The Triple Helix of Smart Cities by MikeJenny

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									The Triple Helix of Smart Cities
Mark Deakin, Edinburgh Napier University

School of Engineering and Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier
University, Edinburgh, EH10 5DT, Scotland: m.deakin@napier.ac.uk
The triple helix
Unlike other accounts of knowledge production, the
Triple Helix model:
  • studies networks of university-industry-government
    relations and offers a neo-evolutionary model of a
    knowledge-based economy;
  • proposes the three evolutionary functions shaping the
    selection environments of a knowledge-based
    economy are: (i) organized knowledge production,
    (ii) the intellectual capital of economic wealth
    creation and (iii) reflexive control;
  • suggests that as reflexivity is always involved in
    knowledge production, the functions which they serve
    are not given, but socially constructed.
The triple helix of (smart) cities

From this neo-evolutionary perspective, the knowledge-base
economy of cities can be modelled as networks of organized
knowledge production. That is to say, networks of organized
knowledge production in which:
   • universities generate intellectual capital, industry create
     economic wealth and government regulate civil society;
   • the dynamic inter-play of their intellectual capital, creativity and
     regulation promote innovation;
   • the innovation is systematic, networked and organized around
     information and communication technologies (ICTs);
   • the services this produces are in turn subject to the reflexivity of
     social construction.
the proposition
Using this model, it is also possible to suggest:
   • The dynamics currently at play in the reflexive overlay of these
     technologies, are themselves being exploited to generate the
     notion of:
       • “creative cities” (Landry, 2008);
       • “intelligent cities” as the knowledge base of such creativity
         (Komninos, 2008);
       • “smart cities” whose creativity is even “smarter” (Hollands, 2008).
         Not just in the way their technologies generate intellectual capital, or
         create economic wealth, but communities within environments that
         co-produce knowledge in innovation systems which are sufficiently
         creative to co-evolve with the socially-constructive nature of such
         developments;
       • “selection environments” (Deakin, 2010). That co-produce knowledge
         in innovation systems which are able to co-evolve as part of a meta-
         stabilization. That is by way of environments which replace the
         destabilizing, dis-organizing and fragmentation tendencies of
         existing systems, through the configuration of a “smarter” alternative
         offering a socially-constructive integration….. of the services under
         development.
The typology
emerging smart cities typology           eGov                          service development stages       policy drivers
                                         service developments          in knowledge economy
                                                                       and information society
• “creative cities” of ideas and
                                          •   Customisation             •   Information             •    Competition
  learning (Landry, 2008);
• “intelligent cities” as the                                           •   Communication           •    Competition and social
  knowledge base of such learning         •   Capacity-building
                                                                                                         cohesion
  and creativity (Komninos, 2008);
• “smart cities” whose creativity is      •   Co-design of services     •   Transaction             •    Competition, social
  even “smart-er” (Hollands, 2008).                                                                      cohesion and
  Not just in the way the ICTs of                                                                        environmental quality
  community development generate
  intellectual capital, or create
  wealth, but environments that
  govern the collective learning and
  co-production of knowledge in
  innovation systems which are
  sufficiently creative to co-evolve
  with such regional innovation
  systems;
• “selection environments” that           •   Multi-channel             •   Customer-               •    Transformational
  collectively learn from and co-             communications                centric                      government as a basis
  produce knowledge in innovation             related to given user-    •   User-friendly                for sustainable
  systems which are able to co-               profiles                  •   Open,                        development
  evolve as part of a meta-                                                 transparent,
  stabilization. That is by way of                                          accountable
  environments which replace the                                            and
  destabilizing, dis-organizing and                                         democratic
  fragmentation tendencies of
  existing systems, through the
  configuration of a “smarter”
  alternative offering the prospect of
  integration.
The critical insight
Seeing cities as a co-evolutionary mechanism for the meta-
stabilization of existing institutional arrangements offers a critical
insight taking us beyond the dismantling of national systems and
construction of regional advantages, i.e. that “terms of reference”
which currently falls under the remit of “innovations systems”.
It suggests:
     • the reinvention of cities which is currently taking place
       cannot be defined as a top-level “trans-disciplinary” issue
       without a considerable amount of “bottom-up” cultural
       reconstruction.
     • this cultural reconstruction has not yet been given the
       consideration it demands. For existing accounts tend to reify
       the global status of the process and fail to appreciate the
       meta-stabilizing dynamic of the technologies underlying this
       and supporting the knowledge-based economy.
Getting beyond national and – The triple helix represents the “modes” of
regional systems              communication currently operating as the
                                  informational technologies (ICTs) of such
   It is the potential of this    “manifestations”.
   cultural reconstruction to – “Manifestations” of organized knowledge
   work as a meta-stabilizing     production whose generation of intellectual
   dynamic and reflexive layer
   that lies behind the surge     capital, creation of economic wealth and ICTs
   of academic interest which produce a meta-stabilizing dynamic.
   is currently being directed – That meta-stabilization played out on a global
   at communities as the          stage and within (trans-national) regions,
   “practical” manifestation      whose ICT-related environments not only
   of organized knowledge         reflect, but are the medium by which their
   production and the             cultural reconstruction becomes manifest.
   intellectual capital of
   wealth creation.            – Becomes some way to account for why
                               This goes manifest as “world class” cities, not
                                  just in terms of environments of e-
                               the ICT-related the intellectual capital they
                                  generate, or economic wealth this creates,
                               government are currently such critical but
                                  in relation the e-service developments
                               issues and to the ICT-related environments civil
                                  society assembles as a means to govern the
                                  standards with regulating dynamic.
                               associated of thisthem are also so
                            significant.
    the SmartCities baseline study
                                          University
                                        60.0


                                        50.0
       First Cut
                                        40.0

                   Knowledge            30.0           Learning


                                        20.0                  http://www.smartcities.info
                                        10.0

                                                                         EU27
                                         0.0
                                                                         Smart cities




                                                                    Smart Cities in the
                     Industry                          Government
                                                                    North Sea Region:
                                                                    Bremerhaven
University: % people aged 20-24                                     Edinburgh
enrolled in tertiary education
Industry: Number of companies per
                                                                    Groningen
1,000 inhabitants                                                   Karlstad
Government: % labour force in                                       Kortrijk
government sector-L to Q
Learning: Labour force with ISCED 5
                                           Market                   Kortrijk region
and 6 education                                                     Kristiansand
Market: Per capita GDP
Knowledge: Patent applications to the
                                                                    Norfolk
EPO per 1,000 inhabitants                                           Osterholz-Scharmbeck
Baseline data is for 2006
   the SmartCities baseline study                       University
                                                      60.0



    Second Cut                   knowledge economy50.0               Information Society
                                                      40.0           i2010

                   Knowledge                          30.0                           Learning

                                                                                            http://www.smartcities.inf
                                                      20.0
                                                                                            o
                                                      10.0
                  e-services                                                         IP
                                                                                                         EU27
                                                       0.0
                                                                                                         Smart cities


                                                                                                  Smart Cities in the
                                                                                                  North Sea Region:
                      Industry                                                       Government
                                                                                                  Bremerhaven
University: % people aged 20-24                                                                   Edinburgh
enrolled in tertiary education
Industry: Number of companies per       ICT-related                                               Groningen
1,000 inhabitants                       employment                   RTD                          Karlstad
Government: % labour force in                                                                     Kortrijk
government sector-L to Q
Learning: Labour force with ISCED 5                                                               Kortrijk region
and 6 education                                          Market                                   Kristiansand
Market: Per capita GDP
Knowledge: Patent applications to the
                                                                                                  Norfolk
EPO per 1,000 inhabitants                                                                         Osterholz-Scharmbeck
Baseline data is for 2006
The emergence of “world class” cities:
the case of Montreal
• Montreal is recognized as a city particularly successful in
  reinventing itself as “world class” and emerging as a
  “creative” force within the region (Florida, 2004; Slolarick and
  Florida, 2006).
• So far the only thing offered to explain the growth of
  Montreal as a leading exponent of “cultural reconstruction”
  has been a list of enabling conditions, such as:

   • a strong research, development and technological culture;
   • university involvement underpinned by industry;
   • industry supported by policy makers, strong leadership and
     corporate strategies directed towards the creative sector.

This reconstruction thesis is sometimes referred to as “picking
up and capitalising on the creative slack”
some marginal notes on the • The cultural reconstruction of cities like Montreal show how
evolving cultural reconstruction the creative ecology of an entrepreneur-based and market
                                     dependent Building a Canadian Social
         Breaking News..... Triple Helix - representation of knowledge-intensive firms, is
of “world class” cities
         Innovation Marketplace      currently in the process of being replaced with a community
                                     of policy makers, academic leaders and corporate strategists.
                                 • Communities that open have the potential not
         The Canadian government has issued an in turncall for input on how to so much
                                     “rise-up as a creative class”, but liberate cities in
         their R&D innovation system could be improved. Despite pumping from the
                                     stagnation which they have further and further
         over $7 billion a year the country continues to fallpreviously been locked into by
                                     terms of innovation to develop
         behind other nations in offering them freedomcapability. polices, with the academic
                                     leadership and corporate strategies capable of reaching
                                       suggests idea of “creative slack”.
  Using the Triple Helixevidencebeyond thethat many Canadian universities are
         The balance of
                                 • To reach beyond this and for something smart-er,
         first-rate scientific institutions. But in the context of the knowledge- cities need
  model, it can be
  recognized such a cultural nottheir intellectual capital to notcountry's universities
         based economy, it is          considered sufficient for a only meet the requirements of
  reconstruction of cities           economic wealth creation, but become the regional centres
         to produce groundbreaking scientific research in isolation. A growing
  however liberal and                of such “knowledge producing communities”. Knowledge
         body of research
  potentially free, is not suggests that effective links between the three
                                     producing communities whose intellectual capital and
  merely the creative                economic wealth creation distinguished business
         principle innovation funding/performing sectorsisof academia, by virtue of the
  outcome of market
         and government               important contributor to a successful national
  economics, but of the are an academic leadership, corporate strategies and ICT-enabled
         innovation system.
  policies, academic                 environments understood to be socially-constructive in
  leadership and corporate           opening-up, reflexively absorbing and discursively shaping
  strategies which operate           the governance of such developments.
         Source: Cloud Computing Journal, January, 6th, 2011
 within ICT-enabled
 environments .
Thank you......




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