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					Chapter 8 Political Geography Study Guide

1. A distinctive feature of the world's superpowers between the 1940s and 1980s compared

   to other eras was that the number of superpowers was much lower than in the past.

2. A feature of the physical environment commonly used to separate states includes deserts,

   mountains, lakes, and rivers.

3. A frontier, in contrast to a boundary is an area rather than a line.

4. A state which places most power in the hands of a central government is a unitary state.

5. A state with control over its internal affairs has sovereignty.

6. A territory tied to a state rather than being completely independent is a colony.

7. After the fall of communism, Poland delegated more authority to local governments.

8. Al-Qaeda is not a single unified organization.

9. Alsace and Lorraine have been claimed by France and Germany at different times.

10. An area organized into an independent political unit is a state.

11. An example of a perforated state is South Africa.

12. An increasing number of states have adopted a federal form of government primarily to

   grant different ethnicities or nationalities more effective representation.

13. As a result of a 1979 Soviet invasion, Afghanistan generated one of the world's largest

   refugee migrations.

14. Boundaries were redrawn in much of Europe after World War I according to the

   distribution of languages.

15. By 1900, the British Empire could not claim that their largest colonies had become

   independent. This process of decolonization began after WW II.

16. China and Taiwan are not considered two areas form one sovereign state and Taiwan

   does not hold a seat in the United Nations.

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17. Compact shape favors the establishment of effective internal communications for a

   smaller state.

18. Conflicting claims to the Arctic are mostly due to the potential for energy resources.

19. Cultural boundaries include ethnic, geometric, religious, and language.

20. Elongated states may suffer from poor internal communication and difficulty defending

   its borders.

21. European states were not motivated by guilt when began establishing colonies in the New

   World, but gold, glory, and God.

22. Geographers at UCLA used geographic techniques to predict the likely location of Osama

   bin Laden.

23. In 2002 the Organization of African Unity was replaced by the African Union.

24. Key challenges to establishing a representative government in Iraq after Saddam Hussein

   are geometric boundaries established by British and French treaties, tribal and ethnic

   differences between provinces, sectarian conflict between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims,

   and Al-Qaeda insurgents opposed to a secular state.

25. Korea is a good example of a ethnicity divided between more than one state.

26. Over the past half century, the number of sovereign states in the world has increased by

   more than a hundred.

27. Political unity in the ancient Mediterranean world reached its height in the Roman

   Empire.

28. Redistricting so that the opposition is spread across many districts as a minority it termed

   a wasted vote strategy.

29. Some extremely small states in the world are located in the southern hemisphere.

30. States cooperate because of political, military, and economic reasons reasons.

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31. Terrorism differs from assassinations and other acts of political violence because attacks

   are aimed at ordinary people.

32. The Aozou Strip is a good example of a geometric boundary.

33. The attempt by one country to impose political control over another territory is

   colonialism.

34. The boundary between the United States and Canada is best described by geometry and

   water.

35. The British created different government structures for its various colonies to help protect

   the cultures in their territories.

36. The Commonwealth is primarily an economic and cultural alliance of states once part of

   the British Empire.

37. The eastern part of the border between the U. S. and Mexico is delineated by the Rio

   Grande.

38. The European Union has promoted economic growth in Western Europe.

39. The Fertile Crescent followed the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and extended from the

   Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. It was the location of the first city-states in the

   Middle East and sometimes is considered to be extended into the Nile Valley.

40. The first states in ancient Mesopotamia were city-states.

41. The first widespread use of the nation-state concept came in Western Europe.

42. The Germans established the proruption known as the Caprivi Strip in present-day

   Namibia because of it allows to access to resources in central Africa and access to the

   Zambezi river, as well as help with the disruption of British communications.

43. The growth of the European Union has resulted in member states adopting a common

   currency and freer travel, besides participating in the world's wealthiest market.

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44. The Kurds are divided among more than one state.

45. The most populous country not a member of the UN is Taiwan.

46. The most populous remaining colony is ruled by the United States.

47. The only large land mass not part of a sovereign state is Antarctica.

48. The problems experienced by Cyprus during the past four decades are not due to the

   partition of the island by the British as part of the independence process, but other

   considerations such as the ethnic origins of the population, Greeks and Turks.

49. The process of redrawing legislative boundaries to benefit the party in power is called

   gerrymandering.

50. The United Nations is primarily a political cooperative effort.

51. The world's largest state is Russia.

52. The world's smallest colony is Pitcairn.

53. Then-Secretary of State Colin Powell used air photos of alleged chemical weapons

   bunkers to make the case for war with Iraq before the United Nations.

54. With the end of the Cold War, the European Union has become the world's leading

   economic superpower.




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