DNA RNA Structures

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					 #21 DNA & RNA
 Standard 5A Focus Lesson
DNA Double           Single
    Helix          Stranded
                     RNA
    5A. Know structures and
    functions of DNA, RNA
           and protein.
DNA Functions:
1. DNA carries genetic info
from one generation to the next.
2. DNA becomes read and
transcribed so that proteins are
made and traits are expressed.
3. DNA must be replicated each
time cells divide.
Double Helix
  DNA
Watson and Crick had
discovered that DNA was a
double helix in which hydrogen
bonds between C-G and A-T
held the double strands together.
DNA Structure (double helix
where two DNA strands are
wound around each other.)
Nucleic Acids (DNA &
RNA) are made up of
patterns of monomers
called nucleotides.
Phosphate Group
                Nucleotide Parts
           Deoxyribose
          CH2



                         C
                O




                Nitrogenous Base
There are two types of
nitrogenous bases.
Purines- have two rings.
Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines- have only one
ring.Thymine & Cytosine
Pyrimidines   Purines
RNA
    Single
Stranded RNA
Pyrimidines   Purines




There is no thymine in RNA
RNA Function-
RNA helps to assemble amino
acids into proteins. It’s the
proteins that determine traits.
Three types-mRNA, rRNA
and tRNA.
RNA Structure
RNA is made of nucleotides.
These nucleotides are made up
of a Ribose sugar, a phosphate
group and a nitrogenous base.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
along with several dozen
proteins make up the
ribosomes. The ribosomes
are where proteins are
assembled during a process
called translation.
Most genes contain instructions
for assembling amino acids into
proteins.
mRNA (messenger RNA) is the
RNA molecule that carries copies of
DNA instructions for a specific
protein.
mRNA is the “blueprint” for
assembling the correct proteins in
the ribosomes.
tRNA (transfer RNA) is responsible
for transferring a specific amino
acid to the ribosome for protein
synthesis.
Three Differences between DNA
and RNA
1. Sugar is ribose in RNA and
deoxyribose in DNA.
2. RNA is single stranded and
DNA is a double stranded helix.
3. RNA contains uracil instead
of thymine found in DNA.
Proteins
Proteins control chemical
reactions and the phenotypes
(traits) of organisms.
Protein Function:
1. Proteins control rate
of chemical reactions
and regulate our cell
functions. It’s these
functions that
determine what we
look like and do.
1. The following molecule is
a/an?
A. Amino Acid
B. Carbohydrate
C. DNA
D. RNA
2. The following is a monomer
of DNA?         Phosphate Group
A. Amino Acid
                      Deoxyribose
B. Hydrogen bond     CH2


C. Protein                          C
                           O


D. Nucleotide
                           Nitrogenous Base
3. How many different types of
RNA are involved in protein
synthesis?
A. 1                Single
B. 2            Stranded RNA
C. 3
D. None
4. Which of the following have
hydrogen bonds between
nitrogenous bases?
A. DNA
B. RNA
C. A and B
D. None of the above
5. Which of the following
represent the initials for the
following?tRNA,rRNA and
mRNA
A. Transition,ribosomal& messenger
B. Transfer, reconnaissance & messenger
C. Transfer,ribosomal & methione
D. Transfer,ribosomal & messenger
6. Which of the following is
found in both DNA & RNA?
A. phosphate group + guanine + uracil
B. phosphate group + guanine + cytosine
C. ribose + phosphate group + uracil
D. deoxyribose + phosphate group + thymine
7. Which of the following
describes the structure of DNA?
A. Double stranded RNA molecule.
B. Double Stranded Helix molecule.
C. Double stranded RNA helix.
D. Single stranded RNA molecule.

				
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posted:9/1/2011
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