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Electronic Warfare and Counter-Measures What is Electronic Warfare? Electronic Warfare (EW) Element of Command & Control Warfare (C2W) Command and Control Warfare (C2W) includes integrated use of: Operational Security (OPSEC) Military Deception Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) Physical Destruction Electronic Warfare (EW) Importance of EW • Increased reliance on radar and OTH targeting • Increased use of Communications and Tactical Data Systems (TDS) • Increased capabilities of missile & weapons system – Requires high-speed detection and tracking • Active/Passive homing long-range missile give little warning Three Components of EW • Electronic Support (ES) *ESM • Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM • Electronic Protection (EP) *ECCM Electronic Support (ES) • Passive surveillance of the EM spectrum to detect the enemy’s position, strength, and intention, and warning of targets -Detection -Tracking -Recognition -Targeting -Warning -Destruction -Avoidance Passive EW (ES) • ELINT – Electronic Intelligence – Foreign non-communications elecromagnetic information • COMINT – Communications Intelligence – Foreign communications transmissions intercepted by other than the intended recipients • Advantages and Limitations ES Receiver Design Requirements • Wide spectrum surveillance • Wide dynamic range • Unwanted signal rejection • Angle-of-Arrival measurement • Signal Analysis capability • Real-Time Display • Recording System Electronic Attack (EA) • Preventing or reducing the enemy’s use of the EM spectrum (capabilities) and promoting uncertainty • “Black boxes” that jam or deceive the enemy • Radar or communications “jamming” Electronic Attack (EA) • Use of active and passive energy to “attack “ – Personnel – Facilities – Equipment • Four Classes of EA – Jamming – Modifiers – Radar-absorbing materials (RAM) – Physical Destruction Non-Destructive EA • Denial: overload opposition’s receiver to deny its use by the enemy • Jamming • Noise • Spot • Barrage • Sweep • Chaff • Flares Noise Jamming Definition: Noise jamming is the deliberate radiation, re-radiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy with the purpose of impairing the use of electronic devices, equipment, or systems being used by the enemy. Effective Jamming PW Rcvd Signal PRT Ineffective Amp. Jamming time Jamming TGT Freq True Noise Ideal Jammer Actual Spot Jammer Non-Destructive EA (cont.) • Deception: Create false image or change image’s characteristics on a radar display. Misleads or “spoofs” – Repeaters: delay received radar signal and retransmitting at a slightly later time – Transponders: Create false signal by playing back a stored replica of the radar signal – Chaff - disguise – Radar Decoys – Blip Enhancers – Radar Cross-Section (RCS) Modification Decoys Velocity Gate Pull Off (VGPO) Target Return Velocity Gate Gate Pull-Off Confusion/Deception Chaff Corridor Flares (active) Chaff False Targets Multiple False Targets Real Target Strobes Cover Pulse Jamming “Reactive Jamming” X EA-6B Prowler!!!!!!!!! Passive Detection 1. Radar 2. IFF 3. TACAN 4. Jamming Destructive EA • Anti-Radiation Missiles –SLAM –HARM –Sidewinder • Directed Energy SLAM ER • Stand-off Land Attack Missile-Expanded Response https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/weapons/airlanch/slamer/slamer.htm HARM • High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile HARM Results Portable Serbian Radar AIM-9 Sidewinder Electronic Protection (EP) Definition: EP is the division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize or destroy friendly combat capability. Electronic Protection (EP) • Protection of friendly combat capability against undesirable effect of friendly or enemy employed EW • Types – Passive EW – Active EW Electronic Protection (EP) • Three ways to defend from enemy EW – Modify radar • Make it more complex • Make it harder to jam – Modify the Medium • Chaff • Torch – Modify the platform EP: Radar Design Power Frequency PRF PW Pulse Shape Antenna Design Scan Pattern EP Factors Burnthrough: Increase signal strength to overpower jammer noise (ECCM) Emission Control (EMCON) Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Operator Recognition Training EP Factors (Cont.) • Frequency Agility Slider Stepper Random FREQ TIME U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities • SLQ-32 “Sidekick” – On all combatants – Radar warning, detection and jamming – Uses internal library to auto detect/categorize • Infrared Flares – On all combatants • Chaff – On all combatants U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities • SSQ-108 “Outboard” - – On some DDG, CG, LHA, LHD – Any ship with SSES – Real-time OTH passive detection, localization, and targeting • SLQ-39 Chaff Buoy – On Arleigh Burke class • Rubber Duck – Looks like a life boat container U.S. Airborne EW Capabilities • ALQ-99 - EW system on EA-6B Prowler • ALQ-162 - EA jamming system on F-14 & F/A 18 • ALQ-142 - ES system on SH-60 Seahawk • ALQ-165 - EA jamming system on F/A-18 • ALR-47 - ES detection system on S-3 Viking • ALR-68 - ES detection system on P-3C Orion • ALR-73 - ES detection system on E-2 Hawkeye • Chaff - On SH-60 Seahawk ALQ-99 • Detection, Identification, tracking • Communication, Data Link, and radar jamming • Deception: mimics radar signals • EA-6B Prowler ALQ-162 • Radar Jamming • F/A-18 Hornet • Automatic radar jamming against surface- to-air and airborne intercept missiles that use continuous wave (CW) radars ALQ-142 • Electronic Support System • SH- 60 Seahawk • Real time Identification and bearing of surveillance radars Jamming Effectiveness • Match the victim radar’s RF • Be continuous • Have sufficient power Methods to Defeat Direct Threat Jamming • Frequency Techniques – RF Change – RF Diversity – RF Agility – Diplexing • Variable PRF Questions?
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