PERSON ENVIRONMENT OCCUPATION MODEL

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PERSON ENVIRONMENT OCCUPATION MODEL Powered By Docstoc
					          PERSON
          ENVIRONMENT
          OCCUPATION
          MODEL

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 DEVELOPERS
         M. Law, B. Cooper, S. Strong, D. Stewart,
          P. Rigby, L. Letts
         Revised by C. Christiansen & C. Baum (1997)
         Part of an environmental research program in
          the School of Science, McMaster Univ.
         The theoretical foundations for this model
          include general systems theory, environmental
          theory, neurobehavioral theories, and social
          and behavioral psychology with particular
          influence from personality theorists and
          motivational learning (Maslow).
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 Foundations

         The Canadian Association of Occupational
          Therapists with the Department of Health and
          Welfare (1983) published the Model of
          Occupational Performance and Client-
          Centered Practice
         Conceptual constructs from the Canadian
          authors are not only embedded in Christiansen
          and Baum’s PEOP model but are also inherent
          in AOTA’s Framework Document (2002).

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 FOCUS
         PEOP model highlights the complexity of
          person–occupation–environment relationships
          and it defines occupational performance as the
          outcome of this three tier transaction.
         Suited for a variety of individual, group, and
          institutional needs across the life span.
         Client identifies the most important
          occupational performance issue within the
          areas of work/productive activities, personal
          care, home maintenance, sleep, recreation,
          and leisure.

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 ASSUMPTIONS

         Persons have an innate drive to explore
          their environment and demonstrate
          mastery within it. This process is called
          human agency. Competence is reached
          when a person is able to perform skills
          that meet his own personal needs. A
          person is also able to use the resources
          (personal, social, material) within one’s
          environment.
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 ASSUMPTIONS, cont.

         Adaptation is defined as a process
          whereby persons confront the challenges
          of daily living and are able to use their
          resources to master these demands.
         Persons derive a sense of self fulfillment
          from mastery and a sense of self identity
          from meaningful participation in
          occupations.
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 ASSUMPTIONS, cont.
         Occupational Performance is influenced by the
          1) person, 2) unique environment in which one
          functions, and 3) occupations that consist of
          one’s actions and tasks and ultimately create
          one’s life roles.
         Occupational performance describes the
          actions that are meaningful to the individual as
          he self manages, cares for others, works, plays
          and participates fully in home and community
          life. It can be separated into two components:
          a) occupations and b) performance.

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 4 MAJOR CONSTRUCTS
 Construct #1
         1. Person - made up of a series of
          intrinsic factors that compose one’s set of
          skills and abilities.
                 Intrinsic factors – psychological, cognitive,
                  physiological, spiritual, & neurobehavioral




From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 Construct #2

         2. Environment - Participation is always
          impacted by the extrinsic characteristics
          of the environment in which it occurs.
                 Extrinsic factors - built, natural, cultural,
                  societal, social interaction, economic




From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 Construct #3

         Occupation - Occupations refer to the
          activities and tasks that persons do in
          managing their daily lives, grouped in some
          meaningful way so that the persons can carry
          out life-roles.
                 They follow a sequential pattern of complexity –
                   1. abilities; 2 actions; 3. tasks; 4. occupations;
                   5. social & occupational roles



From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 Construct #4

         Occupational Performance and
          Participation is the culmination of doing
          occupations.
                 The interaction of a person’s factors
                  (intrinsic), the environment (extrinsic), and
                  one’s chosen activity (occupations) all lead
                  to occupational performance and
                  participation

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 FUNCTION
         A level of competency in his ability to perform
          and master occupations. A healthy individual
          demonstrates occupational performance in
          meaningful activities and meets a balance of
          personal and environmental demands. This
          person can self manage, care for others, work,
          play and participate fully in home and
          community life. He shows adaptation in his
          occupational performance as challenges
          naturally evolve in his life. He has established
          healthy role patterns that fulfill personal and
          societal expectations
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 DYSFUNCTION
         A person’s occupational performance is limited and
          restricted. Therefore, occupational competence is not
          achieved. Persons may demonstrate a lack of goal
          attainment and participation in activities. Dysfunction
          patterns are noticeable when a person cannot perform
          roles to a level of personal or social satisfaction
          (competency) because of deficits in abilities and skills
          due to a health condition and/or barriers and a lack of
          resources within the environment. The conflicting
          demands of multiple roles (role conflict) and unclear
          role expectations from one’s culture can have
          significant impact on poor occupational performance.

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 CHANGE & MOTIVATION
                A person’s innate desire to explore their
                  environment and demonstrate mastery
                  within it (human agency) needs to be
                  activated to enhance motivation.
         Experiencing a sense of accomplishment
          will create a reinforcing positive cycle for
          the client who will experience intrinsic
          (internal) satisfaction and extrinsic
          (external) rewards as well.

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES
         This top-down approach requires the practitioner to
          initially assess the client’s perception of problematic
          occupational performance
         Standardized and observational screenings can also
          be used to assess the person’s abilities, intrinsic
          factors and environmental (extrinsic) conditions. A task
          analysis will assist the occupational therapist to assess
          the performance components of an activity that are not
          congruent with the client’s ability at that time.
         A summary of strengths and issues/problems in
          occupational performance is the assessment goal.


From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 Assessment Process

         COPM - Canadian Occupational
          Performance Measure
         MOHO Assessments
         Activity Card Sort (Baum & Edwards,
          2001)




From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 Intervention
         Appreciate the restorative benefits of occupational
          performance as a means to enhance the person’s
          ability to:
                a) Control movement, to modulate sensory input, to coordinate
                   and integrate sensory information, to compensate for
                   sensorimotor deficits, and to modify neural structures through
                   behavior
                b) Maintain physical health and fitness
                c) Maintain cognitive skills
                d) Increase motivation, develop personal identity, enhance well-
                   being and self efficacy
                e) Enhance personal meanings and collective or shared
                   meanings.

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 Intervention
         Recognize the role of the environment as it
          impacts a person’s health condition and
          participation in meaningful activities, tasks, and
          life roles
         Enhance occupational performance by
          structuring occupations for meaningful
          participation and competent mastery.
         Adapt and/or modify the actions, tasks, and
          ultimately one’s occupations to match the
          abilities of the client (intrinsic factors).


From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
         Teach compensatory techniques when
          appropriate. Foster temporal adaptation
          (process of adjusting to changing temporal
          requirements in daily life or throughout the
          lifespan
         Enhance role functioning by increasing and
          modeling skill development, managing multiple
          role participation, clarifying role expectations
          from an internal and external perspective


From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.
 Resources

         Cole & Tufano (2008), Chapter 10




From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com,
         based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

				
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