Key Terms #’s 363-370
Warsaw Pact: The Warsaw Pact is the name commonly given to the treaty between
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the
Soviet Union, which was signed in Poland in 1955 and was officially called 'The Treaty
of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance'. Although this rather cute title
sounds more like the agreement which you and your friend have about sending cards to
each other on Valentine's Day, it was actually a military treaty, which bound its
signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of
Al-Qaeda: Al-Qaeda is an international terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden. It
seeks to rid Muslim countries of what it sees as the profane influence of the West and
replace their governments with fundamentalist Islamic regimes.
International Monetary Fund: An organization set up in 1944 to lower trade barriers
between countries and to stabilize currencies by monitoring the foreign exchange
systems of member countries, and lending money to developing nations.
Persian Gulf War: The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between new world order and
Iraq over Kuwait. On August 2, 1990, Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, shocked the
world by ordered his army to invade Kuwait. Kuwait is part of the Middle East and
produces over ten percent of the world's oil. President George Bush, of the United
States, reacted by creating Operation Desert Storm, the largest land operation since
World War II. Led by Norman Swarzkopf, the coalition forces land operation made its
way through Iraqi forces and liberated Kuwait in 100 hours.
Brinkmanship: the art or practice of pushing a dangerous situation or confrontation to
the limit of safety especially to force a desired outcome.
Korean Conflict: Korean War conflict between Communist and non-Communist forces in
Korea from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. At the end of World War II, Korea was
divided at the 38th parallel into Soviet (North Korean) and U.S. (South Korean) zones of
occupation. In 1948 rival governments were established: The Republic of Korea was
proclaimed in the South and the People's Democratic Republic of Korea in the North.
Kulaks: were a category of relatively affluent and well-endowed peasants in the later
Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union. The word kulak originally
referred to independent farmers in the Russian Empire who emerged as a result of the
Stolypin reform which began in 1906. The Stolypin reform created a new class of
landowners who were allowed to acquire for credit a plot of land from the large estate
owners, and the credit (a kind of mortgage loan) was to be repaid from farm work.
Perestroika: is the Russian term for the political and economic reforms introduced in
June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring",
referring to the restructuring of the Soviet economy.