Programming Motor Skills Games and Sport Motor Skills Planning Considerations Motor Skills 8 Basic locomotor skills Other locomotor skills Object control skills fine motor gross motor Motor Skills Causative factors of low motor skills 1. Delayed development of CNS 2. Sensory information processing issues 3. Attitudinal or environmental influences (Inadequate instruction/practice opportunities) 5. Combined influences 6. No known cause Planning Considerations - Motor Skills Five assessment questions Performance Function Performance Standards Constraints Developmental Level Basic motor skill goal: develop functional competence in locomotor and object control skills Performance Does student perform skill (yes/no)? Conditions of performance: 1. Instructional Considerations: Informal, Structured, Formal command response Comprehension, attention, motivation 2. Environmental Considerations: Size, weight, texture of objects Surfaces # of students at stations Functional Competence Proficiency in performance of life functions locomotion, play, work, self-care Question: Is skill useful in a variety of settings? Question: Can student perform skill in varied settings? Remember the “F” in the FAD Performance Standards Meeting standards with respect to task variables such as: form distance speed accuracy function Importance of task variables varies! (run, jump, throw, catch, strike, kick) Constraints Within assessment context: Abnormalities of body structure and function Short stature Obesity Posture Deviations / Body Deviations Amputations Abnormalities of Muscle Tone* Abnormalities of Muscle Tone Spasticity / Hypertonus muscle tone is too tight (contractures) caused by many conditions (CP) Fluctuating muscle tone / Athetosis body parts in constant purposeless motion (CP) Paralysis / Atonus no muscle tone (SB/SCI) Paresis / Hypotonus weakness or poor tone (MD) Developmental Level Normal movement patterns for a specific chronological age Progression from immature to mature movement patterns Using “good” form (TGMD) used for assessment TGMD aides in reporting present level of performance - for writing goals and objectives Authentic Assessment / Rubrics*** Games and Sport Planning Considerations and Programming for Various Life Stages Games and Sport 1. Able-body (AB) sport 2. Mainstream sport 3. Reverse mainstream sport 4. Disability sport 5. Special Olympics 6. Paralympics 7. Deaf sport 8. Wheelchair sports Games and Sport Disability Sport Organizations: INAS-FMH DAAA SOI USAAA DS/USA AAAD WS, USA USABA (IBSA) USCPAA (CP- ISRA) USLASA Programming for Various Life Stages Early Childhood - (Stability/Locomotor/Manipulative) Childhood - (Locomotor / Object Control Skills / PMS) Adolescence - (Games / Sports [Individual, Dual, Team, Disability] / Fitness / Non-traditional / Recreation / Aquatics / Dance / Multicultural / Transition) Programming for Various Life Stages Early Adulthood - (Recreation / Leisure / Lifetime Activities) Adulthood - (Wellness / Lifetime Activities) Older Adulthood - (Balance / Fitness) Programming for Various Disabilities Planning Considerations and Instructional Strategies Learning Disabilities Planning Considerations and Instructional Strategies Learning Disabilities Planning Considerations Psychomotor Hyperactive (ADHD) or Hypoactive offer activities that channel extremes relaxation “tight” structure rest periods before returning to class reduce Hyper with energy deprivation activities (jogging/swimming) Hypo - fast-tempo activities Learning Disabilities Planning Considerations Psychomotor Clumsiness (Dyspraxia) or perceptual deficiencies focus activities on ameliorating perceptual dysfunction i.e. perceptual motor activities (depth perception/auditory/balance/spatial/body/ temporal/directional/kinesthetic awareness) vary size, shape, color, texture of objects Learning Disabilities Planning Considerations Cognitive/Affective varied teaching modalities whole - part demonstrations sequencing considerations (add parts gradually to complex tasks) (use rhythmic activities) structured environment (boundaries/equipment) perseveration (rules reinforcement) i.e. no ball bouncing after whistle has blown plan social interactions (develop social skills) General Instructional Strategies Vary instructional strategies Typical - imitation / verbal instruction Variation - movement exploration / creative games, dance, activities Modality based instruction Typical - mixed modality Variation - use modality of choice General Instructional Strategies Self-talk / Verbal rehearsal Talking oneself through activity or sequence Saying aloud parts of planned movement before execution (teacher prompting verbal response) Specific Instructional Strategies ADHD considerations: Inattention Impulsive Hyperactive Perseveration transition difficulties ball bouncing laughing repeating phrase or topic of conversation ADHD Instructional Strategies Specifically for ADHD: use optimal structure / routines reduce space [clearly identify lanes, boundaries] eliminate irrelevant stimuli enhance the stimulus value of the equipment or instructional material Final Considerations For all students with LD: Class structure should emphasize cooperative behaviors, social competence, and self-esteem Most students with LD require APE services to self-actualize their motor, fitness, and leisure potential Mental Retardation Planning Considerations and Instructional Strategies Mental Retardation Planning Considerations Psychomotor teach developmental psychomotor needs (attention to human growth-ceph/prox) fitness*** leisure/recreation skills Mental Retardation Planning Considerations Cognitive concrete activities (avoid abstractions) used developmental progressions allow students to “learn by doing” check for and reinforce skill retention variability in practice for transferability of skills (motor schema) short memory/attention span modeling/verbal rehearsal/many trials Mental Retardation Planning Considerations Affective success oriented activities increase self- image/confidence/concept model and reinforce age-appropriate behavior (expectancy!) teach appropriate play skills keep routines! Mental Retardation Programming Mild Special Olympics Sports Skills Model Skills Social Behavior Functional Knowledge of Rules Unified Sports Model Mental Retardation Programming Mild Stepping Out for Fitness Model use of music in all lessons focus on fitness six themes calisthenics to music exercise break package ball activities hoop and rope activities circuit training 20-km club (6 lessons/ 2 10-min “lap” periods Mental Retardation Programming Severe/Profound MATP Sensorimotor models (increasing body awareness/prelocomotion skills/object manipulation skills/posture and locomotion patterns) Fitness Video Physical Disabilities Cerebral Palsy Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Amputations Other Physical Conditions Cerebral Palsy Programming Implications Cerebral Palsy Instructional Strategies: Dependent upon type and severity of disability Specific concerns: Delayed motor development Reflex/Postural reaction abnormalities Abnormal muscle tone Attitudinal issues Cerebral Palsy Delayed Motor Development Motor performance at age 7 is usually predictive of adult performance Walking, retention of reflexes, etc. Focus should shift from PT to functional performance efforts Ex. Integration of reflexes- instead focus on compensating for reflexes and/or use for enhancement of performance Cerebral Palsy Reflex/Postural Reaction Abnormalities Emphasis on protective reactions (parachute reaction) and equilibrium development Again, use non-integrated reflexes to advantage or develop coping strategies Activity selection for remediating weaknesses (balance beam, horseback, dance, ice skating) Cerebral Palsy Abnormal Muscle Tone Spasticity - Fisted hand (wrist hyperextension) Suggestion: use shoulder joint and radioulnar rotation (Do NOT pry fingers open) Overall spasticity - rotation of trunk (rolling and rocking activities) These activities create weight shifting situations that promote development of equilibrium reactions Cerebral Palsy Abnormal Muscle Tone Athetosis - Main goal: head and trunk control (midline control) Midline control - decreases undesired limb movement Activities to reinforce midline control (bicycling/horseback riding) Activities that may present problems??? (bowling / tennis / golf / archery) Cerebral Palsy Attitudinal Issues Research suggests: ranked last or next to last as friendship choices when several disabilities are compared Implications: careful attention to self- concept, motivation and social development Cerebral Palsy Common areas of programming: Physical Fitness Fundamental Motor Skills/Patterns Individual / Group Games or Sports Aquatics Cerebral Palsy and Fitness Fitness is of great concern due to typical mechanical and muscular inefficiency Spasticity, athetosis, and perseveration of reflexes (flexor/extensor) can make easy motor tasks require high amounts of energy Historically, flexibility (ROM) has been top fitness goal Aerobic/muscular strength and endurance??? Cerebral Palsy and Motor Skills Three phase approach “muscle education” Phase 1 - relaxation training Tight muscles are stretched / massaged attempting to “normalize” muscle tone Appropriate positioning and handling to inhibit reflex reactions Phase 2 - focus is on voluntary muscle training of single joint action Actions - flex/extend and grasp/release Cerebral Palsy and Motor Skills Phase 3 - after single joint actions are mastered, multiple joint patterns are trained against gravity Examples: crawling, creeping, walking, running, and jumping Typical Development Activities: Body image activities through movement exploration Cerebral Palsy and Motor Skills Typical Development Activities: Sensorimotor and eye-limb coordination activities Gross coordinated movements - lying to sitting to standing to locomoting Balance activities Spatial and Kinesthetic awareness Play skills Cerebral Palsy and Games/Sport Typically more successful in individual activities than group Fast, fine motor, long duration, limited boundary activities are difficult and usually don’t offer success Suggestions: competition against personal records, avoid activities of over stimulation or over fatigue, use soft-textured slow moving objects (balloons, yarnballs, or deflated balls) Substitution suggestions: walking for running, bouncing for throwing, gross for fine, slow for fast, closed skills for open skills Cerebral Palsy and Aquatics Excellent activity (Video) Water medium provides natural buoyancy, viscosity, and gravity Activities that would be difficult on land are possible in water (ex. Walking) Suggestions: shallow water, higher temperatures, breathing control, supine floating, ROM activities, play skills Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Programming Motor Skills, Fitness and Sport Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Program Implications - Motor Skills Locomotor, Postural, Manipulative Aquatics Dance Fitness Flexibility, Aerobic, and Muscular Endurance Sport Programming: Quadriplegia / Paraplegia Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Motor Skills Most students can participate with only minor accommodations/modifications walk instead of run or push chair forward one turn l/r instead of hop Simple Suggestions: Modify Movement Requirements Throw underhand vs. overhand Carry ball vs. dribbling Modified crawl vs. breast stroke Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Vary Position Played in a Game Pitching for both teams Goalie Zones Adapt Equipment Varied striking implements Varied manipulative objects (size, color, texture) Lowering the net Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Vary Distances / Boundaries Shorter distances / wider boundaries Offer choice in distance or height Aquatics Minimal Modifications Individualized programs Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Dance Square, Ballroom and Folk Can be adapted with creativity and suggestions (Waltz handout) Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Fitness Flexibility Neck circles Arm circles Arm cross Side stretch Trunk twist Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Fitness Aerobic (Video) Aerobic Dance Wheeling Arm Ergometry Passive Quad-Stationary Cycling Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Fitness Muscular Endurance Side arm raises Seat dips Shoulder shrug Bent over lateral raise Arm curl Triceps press Use of thera-bands Accessible machines Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Sport Quad Rugby (C6 - T1) Played on regulation basketball court Combines basketball, football and hockey Object is to score points by carrying ball over opponents goal line *(ball must be bounced at least once every 10 seconds) Paralysis and Spinal Cord Injury Sport Paraplegia Depends on classification (Almost any sport can be played in a wheelchair) Jeff McCubbin reference (Oregon State) Track and racing events Wheelchair basketball/tennis Skiing Other Physical Conditions Muscular Weakness Conditions and Amputations Programming for Muscular Weakness Conditions MS MD Flexibility and range Range of motion of motion exercises Postural exercises may be of most need Locomotor skill activities Balance activities Develop weak muscles Aquatic environment Balance activities cool water stimulates Aquatics circulation body mechanics warm water tends to strength / endurance induce fatigue faster General Guidelines for Programming MS / MD Multiple Sclerosis / Muscular Dystrophy Avoid activities that cause fatigue or pain Goal of exercise should be to maintain function not to increase it Increase rest periods during activity Use interval training vs. aerobic activities Allow choice of equipment / speed and distance of locomotion activities Develop friendships and social skills Amputations Programming Typically, only minor accommodations to participate in regular physical education Sport programming Ambulatory and Wheelchair Track Sitting and Standing Volleyball Swimming Horseback Riding Cycling Hard of Hearing and Visual Impairments Programming Implications Hard of Hearing Obviously, one of the most common problems in teaching individuals with HH conditions is communication Suggestion: Use other senses for instruction purposes (visual aides, manual guidance - kinesthetic) Learn ASL Gross signing (Manual Communication) hand signals that signify words or phrases Class activity* (Develop 10 gross signs) Hard of Hearing Most students with HH conditions perform motor skills at same level as peers without HH conditions (except when inner ear balance deficits exist) Research suggests: In almost all areas, (motor skill, fitness, leisure participation) students with HH conditions are similar to peers without HH conditions with regard to performance, participation and satisfaction However - Hard of Hearing Issue: Differences exist in play and game behaviors that are associated with language Why? Difficult to incidentally pick up game rules, strategies, and behaviors Must plan for this* Visual Impairments Legal Blindness Definition: Less than 20/200 vision with best correction, or Less than 20 degree visual field with best correction Developmental Issues: Most infants who are blind have atypical motor development (Why?) Visual Impairments Research: Persons with VI have lower fitness than sighted peers (Why?) Lack of instruction and practice, inactive lifestyles, and overprotection Regular class physical education is typically recommended for students with VI Except for ball-handling activities, students with VI can participate with few adaptations Visual Impairments Success in a class for a student with VI is largely dependent on the teachers ability to give precise and appropriate verbal cues Some specific recommended activities: wrestling, tumbling, gymnastics, bowling, swimming, weight training, judo, dance, horseback riding, fishing, hiking, tandem cycling - these require little or no adaptations Visual Impairments When adaptations are necessary: Write to the American Foundation for the Blind for catalogs of special equipment Creativity* Some specific training/remedial activities: Perceptual motor activities (spatial awareness, body awareness and proprioception / haptic perception) Visual Impairments Main sports: Track and Field Beep Baseball Goal Ball* Excellent inclusive activity for all ages Develops auditory perceptual abilities Fun!!!
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