Janusz Lewandowski by linzhengnd

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									                                   Krzysztof Badyda
                    INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING
ITC               WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
http://www.itc.pw.edu.pl



             Some Aspects of Energy Efficiency
                      and Energy Conservation
                  in Power Generation Industry
                             (Round Table discussion)


   Conference on the Future of Energy in Enlarged Europe: Perspectives for R&D Co-operation
                    A contribution within the context of the Weimar Triangle
                                 October 7- 8th, 2004, Warsaw
Warsaw University of Technology
  (Politechnika Warszawska)
                   General information
ITC

The Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) is the largest
academic school of technology in Poland, employing 2.000
professors. The number of students is 30.000, most of them
study full-time. There are 17 faculties covering almost all
fields of science and technology.
The Institute of Heat Engineering is part of the Faculty of
Power and Aeronautical Engineering (FPAE - MEiL) of the
WUT.
Staff of the Institute - 130 persons, incl. 30 doctor students,
and 25 technical and administration staff.
             Institute of Heat Engineering: structure
ITC
Management:      Prof. Janusz Lewandowski
                 Prof. Jerzy Banaszek - didactics and research
                 Dr Tomasz Wiśniewski - technical aspects,
                                         organisation and finance

Division of Refrigeration, Machines and
Equipment for Chemical and Food Industry - Prof. Jerzy Sado
Division of Power Engineering - Prof. Andrzej Miller
Division of Thermodynamics - Prof. Roman Domański
Division of Aircraft Engines - Prof. Piotr Wolański
Division of Pumps,
Drivers and Power Stations - Prof. Waldemar Jędral
          Division of Power Engineering: specialities
ITC
Scientific fundamentals of machine design and operation.
Apparatus and their sets in power engineering.
Development of methods for mathematical modelling and simulation of
performance under design, off-design and transient conditions.


Objects
• Utility and captive power plants
• Steam and gas turbines
• Combined and cogeneration sets
• Digital simulators of power plant equipment – turbosets, boilers
• New applications of distributed control systems
• Clean coal and environment protection technologies
• Hydrogen and fuel cells
                  Division of Power Engineering:
 ITC              partners/customers
• Transition Technologies (TT) – a company specialised in
  implementation of new computer technologies in power plant
  engineering
• Alstom Power Poland – steam and gas turbine manufacturer
• Vattenfall – owner of the largest combined heat and power plant in
  Europe (Siekierki – 620 MWel and 2000 MWth)
• BOT Group – owner of the largest power plant in Poland (capacity of
  12370 MWel)
• PKN ORLEN – owner of the largest oil refining and petrochemical
  plant in Poland, and of the largest captive CHP plant in Poland
• Power plants and combined heat and power plants (utility and captive,
  including the distributed power sector)
        Division of Power Engineering:
ITC     international partners/co-operation


  • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
    and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan
  • San Diego State University, California, USA
  • Kharkov University of Technology, Ukraine
  • Moscow Power Engineering Institute (MEI),
    Russia
  • University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
  • International Industrial Assessment Center DOE,
    Philadelphia USA (energy audits in industry)
             Division of Power Engineering:
             Typical projects in the area of energy saving
ITC          (realised in co-operation with industry)
• Modernisation of turbines: adapting of flow systems to off-design
  operating conditions
• Modernisation of boilers: adapting to off-design operating conditions
  and/or increase of efficiency
• Energy audits for power and other industrial plants, proposals of
  production process modernisation or modification
• Modelling of energy and technology systems, process losses
  determination
• Optimisation of load distribution in combined heat and power plants
  using automatic model construction (DCS)
• New applications of distributed control systems in power generation
  industry
                               Energy audit
ITC            at Siekierki Combined Heat and Power Plant




Sankey diagram of energy flows for part of the Siekierki CHP plant in typical conditions
                 Boiler driving with neural networks
ITC                    in Połaniec Power Plant
                                    Primary steam
 Combustion
 temperature                                                Temperatures
                                              Secondary     and their
                                              steam         differences
 PW1...6


                                                        Concentration L,R
                                                        CO
                                  OFA                   O2
                                                        NOx



      MW1...6
      Secondary air
                      Total air                     Outlet gases
                                                    temperature L,R
              Optimisation results
ITC

• Reduction of NOx emission by approx. 15-25%
• Efficiency increased by approx. 0.2 - 0.7%
• Elimination of CO
• Number of flammable parts not increased
• Economic operation of actuators
• Safe switching over (supervision system)
• Improved system reliability
           Optimisation of load distribution at a CHP plant
ITC




                                gas




                                                  gas



                                                            gas
      gas



              gas



                     gas




                                          gas
                                oil




                                                  oil



                                                            oil
      oil



              oil



                     oil




                                          oil
      B1      B2      B3        B4        B5      B6        B7

                                                                  12.8 MPa


       TG1         TG2        TG3            TG4        TG5     


                                                                   3.4 MPa
                                                                   1.8 MPa
                                                                   0.75 MPa
                               0.12 MPa


                    Simplified heat diagram
                                Optimisation results
 ITC
                                              0.14
 Nel
[MW]                                          Bs
 200
                                              B

                                              0.12


 190



                                              0.10


 180



                                              0.08
       0         5         10    t [h]   15          0             50           100   t [h]
           Generated electric power                      Relative obtainable fuel savings
                     Hydrogen Turbine Project
ITC               WE-NET – co-operation with Japan

                   Modified New Rankine Cycle (MNRC)
                             proposal of ITC
             H2      O2         H2   O2     H2   O2




h = 84,5%                 HPT         MPT        LPT
 c
h = 66,4%
 R
h      = 66,4%
    HHV
h      = 77,2%
    LHV
      Pressurised fluidised bed boiler
ITC        installation diagram
                Power generation industry in Poland
ITC
Installed capacity: 35000 MW.
Electricity generation of distributed power generation sector:
very low – installed capacity (end of 2002 – excl. industrial power):
wind power 31 MW, biogas 42 MW, small water plants 492 MW.
Contribution to the energy production: 0.2%.
Needed intensive development of electricity sources using
renewable energy.
Relatively high rate of electricity production combined with heat
generation.
Combined heat and power plant capacity: domination of large
plants.
Domination of coal in the energy sector.
                              Cogeneration electricity production
ITC                            rate in Poland from 1985 to 2002

                             Average for EC („old” 15) in 2000: about 10%.

                    20
Elcomb/Eltotal[%]




                    18

                    16

                    14

                    12

                    10
                      1985         1990          1995           2000         2005
                                                 Year
                                  Electricity in cogeneration rate [%]
           De                                                                 ITC




                                  10
                                          20
                                                  30
                                                           40
                                                                   50
                                                                         60




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                                                                              (selected „old” and „new” EC members)




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           Re
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                                                                                                                      Rate of combined electricity production 2001




                        ry
ITC

Domination of coal
in the electricity production
in Poland
Hard coal and lignite: 93% !!
              Energy efficiency and energy savings:
ITC                proposals of co-operation



• Research on advanced power systems with use of hydrogen, esp.
  two-source systems
• Research and analysis of clean coal technologies
• Analysis of new concepts of zero CO2 emission power generation
  technologies
• Fuel cell hybrid systems - research and development
• Implementation of mathematical modelling of power installations
  in collaboration with distributed control systems (DCS)
• New concept of power plant information system
                     Fuel cell hybrid systems
ITC
 Recently, the interest in investigation on ultra-efficient electricity
 generation systems is focused on the application of fuel cells.
 From distributed generation point of view (200 kW to 20 MW),
 two types of fuel cells are considered: Molten Carbonate Fuel
 Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. These types of fuel cells require
 more complex configuration of power plant cycle for proper
 operation.
 The introduction of fuel cell into power plant cycle creates a
 hybrid system. The research and development of these hybrid
 systems is a key for future use of this kind of energy sources. The
 focus of investigations should be laid on design, off-design and
 dynamic simulations of hybrid systems.
         Implementation of mathematical modelling
         of power installations in collaboration with
ITC      distributed control systems (DCS)


 The new abilities for data transfer and recording within the DCS
 make the implementation of different application software
 possible. The software co-operating with DCS can also generate
 information for the system. That makes simulation of operation
 of controlled installation elements possible.
 Examples of projects of implementation of mathematical
 modelling for DCS applications, realised in our Institute: digital
 simulator of a back-pressure extracting steam turbine, digital
 simulator of a steam boiler, optimisation of load distribution in
 captive and utility power plants (combined heat and power),
 software products supporting operation of power plants .
       New concept of power plant information system
ITC
 Distributed control systems (DCS) are installed in all major
 power and industrial plants. The automatic collection of technical
 data and computer processing ability open and even force new
 opportunities of process control and maintenance. On the other
 hand, a new concept of management information system (MIS)
 organisation in power plants and companies should be done. The
 new policy on the Polish energy market strongly speeds the
 consolidation of generators into power concerns up. Therefore, in
 several enterprises kind of remote management centres will be
 created. New MISs need to be used for them. A concept of
 complex utilisation data warehouse and “power portal” (internet
 type GUI), which seems to be the most suitable for this kind of
 application, was presented in multiple papers.
                                     Krzysztof Badyda
                    INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING
ITC              WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
http://www.itc.pw.edu.pl

                                     THANK YOU
             FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION !
 Krzysztof Badyda D.Sc., Ph.D.
 Professor
 Warsaw University of Technology
 Institute of Heat Engineering
 Nowowiejska 25 Str.
 pl 00-665 Warszawa
 tel. (+48-22) 660-5281, 825-29-01
 fax. (+48-22) 825-25-65
 e-mail: badyda@itc.pw.edu.pl


  Conference on the Future of Energy in Enlarged Europe: Perspectives for R&D Co-operation
                   A contribution within the context of the Weimar Triangle
                                 October 7- 8th, 2004, Warsaw

								
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