Programming by yaofenji


    Motor Skills
Games and Sport
       Motor Skills
Planning Considerations
Motor Skills
   8 Basic locomotor skills

   Other locomotor skills

   Object control skills
       fine motor
       gross motor
    Motor Skills

 Causative factors of low motor skills
1. Delayed development of CNS
2. Sensory information processing issues
3. Attitudinal or environmental influences
  (Inadequate instruction/practice opportunities)
5. Combined influences
6. No known cause

Planning Considerations -
Motor Skills
   Five assessment questions
       Performance
       Function
       Performance Standards
       Constraints
       Developmental Level
   Basic motor skill goal: develop functional
    competence in locomotor and object control

 Does student perform skill (yes/no)?
Conditions of performance:
1. Instructional Considerations:
       Informal, Structured, Formal command response
       Comprehension, attention, motivation
2. Environmental Considerations:
       Size, weight, texture of objects
       Surfaces
       # of students at stations
Functional Competence
   Proficiency in performance of life functions
       locomotion, play, work, self-care
   Question: Is skill useful in a variety of
   Question: Can student perform skill in
    varied settings?
   Remember the “F” in the FAD
    Performance Standards

   Meeting standards with respect to task
    variables such as:
       form
       distance
       speed
       accuracy
       function
   Importance of task variables varies!

(run, jump, throw, catch, strike, kick)
   Within assessment context:
       Abnormalities of body structure and function
   Short stature
   Obesity
   Posture Deviations / Body Deviations
   Amputations
   Abnormalities of Muscle Tone*
Abnormalities of Muscle Tone

   Spasticity / Hypertonus
       muscle tone is too tight (contractures)
       caused by many conditions (CP)
   Fluctuating muscle tone / Athetosis
       body parts in constant purposeless motion (CP)
   Paralysis / Atonus
       no muscle tone (SB/SCI)
   Paresis / Hypotonus
       weakness or poor tone (MD)
Developmental Level
   Normal movement patterns for a specific
    chronological age
   Progression from immature to mature
    movement patterns
   Using “good” form (TGMD) used for assessment
   TGMD aides in reporting present level of
    performance - for writing goals and objectives
   Authentic Assessment / Rubrics***
    Games and Sport
    Planning Considerations
Programming for Various Life
Games and Sport
   1.   Able-body (AB) sport
   2.   Mainstream sport
   3.   Reverse mainstream sport
   4.   Disability sport
   5.   Special Olympics
   6.   Paralympics
   7.   Deaf sport
   8.   Wheelchair sports
Games and Sport
Disability Sport Organizations:

   INAS-FMH         DAAA
   SOI              USAAA
   DS/USA           AAAD
   WS, USA          USABA (IBSA)
Programming for Various Life
Early Childhood -
 (Stability/Locomotor/Manipulative)
Childhood -
 (Locomotor / Object Control Skills / PMS)
Adolescence -
 (Games / Sports [Individual, Dual, Team, Disability] /
  Fitness / Non-traditional / Recreation /
  Aquatics / Dance / Multicultural / Transition)
Programming for Various Life
Early Adulthood -
 (Recreation / Leisure / Lifetime Activities)

Adulthood -
 (Wellness / Lifetime Activities)

Older Adulthood -
 (Balance / Fitness)
Programming for Various
    Planning Considerations and
         Instructional Strategies
Learning Disabilities
Planning Considerations and
     Instructional Strategies
    Learning Disabilities

Planning Considerations
   Psychomotor
   Hyperactive (ADHD) or Hypoactive
       offer activities that channel extremes
       relaxation
       “tight” structure
       rest periods before returning to class
       reduce Hyper with energy deprivation activities
       Hypo - fast-tempo activities
    Learning Disabilities

Planning Considerations
   Psychomotor
   Clumsiness (Dyspraxia) or perceptual
       focus activities on ameliorating perceptual
       i.e. perceptual motor activities (depth
        temporal/directional/kinesthetic awareness)
       vary size, shape, color, texture of objects
      Learning Disabilities

Planning Considerations
   Cognitive/Affective
   varied teaching modalities
   whole - part demonstrations
   sequencing considerations (add parts gradually to
    complex tasks) (use rhythmic activities)
   structured environment (boundaries/equipment)
   perseveration (rules reinforcement) i.e. no ball
    bouncing after whistle has blown
   plan social interactions (develop social skills)
General Instructional Strategies
 Vary instructional strategies
Typical - imitation / verbal instruction
Variation - movement exploration / creative
  games, dance, activities
 Modality based instruction

Typical - mixed modality
Variation - use modality of choice
General Instructional Strategies
 Self-talk / Verbal rehearsal
 Talking oneself through activity or sequence
 Saying aloud parts of planned movement
  before execution (teacher prompting verbal
Specific Instructional
   ADHD considerations:
   Inattention
   Impulsive
   Hyperactive
   Perseveration
       transition difficulties
       ball bouncing
       laughing
       repeating phrase or topic of conversation
ADHD Instructional Strategies
   Specifically for ADHD:
       use optimal structure / routines
       reduce space [clearly identify lanes,
       eliminate irrelevant stimuli
       enhance the stimulus value of the equipment
        or instructional material
Final Considerations
For all students with LD:
 Class structure should emphasize
  cooperative behaviors, social competence,
  and self-esteem
 Most students with LD require APE
  services to self-actualize their motor,
  fitness, and leisure potential
  Mental Retardation
Planning Considerations and
     Instructional Strategies
Mental Retardation

Planning Considerations
   Psychomotor
   teach developmental psychomotor needs
    (attention to human growth-ceph/prox)
   fitness***
   leisure/recreation skills
    Mental Retardation

Planning Considerations
   Cognitive
   concrete activities (avoid abstractions)
   used developmental progressions
   allow students to “learn by doing”
   check for and reinforce skill retention
   variability in practice for transferability of skills
    (motor schema)
   short memory/attention span
       modeling/verbal rehearsal/many trials
Mental Retardation
Planning Considerations
   Affective
   success oriented activities increase self-
   model and reinforce age-appropriate behavior
   teach appropriate play skills
   keep routines!
Mental Retardation

   Mild
   Special Olympics Sports Skills Model
       Skills
       Social Behavior
       Functional Knowledge of Rules
   Unified Sports Model
    Mental Retardation

   Mild
   Stepping Out for Fitness Model
   use of music in all lessons
   focus on fitness six themes
       calisthenics to music
       exercise break package
       ball activities
       hoop and rope activities
       circuit training
       20-km club (6 lessons/ 2 10-min “lap” periods
Mental Retardation
   Severe/Profound
   MATP
   Sensorimotor models (increasing body
    awareness/prelocomotion skills/object
    manipulation skills/posture and locomotion
   Fitness Video
    Physical Disabilities
                 Cerebral Palsy
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
      Other Physical Conditions
     Cerebral Palsy
Programming Implications
Cerebral Palsy
   Instructional Strategies:
       Dependent upon type and severity of
Specific concerns:
 Delayed motor development
 Reflex/Postural reaction abnormalities
 Abnormal muscle tone
 Attitudinal issues
Cerebral Palsy
Delayed Motor Development
 Motor performance at age 7 is usually predictive
  of adult performance
 Walking, retention of reflexes, etc.
 Focus should shift from PT to functional
  performance efforts
 Ex. Integration of reflexes- instead focus on
  compensating for reflexes and/or use for
  enhancement of performance
Cerebral Palsy
Reflex/Postural Reaction Abnormalities
 Emphasis on protective reactions (parachute
  reaction) and equilibrium development
 Again, use non-integrated reflexes to advantage
  or develop coping strategies
 Activity selection for remediating weaknesses
  (balance beam, horseback, dance, ice skating)
 Cerebral Palsy

Abnormal Muscle Tone
Spasticity -
 Fisted hand (wrist hyperextension)
 Suggestion: use shoulder joint and radioulnar
  rotation (Do NOT pry fingers open)
 Overall spasticity - rotation of trunk (rolling and
  rocking activities)
 These activities create weight shifting situations
  that promote development of equilibrium reactions
  Cerebral Palsy

Abnormal Muscle Tone
Athetosis -
 Main goal: head and trunk control (midline
 Midline control - decreases undesired limb
 Activities to reinforce midline control
  (bicycling/horseback riding)
 Activities that may present problems???
 (bowling / tennis / golf / archery)
Cerebral Palsy
Attitudinal Issues
 Research suggests: ranked last or next to
  last as friendship choices when several
  disabilities are compared
 Implications: careful attention to self-
  concept, motivation and social
Cerebral Palsy
Common areas of programming:
 Physical Fitness

 Fundamental Motor Skills/Patterns

 Individual / Group Games or Sports

 Aquatics
Cerebral Palsy and Fitness
    Fitness is of great concern due to typical
     mechanical and muscular inefficiency
    Spasticity, athetosis, and perseveration of
     reflexes (flexor/extensor) can make easy motor
     tasks require high amounts of energy
    Historically, flexibility (ROM) has been top
     fitness goal
    Aerobic/muscular strength and endurance???
Cerebral Palsy and Motor Skills
   Three phase approach “muscle education”
   Phase 1 - relaxation training
   Tight muscles are stretched / massaged
    attempting to “normalize” muscle tone
   Appropriate positioning and handling to inhibit
    reflex reactions
   Phase 2 - focus is on voluntary muscle training
    of single joint action
   Actions - flex/extend and grasp/release
Cerebral Palsy and Motor Skills
   Phase 3 - after single joint actions are
    mastered, multiple joint patterns are
    trained against gravity
   Examples: crawling, creeping, walking,
    running, and jumping
   Typical Development Activities:
   Body image activities through movement
Cerebral Palsy and Motor Skills
   Typical Development Activities:
   Sensorimotor and eye-limb coordination
   Gross coordinated movements - lying to
    sitting to standing to locomoting
   Balance activities
   Spatial and Kinesthetic awareness
   Play skills
     Cerebral Palsy and
   Typically more successful in individual activities than
   Fast, fine motor, long duration, limited boundary
    activities are difficult and usually don’t offer success
   Suggestions: competition against personal records,
    avoid activities of over stimulation or over fatigue, use
    soft-textured slow moving objects (balloons, yarnballs,
    or deflated balls)
   Substitution suggestions: walking for running,
    bouncing for throwing, gross for fine, slow for fast,
    closed skills for open skills
Cerebral Palsy and Aquatics
   Excellent activity (Video)
   Water medium provides natural buoyancy,
    viscosity, and gravity
   Activities that would be difficult on land are
    possible in water (ex. Walking)
   Suggestions: shallow water, higher
    temperatures, breathing control, supine
    floating, ROM activities, play skills
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
          Motor Skills, Fitness and
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
Program Implications -
 Motor Skills
       Locomotor, Postural, Manipulative
       Aquatics
       Dance
   Fitness
       Flexibility, Aerobic, and Muscular Endurance
   Sport
       Programming: Quadriplegia / Paraplegia
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
Motor Skills
 Most students can participate with only minor
     walk instead of run or push chair forward one turn l/r
      instead of hop
Simple Suggestions:
 Modify Movement Requirements
 Throw underhand vs. overhand
 Carry ball vs. dribbling
 Modified crawl vs. breast stroke
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
   Vary Position Played in a Game
   Pitching for both teams
   Goalie
   Zones
   Adapt Equipment
   Varied striking implements
   Varied manipulative objects (size, color, texture)
   Lowering the net
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
   Vary Distances / Boundaries
   Shorter distances / wider boundaries
   Offer choice in distance or height

 Minimal Modifications

 Individualized programs
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
 Square, Ballroom and Folk

 Can be adapted with creativity and
  suggestions (Waltz handout)
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
 Neck circles

 Arm circles

 Arm cross

 Side stretch

 Trunk twist
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
Aerobic (Video)
 Aerobic Dance

 Wheeling

 Arm Ergometry

 Passive Quad-Stationary Cycling
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury

Muscular Endurance
 Side arm raises
 Seat dips
 Shoulder shrug
 Bent over lateral raise
 Arm curl
 Triceps press
 Use of thera-bands
 Accessible machines
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
Quad Rugby (C6 - T1)
 Played on regulation basketball court

 Combines basketball, football and hockey

 Object is to score points by carrying ball over
  opponents goal line *(ball must be bounced at
  least once every 10 seconds)
Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury
 Depends on classification (Almost any sport can
  be played in a wheelchair)
 Jeff McCubbin reference (Oregon State)

 Track and racing events

 Wheelchair basketball/tennis

 Skiing
Other Physical Conditions
  Muscular Weakness Conditions
Programming for Muscular
Weakness Conditions
MS                            MD
 Flexibility and range        Range of motion

  of motion exercises          Postural exercises
  may be of most need          Locomotor skill activities
 Balance activities           Develop weak muscles

 Aquatic environment          Balance activities
     cool water stimulates    Aquatics
      circulation                   body mechanics
     warm water tends to           strength / endurance
      induce fatigue faster
 General Guidelines for
 Programming MS / MD
Multiple Sclerosis / Muscular Dystrophy
 Avoid activities that cause fatigue or pain
 Goal of exercise should be to maintain
  function not to increase it
 Increase rest periods during activity
 Use interval training vs. aerobic activities
 Allow choice of equipment / speed and
  distance of locomotion activities
 Develop friendships and social skills
 Typically, only minor accommodations to
  participate in regular physical education
Sport programming
 Ambulatory and Wheelchair Track
 Sitting and Standing Volleyball
 Swimming
 Horseback Riding
 Cycling
Hard of Hearing and Visual
       Programming Implications
    Hard of Hearing

 Obviously, one of the most common problems
  in teaching individuals with HH conditions is
 Use other senses for instruction purposes
  (visual aides, manual guidance - kinesthetic)
 Learn ASL
 Gross signing (Manual Communication)
       hand signals that signify words or phrases
       Class activity* (Develop 10 gross signs)
    Hard of Hearing

 Most students with HH conditions perform
  motor skills at same level as peers without HH
  conditions (except when inner ear balance
  deficits exist)
Research suggests:
 In almost all areas, (motor skill, fitness, leisure
  participation) students with HH conditions are
  similar to peers without HH conditions with
  regard to performance, participation and
 However -
Hard of Hearing
 Differences exist in play and game
  behaviors that are associated with
 Why?
 Difficult to incidentally pick up game rules,
  strategies, and behaviors
 Must plan for this*
Visual Impairments
Legal Blindness Definition:
 Less than 20/200 vision with best
  correction, or
 Less than 20 degree visual field with best
 Developmental Issues:
 Most infants who are blind have atypical
  motor development (Why?)
Visual Impairments
 Persons with VI have lower fitness than sighted
  peers (Why?)
 Lack of instruction and practice, inactive
  lifestyles, and overprotection
 Regular class physical education is typically
  recommended for students with VI
 Except for ball-handling activities, students with
  VI can participate with few adaptations
Visual Impairments
 Success in a class for a student with VI is largely
  dependent on the teachers ability to give precise
  and appropriate verbal cues
Some specific recommended activities:
 wrestling, tumbling, gymnastics, bowling,
  swimming, weight training, judo, dance,
  horseback riding, fishing, hiking, tandem cycling
  - these require little or no adaptations
Visual Impairments
When adaptations are necessary:
 Write to the American Foundation for the
  Blind for catalogs of special equipment
 Creativity*

Some specific training/remedial activities:
 Perceptual motor activities (spatial
  awareness, body awareness and
  proprioception / haptic perception)
Visual Impairments
Main sports:
 Track and Field

 Beep Baseball

Goal Ball*
 Excellent inclusive activity for all ages

 Develops auditory perceptual abilities

 Fun!!!

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