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Classification and Introduction to Animals Chapter 18 _ 34

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Classification and Introduction to Animals Chapter 18 _ 34 Powered By Docstoc
					    Intro
     to
   Animals
(EUMETAZOA)




       Image from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/index.html
                                    Animal Evolution
Diagram from slide show by Kim Foglia




                   Cnidaria                  Nematoda                  Annelida                Echinoderm
      Porifera                 Platyhelminthes             Mollusca               Arthropoda                     Chordata
    sponges        jellyfish     flatworms roundworms mollusks segmented             insects     starfish       vertebrates
                                                                 worms               spiders
                                                                                                                 backbone
                                                                      segmentation

                                                                                                        endoskeleton


                                                                                        eucoelom


                                                                   body cavity


                                              bilateral symmetry


                                        tissues


                 multicellularity

             Ancestral Protist
            Animals

Invertebrates
(animals without a backbone)

                       Porifera
                       Cnidaria
                       Worms
                       Mollusks
                       Echinoderms
                       Arthropods
             Animals

Vertebrates-
Animals
with backbones
                       Fish
                       Amphibians
                       Reptiles
                       Birds
                       Mammals
                       LIFE ON EARTH




Image from: http://ology.amnh.org/biodiversity/treeoflife/pages/graph.html
  Characteristics of ALL Animals:
1. Eukaryotic
2. Heterotrophic
3. Multicellular/differentiated cells
4. Cells have NO cell walls
5. Movement
6. Reproduction (Most sexual)
                       Body Systems :
   INTEGUMENTARY
_____________________
  OUTSIDE BODY COVERING
     (fur, skin, scales, feathers)




 Covers and protects, ID,
 prevents heat & water loss
Orangutan image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php
Fish image from:http://www.woodburning.com/fish/
Frog image from: http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~mmorley/rainbow/green%20frog.jpg
Cardinal image from: http://www.nps.gov/fopu/pulaskione/GRAPHIC/IMAGES/birds/Northern%20Cardinal.jpg
        Body Systems :
     DIGESTIVE
 _________________
Breaks down food to
obtain nutrients
   &
  gets rid of
  undigested waste




                      Image from: http://infozone.imcpl.org/kids_diges.htm
 http://www.tape-worm.info/


                                                                                         EX: tapeworm




NO OPENINGS:                                                                                          Image by Riedell



Food enters through
      cell surface


                              EX: sponges




                                   Sponge images from Animals slide show by Kim Foglia @ http://www.explorebiology.com
                         Images from:
                         http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif
                         http://contanatura.weblog.com.pt/arquivo/2005/09/imortalidade_pr.html
                         http://www.explorebiology.com


                       EX: jellyfish, hydra, planaria




ONE OPENING combined digestive/circulatory space
= GASTROVASCULAR CAVITY

FOOD IN and WASTE OUT through same opening
          Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif




TWO OPENINGS:
FOOD IN at one end (mouth)
WASTE OUT at other end (ANUS)
                 Image from: http://www.geocities.com/animalbio/biology/DIGESTIO.gif




Two openings:           Most efficient

If food flows only one direction it
allows for organ specialization
(Different parts can start to do different jobs)
             Body Systems :
   CIRCULATORY
__________________

Transports nutrients/oxygen to body cells
Carries carbon dioxide/nitrogen waste
     away from cells

Circulatory fluid can be:
                           CLOSED
   inside blood vessels = _________
   loose inside body spaces = OPEN
                              _______
Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_19/147a.gif
                               IMMUNE SYSTEM

                                                                     Protection against
                                                                     “foreign invaders”




http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255ion/fig14X28.jpg




                                                             http://www.biology.arizona.edu/IMMUNOLOGY/tutorials/antibody/structure.html
                       Body Systems :
 RESPIRATORY
___________________

                                           Exchange gases with the
                                             environment

                                            • take in oxygen
                                            • remove waste gases
                                               (CO2 &/or ammonia)


Image from: http://www.umm.edu/respiratory/images/respiratory_anatomy.gif
 GAS EXCHANGE THROUGH SKIN




 BOOK LUNGS                                                                TRACHEA & SPIRACLES




http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/LecArthropod/SpiderX.jpg
 GILLS




 LUNGS
                                          trachea                             lung

                                         anterior
                                         air sacs



                                                                        posterior
                                                                        air sacs

http://www.ciggyfree.com/cigblog/wp-content/uploads/2007/02/lungs.gif
    BREATHING WITH LUNGS




• Positive pressure
                          • Negative pressure
• Air pushed into lungs
                          • Air pulled into lungs
                             (diaphragm)
      UNIQUE BIRD LUNGS




AIRS SACS ATTACHEDTO LUNGS
ALLOW OXYGEN IN LUNGS on the
INHALE and on the EXHALE
                               Animation from:
                                http://www.sk.lung.ca/content.cfm/birds
     Body Systems :

      EXCRETORY
    ___________________

•   Collect and remove nitrogen waste
     made by cells
•    Help with HOMEOSTASIS
      by maintaining water/ion balance
       OSMOREGULATION
    (_________________________)
        NITROGEN WASTE :
 AMMONIA
_________________ Most TOXIC
                 Must be removed QUICKLY
                 Needs MOST water to dilute

    UREA
______________ Made from ammonia by liver
               Less toxic than ammonia
               Can be stored if diluted with water
               (Needs less water to dilute than ammonia)

 URIC ACID
______________ LEAST TOXIC
               Can be stored if diluted with water
               (Needs LEAST amount of water to dilute)
NITROGEN WASTE
      http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nitrowaste.JPG
 ALL WASTE is NOT THE SAME!
                DIGESTIVE          NITROGEN
                WASTE              WASTE
WHERE IT’S                      made by cells
MADE?           left over from from break
                undigested food down of proteins
                                & nucleic acids
Body system
used?           Handled by          Handled by
                digestive system    excretory system

                                   ammonia, urea,
                  Feces            or uric acid
In what form?
                  (poop)           (waste + water = urine)
  •    NEPHRIDIA
                                                                 http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/Faculty/Farabee/BIOBK/insectexcret_1.gif




  •    MALPIGHIAN TUBULES
  •    FLAME CELLS
  •    KIDNEYS




http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/InvertZoo/LecArthropod/SpiderX.jpg




                                                                      http://www.pleasanton.k12.ca.us/avhsweb/thiel/apbio/review/excretory.html
                               Body Systems :
     SKELETAL
  ___________________
Framework to support body/protection
                             ENDOSKELETON
        Skeleton on inside = _______________

                              EXOSKELETON
        Skeleton on outside = _______________




 Walking skeleton image from: http://virtualastronaut.jsc.nasa.gov/textonly/act15/text-skeletonpuz.html

  Insect lefg image from:http://www.zoobooks.com/newFrontPage/animals/virtualZoo/animals/i/insects/images/exoskeleton
                               Image from: http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/muscles_noSW.html


          Body Systems :
   MUSCULAR
 _______________
Locomotion- move body itself

         OR


 move substances through body
 (EX: food through digestive system;
         blood through vessels)

                http://www.angliacampus.com/public/sec/science/nutriton/images/peristal.gif
                       Body Systems :
  REPRODUCTIVE
 _____________________ -

Produce offspring by combining
genetic material from 2 parents
  SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
= __________________________

                           Produce offspring using genetic
                           material from only 1 parent
                            ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
                           =_______________________

Family image from: http://babyhearing.org/Parenet2Parent/index.asp
Planaria animation: http://www.t3.rim.or.jp/~hylas/planaria/title.htm
                          REPRODUCTIVE
  INDIRECT
______________ DEVELOPMENT
    immature LARVA looks different than adult



     Metamorphosis image from: http://www.lincoln.midcoast.com/~del/butterfly
     Frog image from: http://www.animationlibrary.co



                                              DIRECT
                                            __________ DEVELOPMENT
                                             young are smaller
                                               versions on adults



 Image from: http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/images/grow.JPG
Sperm and egg join
outside female’s body = External fertilization
                        ___________________

Sperm and egg join
                        Internal fertilization
inside female’s body = ____________________
Animation from: http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/f/fe rtilization/support.gif
  ___________________
  NERVOUS

Receive sensory info
about environment
            &
send response signals




                  http://www.roadhunter.com/~ceph/gallery/anatomy07.jpg
    ENDOCRINE
 __________________
Make hormones
that regulate
other body systems




              Image from: http://www.cushings-help.com/images/endocrine.jpg
                        Kinds of Symmetry




Asymmetry                                      Radial                 Bilateral



 Images from:
  http://mbgnet.mobot.org/salt/animals/sponges.htm
 http://biodidac.bio.uottawa.ca/
 http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm
 http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Documents/Animals/Symmetry.htm
           DORSAL




ANTERIOR                            POSTERIOR




           VENTRAL


               Animation from: http://bestanimations.com
      CEPHALIZATION
      ________________
Concentration of nervous tissue and
 sensory organs in anterior end of an
 organism (head area)
•   First seen in Platyhelminthes (flat worms)
•   Associated with bilateral symmetry
•   Efficient response to stimulus
•   Sense organs encounter environment first
                EMBRYOLOGY


 Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml




1. Where does BLASTOPORE end up?
2. What do embryos look like as they divide?
3. When do cells decide what they will be?
        EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT




                                                                      Becomes
                                                                      digestive
                                                                      system

Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm
1.Where does BLASTOPORE end up?




Images modified from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm
 What do embryos look like as they divide?




               SPIRAL                                          RADIAL
       CLEAVAGE                                               CLEAVAGE
Images from:
http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/so28_04.gif
When do cells decide what
   they will become?




        Image from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg
   Cells decide early                             Cells decide later




Removing cell causes death                         Removing cell OK
  DETERMINATE                                 INDETERMINATE
               Images modified from: http://www.rbej.com/content/figures/1477-7827-1-100-1.jpg
THAT’S WHERE TWINS COME FROM !



           ONLY
           Deuterostomes
           can have
           identical twins!




MONOZYGOTIC TWINS             DIZYGOTIC TWINS
(Maternal twins)              (Fraternal twins)
Identical DNA                 DIFFERENT DNA
             ANIMALS
             (Triploblastic)
PROTOSTOMES          DEUTEROSTOMES
Blastopore becomes    Blastopore becomes
       MOUTH             ANUS
Decide very early     Decide later
(DETERMINATE)        (INDETERMINATE)
                       RADIAL cleavage
 SPIRAL cleavage
                      ALL VERTEBRATES
MOST INVERTEBRATES    (Fish, amphibians, birds,
except ECHINODERMS         reptiles, mammals)
                      plus ECHINODERMS
              Image from: http://www.bsac21.freeserve.co.uk/images/Critters/Starfish% 20Bloody% 20Henry.JPG


“Exception to the rule”
   ECHINODERMS ARE
  THE ONLY
  INVERTEBRATE
  DEUTEROSTOMES
 http://my3boysandi.files.wordpress.com/2007/11/spongebob_1.jpg




                                Porifera and Cnidarians
                                have only TWO germ layers
                                Not considered PROTOSTOMES


 http://z.about.com/d/healing/1/0/Y/O/gtotem_jellyfish.jpg
                                                  BODY PLAN
         INVERTEBRATES                                                                     VERTEBRATES
         • Dorsal heart                                                                    • Ventral heart
         • Ventral nerve cord                                                              • Dorsal nerve cord




http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/resources/biodidac/crus001and2b.gif/small.jpg
  GASTRULATION-
  cells move inward overlip of blastopore
  THREE germ layers form




                                                                      Becomes
                                                                      digestive
                                                                      system

Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16anim3.htm
All animals have 3 germ layers
    = TRIPLOBLASTIC
Except: sponges, jellyfish, anemones
    = DIPLOBLASTIC
 Endoderm     Digestive system,
              respiratory

 Mesoderm Muscle, excretory, bones,
          circulatory

 Ectoderm     Outer skin, brain,
               nervous system
 Types of Coeloms (See-Lums)
No cavity (space) around organs




        Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm




ACOELOM = “without space”
FLATWORMS are
 ACOELOMATES!
  Types of Coeloms (See-Lums)
Space around organs but only lined with
 mesoderm on one side
 (lines body wall BUT NOT around gut)
               Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm




      PSEUDOCOELOM
 ROUND WORMS are
PSEUDOCOELOMATES!
       Kinds of Coeloms (See-Lums)
  EUCOELOM: Body cavity (space) lined
   on BOTH sides by mesoderm




Image from: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16labman05/lb5pg10.htm



EUCOELOM = TRUE COELOM = COELOM
EUCOELOMATES
         ALL
         VERTEBRATES &
         MOST
         INVERTEBRATES
           3 Types of Coeloms




ACOELOM                                      EUCOELOM
             PSEUDOCOELOM
ectoderm
mesoderm
endoderm
                  Image from: http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg
  FUNCTIONS of having a
   COELOM (body space):
  Provides space/cushion internal organs
In animals without a skeleton-
   Fluid in coelom space can act as a
        HYDROSTATIC skeleton
 In animals without blood vessels-
    Fluid in coelom space can circulate
      nutrients and oxygen to cells
    ADVANTAGE OF a EUCOELOM?
Digestive organ muscles and body wall
muscles come from MESODERM in
different places so organism can digest
food and move at same time.




Images from:
 http://www.lander.edu/rsfox/310images/310bil5.jpg
  http://www.okc.cc.ok.us/biologylabs/Images/Animal_Images/coelomate.gif
         ECTOTHERMIC
ADVANTAGES:
 Slow metabolism means you can survive
  on 1/10 the food as a same size endotherm

DISADVANTAGES:
• Can’t to live in extremely cold places
   (NO reptiles in Arctic)

• Can’t keep up max activity level for long
    Endothermic “warm-blooded”
• Create own body heat

• FAST metabolism allows for:
    high activity for extended time
    ability to live in variety of environments

• EX: Birds, Mammals
           SOURCES
Anemone from: http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/children/animals/cnidaria.gif




Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif



  Crab from: http://www.gifs.net




      Clam from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/animal%20dissections.htm




     Ant from: http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk
Millipede from:
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/sirrobhitch.suffolk/key/images/invertebrates/millipede.jpg




                Starfish from: http://www.gifs.net




        Jellyfish from: http://www.aloha.com/~lifeguards/jellie75.jpg
  Tree frog: http://www.dynamicearth.co.uk/education/images/tree_frog.jpg




  Turtle: http://www.50birds.com/images/endttboxturtle.jpg




Bird: http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/homepage.htm




     Fish from: http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif




Orangutan: http://www.biologycorner.com/webquests.php
     Earthworm :
     http://www.york.ac.uk/org/ciec/CaringfortheEnvironment.29.
             4.03/Exxon/Food%20Chain%20images/ExxonPicsLarge/Earthworms.jpg




             Starfish from: http://www.gifs.net




Snail from: http://www.lucinda.net/surber/graphics/orlovsky.gif




Crab from: http://www.animation-station.com/fish/index.php?page=2
All images on this page from: http://www.seaworld.org/AnimalBytes/animal_bytes.html

				
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