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The Triple Helix of Smart Cities Mark Deakin, Edinburgh Napier University School of Engineering and Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, EH10 5DT, Scotland: firstname.lastname@example.org The triple helix Unlike other accounts of knowledge production, the Triple Helix model: • studies networks of university-industry-government relations and offers a neo-evolutionary model of a knowledge-based economy; • proposes the three evolutionary functions shaping the selection environments of a knowledge-based economy are: (i) organized knowledge production, (ii) the intellectual capital of economic wealth creation and (iii) reflexive control; • suggests that as reflexivity is always involved in knowledge production, the functions which they serve are not given, but socially constructed. The triple helix of (smart) cities From this neo-evolutionary perspective, the knowledge-base economy of cities can be modelled as networks of organized knowledge production. That is to say, networks of organized knowledge production in which: • universities generate intellectual capital, industry create economic wealth and government regulate civil society; • the dynamic inter-play of their intellectual capital, creativity and regulation promote innovation; • the innovation is systematic, networked and organized around information and communication technologies (ICTs); • the services this produces are in turn subject to the reflexivity of social construction. the proposition Using this model, it is also possible to suggest: • The dynamics currently at play in the reflexive overlay of these technologies, are themselves being exploited to generate the notion of: • “creative cities” (Landry, 2008); • “intelligent cities” as the knowledge base of such creativity (Komninos, 2008); • “smart cities” whose creativity is even “smarter” (Hollands, 2008). Not just in the way their technologies generate intellectual capital, or create economic wealth, but communities within environments that co-produce knowledge in innovation systems which are sufficiently creative to co-evolve with the socially-constructive nature of such developments; • “selection environments” (Deakin, 2010). That co-produce knowledge in innovation systems which are able to co-evolve as part of a meta- stabilization. That is by way of environments which replace the destabilizing, dis-organizing and fragmentation tendencies of existing systems, through the configuration of a “smarter” alternative offering a socially-constructive integration….. of the services under development. The typology emerging smart cities typology eGov service development stages policy drivers service developments in knowledge economy and information society • “creative cities” of ideas and • Customisation • Information • Competition learning (Landry, 2008); • “intelligent cities” as the • Communication • Competition and social knowledge base of such learning • Capacity-building cohesion and creativity (Komninos, 2008); • “smart cities” whose creativity is • Co-design of services • Transaction • Competition, social even “smart-er” (Hollands, 2008). cohesion and Not just in the way the ICTs of environmental quality community development generate intellectual capital, or create wealth, but environments that govern the collective learning and co-production of knowledge in innovation systems which are sufficiently creative to co-evolve with such regional innovation systems; • “selection environments” that • Multi-channel • Customer- • Transformational collectively learn from and co- communications centric government as a basis produce knowledge in innovation related to given user- • User-friendly for sustainable systems which are able to co- profiles • Open, development evolve as part of a meta- transparent, stabilization. That is by way of accountable environments which replace the and destabilizing, dis-organizing and democratic fragmentation tendencies of existing systems, through the configuration of a “smarter” alternative offering the prospect of integration. The critical insight Seeing cities as a co-evolutionary mechanism for the meta- stabilization of existing institutional arrangements offers a critical insight taking us beyond the dismantling of national systems and construction of regional advantages, i.e. that “terms of reference” which currently falls under the remit of “innovations systems”. It suggests: • the reinvention of cities which is currently taking place cannot be defined as a top-level “trans-disciplinary” issue without a considerable amount of “bottom-up” cultural reconstruction. • this cultural reconstruction has not yet been given the consideration it demands. For existing accounts tend to reify the global status of the process and fail to appreciate the meta-stabilizing dynamic of the technologies underlying this and supporting the knowledge-based economy. Getting beyond national and – The triple helix represents the “modes” of regional systems communication currently operating as the informational technologies (ICTs) of such It is the potential of this “manifestations”. cultural reconstruction to – “Manifestations” of organized knowledge work as a meta-stabilizing production whose generation of intellectual dynamic and reflexive layer that lies behind the surge capital, creation of economic wealth and ICTs of academic interest which produce a meta-stabilizing dynamic. is currently being directed – That meta-stabilization played out on a global at communities as the stage and within (trans-national) regions, “practical” manifestation whose ICT-related environments not only of organized knowledge reflect, but are the medium by which their production and the cultural reconstruction becomes manifest. intellectual capital of wealth creation. – Becomes some way to account for why This goes manifest as “world class” cities, not just in terms of environments of e- the ICT-related the intellectual capital they generate, or economic wealth this creates, government are currently such critical but in relation the e-service developments issues and to the ICT-related environments civil society assembles as a means to govern the standards with regulating dynamic. associated of thisthem are also so significant. the SmartCities baseline study University 60.0 50.0 First Cut 40.0 Knowledge 30.0 Learning 20.0 http://www.smartcities.info 10.0 EU27 0.0 Smart cities Smart Cities in the Industry Government North Sea Region: Bremerhaven University: % people aged 20-24 Edinburgh enrolled in tertiary education Industry: Number of companies per Groningen 1,000 inhabitants Karlstad Government: % labour force in Kortrijk government sector-L to Q Learning: Labour force with ISCED 5 Market Kortrijk region and 6 education Kristiansand Market: Per capita GDP Knowledge: Patent applications to the Norfolk EPO per 1,000 inhabitants Osterholz-Scharmbeck Baseline data is for 2006 the SmartCities baseline study University 60.0 Second Cut knowledge economy50.0 Information Society 40.0 i2010 Knowledge 30.0 Learning http://www.smartcities.inf 20.0 o 10.0 e-services IP EU27 0.0 Smart cities Smart Cities in the North Sea Region: Industry Government Bremerhaven University: % people aged 20-24 Edinburgh enrolled in tertiary education Industry: Number of companies per ICT-related Groningen 1,000 inhabitants employment RTD Karlstad Government: % labour force in Kortrijk government sector-L to Q Learning: Labour force with ISCED 5 Kortrijk region and 6 education Market Kristiansand Market: Per capita GDP Knowledge: Patent applications to the Norfolk EPO per 1,000 inhabitants Osterholz-Scharmbeck Baseline data is for 2006 The emergence of “world class” cities: the case of Montreal • Montreal is recognized as a city particularly successful in reinventing itself as “world class” and emerging as a “creative” force within the region (Florida, 2004; Slolarick and Florida, 2006). • So far the only thing offered to explain the growth of Montreal as a leading exponent of “cultural reconstruction” has been a list of enabling conditions, such as: • a strong research, development and technological culture; • university involvement underpinned by industry; • industry supported by policy makers, strong leadership and corporate strategies directed towards the creative sector. This reconstruction thesis is sometimes referred to as “picking up and capitalising on the creative slack” some marginal notes on the • The cultural reconstruction of cities like Montreal show how evolving cultural reconstruction the creative ecology of an entrepreneur-based and market dependent Building a Canadian Social Breaking News..... Triple Helix - representation of knowledge-intensive firms, is of “world class” cities Innovation Marketplace currently in the process of being replaced with a community of policy makers, academic leaders and corporate strategists. • Communities that open have the potential not The Canadian government has issued an in turncall for input on how to so much “rise-up as a creative class”, but liberate cities in their R&D innovation system could be improved. Despite pumping from the stagnation which they have further and further over $7 billion a year the country continues to fallpreviously been locked into by terms of innovation to develop behind other nations in offering them freedomcapability. polices, with the academic leadership and corporate strategies capable of reaching suggests idea of “creative slack”. Using the Triple Helixevidencebeyond thethat many Canadian universities are The balance of • To reach beyond this and for something smart-er, first-rate scientific institutions. But in the context of the knowledge- cities need model, it can be recognized such a cultural nottheir intellectual capital to notcountry's universities based economy, it is considered sufficient for a only meet the requirements of reconstruction of cities economic wealth creation, but become the regional centres to produce groundbreaking scientific research in isolation. A growing however liberal and of such “knowledge producing communities”. Knowledge body of research potentially free, is not suggests that effective links between the three producing communities whose intellectual capital and merely the creative economic wealth creation distinguished business principle innovation funding/performing sectorsisof academia, by virtue of the outcome of market and government important contributor to a successful national economics, but of the are an academic leadership, corporate strategies and ICT-enabled innovation system. policies, academic environments understood to be socially-constructive in leadership and corporate opening-up, reflexively absorbing and discursively shaping strategies which operate the governance of such developments. Source: Cloud Computing Journal, January, 6th, 2011 within ICT-enabled environments . Thank you...... 13
"The Triple Helix of Smart Cities"