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”). S.CP.2 Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities; use this characterization to determine if they are independent. S.CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B. 42 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 STANDARD S4 PROBABILITY MODELS AND CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROBABILITY CALCULATIONS Probability (continued) S.CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way Mathematical table as a sample space to decide if events are Practices independent and to approximate conditional 1. Make sense of probabilities. For example, collect data from a random problems, and sample of students in your school on their favorite persevere in solving subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the them. probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in 2. Reason abstractly and tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and quantitatively. compare the results. 3. Construct viable S.CP.5 Recognize and explain the concepts of arguments, and conditional probability and independence in critique the reasoning everyday language and situations. For example, of others. compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a 4. Model with smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have mathematics. lung cancer. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems. 6. Attend to precision. S.MD.3 (+) Develop a probability distribution for 7. Look for, and make a random variable defined for a sample space in use of, structure. which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; find the expected value. For example, find the 8. Look for, and express theoretical probability distribution for the number of regularity in, repeated correct answers obtained by guessing on all five reasoning. questions of a multiple-choice test where each question has four choices, and find the expected grade under various grading schemes. Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions S.MD.5b (+) Evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values. For example, compare a high-deductible versus a low-deductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident. S.MD.6 (+) Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions. Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). S.MD.7 (+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game). M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 43 STANDARD S4 PROBABILITY MODELS AND CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROBABILITY CALCULATIONS Application and Representation Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments. S4.2.1 Compute probabilities of events using tree diagrams, formulas for combinations and S.IC.2 Decide if a specified model is consistent Mathematical permutations, Venn diagrams, or other counting with results from a given data-generating process, Practices techniques. e.g., using simulation. For example, a model says a 1. Make sense of spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0. 5. Would S4.2.2 Apply probability concepts to practical problems, and a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the situations in such settings as finance, health, ecology, persevere in solving model? them. or epidemiology, to make informed decisions. Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample 2. Reason abstractly and surveys, experiments, and observational studies quantitatively. S.IC.4 Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin 3. Construct viable of error through the use of simulation models for arguments, and random sampling. critique the reasoning of others. S.IC.5 Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide 4. Model with if differences between parameters are significant.* mathematics. Calculate expected values and use them to solve 5. Use appropriate tools problems. strategically. S.MD.3 (+) Develop a probability distribution for 6. Attend to precision. a random variable defined for a sample space in which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; 7. Look for, and make find the expected value. For example, find the use of, structure. theoretical probability distribution for the number of 8. Look for, and express correct answers obtained by guessing on all five regularity in, repeated questions of a multiple-choice test where each reasoning. question has four choices, and find the expected grade under various grading schemes. Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions S.MD.5b (+) Evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values. For example, compare a high-deductible versus a low-deductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident. S.MD.6 (+) Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions. Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). S.MD.7 (+) Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions. Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game). 44 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 STANDARD S4 PROBABILITY MODELS AND CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROBABILITY CALCULATIONS Probability Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments. S4.1.1 Understand and construct sample spaces in simple situations. S.IC.2 Decide if a specified model is consistent Mathematical with results from a given data-generating process, Practices S4.1.2 Define mutually exclusive events, e.g., using simulation. For example, a model says a independent events, dependent events, compound 1. Make sense of spinning coin falls head side up with probability 0. 5. events, complementary events and conditional problems, and Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to probabilities; use the definitions to compute persevere in solving question the model?* probabilities. them. Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. S.CP.1 Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or 3. Construct viable categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, arguments, and or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”). critique the reasoning of others. S.CP.2 Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring 4. Model with together is the product of their probabilities, and mathematics. use this characterization to determine if they are 5. Use appropriate tools independent. strategically. S.CP.3 Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P (A and B)/P(B), and interpret 6. Attend to precision. independence of A and B as saying that the 7. Look for, and make conditional probability of A given B is the same as use of, structure. the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated reasoning. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 45 STANDARD S4 PROBABILITY MODELS AND CCSS Cluster Statements and Standards PROBABILITY CALCULATIONS (continued) S.CP.4 Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way Mathematical table as a sample space to decide if events are Practices independent and to approximate conditional 1. Make sense of probabilities. For example, collect data from a random problems, and sample of students in your school on their favorite persevere in solving subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the them. probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in 2. Reason abstractly and tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and quantitatively. compare the results. 3. Construct viable S.CP.5 Recognize and explain the concepts of arguments, and conditional probability and independence in critique the reasoning everyday language and everyday situations. For of others. example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if 4. Model with you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if mathematics. you have lung cancer. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems. 6. Attend to precision. S.MD.3 (+) Develop a probability distribution for a 7. Look for, and make random variable defined for a sample space in use of, structure. which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; find the expected value. For example, find the 8. Look for, and express theoretical probability distribution for the number of regularity in, repeated correct answers obtained by guessing on all five reasoning. questions of a multiple-choice test where each question has four choices, and find the expected grade under various grading schemes. Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions S.MD.5b (+) Evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values. For example, compare a high-deductible versus a low-deductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident. S.MD.6 (+) Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions; use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator). S.MD.7 (+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game). 46 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Michigan HS Content Expectations CCSS Common Core State Standards CONTENT THAT IS DIFFERENT Content moving out of high school Number Systems and Number Sense No alignment Mathematical Practices L1.1.4 Describe the reasons for the different effects of multiplication by, or exponentiation of, a positive 1. Make sense of number by a number less than 0, a number between problems, and 0 and 1, and a number greater than 1. persevere in solving L1.1.5 Justify numerical relationships them. 2. Reason abstractly and Representations and Relationships No alignment quantitatively. L1.2.2 Interpret representations that reflect 3. Construct viable absolute value relationships in such contexts as error arguments, and tolerance. critique the reasoning CONTENT THAT IS DIFFERENT of others. Content moving out of high school 4. Model with mathematics. Calculation Using Real and Complex Numbers No alignment 5. Use appropriate tools L2.1.1 Explain the meaning and uses of weighted strategically. averages. 6. Attend to precision. Language and Laws of Logic No alignment 7. Look for, and make L3.2.4 Write the converse, inverse, and use of, structure. contrapositive of an “if..., then...” statement. Use the 8. Look for, and express fact, in mathematical and everyday settings, that the regularity in, repeated contrapositive is logically equivalent to the original, reasoning. while the inverse and converse are not. Proof No alignment L3.3.1 Know the basic structure for the proof of an “if..., then...” statement (assuming the hypothesis and ending with the conclusion) and that proving the contrapositive is equivalent. L3.3.2 Construct proofs by contradiction. Use counterexamples, when appropriate, to disprove a statement. L3.3.3 Explain the difference between a necessary and a sufficient condition within the statement of a theorem. Determine the correct conclusions based on interpreting a theorem in which necessary or sufficient conditions in the theorem or hypothesis are satisfied. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 47 Michigan HS Content Expectations CCSS Common Core State Standards Power Functions No alignment A3.4.2 Power Functions: Express direct and inverse relationships as functions and recognize their characteristics. Mathematical Practices A3.4.3 Power Functions: Analyze the graphs of power functions, noting reflectional or rotational 1. Make sense of symmetry. problems, and persevere in solving them. Triangles and Their Properties No alignment G1.2.4 Prove and use the relationships among the 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. side lengths and the angles of 30º- 60º- 90º triangles and 45º- 45º- 90º triangles. 3. Construct viable arguments, and Triangles and Trigonometry No alignment critique the reasoning of others. G1.3.3 Determine the exact values of sine, cosine, and tangent for 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and their integer 4. Model with multiples, and apply in various contexts. mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools Other Polygons and Their Properties No alignment strategically. G1.5.2 Know, justify, and use formulas for the 6. Attend to precision. perimeter and area of a regular n-gon, and formulas to find interior and exterior angles of a regular 7. Look for, and make n-gon and their sums. use of, structure. 8. Look for, and express Three- Dimensional Figures No alignment regularity in, repeated G1.8.2 Identify symmetries of pyramids, prisms, reasoning. cones, cylinders, hemispheres, and spheres. Relationships Between Area and Volume Formulas No alignment G2.1.1: Know and demonstrate the relationships between the area formula of a triangle, the area formula of a parallelogram, and the area formula of a trapezoid. G2.1.2 Know and demonstrate the relationships between the area formulas of various quadrilaterals. Content moving into high school 48 HIGH SCHOOL M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 Michigan HS Content Expectations CCSS Common Core State Standards Partial Alignment to A1.1.7 Prove and apply trigonometric identities (HSCE Recommended 11/07) F.TF.8 Prove the Pythagorean identity sin2 (q) + cos2 (q) = 1 and use it to find sin q, cos q, or tan q, given sin q, cos q, or tan q, and the quadrant of the angle. Mathematical Partial Alignment to A2.2.4 Build new functions from existing functions Practices (HSCE Recommended 11/07) F.BF.4 Find inverse functions. 1. Make sense of a. Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple problems, and function f that has an inverse and write an persevere in solving expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2(x3) them. or f(x) = (x+1)/(x-1) for x ≠ 1 (x not equal to 1). 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. No alignment G.MG.3 Apply geometric concepts in modeling 3. Construct viable situations. Apply geometric methods to solve design arguments, and problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to critique the reasoning satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working of others. with typographic grid systems based on ratios). 4. Model with mathematics. Partial Alignment to G1.7.4 G.GPE.2 Translate between the geometric (HSCE Recommended 11/07) description and the equation for a conic section. 5. Use appropriate tools Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and strategically. directrix. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for, and make use of, structure. 8. Look for, and express regularity in, repeated reasoning. M AT H E M AT I C S ■ M I C H I G A N D E P A R T M E N T O F E D U C A T I O N ■ 12 -2 010 HIGH SCHOOL 49 Michigan State Board of Education John C. Austin, President Ann Arbor Casandra E. Ulbrich, Vice President Rochester Hills Nancy Danhof, Secretary East Lansing Marianne Yared McGuire, Treasurer Detroit Kathleen N. Straus Bloomfield Township Dr. Richard Zeile Detroit Eileen Weiser Ann Arbor Daniel Varner Detroit Governor Rick Snyder Ex Officio Michael P. Flanagan, Chairman Superintendent of Public Instruction Ex Officio MDE Staff Sally Vaughn, Ph.D. Deputy Superintendent and Chief Academic Officer Linda Forward, Director Office of Education Improvement and Innovation