Electronic Warfare Counter-measures_1_ by hcj


									  Electronic Warfare
and Counter-Measures

 What is Electronic Warfare?
          Electronic Warfare (EW)

 Element of Command & Control Warfare (C2W)
 Command and Control Warfare (C2W) includes
  integrated use of:
     Operational Security (OPSEC)
     Military Deception
     Psychological Operations (PSYOPS)
     Physical Destruction
     Electronic Warfare (EW)
           Importance of EW
• Increased reliance on radar and OTH
• Increased use of Communications and
  Tactical Data Systems (TDS)
• Increased capabilities of missile &
  weapons system
  – Requires high-speed detection and tracking
• Active/Passive homing long-range missile
  give little warning
  Three Components of EW

• Electronic Support (ES) *ESM
• Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM
• Electronic Protection (EP) *ECCM
      Electronic Support (ES)

• Passive surveillance of the EM spectrum to
  detect the enemy’s position, strength, and
  intention, and warning of targets

       -Detection                -Tracking

       -Recognition              -Targeting

       -Warning                  -Destruction

          Passive EW (ES)
• ELINT – Electronic Intelligence
  – Foreign non-communications elecromagnetic
• COMINT – Communications Intelligence
  – Foreign communications transmissions
    intercepted by other than the intended
• Advantages and Limitations
              ES Receiver Design
•   Wide spectrum surveillance
•   Wide dynamic range
•   Unwanted signal rejection
•   Angle-of-Arrival measurement
•   Signal Analysis capability
•   Real-Time Display
•   Recording System
      Electronic Attack (EA)
• Preventing or reducing the enemy’s use of
  the EM spectrum (capabilities) and
  promoting uncertainty

• “Black boxes” that jam or deceive the

• Radar or communications “jamming”
       Electronic Attack (EA)

• Use of active and passive energy to “attack “
  – Personnel
  – Facilities
  – Equipment
• Four Classes of EA
  – Jamming
  – Modifiers
  – Radar-absorbing materials (RAM)
  – Physical Destruction
           Non-Destructive EA
• Denial: overload opposition’s receiver to
  deny its use by the enemy
  • Jamming
     •   Noise
     •   Spot
     •   Barrage
     •   Sweep
  • Chaff
  • Flares
          Noise Jamming

 Noise jamming is the deliberate
 radiation, re-radiation, or reflection of
 electromagnetic energy with the
 purpose of impairing the use of
 electronic devices, equipment, or
 systems being used by the enemy.
              Effective Jamming

Signal        PRT          Ineffective
Amp.                       Jamming

                  TGT Freq
True Noise

                    Ideal Jammer

                     Actual Spot
    Non-Destructive EA (cont.)

• Deception: Create false image or
  change image’s characteristics on a radar
  display. Misleads or “spoofs”
  – Repeaters: delay received radar signal and
    retransmitting at a slightly later time
  – Transponders: Create false signal by playing back a
    stored replica of the radar signal
  – Chaff - disguise
  – Radar Decoys
  – Blip Enhancers
  – Radar Cross-Section (RCS) Modification
          Velocity Gate Pull Off

Target Return

Velocity Gate

Gate Pull-Off
Chaff Corridor

                 Flares (active)
Chaff False Targets
Multiple False Targets

               Real Target
Cover Pulse Jamming
   “Reactive Jamming”

EA-6B Prowler!!!!!!!!!
     Passive Detection
1.    Radar
2.    IFF
3.    TACAN
4.    Jamming
          Destructive EA
• Anti-Radiation Missiles
• Directed Energy
                            SLAM ER
 • Stand-off Land Attack Missile-Expanded Response

• High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile

Portable Serbian Radar
AIM-9 Sidewinder
    Electronic Protection (EP)
 EP is the division of electronic warfare
 involving actions taken to protect
 personnel, facilities and equipment from
 any effects of friendly or enemy
 employment of electronic warfare that
 degrade, neutralize or destroy friendly
 combat capability.
   Electronic Protection (EP)

• Protection of friendly combat
  capability against undesirable effect
  of friendly or enemy employed EW
• Types
  – Passive EW
  – Active EW
    Electronic Protection (EP)
• Three ways to defend from enemy EW
  – Modify radar
    • Make it more complex
    • Make it harder to jam
  – Modify the Medium
    • Chaff
    • Torch
  – Modify the platform
      EP: Radar Design

Pulse Shape
Antenna Design
Scan Pattern
             EP Factors

Burnthrough: Increase signal strength to
 overpower jammer noise (ECCM)
Emission Control (EMCON)
Operator Recognition Training
                EP Factors (Cont.)
 • Frequency Agility

                        Stepper   Random

          U.S. Shipboard EW
• SLQ-32 “Sidekick”
  – On all combatants
  – Radar warning, detection and jamming
  – Uses internal library to auto detect/categorize
• Infrared Flares
  – On all combatants
• Chaff
  – On all combatants
U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities
• SSQ-108 “Outboard” -
  – On some DDG, CG, LHA, LHD
  – Any ship with SSES
  – Real-time OTH passive detection, localization, and
• SLQ-39 Chaff Buoy
  – On Arleigh Burke class
• Rubber Duck
  – Looks like a life boat container
    U.S. Airborne EW Capabilities
•   ALQ-99 - EW system on EA-6B Prowler
•   ALQ-162 - EA jamming system on F-14 & F/A 18
•   ALQ-142 - ES system on SH-60 Seahawk
•   ALQ-165 - EA jamming system on F/A-18
•   ALR-47 - ES detection system on S-3 Viking
•   ALR-68 - ES detection system on P-3C Orion
•   ALR-73 - ES detection system on E-2 Hawkeye
•   Chaff   - On SH-60 Seahawk
• Detection, Identification, tracking
• Communication, Data Link, and radar
• Deception: mimics radar signals
• EA-6B Prowler
• Radar Jamming
• F/A-18 Hornet
• Automatic radar jamming against surface-
  to-air and airborne intercept missiles that
  use continuous wave (CW) radars
• Electronic Support System
• SH- 60 Seahawk
• Real time Identification and bearing of
  surveillance radars
     Jamming Effectiveness
• Match the victim radar’s RF
• Be continuous
• Have sufficient power
   Methods to Defeat Direct
      Threat Jamming
• Frequency Techniques
  – RF Change
  – RF Diversity
  – RF Agility
  – Diplexing
• Variable PRF

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