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“DC-3 NextGen”

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					                                            SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS




                             Optoprime
                       Conceptual Designs, LLC.

                            “DC-3 NextGen”
                                   Team 2
                                  AJ Berger
                                Colby Darlage
                                 Joshua Dias
                              Ahmad Kamaruddin
                                Pete Krupski
                                 Josh Mason
                               Camrand Tucker




                                                                                1
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                   SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   SDR Outline
      •    Mission Statement
      •    Requirements Overview
      •    Use Case Scenarios
      •    Advanced Technologies
      •    Design Requirements
      •    Concept Selection
      •    Cabin Layout
      •    Constraint Analysis
      •    Most Recent Sizing
      •    Summary of Concept
      •    Conclusion
                                                                       2
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                                      SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Mission Statement
          To satisfy our customers through the design of an advanced mid-range
          aircraft capable of relieving congestion at major hubs throughout the world.
          The aircraft will:
          • Operate from lesser-equipped airports throughout the world.
          • Maintain a high cruise speed while limiting negative impact on the
          environment.
          • Satisfy customer needs without sacrificing safety.


          • This “DC-3NG” will revolutionize the future market with its high reliability, exceptional
          comfort, and high profitability – three difficult aspects to master
                 • “The Douglas DC-3 … is universally recognized as the greatest airplane of its time. Some
                 would argue that it is the greatest of all time.” (www.boeing.com)
                 • “The DC-3 was not only comfortable and reliable, it also made air transportation profitable.”
                 (www.boeing.com)



                                                                                                                   3
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                             SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   System Requirements Review

     • 2058 Market
            – Asia, Australia, Africa
     • Customers Needs
            – Short Runways, Cost, Environmental Impact
     • Advanced Technologies




                                                                                 4
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Use Case Scenario 1
      • Hong Kong to Madras, India (2000nm)
             – ESTO from Hong Kong (3,000 ft, upwind section of runway)
             – Extended Range Cruise
             – ESL at Madras (6,000 ft runway)




                                                            ADS-B Continuous
                                    Takeoff &             Descent Approach & Full
                        Hong Kong
                                      Climb                    Stop Landing
            Madras
                                                Cruise
                                                                                    5
                                                Climb
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                    SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Use Case Scenario 2
    • Sydney (8,000 ft) to Perth (11,200 ft) (1769 NM) – refueling/reload
    • Perth to Coober Pedy (4,685ft) (900 NM) – without refueling
    • Coober Pedy to Sydney(893 NM)



                                     Cruise                                    Cruise

                                                            Cruise
                            Climb      Descent
                                                                           Climb
                                                              Descent
                   Coober                           Climb
                    Pedy


  Perth
                            Sydney        Reconfigure to             Reload        Descent
                                          Cargo, Reload              without        to Full
                                           with Refuel               Refuel          Stop
                                                                                              6
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                   SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Use Case Scenario 3
      •     Gary (3000 ft) to Boulder (4100 ft) (793 NM)
      •     Rerouted to Durango (9200ft) (218 NM)
      •     Rerouted back to Boulder (Lands and refuels)




                         Gary
             Boulder



            Durango




                                                                                Full Stop
                                                                                Landing
                                             Descent            Descent
                                Climb                  Climb
                                                                          Loiter
                                    Cruise                  Cruise
                                    Climb                   Climb
                                                                      Climb            7
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                       SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS




                       Advanced Technologies
                             Colby Darlage




                                                                           8
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                      SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Technology Readiness Level (NASA)




                                                                          9
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL   www.nasa.gov
                                         SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS

     Composite Materials

             • Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP)


             • Central Reinforced Aluminum (CentrAl)


             • Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)


             • Glass-Reinforced Fiber Metal Laminate (GLARE)


                                                                            10
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                       SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS

     Composite Materials
             • Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP)
                       - Wings, fuselage, tail surfaces and doors
                       - if 38% structural weight made from composites
                                40% reduction in empty weight
                                39% reduction in wing area
                                33% fuel saving



             • Central Reinforced Aluminum (CentrAl)
                       - Wing-weight reduction 20% more than (CFRP)
                       - Simple Repairs


                                                                                          11
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                     SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS

     Composite Materials

             • Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs)
                       - Hot Section Engine Shrouds & Components
                       - High temperature 1650°C
                       - 50% reduction in engine weight



             • Glass-Reinforced Fiber Metal Laminate (GLARE)
                       - Leading edges
                       - Impact resistance
                       - Double-curved sections (Lofting)


                                                                 http://www.phoenix-xray.com   12
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                       SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Unducted Fans
      • Advantages
             – Could achieve 30-40% lower specific fuel consumption than current turbofan
               engines

             – Can still achieve speeds comparable to turbofans


      • Counter-Rotating Configuration
             – Efficiency increases 6-10%
               compared to single rotor

             – Reverse thrust levels up to
               60% of takeoff thrust




                                                                     www.flug-revue.rotor.com   13
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                    SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Wave Rotor Combustion System
      •    Highly steady inflow and out flow conditions

      •    Provides significant improvement in specific fuel consumption (~15%)




                                                   AIAA-2002-3916-938
                                                                                       14
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                             SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Alternative Fuels
      •    Fischer-Tropsch-type process
             –   Eliminates Traditional Kerosene fuels
             –   Synthesized fuel (addresses oil shortage)

      •    Biofuels
             –   Addresses environmental issues

      •    Green Freedom™
            – Synthesized from atmospheric CO2 and H2O from nuclear power plant cooling
              towers
            – Eliminates environmental issues
                       • Carbon Neutral




                                                                                                15
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                           SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Solar Power
      •    Solar Power
             – Advantages
                       •   Eliminates need for fuel
                       •   Unlimited supply of power
                       •   No harmful emissions
                       •   Low operating cost
                       •   Ability to fly long distances


             – Disadvantages
                       • Only charges when in sunlight




                                                                                              16
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Preliminary Propulsion Design
      •    Power Plant
             – Unducted Fan
                • Dual Rotor
             – Wave rotor combustion


      •    Fuel
             – Synthesized Fuel
                       • Fischer-Tropsch-type
                         Green Freedom™
                                                                   Green Freedom™

      •    Electrical system supplemented
           by solar power




                                                                                   17
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                     SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS




                       Concept Selection
                           Pete Krupski




                                                                        18
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                      SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Major Design Requirements
      Design Criteria

      •    Short Runway
      •    Energy Efficiency
      •    PAX Climate/Comfort
      •    Range
      •    Gate Time
      •    Easy Maintenance
      •    Low Noise
      •    Limited Terminal Service
      •    Obstacle Clearance
      •    Crew Cost




                                                                         19
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                            SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Aircraft concept selection
     Pugh’s Method
     1. Develop concepts

     2. Compare/Rate concepts

     3. Evaluate ratings

     4. Eliminate, add or modify concepts

     5. Repeat the process

     6. Arrive at best concept
                                                                              20
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                             SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Considered Concepts/Configurations




      “Electric”       “Blended Wing”    “Joined Wing”         “Dual Boom”




         “Biplane”              “Solar Powered”           “Dual Fuselage”       21
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                             SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Technology Readiness Level

                                              Biplane
                                             Dual Boom


                                            Blended Wing

                                      Dual Fuselage/Joined Wing



                                              Electric
                                           Solar Powered




                                                                                22
                       www.nasa.gov
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                 SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Concept 1: Dual Fuselage

  •Decreased induced drag
  •Increased range
  •Increased weight
  •Increased bending strength
  •Increased runway length required
  •Ideal for seaplane design
  •Decreased torsional rigidity
  •Decreased aircraft length                             blogmedia.thenewstribune.com

  •Feasible only for extremely large passenger
  aircraft


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COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Concept 2: Joined Wing

  •Less induced drag
  •Increased longitudinal stability
  •Structural weight savings
  •Increased structural stiffness
  •Reduced wetted area and parasite drag
  •Direct lift and side force capability
  •Increased fuel capacity
  •Increased interference drag
  •More complicated aerodynamics and controls




                                                                                  24
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                          SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS




                       Cabin and Fuselage Layout
                                A.J. Berger




                                                                             25
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                           SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Fuselage Layout
      •    100 Seat Single Class
      •    3 Lavatories, 1 Galley
      •    Length - 157 ft
      •    Ext Diameter - 12.5 ft
      •    Int Diameter - 11.5 ft
      •    Capacity for Large Cargo Door




                                                                             26
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                             SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Passenger Fuselage
      •    20 Passengers Per Section
      •    30 in Aisle
      •    5 ft from floor to overhead bin
      •    Large Overhead Bins
      •    7ft 9in from floor to Ceiling




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COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                    SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Seat Layout
                                         First Class Optoprime Economy
                       Seat width         18.5 - 21      22      16.5  in
                       Arm rest              2.75         3        2   in
                       Height off ground     7.75       7.75      8.5  in
                       Seat Pitch             38         38       30   in
                       Overall Height         42         44       39   in
                       Two seats              47         47       39   in




                                                                                      28
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS




                       Preliminary Sizing and Constraint Analysis
                                       Joshua Dias




                                                                                  29
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                    SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Walk-Around Chart                                               Trailing Edges
                                                               •Direct Lift/ Side Force
                                                                     Capability
   Aft-Mounted Engines
    •Rotor Path behind
     PAX compartment
      •Fuselage Noise
         Reduction
                                                                                     Canard
                                                                               •Possibly required for
                                                                                 stability/ control
                                                                                 •Necessity to be
                                                                                   determined




     Joined Wing
   •Drag Reduction
      •Structural           Composite Structure
    Weight Savings            •Weight savings                        Accessibility
                           •Corrosion Resistance               •Capability for Large Cargo
                         •Increased Fuel Capacity                          Door
                                                              •Canard mounted high for jet
                                                                      way access                    30
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                   SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Constraint analysis
      • Major performance constraints:
             –   Cruise altitude: 35,000 ft
             –   Takeoff altitude: 5000 ft (std. day, conservative)
             –   Cruise Mach: 0.78
             –   Takeoff distance: 3500 ft (balanced field length)
             –   Landing distance: 3500 ft (balanced field length)




                                                                                      31
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                         SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Performance Calculations
      • L/Dmax = 17
             – CL(max) = 5
      •    L/D (2nd segment climb) = 16.5
      •    L/D (cruise) = 15
      •    Number of Engines = 2
      •    CD0 = 0.012
      •    Oswald efficiency factor = 0.69
      •    Aspect Ratio = 6




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COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                       SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Trade Studies




                                                          33
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                 SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Trade Studies             T/W & W/S Trade Study
                                                                                            102362
                                                                                            100564
                                                                                           98765.3
                                                                                           96966.7
                                                                                           95168.1
                                                                                           93369.6
                                                                                             91571
                                                                                           89772.4
                                                                                           87973.8
                                                                                           86175.3



          100000




           96000




           92000




                                                                                    0.35
            88000

                                                                             0.3
                                                                                   T/W
                                                                      0.25
                       100

                               W/S [psf]   120
                                                                0.2
                                                                                              34
                                                          140
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS

   Operating Envelope
                                             Operating Envelope
                             1
                                                             Constant Rate Turn
                            0.9                              Takeoff (=1)
                                                             Landing (=0.95)
                            0.8
                                                             Second Segment
                            0.7                              Industry Avg (111.5,0.3425)


                            0.6
                       /W




                            0.5
                       T




                            0.4

                            0.3

                            0.2
Design Point
• T/W: 0.25                 0.1

• β (fuel fraction)          0
                                  50   100        150          200           250           300
                                                                                                 35
• W/S: 100 psf                               Wingloading [psf]
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                            SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Compliance Matrix
      Compliance                 Target                     Threshold                   Current



      TOGW (lb)                < 70,000 lb                 < 75,000 lb                 95,000 lb


      Number of PAX               100                          90                         100


      Runway Length (ft)        < 2500 ft                   < 3000 ft                   4533 ft

      Range (NM)               > 2500 NM                   > 2000 NM                   2000 NM
                                               lbm                         lbm                         lbm

      SFC (lb/lb*hr)              < 0.5      lbf
                                                  hr         < 0.6      lbf
                                                                              hr       0.5955       lbf
                                                                                                          hr   

      Thrust Available (lbf)   40,000 lbf                  25,000 lbf                  25,520 lbf
                                                                                                                   36
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                              SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   Next Steps
      • Move forward with selected concept
             – Detailed analysis and sizing
             – Finalize aircraft features
             – Performance and Control
      • Cost
             – SFC estimation
             – Operating
      • Global Impact
             – Carbon neutral flights




                                                                                 37
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                       SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS



     Questions?




                                                         38
COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL
                                                                     SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


   References
      •    “Now That’s a Reliable Engine…” July 17,2006. http://www.cfm56.com/index.php?level2=blog_viewpost&t=75
      •     Boeing Current Market Outlook 2007
      •    “The Airplane that Never Sleeps” July 15, 2002. http://www.boeing.com/commercial/news/feature/737qc.html
      •    “DC-3 Commercial Transport” http://www.boeing.com/history/mdc/dc-3.htm
      •    “Aerospace Sourcebook”, AviationWeek & Space Technology, Jan 2007
      •    “Aerospace Sourcebook”, AviationWeek & Space Technology, Jan 2008
      •    Raymer, D.P. “Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach” AIAA 2006
      •    Roskam, J., “Airplane Design Parts I-VIII”, DARCorporation, KS, 1994-2007
      •    Bureau of Transportation Statistics, http://www.bts.gov
      •    Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov
      •    R. Onishi, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan
           “Flying Ocean Giant: A Multi-Fuselage Concept for Ultra-Large Flying Boat”
           AIAA-2004-696
           42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, Jan. 5-8, 2004
      •    WOLKOVITCH, J. (ACA Industries, Inc., Torrance, CA), “The Joined Wing: An Overview”
           Journal of Aircraft 1986
           0021-8669 vol.23 no.3 (161-178)




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COMPANY CONFIDENTIAL

				
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