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                                                           PART SIX
Establishing a Basis for Wellness                          Accepting Physical limits

Chapter 1 Taking Charge of Your Health                     Chapter 19 Aging: A Vital Process       553
Chapter 2 Stress: The Constant Challenge            29     Chapter 20 Dying and Death        575
Chapter 3 Psychological Health          59

                                                           PART SEVEN
PART TWO                                                   Making Choices in Health Care
Understanding Sexuality                                    Chapter 21      Health Care: Conventional and
                                                                           Complementary Medicine 601
Chapter 4 Intimate Relationships 89
                                                           Chapter 22 Self-Care: Skills for the
Chapter 5 Sex and Your Body 113
                                                                      Health Care Consumer          625
Chapter 6 Contraception         141
Chapter 7 Abortion      173
Chapter 8 Pregnancy and Childbirth            193          PART EIGHT
                                                           Improving Your Chances: Personal Safety
                                                           and Environmental Health
PART THREE
Making Responsible Decisions: Substance                    Chapter 23 Personal Safety: Protecting Yourself from
                                                                      Violence and Unintentional Injuries and
and Abuse
                                                                      Violence 645
Chapter 9 The Use and Abuse                                Chapter 24 Environmental Health         676
          of Psychoactive Drugs          225
Chapter 10 The Responsible Use of Alcohol            257
Chapter 11   Toward a Tobacco-free Society           285
                                                           Appendix A Nutritional Content of Popular Items from
                                                                      Fast-Food Restaurants A-I
PART FOUR                                                  Appendix B A Self-Care Guide for Common Medical
Getting Fit                                                           Problems A-5
                                                           Appendix C Resources for Self-Care        A-12
Chapter 12   Nutrition Basics     313
                                                           Credits       C-l
Chapter 13   Exercise for Health and Fitness        361
                                                           Index     H
Chapter 14 Weight Management            393


PART FIVE
Protecting Yourself from Disease
Chapter 15 Cardiovascular Health         425
Chapter 16 Cancer      457
Chapter 17   Immunity and Infection          491
Chapter 18 Sexually Transmitted Diseases            521



                                                                                                                  xiii
    PART                                                   STRESS AND DISEASE         36
    Establishing a Basis for Wellness                      The General Adaptation Syndrome 36
                                                           Allostatic Load 36
                                                           Psychoneuroimmunology 37
    Chapter 1                                              Links Between Stress and Specific Conditions      37
    TAKING CHARGE OF YOUR HEALTH                           COMMON SOURCES OF STRESS              39
    WELLNESS: THE NEW HEALTH GOAL 2                        Major Life Changes 39
                                                           Daily Hassles 39
    The Dimensions of Wellness 2
                                                           College Stressors 40
    New Opportunities, New Responsibilities 3
                                                           Job-Related Stressors 41
    National Wellness Goals: The Healthy People
                                                           Social Stressors 41
      Initiative 5
                                                           Environmental Stressors 41
    Health Issues for Diverse Populations 6
                                                           Internal Stressors 41
    CHOOSING WELLNESS 9
                                                           TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING STRESS                 42
    Factors That Influence Wellness    9
                                                           Social Support 42
    A Wellness Profile 9
                                                           Communication 42
    HOW DO YOU REACH WELLNESS?             11              Exercise 43
                                                           Nutrition 44
    Getting Serious About Your Health 11
                                                           Sleep 44
    Building Motivation for Change 12
                                                           Time Management 45
    Enhancing Your Readiness to Change 17
                                                           Cognitive Techniques 47
    Developing Skills for Change: Creating a
                                                           Relaxation Techniques 48
       Personalized Plan 19
                                                           Counterproductive Coping Strategies     51
    Putting Your Plan into Action 22
    Staying with It 23                                     CREATING A PERSONAL PLAN FOR MANAGING
,
                                                           STRESS 52
"   BEING HEALTHY FOR LIFE            24
                                                           Identifying Stressors 52
    Making Changes in Your World 24
                                                           Designing Your Plan 53
    What Does the Future Hold? 24
                                                           Getting Help 53
    Tips for Today 25                                      Tips for Today 53
    Summary 25                                             Summary 53
    Take Action 26                                         Behavior Change Strategy: Dealing with Test Anxiety      54
    Journal Entry 26                                       Take Action 56
    For More Information 26                                Journal Entry 56
    Selected Bibliography 27                               For More Information 56
                                                           Selected Bibliography 57
    Chapter 2
    STRESS: THE CONSTANT CHALLENGE             29          Chapter 3
    WHAT IS STRESS?       30                               PSYCHOLOGlo\L HEALTH            59

    Physical Responses to Stressors 30                     WHAT PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH IS NOT                    60
    Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors   33
    Personality and Stress 34                              DEFINING PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH                60
    The Stress Experience as a Whole 36                    Realism   61


    xiv
Acceptance 61
Autonomy 61
A Capacity for Intimacy   62
Creativity 62

MEETING LIFE'S CHALLENGES 62
Growing Up Psychologically 62
Achieving Healthy Self-Esteem 64
Being Less Defensive 66
Being Optimistic 66
Maintaining Honest Communication 67
Dealing with Loneliness 68
Dealing with Anger 69

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS         70
Anxiety Disorders 70
Mood Disorders 73
Schizophrenia 76

MODELS OF HUMAN NATURE AND
THERAPEUTIC CHANGE 77
The Biological Model 78
The Behavioral Model 80
                                              Successful Relationships 95
The Cognitive Model 80
                                              Ending a Relationship 95
The Psychodynamic Model 80
Evaluating the Models 81                      COMMUNICATION 96
GETTING HELP 81                               Nonverbal Communication 96
                                              Communication Skills 97
Self-Help 81
                                              Gender and Communication 97
 Peer Counseling and Support Groups 81
                                              Conflict and Conflict Resolution 97
Professional Help 82
Tips for Today 83                             PAIRING AND SINGLEHOOD 99
Summary 84                                    Choosing a Partner 99
Take Action 84                                Dating 100
Behavior Change Strategy: Dealing with        Living Together 101
   Social Anxiety 85                          Gay and Lesbian Partnership 102
                                              Singlehood 102
Journal Entry 86
For More Information 86                       MARRIAGE 104
Selected Bibliography 87                      Benefits of Marriage 104
                                              Issues in Marriage 104
                                              The Role of Commitment 104
                                              Separation and Divorce 105

Understanding Sexuality                       FAMILY LIFE 105
                                              Becoming a Parent 106
                                              Parenting and the Family Life Cycle   106
Chapter 4                                     Single Parents 106
INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS AND                    Stepfamilies 107
COMMUNICATION 89                              Successful Families 108
                                              Tips for Today 109
DEVELOPING INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS        90   Summary 109
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem 90               Take Action 11 0
Friendship 91                                 Journal Entry 110
Love, Sex, and Intimacy 92                    For More Information 110
Challenges in Relationships 93                Selected Bibliography 111


                                                                                      Contents   XV
                                           Varieties of Human Sexual Behavior 132
                                           Atypical and Problematic Sexual Behaviors    133
                                           Commercial Sex 133
                                           Responsible Sexual Behavior 135
                                           Tips for Today 136
                                           Summary 137
                                           Take Action 13 7
                                           Journal Entry 137
                                           For More Information 138
                                           Selected Bibliography 139


                                           Chapter 6
                                           CONTRACEPTION           141

                                           PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACEPTION            142

                                           REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTION 143
                                           Oral Contraceptives: The pill 143
                                           Contraceptive Implants 147
                                           Injectable Contraceptives 148
                                           Emergency Contraception 148
                                           The Intrauterine Device (IUD) 149
                                           Male Condoms 150
                                           Female Condoms 152
                                           The Diaphragm with Spermicide 154
                                           The Cervical Cap 156
                                           The Contraceptive Sponge 156
                                           Vaginal Spermicides 157
                                           Abstinence, Fertility Awareness, and Withdrawal    158
                                           Combining Methods 159
Chapter 5
                                           PERMANENT CONTRACEPTION:
SEX AND YOUR BODY       113
                                           STERILIZATION 159
SEXUAL ANATOMY 114                         Male Sterilization: Vasectomy 160
Female Sex Organs 114                      Female Sterilization 162
Male Sex Organs 115
                                           ISSUES IN CONTRACEPTION 162
HORMONES AND THE REPRODUCTIVE LIFE         When Is It OK to Begin Having Sexual
CYCLE 117                                     Relations? 162
Differentiation of the Embryo 117          Contraception and Gender Differences 163
Female Sexual Maturation 118               Sexuality and Contraception Education for
Male Sexual Maturation 120                    Teenagers 165
Aging and Human Sexuality 121
                                           WHICH CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD IS RIGHT
SEXUAL FUNCTIONING 122                     FOR YOU? 167
Sexual Stimulation 122                     Tips for Today 169
The Sexual Response Cycle 122              Summary 169
Sexual Problems 123                        Take Action 170
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 126                        Journal Entry 170
The Development of Sexual Behavior   126   For More Information     170
Sexual Orientation 130                     Selected Bibliography    171




xvi   Contents
Chapter 7
ABORTION      173

THE ABORTION ISSUE 174
The History of Abortion in the United States   174
Current Legal Status 174
Moral Considerations 175
Public Opinion 176
Personal Considerations 179
Current Trends 180

METHODS OF ABORTION 182
Suction Curettage 184
Manual Vacuum Aspiration 184
Abortion after the First Trimester 184
Medical Abortion 185

COMPLICATIONS OF ABORTION             186
Possible Physical Effects 186
possible Psychological Effects 187

DECISION MAKING AND UNINTENDED
PREGNANCY 188
Tips for Today 189
Summary 189
Take Action 190
Journal Entry 190
For More Information    190
Selected Bibliography   191


Chapter 8                                              The Postpartum Period 219
PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH           193                 Tips for Today 220
PREPARATION FOR PARENTHOOD               194           Summary 220
                                                       Take Action 221
Deciding to Become a Parent 194
Preconception Care 195                                 Journal Entry 221
                                                       For More Information 222
UNDERSTANDING FERTILITY            198                 Selected Bibliography 223
Conception 198
Infertility 199

PREGNANCY 201
                                                       PART THREE
Pregnancy Tests 201                                    Making Responsible Decisions:
Changes in the Woman's Body 201                        Substance Use and Abuse
Emotional Responses to Pregnancy 204
Fetal Development 205
                                                       Chapter 9
The Importance of Prenatal Care 209
Complications of Pregnancy and Pregnancy Loss    214   THE USE AND ABUSE OF PSYCHOACTIVE
                                                       DRUGS 225
CHILDBIRTH 215
                                                       ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOR 226
Choices in Childbirth 215
Labor and Delivery 216                                 What Is Addiction? 226



                                                                                       Contents   xvii
                                                                                                                   T
                                                           Tips for Today 251
                                                           Summary 251
                                                           Behavior Change Strategy: Changing Your
                                                              Drug Habits 252
                                                           Take Action 253
                                                           Journal Entry 253
                                                           For More Information 254
                                                           Selected Bibliography 255


                                                           Chapter 10
                                                           THE RESPONSIBLE USE Of ALCOHOL            251

                                                           THE NATURE OF ALCOHOL 258
                                                           The Chemistry of Alcohol 258
                                                           Absorption 259                            - 'i
                                                           Metabolism and Excretion 259              /'
                                                           Alcohol Intake and Blood Alcohol Concentrafion    260

                                                           ALCOHOL AND HEALTH 260
                                                           The Immediate Effects of Alcohol 261
    Characteristics of Addictive Behavior 227
                                                           Drinking and Driving 263
    The Development of Addiction 227
                                                           The Effects of Chronic Use 265
    Characteristics of People with Addictions 227
                                                           The Effects of Alcohol Use During Pregnancy     266
    Examples of Addictive Behaviors 227
                                                           Possible Health Benefits of Alcohol 267
    DRUG USE, ABUSE, AND DEPENDENCE            229
                                                           ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE 268
    The Drug Tradition 229
                                                           Alcohol Abuse 268
    Drug Abuse and Dependence 230
                                                           Binge Drinking 268
    Who Uses Drugs? 231
                                                           Alcoholism 269
    Why Do People Use Drugs 232
                                                           Gender and Ethnic Differences 274
    Risk Factors for Dependence 233
                                                           Helping Someone with an Alcohol Problem 275
    Other Risks of Drug Use 234
                                                           DRINKING BEHAVIOR AND. RESPONSIBILITY 275
    HOW DRUGS AFFECT THE BODY            235
                                                           Examine Your Attitudes About Alcohol Use 276
    Changes in Brain Chemistry 235
                                                           Examine Your Drinking Behavior 276
    Drug Factors 236
                                                           Drink Moderately and Responsibly 276
    User Factors 237
                                                           Promote Responsible Drinking in Others 277
    Social Factors 237
                                                           Tips for Today 279
    REPRESENTATIVE PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS                238   Summary 279
     Opioids 238                                           Behavior Change Strategy: Developing ResponSible
    -Central Nervous System Depressants 238                   Drinking Habits 280
     Central Nervous System Stimulants 240                 Take Action 281
    Marijuana and Other Cannabis Products 242
                                                           Journal Entry 282
    Hallucinogens 244
     Inhalants 245                                         For More Information 282
                                                           Selected Bibliography 283
    DRUG USE: THE DECADES AHEAD 246
    Drugs, Society, and Families 246
    Legalizing Drugs 246                                   Chapter 11
    Drug Testing 247                                       TOWARD A TOBACCO-FREE SOCIETY             285
    Treatment for Drug Dependence 248
    Preventing Drug Abuse 250                              WHY PEOPLE USE TOBACCO           286
    The Role of Drugs in Your Life 250                     Nicotine Addiction 286



    xviii   Contents




l
f
    Social and Psychological Factors 288           NUTRITIONAL GUIDELINES: PLANNING
    Why Start in the First Place? 288              YOUR DIET 327
    Who Uses Tobacco? 291                          Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 328
                                                   The Food Guide Pyramid 329
    HEALTH HAZARDS 292                             Dietary Guidelines for Americans 334
    Tobacco Smoke: A Poisonous Mix 292             The Vegetarian Alternative 337
    The Immediate Effects of Smoking 293           Dietary Challenges for Special Population
    The Long-Term Effects of Smoking 294             Groups 338
    Other Forms' of Tobacco Use 297
                                                   A PERSONAL PLAN: MAKING INFORMED
    THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON THE .                CHOICES ABOUT FOOD 340
    NONSMOKER 299                                  Reading Food Labels 340
    Environmental Tobacco Smoke 299                Reading Dietary Supplement Labels 341
    Smoking and Pregnancy 301                      Evaluating Functional Foods 341
    The Cost of Tobacco Use to Society 301         Protecting Yourself Against Foodborne Illness ~45
                                                   Environmental Contaminants and
    WHAT CAN BE DONE? 302                             Organic Foods 347
    Action at the Local Level 302                  Additives in Food 348
    Action at the State and Federal Levels 302     Food Irradiation 348
    International Action 303                       Food Allergies and Food Intolerances 349
    Action in the Private Sector 303               Staying Committed to a Healthy Diet 349
    Individual Action 304                          Tips for Today 350
    Controlling the Tobacco Companies 305          Summary 350
    HOW A TOBACCO USER CAN QUIT             305    Behavior Change Strategy: Improving Your Diet by
    The Benefits of Quitting 305                      ChOOSing Healthy Beverages 352
    Options for Quitting 306                       Take Action 353
    Tips for Today 306                             Journal Entry 353
    Summary 307                                    For More Information 353
    Behavior Change Strategy: Kicking the          Selected Bibliography 355
       Tobacco Habit 308
    Take Action 31 0
    Journal Entry 310
    For More Information 310
    Selected Bibliography 311


     PART FOUR
     Getting Fit

     Chapter 12
     NUTRITION BASICS       313

     NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS: COMPONENTS
     OF A HEALTHY DIET 314
     Proteins-The Basis of Body Structure 315
     Fats-Essential in Small Amounts 316
     Carbohydrates-An Ideal Source of Energy 320
     Dietary Fiber-A Closer Look 321
     Vitamins-Organic Micronutrients 322
     Minerals-Inorganic Micronutrients 324
     Water-Vital But Often Ignored 324
     Other Substances in Food 326


                                                                                           Contents    xix




L
                                                      Flexibility Exercises 377
                                                      Training in Specific Skills 379
                                                      Putting It All Together 379

                                                      GETTING STARTED AND STAYING
                                                      ONTRACK 379
                                                      Selecting Instructors, Equipment, and Facilities   380
                                                      Eating and Drinking for Exercise 383
                                                      Managing Your Fitness Program 383
                                                      Tips for Today 386
                                                      Summary 387
                                                      Behavior Change Strategy: Planning a Personal
                                                         Exercise Program 388
                                                      Take Action 388
                                                      Journal Entry 389                         ,,,


                                                      For More Information 390
                                                      Selected Bibliography 391


                                                      Chapter 14
                                                      WEIGHT MANAGEMENT           393

                                                      BASIC CONCEPTS OF WEIGHT
                                                      MANAGEMENT 394
                                                      Body Composition 394
                                                      Energy Balance 395
                                                      Evaluating Body Weight and Body CompOSition 395
                                                      Excess Body Fat Wellness 397
Chapter 13                                            What Is the Right Weight for You? 401
EXERCISE FOR HEALTH AND FITNESS        361
                                                      FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO EXCESS
WHAT IS PHYSICAL FITNESS? 362                         BODY FAT 401
Cardiorespiratory Endurance 363                       Genetic Factors 401
Muscular Strength 363                                 PhYSiological Factors 402
Muscular Endurance 363                                Lifestyle Factors 403
Flexibility 364                                       Psychosocial Factors 404
Body Composition 364
                                                      ADOPTING A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE FOR
THE BENEFITS OF EXERCISE 364                          SUCCESSFUL WEIGHT MANAGEMENT 404
Improved Cardiorespiratory Functioning 364            Diet and Eating Habits 406
More Efficient Metabolism 364                         Physical Activity and Exercise 407
Improved Body Composition 364                         Thinking and Emotions 409
Disease Prevention and Management 365                 Coping Strategies 409
Improved Psychological and Emotional Wellness   366
Improved Immune Function 367                          APPROACHES TO OVERCOMING A
Prevention of Injuries and Low-Back Pain 368          WEIGHT PROBLEM 410
Improved Wellness over the Life Span 368              Doing It Yourself 410
                                                      Diet Books 410
DESIGNING YOUR EXERCISE PROGRAM 364                   Dietary Supplements and Diet Aids 412
Physical Activity and Exercise for Health             Weight-Loss Programs 412
   and Fitness 369                                    Prescription Drugs 414
First Steps 371                                       Surgery 414
Cardiorespiratory Endurance Exercises 374             Psychological Help 415
Developing Muscular Strength and Endurance 375        Acceptance and Change 415


xx   Contents
r
    EATING DISORDERS 416
    Factors In Developing an Eating Disorder 417
    Anorexia Nervosa 417
    Bulimia Nervosa 418
    Binge Eating Disorder 418
    Treating Eating Disorders 418
    Today's Challenge 419
    Tips for Today 419
    Summary 419
    Behavior Change Strategy: A Weight Management
       Program 420
    Take Action 421
    Journal Entry 421
    For More Information 422
    Selected Bibliography 423


    PART FIVE
    Protecting Yourself Against Disease
                                                        Behavior Change Strategy: Reducing the Saturated and
    Chapter 15                                             Trans Fats in Your Diet 452
    CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH         425                   Take Action 453
                                                        Journal Entry 454
    THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM           426
                                                        For More Information 454
    RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR                     Selected Bibliography 455
    DISEASE 427
    Major Risk Factors That Can Be Changed 428
    Contributing Risk Factors That Can Be Changed 431    Chapter 16
    Major Risk Factors That Can't Be Changed 433         CANCER     457
    Possible Risk Factors Currently Being Studied 434
                                                         WHAT IS CANCER? 458
    MAJOR FORMS OF CARDIOVASCULAR                        Benign Versus Malignant Tumors 458
    DISEASE 436                                          How Cancer Spreads: Metastasis 459
    Hypertension 437                                     Types of Cancer 459
    Atherosclerosis 439                                  The Incidence of Cancer 460
    Heart Disease and Heart Attacks 439
    Stroke 442                                           COMMON CANCERS          461
    Congestive Heart Failure 444                         Lung Cancer 461
    Other Forms of Heart Disease 445                     Colon and Rectal Cancer 462
                                                         Breast Cancer 463
    PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST                          Prostate Cancer 465
    CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE 446                           Cancers of the Female Reproductive Tract     466
    ~Eat Heart-Healthy 446                               Skin Cancer 467
    Exercise Regularly 449                               Oral Cancer 470
    Avoid Tobacco 450                                    Testicular Cancer 470
    Know and Manage Your Blood Pressure 450              Other Cancers 470
    Know and Manage Your Cholesterol Levels 450
    Develop Effective Ways to Handle Stress              THE CAUSES OF CANCER          473
       and Anger 451                                      The Role of DNA 473
    Manage Other Risk Factors and                       . Dietary Factors 475
       Medical Conditions 451                           Inactivity and Obesity 477
    Tips for Today 451                                    Microbes 478
    Summary 451                                           Carcinogens in the Environment     478


                                                                                                   Contents   xxi
                                                      Chapter 17
                                                      IMMUNITY AND INFECTION        491

                                                        THE CHAIN OF INFECTION      492
                                                        Links in the Chain 492
                                                      . Breaking the Chain 493

                                                      THE BODY'S DEFENSE SYSTEM 493
                                                      Physical and Chemical Barriers 494
                                                      The Immune System 494
                                                      Immunization 498
                                                      Allergy: The Body's Defense System
                                                         Gone Haywire 498

                                                      THE TROUBLEMAKERS: PATHOGENS
                                                      AND DISEASE 500                          . '
                                                                                                 ,~   (




                                                      Bacteria 501
                                                      Viruses 506
                                                      Fungi 512
                                                      Protozoa 512
                                                      Parasitic Worms 513
                                                      Prions 513
                                                      Emerging Infectious Diseases 513
                                                      Other Immune Disorders: Cancer and Autoimmune
                                                         Diseases 515

                                                      GIVING YOURSELF A FIGHTING CHANCE:
                                                      HOW TO SUPPORT YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM                   515
                                                      Tipsfor Today 516
                                                      Summary 517
DETECTING, DIAGNOSING, AND                            Take Action 518
TREATING CANCER 480                                   Journal Entry 518
Detecting Cancer 480                                  For More Information 518
Diagnosing Cancer 480                                 Selected Bibliography 519
Treating Cancer 480
Living with Cancer 482
                                                      Chapter 18
PREVENTING CANCER 483
                                                      SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES        521
Avoiding Tobacco 483
Controlling Diet and Weight 484                       THE MAJOR STDS 522
Regular Exercise 484                                  HIV Infection and AIDS 522
Protecting Skin from the Sun 484                      Chlamydia 535
Avoiding Environmental and Occupational               Gonorrhea 537
   Carcinogens 484                                    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 538
Recommended Screening Tests 486                       Genital Warts 538
Tips for Today 486                                    Genital Herpes 541
Summary 486                                           Hepatitis B 542
Behavior Change Strategy: Incorporating More Fruits   Syphilis 543
   and Vegetables into Your Diet 487                  OTHER STDS     544
Take Action 488
Journal Entry 488                                     WHAT YOU CAN DO 545
For More Information 488                              Education 545
Selected Bibliography 489                             Diagnosis and Treatment 546


xxii   Contents
r   Prevention 547
    Tips for Today 549
    Summary 549
    Take Action 550
    Journal Entry 550
    For More Information 550
    Selected Bibliography 551




    PART SIX
    Accepting Physical Limits

    Clapter 19
    AGING: A VITAL PROCESS       553

    GENERATING VITALITY AS YOUR AGE 554
    What Happens as You Age? 554
    Life-Enhancing Measures: Age-Proofing 555

    CONFRONTING THE CHANGES OF AGING                  558
    Planning for Social Changes 558
    Adapting to Physical Changes 559
    Handling Psychological and Mental Changes    562

    AGING AND LIFE EXPECTANCY 564
    Factors Influencing Life Expectancy 564
    Theories on Aging 565

    LIFE IN AN AGING AMERICA 566
    America's Aging Minority 567
    Family and Community Resources for
       Older Adults 567
    Government Aid and Policies 569
    Changing the Public's Idea of Aging 570                 PLANNING FOR DEATH 578
    Tips for Today 571
                                                            Making a Will 578
    Summary 571                                             Considering Options for End-of-Life Care 579
    Take Action 572                                         Deciding to Prolong Life or Hasten Death 580
    Journal Entry 572                                       Completing an Advance Directive 583
    For More Information 573                                Becoming an Organ Donor 584
    Selected Bibliography 573                               Planning a Funeral or Memorial Service 584

                                                            COPING WITH DYING       587
                                                            Awareness of Dying 587
    Chapter 20                                              The Tasks of Coping 588
    DYING AND DEATH       575                               Patterns of Coping 590
                                                            The Trajectory of Dying 591
    WHY IS THERE DEATH?         576                         Supporting a Dying Person 592
    UNDERSTANDING DEATH AND DYING               576         COPING WITH LOSS 593
    Defining Death 576                                      Experiencing Grief 593
    Learning About Death 577                                Supporting a Grieving Person 595
    Denying Versus Welcoming Death 577                      Helping Children Cope with Loss 595


                                                                                                  Contents   xxiii
                                        The Providers of Conventional Medicine 605
                                        Choosing a Primary Care Physician 608
                                        Choosing a Medical Facility 609

                                        COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE
                                        MEDICINE 609
                                        Alternative Medical Systems 609
                                        Mind-Body Interventions 614
                                        Biological-Based Therapies 614
                                        Manipulative and Body-Based Methods 615
                                        Energy Therapies 617
                                        Evaluating Complementary and
                                          Alternative Therapies 618

                                        WHY DO CONSUMERS USE COMPLEMENTA~Y
                                        MEDICINE? 620

                                        THE FUTURE: CONFLICT, CONVERGENCE,!;
                                        OR COLLABORATION? 620             '
                                        Tips for Today 621
                                        Summary 621
                                        Take Action 621
                                        Journal Entry 622
                                        For More Information    622
                                        Selected Bibliography   623



                                        Chapter 22
                                        SELF-CARE: SKILLS FOR THE HEALTH CARE
COMING TO TERMS WITH DEATH      595     CONSUMER 625
Tips for Today 596                      SELF-CARE: MANAGING MEDICAL
Summary 596                             PROBLEMS 626            .
Take Action 597                         Self-Assessment 626
Journal Entry 597                       Decision Making: Knowing When to
For More Information    597                See a Physician 626
Selected Bibliography   598             Self-Treatment: Many Options 627

                                        GETTING THE MOST OUT OF YOUR MEDICAL
                                        CARE 630
                                        The PhYSician-Patient Partnership 631
Making Choices in Health Care           Your Appointment with Your Physician 631
                                        The DiagnostiC Process 632
                                        Medical and Surgical Treatments 633
Chapter 21
HEALTH CARE: CONVENTIONAL AND           PAYING FOR HEALTH CARE        637
COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE 601              The Current System 637
                                        Health Insurance 638
THE RISE OF COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE IN    Choosing a Policy 640
THE UNITED STATES 602
                                        Tips for Today 640
CONVENTIONAL MEDICINE 603               Summary 641
Premises and Assumptions of             Take Action 642
   Conventional Medicine 603            Journal Entry 642


xxiv   Contents
f
    Behavior Change Strategy: Complying with Physician
       Instructions 642
    For More Information 643
    Selected Bibliography 643



    PART EiGHT
    Improving Your Chances: Personal Safety
    and Environmental Health


    Chapter 23
    PERSONAL SAFETY: PROTECTING YOURSELF FROM
    UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES AND VIOLENCE 645

    UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES           646
    What Causes an Injury? 646
    Motor Vehicle Injuries 647
    Home Injuries 652
    Leisure Injuries 654
    Work Injuries 656

    VIOLENCE AND INTENTIONAL INJURIES                 657
    Factors Contributing to Violence 658
    Assault 661
    Homicide 661                                             POPULATION GROWTH 681
    Gang-Related Violence 661                                How Many People Can the World Hold? 682
    Hate Crimes . 661                                        Factors That Contribute to Population Growth       682
    School Violence 662
    Workplace Violence 662                                   POLLUTION 682
    Family and Intimate Violence 662                         Air Pollution 683
    Sexual Violence 665                                      Chemical Pollution 690
    What You Can Do About Violence 668                       Radiation 692
                                                             Noise Pollution 694
    PROVIDING EMERGENCY CARE               670
    Tips for Today 670                                       HEALING THE ENVIRONMENT           695
    Summary 671                                              Tips for Today 696
    Behavior Change Strategy: Adopting Safer Habits    671   Summary 696
    Take Action 672                                          Take Action 697
    Journal Entry 672                                        Journal Entry 697
    For More Information 672                                 For More Information    697
    Selected Bibliography 673                                Selected Bibliography   698

                                                             Appendix A Nutritional Content of Popular Items
    Chapter 24                                               from Fast-Food Restaurants A-l
    ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH          675
                                                             Appendix B A Self-Care Guide for Common Medical
    CLASSIC ENVIRONMENTAL                                    Problems A-5
    HEALTH CONCERNS 676
                                                             AppendiX C Resources for Self-Care      A-13
    Clean Water 676
    Waste Disposal 677                                       Credits C-l
    Food Inspection 680
    Insect and Rodent Control 681                            Index    H


                                                                                                     Contents    XXV
                                                -----   --=--====~~~~------IIIIIIIIII;

BOXES                                                Mind/Body /Spirit
                                                     Ten Warning Signs of Wellness 4
In the News                                          Stress and Your Brain 38
                                                     Healthy Connecting 43
Deciphering the Human Genome 10                      Paths to Spiritual Wellness 65
College Students and Stress 40                       Intimate Relationships Are Good for Your Health 105
Attention-DeficitlHyperactivity Disorder: A          Sexual Decision Making 130
   Controversial Diagnosis 79                        Stress and Pregnancy 209
Same-Sex Marriage and Civil Unions 103               Spirituality and Drug Abuse 233
Cybersex 134                                         Tobacco Use and Religion: Global Views 289
Future Methods of Contraception 166                  Exercise and the Mind 367
Mifepristone: A Tangled Web of Medicine and          Exercise, Body Image, and Self-Esteem 409
   Politics 185                                      Anger, Hostility, and Heart Disease 432
Infertility and Reproductive Technology 202          Religion and Wellness 451
Club Drugs 239                                       Support Groups and Cancer Survival 485," i
Does Moderation Work for Problem Drinkers? 273       Immunity and Stress 516
Uncovering Tobacco Use on Campus 287                 Stress and Genital Herpes 542
Genetically Modified Foods 344                       Help Yourself by Helping Others 559
Drugs and Supplements for Improved Athletic          In Search of a Good Death 590
   Performance 378                                   The Power of Belief: The Placebo Effect 613
The Fattening of America 395                         Expressive Writing and Chronic Conditions 629
Dietary Fat: Eat More of the Right Type and Worry    Nature and the Human Spirit 677
   Less? 437
Cell Phones and Brain Cancer: Is There a Link? 479
Emerging Infections 514                              Take Charge
STDs: The Stealth Diseases 540                       Motivation Boosters 23
Parkinson's Disease 556                              Overcoming Insomnia 45
Organ Donation and Transplantation in Japan 586      Meditation and the Relaxation Response 49
Herbal Remedies: Are They Safe? 616                  Breathing for Relaxation 50
Medical Errors 635                                   Realistic Self-Talk 67
Cellular Phones and Distracted Driving 649           Being a Good Friend 92
Environmental Health: Good News and                  Strategies for Enhancing Support in Relationships 96
   Bad News 689                                      Guidelines for Effective Communication 98
                                                     Online Relationships 101
                                                     Strategies of Strong Families 108
                                                     Communicating About Sexuality 135
                                                     Talking with a Partner About Contraception 164
                                                     Healthy Eating During Pregnancy 211
                                                     If Someone You Know Has a Drug Problem 250
                                                     Dealing with an Alcohol Emergency 262
                                                     Building Motivation to Quit Smoking 291
                                                     Helping a Friend or Partner Stop Using Tobacco 304
                                                     Choosing More Whole-Grain Foods 321
                                                     Eating for Healthy Bones 326
                                                     Judging Serving Sizes 330
                                                     Reducing the Fat in Your Diet 335
                                                     Eating Strategies for College Students 340
                                                     Safe Food Handling 347
                                                     Becoming More Active 370
                                                     Determining Your Target Heart Rate 375
                                                     Safe Weight Training 377
                                                     Maintaining Your Exercise Program 387
                                                     Strategies for Successful Weight Management 411
                                                     If Someone You Know Has an Eating Disorder 419
                                                     What to Do in Case of a Heart Attack or Stroke 442


xxvi   Contents
    Breast Self-Examination 464
    Protecting Your Skin from the Sun 469
    Testicle Self-Examination 471
    Coping with Cancer 484
    Protecting Yourself Against Tickborne Infections 505
    How to Keep Yourself Well 517
    Preventing HIV Infection and Other STDs 535
    Don't Wait-Early Treatment of STDs Really
       Matters . 546
    Talking About Condoms and Safer Sex 548
    Caring for a Person with Dementia or Alzheimer's
       Disease 567
    Tasks for Survivors 589
    Coping with Grief 594
    Caring for Your Teeth and Gums 608
    Communicating with Your Physician with
       E-Mail 632
    Recognizing the Potential for Abusiveness in a
       Partner 663
    Preventing Date Rape 667
    Staying Safe on Campus 669
    Making Your Letters Count 696

    Critical Consumer
    Evaluating Sources of Health Information 16
    Alternative Remedies for Depression 77
    Choosing and Evaluating Mental Health
       Professionals 83
    Dietary Supplements and PMS 121
    Obtaining a Contraceptive from a Health Clinic or
      Physician 146
    Buying and Using Over-the-Counter Contraceptives
                                                           Dimensions of Diversity
       153
    Making a Birth Plan 216                                Health Disparities Among Ethnic Minorities 8
    Choosing a Drug-Treatment Program 249                  Stress and Diverse Populations . 42
    Alcohol Advertising 278                                Intercultural Friendships and Intimate
    Smoking Cessation Products 307                            Relationships 100
    Using Food Labels 342                                  Attracting a Partner in Different Cultures 128
    Using Dietary Supplement Labels 343                    Contraceptive Use Among American Women 165
    Choosing Exercise Footwear 382                         Abortion Around the World 183
    Evaluating Fat and Sugar Substitutes 408               Ethnicity and Genetic Diseases 196
    Over-the-Counter Diet Pills and Diet Aids 413          Drug Use in Rural America 247
    Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements for           Metabolizing Alcohol: Our Bodies Work
      Improving Cholesterol 449                               Differently 259
    Avoiding Cancer Quackery 482                           Women and Alcohol 275
    Preventing and Treating the Common Cold 508            Special Risks for Women Who Smoke 302
    Getting an HIV Test 529                                Tobacco Control Around the World 303
    ChoOSing a Place to Live 568                           Ethnic Foods 351
    A Consumer Guide to Funerals 588                       Fitness and Disability 368
    Evaluating Health News 606                             Gender, Ethnicity, and Body Image 416
    Avoiding Health Fraud and Quackery 618                 Women and CVD 434
    Choosing and Using Medical Self-Tests 628              African Americans and CVD 435
    Choosing a Health Care Plan 641                        Can Poverty Cause Cancer? 472
    Choosing a Bicycle Helmet 651                          Women and Autoimmune Diseases 515
    How to Be a Green Consumer 680                         HIV Infection Around the World 524


                                                                                               Preface   xxvii



t
r
                                                                                                                ·"···
Suicide Among Older Men 564                                                                                     ;


Multicultural Wisdom About Aging 570
Dia de los Muertos: The Day of the Dead 579                                                                     r·
How Does the u.s. Health Care System Rate? 638                                                                  !
                                                                                                                !
Poverty and Environmental Health 691


Assess Yourself
Wellness: Evaluate Your Lifestyle 14
What Stage of Change Are You In? 18.
How High Is Your Stress Level? 31
Are You Suffering from a Mood Disorder? 74
Love Maps Questionnaire 94
Your Sexual Attitudes l31
Which Contraceptive Method Is Right for You and
  Your Partner? 168
Creating a Family Health Tree 200
Do You Have a Problem with Drugs? 234
Do You Have a Problem with Alcohol? 277
Nicotine Dependence: Are You Hooked? 288
Your Diet Versus the Food Guide Pyramid 333
The l.5-Mile Run-Walk Test 384
Rate Your BMI and Body Fat Distribution 402
What Triggers Your Eating? 405
Are You at Risk for CVD? 447
What's Your UV Risk? 468
Do Your Attitudes and Behaviors Put You at Risk for
  STDs? 545
Personal Health Profile 633
Are You an Aggressive Driver? 648
Environmental Health Checklist 695


In Focus
Headaches: A Common Symptom of Stress 39
Shyness 72
Myths About Suicide 75                                TOPICS OF SPECIAL CONCERN TO WOMEN
Myths About Contraception 144
                                                      Aging among women, 121,555,560-562,564-565
The Opposing Views: Pro-Choice 176
                                                      Alcoholism, patterns among women, 274-275
The Opposing Views: Pro-Life 177
                                                      Alcohol metabolism in women, 257, 259, 260
The Adoption Option 181
                                                      Alcohol use, special risks for women, 210, 213, 263,
Personal Decisions About Abortion 188
                                                         266-267,275
Injection Drug Use 235                                Amenorrhea, 401, 417
Facts About Drinking Among College Students 271       Arthritis, 558, 559, 560-561
Children of Alcoholics 272                            Asthma, 501
Diabetes 400                                          Autoimmune disorders, 495,515
Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer 474                 Bacterial vaginosis, 123,544
Asthma 501                                            Body image, negative, 399-401, 409, 416
Are All Diseases Infectious? 511                      Breastcance~9,267,366,463-465,474,476,477,481,485
College Students and STDs 536                         Breast self-examinations, 463-464, 481
Alzheimer's Disease 563                               Cancer and women, 457, 460, 461, 463-465, 466-467, 468,
Hospice: Comfort and Care for the Dying 581              474,481
Selected Medical Specialties 607                      Cardiovascular disease, risk among women, 433, 434, 438
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 658                            Caregiving for older adults, 567-569
Natural Ecosystems and Biodiversity 683               Causes of death among women, 5



xxviii   Preface
r   Cenncalcance~8,466,475,481,539
    Communication styles among women, 97
    Contraception, female methods, 143-150, 152-158, 162, 166
                                                                      TOPICS OF SPECIAL CONCERN TO MEN
                                                                      Aging among men, 121-122,555,565
    Contraceptive use and roles and responsibilities, 163-164, 165    Alcohol abuse and dependence, patterns among men, 274-275
    Cybersex, 134                                                     Alcohol metabolism in men, 259, 260
    Depression, risk among women, 75-76                               Attention-deficitlhyperactivity disorder, 79
    Dietary recommendations for women, 324, 328-329, 338-339          Cancer and men, 457, 460, 461, 465-466, 470, 471, 481
    Domestic violence, 661-663                                        Cardiovascular disease risk among men, 433, 434, 438
    Drug use, sp~cial risks for women, 237, 239, 241, 244             Causes of death among men, 5
    Eating disorders, 52, 393, 396, 409-410, 413, 416-419             Cigars and pipes, 298-300, 470
    EctopiC pregnancy 184, 187,214-215,536,538                        Circumcision, 116-117, 127,525-526
    Female athlete triad, 401                                         Cluster headaches, 39
    Female genital mutilation, 127                                    Communication styles among men, 97
    Financial planning for retirement, 559                            Contraception, male methods, 150-152, 153, 159, 160-162, 166
    Folic acid, 197,210,323-324,328-329,339,356                       Contraceptive roles and responsibilities, 163-164
    Gender roles, 34, 90, 104, 106, 126-127                           Cybersex,134
    Health concerns and status, general, 7                            Dietary recommendations for men, 339
    Heart attack risk among women, 433, 434, 438                      Domestic violence, 661-663
    HIV infection rates and transmission, 521, 525-527                Firearm-related injuries, 654, 660-661, 669
    Hormone replacement therapy, 121, 200,434,462,558,                Gender roles, 34, 90, 104, 106, 126-127
        561-562                                                       Health concerns and status, general, 7
    Hormones, female, 117-119, 121,302,434,463,562                    Heart attack risk among men, 433, 438
    Infertility, female, 199,201,202,521,538                          HIV infection rates and transmission, 521, 525-527
    Life expectancy of women, 564-565, 638                            Homicide, rates among men, 660, 661, 662
    ~enopause, 121-122,434,561
                                                                      Hormones, male, 117-118, 121,377
    ~enstrual cycle, 118-121, 159,201,203                             Infertility, male, 199,201,202,538
    ~igraine, 39
                                                                      Life expectancy of men, 564-565, 638
    ~uscular strength, development of, 377                            ~otorcycle and moped injuries, 650-651

    Obesity in women, 394, 397                                        Motor vehicle injuries, 647-650
    Osteoporosis, 148, 197,302,324-326,366,553,562                    Muscular strength, development of, 377
    Ovarian cancer, 145,467,474,477                                   ObeSity in men, 394, 397
    Pap tests and pelvic exams, 146,466,481,546-547                   Oral cancer, 298, 470, 476
    Parenting, single, by women, 106-107                              Parenting, single, by men, 107
    Pelvic inflammatory disease, 123-125, 145, 147, 150, 199,521,     Physical activity levels, 362
        522,536-538,539                                               Poverty rates among older men, 566
    Physical activity levels, 362                                     Prostate cancer, 8,105,465-466,474-475,481
    Poverty rates among older women, 566                              Psychological disorders among men,.71, 76-77
    Pregnancy and childbirth, 201-219                                 Rape, 133,239,645,665-668
    Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder,        Schizophrenia, 71, 76-77
        113, 120-121                                                  Sexual anatomy, male, 115-117
    Psychological disorders among women, 70-76                        Sexual health problems and dysfunctions, male, 125
    Rape, 133,239,645,665-667                                         Sexual functioning, male, 122-124
    Sexual anatomy, female, 114-115, 118                              Sexual harassment, 668-669
    Sexual health problems and dysfunctions, female, 123-125, 126,    Sexually transmitted diseases, symptoms and special risks
        503-504,505                                                       among men, 528, 536, 537, 538, 539, 544, 546
    Sexual functioning, female, 122-124                               Spit tobacco, 297-298, 470, 484
    Sexual harassment, 668                                            Sterilization, male, 160-162
    Sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, 212, 526, 531-532,   Stressors and responses to stress among men, 35, 40
        536,537,538,539,541,543                                       Suicide, high risk among older men, 564
    Sexually transmitted diseases, symptoms and special risks         Testicular cancer, 125,470,481
        among women, 193, 199,528,536,537,538,539,544,546             Testicular self-examination, 471, 481
     Stalking and cyberstalking, 664                                   Tobacco use, rates and special risks among men, 287, 292, 297
     Sterilization, female, 162-163                                    Violent behavior among men, 660-663, 665-667
     Stressors and responses to stress among women, 29,35,40,42        Violent deaths of men, 660-661
     Tobacco use, rates and special risks among women, 210-211,       Note: The health issues and conditions listed here include those that
        213,287,292,297,301,302,428                                   disproportionately influence or affect women or men, For more infor-
     Uterine cancer, 466-467, 481                                     mation, See the index under gender, women, men, and any of the spedal
     Violence against women, 660, 662-664, 665-667                    topics listed here.



                                                                                                                         Contents      xxix
l'
 ,




     Index
     Boldface numbers indicate pages on which glossary      Adequate Intake (AI), 328, 357                          life-enhancing measures, 555-558
          definitions appear.                               adipose tissue, 394. See also body fat                  life-expectancy, 564-565
                                                            adolescents                                             living and care options, 567-568
     AA (Alcoholics Anonymous), 248-249, 272-274, 282          alcohol advertising, 290                             multicultural wisdom about, 570
     abortifacients, 148-149                                   contraceptive use, 165                               physical changes, 554-555, 559-562
     abortion, 173,,174-191                                    dietary recommendations, 339                         planning finances, 554, 558-559
        adoption alternative, 181                              sexuality, 128-129,                                 social changes, 558-559
        around the world, 183                                  sexuality and contraceptive education, 164-167       statistics, 566
        complications, 186-187                                 See also college students                            theOries on, 565
        current trends, 180-182                             adoption, 180-181                                       transportation, 568-569
        decision making, 179-180, 188-189                   adrenal androgens, 378                                  vision changes, 559
        definition, 174                                     adrenal glands, 32-33, 117,293                          Web sites and organizations, 572-573
        dilation and evacuation, 184, 190                   adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 32-33           agoraphobia, 71
        legal status, 174-175                               adult day-care centers, 568                         AIDS
        manual vacuum aspiration, 184, 190                  advance directives, 582-584                            in children, 212
        medical, 185-186                                    advertising,                                            definition, 522, 529
        methods, 182-186                                       alcohol, 278, 282                                    diagnosis, 529-530
        mifepristone, 149, 175, 181-182, 185-186               evaluating, for health products, 610                global infection, 522, 524
        moral considerations, 175-177                          over-the-counter drugs, 634                          prostitution and, 135
        partial birth, 174-175, 185                            prescription drugs, 634                              reporting requirements, 530
        public opinion, 176-179                                tobacco, 290-291                                    treatment, 530-533
        spontaneous, 174,214-215                               See also media                                      See also HIV infection
        statistics, 173, 179-180, 182-183, 187              AEDs (automatic external defibrillators), 670       air bags, 649-650
        suction curettage, 184, 190                         aerobic exercise, 371-372, 374-375, 379             air conditioners, 689
     abstinence, 132-133, 158, 160, 166                     Africa, AIDS in, 524                                air pollution
     abuse                                                  African Americans                                      acid precipitation, 687-688
        abusive partners, recognizing potential for, 663       alcohol abuse, 274                                  air quality and smog, 683-685
        of children, 664, 667-668                             asthma, 501                                          energy use and, 688
        domestic violence, 662-663                            body image, 416                                      greenhouse effect and global warming, 685-686
        elder abuse, 664-665                                  bone density, 562                                    indoor, 688
        staling,664                                           cardiovascular disease, 433, 438                     lung cancer and, 478
        See also violence                                      cervical cancer, 466                                ozone layer thinning, 686-687, 689
     accidents. See unintentional injuries                     diabetes, 197,400                                   prevention of, 688-690
     accreditation of health care plans, 641                  fetal alcohol syndrome, 210                          See also environmental health
     accutane, 212-213                                        glaucoma, 560                                     Air Quality Index (AQI), 684-685
     acetaldehyde, 266-267                                    health-related differences, 8                     Al-Anon, 273, 282
     acetaminophen (Tylenol), 561                             HIV transmission, 527                             alarm, 36
     acid precipitation, 686-688                              homicide rate, 661                                Alaska Natives, 8, 275, 292, 438
     acquaintance rape. See date rape                         lactose intolerance, 197                          alcohol, 257-283
     acquired immunity, 496-497                               lead poisoning, 691                                  advertising, 278, 282
     acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. See AIDS;            lupus, 515                                           aging and, ~57
           HIV infection                                      obesity, 394                                         alcoholism, 268, 269-274
     ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), 32-33                pancreatic cancer, 471                               attitudes towards use, 276
     action stage, 18                                         prostate cancer, 465, 481                            behavior change strategy, 280-281
     active euthanasia, 582                                   sickle-cell disease, 196                             binge drinking, 268-270, 278
     active immunity, 498                                     Single-parent families, 107                          blood alcohol concentration, 260-261,
     acupuncture, 611-612                                     thalassemia, 197                                            263-264,280
     acyclovir, 541                                           tobacco, 290, 292-293                                calories in, 314
     addiction!dependency                                     vitamin deficiencies, 324                            cancer and, 458, 462, 476,484
        abuse vs. dependence, 230-231                       African sleeping sickness, 513                         chemistry, 258-259
        addictive behaviors, 226, 227, 228-229              age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 560            chronic use effects, 265-266, 270
        alcohol, 269-274                                    aggressive driving, 647-648                            college students and, 268-271
        characteristics of people with, 227                 aging, 553-574                                         combined with drugs, 240, 262-263
        codependencyand, 249-250                              Alzheimer's disease, 513, 516, 557, 562-563          date-rape drugs in, 666
        cybersex, 134                                         America's aging minOrity, 565-566                    death from, 260-262, 264, 266
        development of, 227                                   arthritis, 559-561                                   definition, 258-259
        drug, 230-231, 233-234                                cardiovascular disease, 433                          dependence, 232, 239, 268
        gambling, 228                                         changing public idea of, 569-570                     driving and, 257, 263-265, 648-649
        in history, 229-230                                   community resources, 568                             emergency treatment, 262
        Internet, 229                                         dementia, 562-563                                    gender and ethnic differences, 8, 274-275
        nicotine, 286-288                                     depreSSion, 563-564                                  hangovers, 261-262
        physical, 230-231, 269, 286-288                       dietary recommendations, 339                        health benefits from, 267-268, 448
        prevention of, 250-261                                economic status, 566                                hormone replacement therapy and, 558
       sex and love, 228                                      elder abuse, 664-665                                 immediate effects of, 260-263, 265
       spending or shopping, 228-229                          exercise, 367-368                                    injuries and, 263, 648-649, 652, 656
        symptoms of, 227, 230-231                             family caregiving, 566-567                           intoxication, 257, 260
        treatment of, 248-250, 272-274, 305-308               government aid and policies, 569                     legal limits, 264
        See also alcoholism; psychoactive drugs; smoking;     grief, 562-563                                      metabolism of, 259-260
            specific drug names                               hearing loss, 559                                   moderate drinking, 257, 267, 336, 448




                                                                                                                                                  Index      I-I
    alcohol (continued)                                    lupus, 515                                       asbestosis, 690
        nutrition and, 324, 326                            tobacco use, 292                                 asbestos particles, 461, 690
        in PMS and PMDD, 120                            American Medical Association (AMA), 16              Ascaris lumbricoides, 502
        poisoning, 257, 262                             amino acids, 315, 378, 413, 449                      AshkenaziJews,474
        during pregnancy, 210, 213, 266-267             amniocentesis, 207                                   Asian Americans
        religion and, 233                               amniotic sac, 205, 207                                    alcohol abuse, 274-275
        responsible hosts, 278                          amoebic dysentery, 513                                    alcohol metabolism, 259
       responsible use of, 275-279                      amphetamines, 232, 241, 413                               cardiovascular disease, 434, 438
       self-assessment, 277                             amylOid plaques, 563                                      diabetes, 197
       sexual decision making, 263                      anabolic sterOids, 378                                   health-related differences, 8
       sexually transmitted diseases and, 113, 136,     analgesics, 226, 508                                     thalassemia, 197
             534-536 '                                  anal intercourse, 133, 525                               tobacco use, 292
       sleep 'and, 45                                   anaphylaxis, 498-499                                 aspartame, 349
       social and psychological effects, 270-271        Ancylostoma duodenale, 502                           aspirin, 436, 441-442, 451,462, 508, 561
       statistics on use, 226, 257-258, 269-270         androgens, 117, 377-378                              assault, 661. See also violence
       stress and, 52                                   androgyny, 127                                       assertiveness, definition, 68
       treatment for, 259, 272-274                      androstendione, 378                                  assessments
       triglyceride levels, 431                        anecdotal evidence, 609                                   aggressive driving, 648
       violence and, 660                               anemia,324-325                                            alcohol problems, 277
       Web sites and organizations, 282-283            anesthesiology, 607                                       anger, hostility, and heart disease, 432
       withdrawal symptoms, 231, 239, 269-270          anesthetic, 238                                           BMI and body fat distribution, 402
       See also alcoholism                             aneurysms, 442-443                                        body image, 416
  alcohol dehydrogenase, 259                           anger and hostility                                       choice of contraceptive method, 168
  Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 248-249, 272-274,            heart disease and, 432, 442, 451                       CVD risk, 447
          282                                             intimate relationships, 97                            depression, 74
  alcoholism                                              in oneself, 69-70, 84, 665                            drug problems, 234
      causes of, 271-272                                  in others, 70                                         eating triggers, 405
      children of alcoholics, 272, 283                    road rage, 647-648, 652                               environmental health checklist, 695
      definition, 268                                     Type A personalities, 34, 37                          family health tree, 200
      helping someone with, 275                        angina pectoris, 294-295, 440                            lifestyle, 14-15
      nutrition and, 324, 326                          angiograms, 440-441                                      love maps questionnaire, 94
      patterns and prevalence, 269-271                 animal dander allergies, 498                             1.5-mile run-walk test, 384
      prevention programs, 278-279                     Anisakis, 346                                            nicotine dependence, 288
      treatment, 272-274, 282                           anorexia nervosa, 393, 396, 416-418                     personal health profile, 633
      See also alcohol                                ,Antabuse, 259, 273-274                                  risk for STDs, 545
 alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder          J anti-angiogenesis drugs, 483
                                                                                                               sexual attitudes, 131
          (ARND),266-267                                antibiotic use, 491, 504-506, 508, 634-636             skin cancer risk, 468
 alendronate (Fosamax), 562                             antibodies, 494, 495-496                               social support, 43
 allacin,449                                            antibody deficiency syndromes, 498                     stages of change, 18
 allergens, 498-500                                     antibody-mediated immune response, 496-497             stress level, 31
 allergies                                              anticarcinogens, 476-477                               your diet vs. the Food Guide Pyramid, 333
     aliergic response, 498-500                         antidepressants, 74, 76, 78-79                     assisted living facilities, 568
     definition, 498                                    antigens, 495                                      assisted reproductive technology (ART), 202
     as medical specialty, 607                          antihistamines, 500, 508                           asthma
     stress and, 38                                    antioxidants, 322, 326-327, 476-477, 563, 565           CFCs in inhalers, 687
     symptoms, 509                                     antipsychotics, 78                                      environmental tobacco smoke, 300-301
     treatment, 500                                    anxiety, 70, 71                                         ethniCity, 8         '
allied health care prOviders, 607-608                  anxiety disorders                                       overview, 501
allostatic load, 36-37, 54                                 exercise and, 367                                  smoking, 296
allyl sulfides, 327, 477                                  generalized anxiety disorder, 71, 81                socioeconomic factors, 691
alpha brain wave activity, 367                            heart disease and, 432-433                          stress, 38
alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 208                              obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 72, 81      asymptomatic period, 522-523, 525
alpha-linolenic acid, 316                                 panic disorders, 71, 81                          atherosclerosis
altered states of consciousness, 244                      post-traumatic stress disorder, 38, 71-73           coronary heart disease, 294-295
alternative medical systems, 609-613. See also            prevalence of, 71                                   definition, 37, 295, 429
         complementary and alternative medicine           simple phobias, 70-71                               environmental tobacco smoke, 300
Alzheimer's disease (AD), 513, 516, 557, 562-563,         social phobias, 71-72, 85                           high blood pressure, 428
         567                                              treatment, 73                                       stages of plaque development, 439
AMD (age-related macular degeneration), 560            anxiolytiCs, 78                                        stress and, 367
amenorrhea, 401, 417                                  anxious avoidant attachment, 90                         thrombotic strokes, 443
American Cancer SOciety, 480, 481, 593                aorta, 427-428, 445                                 athletes, dietary recommendations, 339
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM),           aortic aneurysms, 295                               athlete's foot, 512
        371-372,390                                   Apgar scores, 218                                   atomic bomb fallout, 478
American Heart Association (AHA), 319, 335,354,       apoptosis, 474                                      atria, 427-428
        390,448,454                                   appetite suppressants, 413-414                      atrial fibrillation, 443
American Indians                                      Aral Sea, 677                                       attachment, 90
   aging, 570                                         arenavirus, 514                                     attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),
   alcohol abuse, 275                                 aristolochic acid, 616                                      78-79
   diabetes, 197,400                                  arousal, sexual, 122-123, 132                       authenticity, 62-63
   drug abuse, 247                                    arrhythmias, 440, 445                               autoeroticism, 126-128, 132-133
   fetal alcohol syndrome, 210                        arteries, 427                                       autoimmune diseases, 495, 515, 560. See also HIV
   health-related differences, 8                      arthritis, 558-561. See also rheumatoid arthritis           infection
   heart disease, 438                                 artificial (intrauterine) insemination, 202-203     automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), 670
   lactose intolerance, 197                           asanas,50                                           automobile crashes. See motor vehicle injuries




1-2     Index
autonomic nervous system, 30-32                          bicycle safety, 645, 651-652                             bradykinesia, 556
antonomy, 60, 61                                         bidis (beadies), 299                                     brain
azithromycin,537                                         bile acids, 475                                             alcohol and, 265
AZT (zidovudine), 530                                    Billings method, 159                                        exercise and, 367
                                                         binge drinking, 268-270, 278                                psychoactive drugs, 235-236
BAC (blood alcohol concentration), 260-261,                 acute pancreatitis, 266                                  stress, 38
     263-264,280,648-649                                    effects on college students, 268-269, 271, 278           tobacco use, 293
back injuries, 657                                           "holiday heart" syndrome, 266                        brain cancer, 471-472, 479
back pain, 368, A-I0                                         rates of, 270                                        brain death, 576-577
bacteria (singular, bacterium), 500-502, 523             binge-eating disorder, 52, 413, 416, 417-418             Braxton Hicks contractions, 204-205
  antibiotic treatments, 505-506                         biodegradable implants, 166                              BRCAl gene, 474-475
  cancer and, 478                                        biodiversity, 680, 683                                   bread food group, 329-330
  CVD and: 436                                           bioelectromagnetic-based therapies, 618                  breast cancer
  diseases caused by, 501-505                            biofeedback, 51, 56                                         early detection, 463, 481
  foodborne illness and, 345-346                         biofield therapy, 617                                       exercise, 366, 477
  See also names of speafic bacteria                     biological-based therapies, 611, 614                        genetic testing, 474-475
bacterial vaginosis (BV), 544                            biological model, 78-80, 84                                riskfactors, 9, 267, 463, 476
Baha'i faith, 289                                        biomagnification, 690-692                                  support groups, 485
balloon angioplasty, 440-441                             biomedicine, 603. See also conventional medicine           treatment and prevention, 463-465
barbiturates, 232                                        biopsy, 458-459, 463, 480                                breastfeeding, 219, 241, 356-358, 527, 531
barium enema, 481                                        biotin, 323, 356                                         breast self-examination (BSE), 463-464, 481
barrier methods, 142                                     bipolar disorder, 75                                     breathing, for relaxation, 49-50
Bartholin's glands, 537                                  birth control. See contraception                         breathing first aid, 655
basal cell carcinomas, 468-469                           birth control pills. See oral contraceptives             broccoli, 476-477
battered women, 662-663                                  birth defects, 266-267, 324-325, 445                     bromine, 687
B cells, 494, 495, 496, 528                              birth plans, 216                                         bronchitis, chronic, 296-297
beadies (bidis), 299                                     birth rates, 689                                         bruises, 385
beans, 331                                               bisexuality, 131                                         BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy),
beer, 258. See also alcohol                              Black Americans. See African Americans                         513-514
behavior change                                          black cohosh, 561                                        bubonic plague, 681
   choosing target behavior for, 12                      blackouts, 270                                           Buddhism, 65, 289
   implementing a plan for, 19-22                        bladder cancer, 471, 478                                 bulimia nervosa, 393, 416, 417, 418-419
   locus of control and, 15, 17                          bladder infection. See urinary tract infections          bupropion (Zyban), 307
   motivation and, 12-15, 17,23                          blastocyst, 205                                          burials, 585
   obstacles, 17                                         bleeding, first aid for, 655                             Burkitt's lymphoma, 511
   rewards and, 20-21                                    blisters, 385                                            burnout, 41
   sample plan for, 21-22                                blood alcohol concentration (BAC), 260-261,              butanediol, 378
   self-contracts, 22, 389                                      263-264,280,648-649
   self-efficacy and, 14-15                              blood cancer, 458, 460-461, 472, 511                     caffeine
   social support and, 17                                blood clots, 443-444                                       behavior change strategy, 252-253
   stages of change model of, 17-19                      blood fats. See cholesterol; high-density lipoprotein;      calcium absorption, 326
   stress and, 23                                               low-density lipoprotein; triglycerides               effects of, 242
   See also behavior change strategies; Tips for         blood, fecal occult, 462, 481                              physical dependence, 225
         Today guidelines                                blood pressure, 43, 437-438. See also hypertenSion          during pregnancy, 211
behavior change contracts, 21-22                         blood transfusions, HIV infection from, 526                sources,242         .
behavior change strategies                               blood viscosity, 436                                       stress, 44, 52
   adopting safer habits, 671-672                        BMI (body mass index), 334, 396-397,402,416                 for weight loss, 413
   complying with physicians' instructions, 642          body composition, 364-365, 394-397                       calaveras, 579
   developing responsible drinking habits,               body dysmorphic disorder, 400                            calcitonin (Miacalcin), 562
         280-281                                         body fat                                                 calcium
   drug habits, 252                                         distribution of, 398-399, 402                            aging, 557
   improving your diet by chOOSing healthy bever-           essential vs. nonessential, 394                          cancer prevention, 462, 476
         ages, 352                                          fat cells, 403                                           cardiovascular health, 448
   incorporating more fruits and vegetables into            genetic factors, 401-402                                 dietary sources, 338-339
         your diet, 487                                     health effects of, 364, 397-398                          function of, 325-326
   kickbg the tobacco habit, 308-309                        hormones and, 403                                        PMS and, 121
   planning a personal exercise program,                    lifestyle factors, 403-404                               recommended intake, 356, 358
         388-389                                            percent, 394, 397                                     calendar method of contraception, 158
   reducing the saturated and trans fats in your diet,      self assessment, 402                                  calorie density, 406-407
         452-453                                         body image, 399-401, 409, 416                            calories
   shyness, 85                                           body mass index (BMI), 334, 396-397, 402, 416              in the average American diet, 332
   test anxiety, 54-55                                   bone denSity, 500, 562                                      cholesterol and, 448
   weight-management program, 420-421                    bone marrow, 460-461                                        definition, 314-315
behavior therapy, 80, 84                                 bone marrow transplants, 482-483                            food labels, 342
Benadryl, 262                                            booster seats, 650                                         increase in intake, 403
benign mmors, 458                                        Bordetella pertussiS, 502, 505                             recommended intake, 406, 448
Benson, Herbert, 48-49                                   Borna virus, 511                                           sample menus, 359
benzodiazepines, 239                                     boron, 326, 358                                            in snacks, 393
benzo(a)pyrene, 295, 475                                 Borrelia burgdoJjeri, 502, 504                             utilization by activity, 380-381
bereavement, 593. See also grief                         botanicals, 614-615. See also herbal remedies              weight management and, 406, 420
beta-carotene, 322, 326, 344, 477                        botulism, 346, 348                                       CAM. See complementary and alternative
beverages, 336-337, 352                                  bouncing, in exercise, 378                                    medicine
BHA and BHT, 348                                         bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ,                 Campylobacter jejuni, 345-346
bicycle helmets, 645, 651                                      513-514                                            Canadian health care, 472




                                                                                                                                                    Index       1-3
 cancer, 457-489                                   cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 440, 655,
                                                                                                                                                             1
                                                                                                                                                             !
                                                                                                             cellular death, 577
   alcohol and, 266                                     670                                                  central nervous system (CNS)
    alternative treatments, 482                     cardiorespiratory endurance, definition, 362-363            alcohol, 265
   benign vs. malignant tumors, 458-459             cardiorespiratory endurance exercise, 371-372,              definition, 238
   bladder, 471, 478                                      374-375,379                                           depressants, 238-240, 252, 261
   brain, 471-472, 479                             cardiorespiratory functioning, 364                           nerve cell communication, 76
   breast, 9, 267, 366, 463-465, 474               cardiovascular disease (CVD)                                 stimulants, 240-242, 252
    causes, 473-479                                    alcohol and, 265-266                                     stress responses, 31-34
   cervical, 466, 475                                  angina pectoris, 294-295,440                         cerebral cortex, 293
    colorectal, 366, 462, 475-477, 481                 arrhythmias, 440                                     cerebral hemorrhage, 443-444. See also strokes
    coping with, 483-484                               atherosclerosis (See atherosclerosis)                cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). See strokes
    definition, 458 ,.                                 congenital heart disease, 445                        cervical cancer, 8, 466, 475,481, 539
   detecti'on, 480-481, 486                            congestive heart failure, 444-445                    cervical caps, 155-156, 161
   dietary factors, 475-477                            definition, 364, 427                                 cervical dysplasia, 46, 539
   DNA mutations and, 473-475                          diagnosis and treatment, 440-442                     cervix, 114-115
   ethnicity and, 8                                    exercise and, 365-366, 425, 430, 446,                cesarean section, 218-219
   exercise and, 366, 462                                   449-450                                         CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), 686-687, 689
   hereditary risks, 474-475                           gender differences, 434                              CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome), 510
   immune response and, 515                           heart valve disorders, 445-445                        chancres, 543
   infectious agents and, 511                         hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 445                      chancroid, 544
   ingested chemicals, 478                            rheumatic heart disease, 445                          chemical pollution, 690-691
   kidney, 471                                        risk factors for, 427-436, 446-447                    chemotherapy, 462, 463, 472, 481
   leukemia, 458, 460-461, 472                        smoking and, 294-295, 428, 450                        Chernobyl aCcident, 478-479, 693
   liver, 8, 478                                      statistics, 438                                       chewing tobacco. See spit tobacco
   lymphomas, 460-461, 472-473                        strokes, 4-5, 8, 295, 366, 442-444                    chi, 610-612,620
   metastasis, 458-459                                sudden cardiac death, 440                             chicartas, 299
   microbes, 478                                      See also cardiovascular health; coronary heart        chicken pox, 499, 502, 509
   multiple myeloma, 473                                    disease; heart attacks; heart disease; hyper-   child abuse, 664, 667-668
   obesity and, 462-463                                     tension                                         childbirth
   oral, 298, 470                                  cardiovascular health, 425-456                              choices in, 215-216
   origin of term, 458                                aging, 433                                               classes, 213-214
   ovarian, 467, 474                                  anger and hostility, 432, 442, 451                       HNinfection, 531-532
   pancreatic, 299, 460, 470-471                      aspirin, 436, 441-442, 451                               labor and delivery, 216-219
   preventing, 483-486                                blood viscosity and iron, 436                            menstruation follOwing, 219
   promoters, 475                                     cholesterol and, 428-430, 450-451                        postpartum period, 219-220
   prostate, 8,105,465-466,474-475,481                diabetes, 431                                         children
   from radiation, 478-479                            diet and, 425, 446-449                                   cost ofraising, 193
   remission, 462                                     exercise and, 365-366,425,430,446,449-450                dietary recommendations, 339, 356-358
   skin, 460-461, 467-470,478-479, 481                fibrinogen, 436                                          divorce and, 105
   statistics, 4-5, 457-458, 460-461                  gender differences, 433                                  environmental tobacco smoke, 300-301
   stomach, 471                                       heredity and, 433                                        family life cycle, 106
   stress and, 38                                     homocysteine, 434-435                                    grieving, 595
   testicular, 125,470,481                            infectious agents, 436                                   guns and, 654
   thyroid, 479                                       inflammation and C-reactive protein, 436                 HN infection in, 526-527
   tobacco use and, 295, 298, 302, 305                LDL particle size, 435-436                               lead poisoning, 690-691
   treatment, 480-483                                 lipoprotein(a),435                                       mercury poisoning, 692
   types of, 459-460                                  obesity, 431                                             motor vehicle injuries, 649-650
   uterine, 466-467, 481                              psycholOgical and social factors, 431-433                obesity in, 395
   warning signs, 480                                 streSs and, 431-432, 451                                 obsessive-compulsive disorder, 511
   Web sites and organizations, 488-489               syndrome X, 436                                          pornography, 134
   See also lung cancer                               triglyceride levels, 431                                 sexual behavior, 128-129
Candida, 123                                          type of dietary fat, 437                                 tobacco use by, 299
Candida albicans, 502, 512                            uric acid, 436                                           violence against, 664
Cannabis sativa, 242. See also marijuanalhashish      Web sites and organizations, 454                      chili peppers, 477      .
canola oil, 446, 449                                  See also cardiovascular disease                       Chinese traditional medicine, 609-611, 616-617
capillaries, 427                                   cardiovascular system, 426-428                           chiropractic, 616-618
capitation, 639                                    caregiving for elderly family members, 567               chlamydia, 145,213,466,502,535-537,540,546
capsaicin, 477                                     carotenoids, 357, 476, 477. See also beta-carotene       Chlamydia pneumoniae, 436, 503, 511
carbohydrate craving, 403                          carotid endarterectomy, 444                              Chlamydia trachomatis, 523, 535
carbohydrates                                      carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 657-658                    chloasma, 145
   definition, 320                                 carpooling, 690                                          chloral hydrate ("mickey"), 232
   food labels, 342                                cars, pollution from, 689. See also motor vehicle        chloride intake, 358
   nonnutritive sweeteners, 393, 408                     injuries                                           chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 686-687, 689
   PMS and, 121                                    Carson, Rachel, 677, 691                                 choking, 654
   recommended intake, 320-321, 332, 334-335,      Carvey, Dana, 635                                        cholecystokinin (CCK), 413
         350                                       Casey deCision, 174, 176, 180                            cholera, 513-514
   simple and complex, 320, 331-332, 407           cataracts, 560                                           cholesterol
   sugars, 320, 331-332, 336                       catecholamine, 414                                          benefits of controlling, 429-430
carbon dioxide, 685, 687                           CA-l25 test, 467                                            diet and, 335-336, 429, 448-449
carbon monoxide (CO), 292, 295, 300, 684, 688      CCR-5 receptors, 530                                        dietary supplements, 449
carboxyhemoglobin, 300                             CD4 T cells, 522-523, 525, 528, 530                         distribution within the body, 430
carcinogens, 292-293, 461, 478-479                 celibacy, 132-133, 158, 160, 166                            food labels, 342
carcinomas, 460-461                                cell-mediated immune response, 496, 542                     heart disease and, 366, 428-430, 446-448,
cardiac myopathy, 266                              cell phones, risks from, 479,648-649                              450-451




1-4     Index
    high-density vs. low-density lipoproteins, 317,      test anxiety, 54-55                                 in intercultural relationships, 100
         429                                             tobacco use, 287                                    in intimate relationships, 96-99
   recommended blood levels, 429, 431, 450            colon cancer, 366, 462, 475-477, 481                   listening, 97-98
   smoking and, 295                                   colostrum, 203                                         nerve cell, 76
choline, 357-358                                      Communicate! activities!guidelines                     nonverbal, 96-97
chondroitin sulfate, 561                                 abortion, 175, 182, 188                             psychological health and, 67-69
chorionic villus sampling (CVS), 207                     advertisements for prescription drugs, 636-637      skills development, 97-98
Christianity, 65                                         aging parents, 569                                  stress and, 42-43
chromium intake, 357                                     alternative or complementary therapy, 613           See also Communicate! activities/guidelines
chromium picolinate, 378                                 anger and hostility, 70, 442, 451, 665           community action, 279
chromosomes, 472, 473                                    asking someone to accompany you to medical       Compassionate Friends, 595
chronic bronchitis, 296-297                                    appOintments, 633                          competitiveness, 95
chronic diseases, 3, 629                                body image, 11 7                                  complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), 510                      carpooling, 690                                     acupuncture, 611-612
chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), 5, 295,         changing eating and cooking habits, 327             alternative medical systems, 609-613
      438                                                choice of fitness activities, 374                   biolOgical-based therapies, 611, 614-617
cigarettes. See smoking; tobacco                         cigarette advertising, 291                          chiropractic, 616-618
Cigarette tar, 292-293                                   colorectal cancer, 462                              definition, 602-603
cigars, 298-300, 470                                     complementary therapies, 619                        energy therapies, 611, 616-618
circumcision, 116-117, 127,525-526                       conflict resolution without overeating, 410         evaluating, 618-619
cirrhOSiS, 5, 260, 266, 543                              contagious colds, 493, 512                          future of, 620
civil umons, 103                                         contraception, 152, 167                             homeopathy; 610, 612-613
climate change, 513                                      dealing with anger, 70                              hypnosis,614                                ."
clinical breast exam (CBE), 481                          discussions of sexuality with children, 128         manipulative and body-based methods, 61;~'i
climcal death, 577                                       drinking and driving, 265                                 615-617                               I,
clinical studies, 606                                    drug abuse, 235, 246                              . mind-body interventions, 611
clitoris, 114-115, 118, 122, 124, 126-127               drug manufacturers, 609                              philosophy underlying, 610
clonidine, 307                                          empathic listening to friends with cancer, 480       placebo effect, 77,237, 613
cloning, 202-203                                        environmental tobacco smoke, 301                     reasons for popularity, 620
Clostridium botulinum, 346, 348                         fast-food restaurants, 319, 339                      rise of, 602-603
Clostridium peJjringe:ns, 346                           fertility problems, 201                              statistics, 601-602
Clostridium tetani, 502, 505                            healthy dining out, 332                              traditional Chinese medicine, 609-612, 616-617
clove cigarettes, 299                                   hearing loss, 559                                    Web sites and organizations, 622-623
cluster headaches, 39                                   helping someone quit smoking, 304                 compulsions, 72-73, 227. See also addictions!
CMV (cytomegalovirus), 213, 510                         holding drinkers responsible, 279                       dependency
coarctation of the aorta, 445                           Internet addiction, 229                           computed tomography (CT) scans, 444-445, 462,
Coca-Cola, cocaine in, i29                              intimate relationships, 92                              480-481
cocaethylene, 262-263                                   I statements, 99                                  conception, 142, 198-199
cocaine                                                 learning to say no, 47                            condoms
   abuse and dependence, 232, 240-241                   life-threatening allergies, 500                      female, 152-154, 160-161
   alcohol and, 262-263                                 life-threatening illnesses, 591                      HIV prevention, 534-535
   crack, 232, 236                                      media images of beauty, 401                          HPV prevention, 539
   effects of, 236, 240                                 media images of parenthood, 195                      male, 150-153, 160-161
   methods of use, 237, 240                             media images of tanned skin, 470                     proper use, 535
   during pregnancy, 213, 241                           media portrayal of psychological problems, 77        talking about, 548
   statistics, 225, 226, 240                            meeting new p"e.6ple, 101                         conflict resolution, 97-99, 410
cocarcinogens, 292-293                                  parenting roks, 220                               congenital heart disease, 445
Coccidioides immitis, 502                               people with'dementia, 564                         congenital malformation, 210
coccidioidomycosis, 512                                 performance anxiety, 42                           congestive heart failure, 444-445
cockroach allergies, 498, 501                           phy~ician-patient partnership, 631                consumer guidelines
codeine, 232, 262                                       predicting the future, 24                            adoption, 181
codependency, 249-250                                   protecting the environment, 569                      alcohol advertising, 278
cognitive distortions, 66-67                           '~eJationships with parents, 64                       bicycle helmets, 651
cognitive models, 80, 84                              , responses to stress, 36                              birth plan, 216
cohabitation, 101-102                                   responsible drinking, 269                            cancer quackery, 482
coitus interruptus, 159                                 risk factors for cardiovascular disease, 433         caregiving for older adults, 568-569
COLD (chronic obstructive lung disease), 5,438          road rage, 652                                       cigarette advertising, 290-291
colds                                                   safety measures, 656                                 common cold treatments, 508
  course of infection, 497-498, 506-507                 self-disclosure, 69                                  complementary and alternative medicine,
  means of transmission, 492-493                        self-talk about exercise, 379                              618-619
  stress and, 38                                        sexual functiomng, 126                               contraceptives, 146, 153
  symptoms, 509                                         sexually transmitted diseases, 535, 542, 547         dietary supplements, 121,341-343,378,
  viruses, 502                                          social eating, 404                                         412-413,449,614-617
cold sores, 509, 541. See also herpesviruses            stages of change, 19                                 diet pills and aids, 413
Coles, Robert, 570                                      supporting grieving people, 595                      drug treatment programs, 249
college students                                        walking at lunchtime, 368                            end-of-life care, 579-581, 583-584
  alcohol use, 268-271                                  wellness,l1                                          exercise instructors, equipment, and facilities,
  dietary recommendations, 339                          wills,579                                                  380-383
  health insurance, 640                               communication                                          fat and sugar substitutes, 408
  perfectionism, 45                                     about sexuality; 135                                 food labels, 342
  safe sex practices, 534-535, 547-548                  affiliative, 97                                      functional foods, 341, 344-345, 449
  safety on campus, 669                                 effective speaking, 98                               funerals, 588
  STDs, 536                                             in families, 108                                     green (environmentally-friendly) consumerism,
  stress, 40-41                                         gender and, 97                                             680




                                                                                                                                              Index      1-5



                                                                                                                                                                ...
                                                                                                                                                                /
 consumer guidelines (continued)
   health care quackery, 482, 610
   health information sources, 16, 606, A-15-A-16
   health insurance plans, 641
   HIV tests, 529
                                                       coronary artery disease. See coronary heart disease
                                                       coronary bypass surgery, 442
                                                       coronary heart disease (CHD)
                                                          definition, 295
                                                          excess body fat, 397-398<
                                                                                                             CVD. See cardiovascular disease
                                                                                                             CVS (chorionic villus sampling), 207
                                                                                                             cybersex, 134
                                                                                                             cyberstalking, 664
                                                                                                             cyclooxygenase (COX), 560-561
                                                                                                                                                           1
                                                                                                                                                           ;
                                                                                                                                                           1

   medical self-tests, 628                                 exercise and, 366                                 Cyclospora cayetanensis, 346
   mental health professionals, 82-83                     hypertension and, 428                              cyclosporine,616
    over-the-counter medications, 628-630                 lipoprotein(a),435                                 cystic fibrOSiS, 197
   prescription medicatikons, 634-636                     plaque buildup, 439                                cytokines, 483, 495, 497
   primary care physicians, 608-609                       smoking and, 294-295, 428                          cytomegalovirus (CMy), 213, 436, 510, 511
   tobacco cessation products, 306-307                    See also cardiovascular disease
   weight loss l?roducts and strategies, 410-414       coronary thrombosis, 440                              Daily Values, 328-329
   See also advertising; media                         Coronavirus, 502                                      dairy products, 317, 329, 331-332, 337
ConsumerLab.Com,343                                    corpus luteum, ll8                                    Dalkon Shield, 149
contagions, 497-498                                    corpus spongiosum, 116                                DASH diet, 448-449, 454
contagious diseases, 3-4, 506-507. See also diseases   corticosteroids, 500                                  date rape, 239, 664, 665-666
contemplation stage, 18                                cortisol, 32-33, 516                                  date-rape drugs, 239, 666
continuation rates, 142                                cough medicines, 508                                  dating, 100, 128
contraception, 141-171                                 Cowper's glands, 116, 124                             DDT,691
   abstinence, 132-133, 158, 160, 166                  CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation), 440, 655, 670    death, 575-599
   barrier methods, 142-143, 169                       crabs, 544                                               advance directives, 582-584
   cervical caps, 155-156, 161                         crack cocaine, 232, 236                                  assisted suicide and active euthanasia.
   choice of methods, 167-168                          cramps, muscle, 385                                            582-583
   communication about, 136                            C-reactive protein, 436                                  awareness of, 587-588
   continuation rate, 142-143                          creatine monohydrate, 378                                brain vs. clinical, 576-577, 586
   contraceptive effectiveness and costs, 161          creativity, 62                                           coping with, 588-591, 595-596
   contraceptive risks, 147                            cremation, 585                                           coping with loss, 593-595
   contraceptive sponges, 153, 156-157, 161            Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 513-514                       definitions, 576-577, 586
   definition, 142,217                                 Critical Thinking Journal Entry activities               denying vs. welcoming, 577-579
   diaphragms, 154-156, 160                               abortion, 190                                         disposition of the body, 584-585
   education of teenagers, 164-167                        alcohol advertising, 282                              end-of-life care, 579-580
   emergency, 148-149                                     communicating feelings, 110                           funeral or memorial services, 584-588
   ethnicity and, 8                                       complementary and alternative medicine, 622          infant, 215
   female condoms, 152-154, 160                           death, 597                                            leading causes, 1, 5
   fertility awareness method, 147, 158-161, 166,         drug abuse, 253                                       mature understanding of, 577
          169                                             environmental health, 697                             organ donors, 575, 584-586
   future methods, 166                                    exercise, 390                                        prolonging or hastening, 580-583
   gender differences, 163-164                            health care funding, 572                             rates, 682
   immunization, 166                                      health responsibility, 454, 488                      reason for, 576
   implants, 147-148, 166, 169                            HIVlAIDS,550                                         in search of a good, 590
   injectable contraceptives, 148                         infectious diseases, 518                             supporting a dying person, 592-593
   intrauterine devices, 149-150, 160-161, 182            information source evaluation, 26                    tasks for survivors, 589
   male condoms, 150-153, 160                            mental illness, 86                                    trajectory of dying, 590-592
   myths about, 144                                      nutrition, 353                                        Web sites and organizations, 597
   natural methods, 143                                   personal safety, 672                                 wills, 578-579, 582-584
   obtaining contraceptives, 146                         reproductive technology, 221                          withholding or withdrawing treatment, 582
   population growth and, 682                             self-care, 642                                       See also grief .
   spermicides, 150-153, 160                              sexual behavior, 138                               death rattle, 592
   statistics on, 165-166                                sexuality education, 170                            Death with Dignity Act of 1994,582-583
   sterilization, 147, 159-163, 165-166, 169             stress management techniques, 56                    decibels, 694
   withdrawal, 159                                       tobacco, 310, 488                                   decongestants, 500, 508
   See also oral contraceptives                          weight management, 422                              deep breathing, 49-50
contraceptivefailure rates, 142, 147, 148, 150,        cross-dressing, 126                                   DEET, 469, 505
      152, 154-157                                     cross-training, 386                                   defense mechanisms, 66, 68, 84, 590
contraceptive immunization, 166                        cruciferous vegetables, 327, 476-477, 557             defense of marriage acts (DOMAs), 103
contraceptive patches, 166                             Cruzan, NancyBeth, 581-582                            dehydration, 383
contraceptive sponges, 153, 156-157, 161               Cryptococcus neofonnans, 502                          dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 378
contractions, 216-217                                  Cryptosporidium, 676                                  delirium tremens (DTsl, 270
conventional medicine                                  CT (computed tomography) scans, 444-445, 462,         delusions, 76
   chOOSing a health care plan, 641                         480-481                                          dementia, 562, 567
   chOOSing a medical facility, 609                    culture                                               dengue fever, 514
   chOOSing a primary care physician, 601, 608-609       abortion and, 183                                   denial, 68, 591
   definition, 602-603                                   attitudes toward aging, 564, 570                    dental diseases. See teeth
   health care prOviders, 605-608                        attitudes toward death, 579                         dentists, 607
   premises and assumptions, 603-605, 612                body image and, 416                                 Depakote, 78
   See also health care; physicians                      circumcision and, 117                               depersonalization, 243
Convention on BiolOgical Diversiry, 683                  gender roles and, 127                               Depo-Provera, 148, 161, 169
cool down, 375                                           intercultural relationships, 100, 128               depressants, 238
Cooley's anemia, 197                                     role in health, 6-8                                 depression
coping mechanisms, 68, 483-484                           stress and, 35                                        aging, 562-564
coping strategies, 409-410, 590                          See also ethnicity                                    alternative.remedies,77
copper intake, 326, 357-358                            cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), 657-658               antidepressants, 74, 76, 78-79
Copper T-380A, 149-150, 161                            cunnilingus, 132-133                                    characterization of, 73
coronary arteries, 427-428                             curanderos, 274                                         definition, 73




1-6     Index
       exercise and, 367                                        athletic perfortnance, 377-378                     Dred Scott deCision, 177
       gender differences, 75-76                                fat inhibitors, 413                                drinking. See alcohol
      heart disease, 432-433                                    labels, 341, 343                                   driving, risk-taking behaviors, 257, 263-265,
       seasonal, 75                                             PMS, 121                                                 647-650. See also motor vehicle injuries
       self-assessment, 74                                      polypeptide supplements, 378                       dronabinol,243
      treatment, 74-75, 81                                      during pregnancy, 211                              drowsiness, while driving, 648
    dertnatology, 607                                           reasons to take, 328-329                           drug abuse
    Dertnatophyte fungi, 502                                    structure-function claims, 449                        adrenal androgens, 378
    DES (diethylstilbestrol), 197, 199,470                      for weight loss, 412-413                              alcoholand,262-263
    desensitization, 54-55                                      See also herbal remedies                              anabolic steroids, 378
    desert herb, 413                                         diet books, 410-412                                      athletic perfortnance and, 378
    designated drivers, 26'1'"                               diethylstilbestrol (DES), 197, 199,467,470              behavior change strategies, 252-253
    Dexedrine, i8                                            dieting" See weight management                           cost to society and families, 246
    dexfenfhramine, 414                                      digestion, 314-315                                       dangers from, 234-235
    DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), 378                       digestive problems, 38, 265-266                          date rape, 234, 666
    diabetes mellitus                                        digitalis, 445,616                                       drug legalization, 246-247
       cardiovascular disease, 431                           dilation and evacuation (D &: E), 184, 190               drug testing, 247-248
       ethnicity and, 8, 197                                 diphtheria, 499, 513                                     dual disorders, 233
      exercise and, 366                                      direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising, 634               high from, 237
      gestational, 400                                       disabilities, 7-9,42, 129-130, 368                      history of drug use, 229-230, 236
      nutrition, 339                                         diseases                                                infectious disease and, 514, 526
      obesity and, 398                                          autoimmune, 495, 515, 560                            injection drugs, 235, 526, 534
      pregnancy, 213                                            contagious, 506, 511                                 method of use, 236
      sexual dysfunction, 125                                   emerging infectious, 513-515                          overdosing, 240
      statistics, 5, 438                                        from foodborne pathogens, 345-346                     during pregnancy, 210-211
      symptoms and diagnosis, 399-400                           food inspection, 354, 680-681                        prevention of, 250-251
      treatment and prevention, 400                             illnesses vs., 587                                   profile of nonusers, 232
      Type 1 and Type 2, 400,511                                insect and rodent control, 681                       reasons for, 232-233, 252
      from viral infection, 511                                 sexuality and, 129-130                               risk factors, 231-234, 252
    Dia deI los Muertos, 578-579                                statistics, 500-501, 513                             in rura'! America, 247
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,      stress and, 36-39                                    self-assessment, 234
          230                                                   Web sites and organizations, 518-519                 social factors, 237-238
    diaphragmatic breathing, 50                                 See also names of individual diseases; pathogens     spirituality and, 233
    diaphragms, 154-156, 160-161                             displacement, 68                                        state dependence, 241
    diastole, 427                                            distress, 36-37                                         STDsand,136,526,536
    diastolic pressure, 438                                  disulfiram (Antabuse), 259, 273-274                     stress and, 52
    diazepam (Valium), 78, 274                               diversity issues                                        tobacco use and, 292
    DiClemente, Carlo, 17                                       abortion around the world, 183                       treatment for, 248-250
    diesel exhaust, 478                                         cancer and poverty, 472                              Web sites and organizations, 254
    Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH),             contraceptive use, 165-166                           what to do instead of drugs, 251
          448-449                                               Dia de 105 Muertos, 579                              See also psychoactive drugs
    dietary fib er" See fib er, dietary                         drug use in rural america, 247                     Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment
    dietary folate equivalents (DFE), 356                       ethnic foods, 35 {,                                     Actof1996,239,666
    Dietary GuideIinesfor Americans, 267-268, 273,              ethnicity and g;netic diseases, 196",:,;[97        drug legalization, 246-247
          328,334-337,352-353,448                               fitness and" disability, 368      ,S               drug resistance, 491, 504, 506, 513, 528
    dietary recommendations                                     healthcare systems around'the world, 638           drugs, definition, 227
      adolescents, 339                                         health status, 6-9                                  drug substitution programs, 248
       athletes, 339                                            HIV infection around the world, 524                drug testing, 247-248
       caloric intake, 406                                     intercultural relationships, 100, 127               drug therapy
       carbohydrates, 319, 320-321, 350                        metabolizing alcohol, 259                             aspirin,436,441-442,451,462,508,561
       children, 339                                           multicultural wisdom about aging, 570                 drug interactions, 615-616
       college students, 339-340                                poverty and environmental health, 691                generic drugs, 625, 629
      compared with average diet, 332                          special risks for women who smoke, 302                hortnone replacement therapy (HRT), 121,200,
       Dietary GUideIinesfor Americdns, 267-268, 273,          stereotyping, 7                                             434,462,558,561
             328,334-337,352-353,448                           stress responses, 42                                  issues in therapeutiC use of, 78-81
      fat, 318-319, 329, 350, 407                               suicide among older men, 564                         medication errors, 634-635
       fiber, 322, 350, 448                                     tobacco control around the world, 303                menstrual cycle, 120
       fruits and vegetables, 476-477, 487                     women and alcohol, 275                                prescription medications, 634-636
      men, 339                                                 women and autoimmune diseases, 515                    role in Western medicine, 604
       older adults, 339                                       women and CVD, 434                                    self-medication, 628-629
      protein, 316, 319                                        See also culture; ethnicity; gender differences;      timeline for drug development, 605
      salt, 448                                                       socioeconomic status                         drug treatment centers, 248-249
      serving sizes, 330, 350, 406                           diverticulitis, 322                                   dual disorders, 233, 271
      sugars, added, 319, 336                                divorce, 105-107                                      durable power of attorney, 583
      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, 328, 358                DMT,245                                               dust mites, 498, 500
      vegetarians, 337-338                                   DNA, 10,472,473-475                                   dying. See death
      vitamins and minerals, 322-325, 350                    doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.), 605           dysmenorrhea, 119
      water, 326-327                                         domestic violence, 661-663                            dysmorphia, 417
      women, 338-339                                         dopamine, 236, 413, 556                               dysplasia, 459
      See also nutrition                                     dose-response function, 236, 237, 264, 366
    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), 328-329, 352,          double effect, 582-583                                E. coli, 346-347, 505-506, 514
          356-357                                            douching, 156-157,521,538,548                         eating disorders
    dietary supplements                                      downers, 238                                             anorexia nervosa, 393, 396, 416-418
      antiOxidants, 322,326-327,476-477,563,565              Down syndrome, 195-196                                   binge eating, 52,413, 416-418




                                                                                                                                                     Index    1-7




b
eating disorders (continued)                      in pregnancy, 204-205                      estrogens
   bulimia nervosa, 393, 416-419                  in schizophrenia, 76                          autoimmune diseases, 515
    definition, 417                               stress and, 31, 37, 42-43                     bone density, 562
   factors in, 417                                See also mood disorders                       breast cancer and, 463
   negative emotions and, 409-410              emphysema, 295                                   as cancer promoter, 475
   prevalence of, 416-417                      empty nest syndrome, 558                         definition, 117
   stress and, 52                              enabling behavior, 249-250                       heart disease and, 434
   treatment, 418-419                          encephalitis, 510, 514, 681                      reproductive life cycle, 117, 119, 121
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), 514             endemic, 504                                     response to stress, 35
(ECG) electrocardiogram, 371, 440-441          endangered species, 683                          smoking and, 302
echinacea (coneflowerl, 508, 614-615, 617      endocarditis, 503                             ethical concerns, 19, 175-177,202
echocardiographic examinations, 441            endocrine disrupters, 199-201                 ethnicity
eclampsia, 214-215                             endocrine glands, 117                            aging, attitudes about, 564, 570
economic status                                endocrine system, 30-33, 39, 117                 alcohol abuse, 274-275
   aging and, 566                              endometrial cancer, 145,466-467,481              alcohol metabolism, 259
  lIsthma and, 691                             endometriOSis, 123, 199                          asthma, 501
   cancer and, 472                             endometrium, 119, 198-199,466                    death, attitudes toward, 579
   contraceptive use and, 165                  endorphins, 33, 366-367                          eating disorder rates, 417
   environmental health and, 691               endoscopies, 632-633                             intercultural friendships and relationships,
   health-related differences, 7-8             endurance training, 363                                100
   heart disease and, 433                      energy consumption, 682, 688                     lupus, 515
   infectious diseases and, 513                energy density, 406-407                          obesity rates, 394
   obesity and, 404                            energy therapies, 611, 616-618                   smoking rates, 292
   single mothers, 107                         Entamoeba histolytica, 502, 513                  See also culture; individual ethnic group,
ecosystems, 680, 683                           Enterobius vermicularis, 502                     body image, 416
ecstacy (MDMA), 239, 245                       environmental change, disease and, 513           cardiovascular disease, 433-434, 438
ectoparasites, 523                             environmental·health                             contraceptive use, 165
ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, 184, 187,214-215,      acid precipitation, 687-688                   disCrimination, 42
      536,538                                     air pollution, 683-685                        genetic diseases, 196-197
education attainment                              chemical pollution, 690-691                   health-related differences, 7-8
   contraceptive use, 165                         clean water, 676-677                          stress responses, 35
   CVD risk, 433                                  definition, 676                            ethyl alcohol, 258. See also alcohol
   eating disorders, 417                          ecosystems and biodiversity, 680, 683      ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), 286,
   general health status, 7                       energy consumption, 688                          293-294,299-302,461,688
   Pap test rates, 466                            food inspection, 354, 680-681              eugenol, 299
   tobacco use, 292                               global climate change, 685-686             euphoria, drug-induced, 238, 240
EEG (electroencephalogram), 577                   insect and rodent control, 681             European Americans, 292, 564
eggs, 331                                         noise pollution, 694-695                   eustress,36-37
ehrlichiosis, 504                                 ozone layer, 686-687, 689                  euthanasia, 582-583
ejaculation, 150-151, 198                         pesticides, 345-346, 348, 690-692          evening primrose oil, 615
ejaculatory ducts, 116                            population growth, 675, 681-682            exercise, 361-391
EKG (electrocardiogram), 371, 440-441             poverty and, 691                              aging and, 555-556, 562
elder abuse, 664-665                              radiation, 692-694                            arthritis, 560
elective surgery, 637                             self-assessment, 695                          body image, 409
electrical impedance analYSiS, 397                sewage, 678                                   cancer prevention, 462-463, 477-478
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), 371,              waste disposal, 677-680                       definition, 369
      440-441                                     ways to improve, 695                          duration, 374 .
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 74-75            Web sites and organizations, 698              frequency, 374
electroencephalogram (EEG), 577                   See also green activities                    health benefits of, 364-368, 400, 425, 430
electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT),      environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 286,         immediate and long-term effects, 365
      441                                            293-294,298,299-302,461,688               injuries, 384-385, A-I0-A-11
electronic fetal monitoring (EFM), 2l6-i17     environmental wellness, 3                       intensity, 374
Eleutherococcus senticosus, 617                ephedra, 413                                     metabolism and, 364-365, 402
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay),     ephedrine, 242, 413                             in PMS and PMDD, 120
      528                                      epidemiCS, definition, 507-508                   during pregnancy, 212-213
El Nino, 689                                   epidemiological studies, 606                    recommendations, 334
e-mail communication, with physicians, 632     epididymiS, 116                                 resistance training, 369
embalming, 585                                 epididymitis, 536-537                           self assessment, 384
embolic strokes, 443                           epinephrine, 32-33, 367, 499, 516               statistics, 362, 403-404
embolus, 442-443                               episiotomy, 216-217                             in stress management, 43-44
embryo, 205                                    epithelial layer, 460-461                       Web sites and organizatiOns, 390
emergency medical services (EMS) system, 670   Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 478,502,509-511       weight-bearing, 562
emergency medicine, 607                        erectile dysfunction, 113, 125                  See also exercise programs
emergency room (ER) visits, 627                Erikson,Erik, 62-65, 90                       exercise programs
emotional wellness, 2                          erogenous zones, 122-123                        ACSM recommendations, 372
   assessemnt of, 14-15                        erotic fantasy, 132-133                         assessment, 383-384
   exercise and, 366-367                       erythropoietin (EPO), 378                       behavior change strategy, 388-389
   stress and, 33-34                           Escherichia coli, 346-347, 505-506, 514         calorie utilization per activity, 380-381
   See also psychological health               espiritistas, 274                               cardiorespiratory endurance exercises, 374-375
emotion-focused coping, 591                    essential fat, body, 394. See also body fat     consistency of, 383, 385-387
emotions                                       essential nutrients, 314-315                    duration, 372, 374, 376-378
  in infertility, 201                          estates, 578-579                                eating and drinking; 383
   negative, 65-67                             estradiol, 119                                  equipment selection, 380-381
   in postpartum period, 219                   estriol, 208                                    examples of, 373




1-8     Index
  fitness center selection, 381-383                feverfew, 615                                    Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
  flexibility training, 371-372, 377-379           fiber, dietary                                         (FeTC),303
  frequency, 372, 374, 379                             aging, 557                                   fraternal twins, 199
  instructor selection, 380                            bile acids, 448                              free radicals, 326-327,476-477,563,565
  intensity, 372, 374, 376-378                         cancer prevention, 462, 476                  free weights, 376-377
  medical clearance for, 371                           definition, 320                              Friedman, Meyer, 34
  muscular strength and endurance, 369,                in diet aids, 413                            friendships, 91-92. See also intimate relationships
        375-377                                        recommended intake, 322, 448                 fruits,329,331-332,335,476-477
  selecting activities, 373, 380-381                   types and sources, 321-322, 350              FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), 119
  skill training, 379                              fibrinogen, 436                                  functional foods, 341-345
  summary of, 379-3~0                              fight-or-flight reaction, 32-33                  Funeral Rule (FTC), 588
  warm-up and cool-down, 374-375                   financial concerns and stress, 41                funeral services, 584-588
  weight machines, 376-377                         firearms, 654, 660-661, 669                      fungi, diseases from, 502, 512
exhaustion, stress and, 36                         fire detectors, 652-653
expectorants, 508                                  fires, injuries from, 652-653                    gambling, compulsive, 228
exposure, 80, 85                                   first aid                                        gamete intr~allopian transfer (GIFT), 202-203
extinction, 683                                        for bleeding, 655                            gamma butyrolactone, 378
                                                       for choking, 654-655                         gamma globulin, 498
fallopian tubes, 115, 163, 198-199                     definition of, 670                           gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), 239-240, 378, 666
falls, injuries from, 652                             heart attack or stroke, 442                   gang-related violence, 661                       I
false negative results, 628-629                        RICE principle, 384-385                      garbage, 678-679
false positive results, 628-629                       violence victims, 670                         Gardnerella vaginalis, 523, 544
families                                          fish, 211-212, 331                                garlic supplements, 341, 449
   abuse within, 662-663                          fitness. See physical fitness                     gastric bypass, 414-415
   caring for older members: 566-567              fitness centers, 381-383                          gay partnerships, 102-103, 130-131. See also
   family life cycle, 105-106                     fitness programs. See exercise programs                 homosexuality
   homicide within, 661                           Flagyl,544                                        GBS (Group B streptococcus), 212
   single-parent, 106-107                         flashbacks, 244                                   gender differences
   stepfarnilies, 107-108, 110                    flavonoids, 477                                     adolescent sexual behavior, 128-129
   successful, 108-109                            flesh-eating bacteria, 503, 514                     autoimmune diseases, 515
   violence against children, 664                 flexibility, 364                                    biological and cultural influences, 127
family health tree, 200                           flexibility training, 371-372, 377-379              body image, 416
family practice, 607                              flossing, 608                                       cardiovascular health, 433-434, 438
FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome), 210                 flu. See influenza                                  communication, 97
fast-food restaurants, 319, 339-340,              fluid intelligence, 556-557                         contraception, 163-164
       A-I-A-4                                    flukes, 513                                         depression, 75-76
fat cells, 403. See also body fat                 flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), 666                       eating disorders, 417
fatigue, 38, 510, 648                             fluoridation of water, 676                          feelings of being overwhelmed, 40
fats, dietary                                     fluoride, 325,356,358,562                           headaches, 39
   cancer and, 463, 475-476                       flushing syndrome, 259, 261                         health,7
   cholesterol, 295, 317, 335-336, 446            folic acid (folate)                                 HlV transmission, 527
   fat inhibitor supplements, 413                     aging, 557                                      life expectancy, 564-565
   food labels, 342                                   cancer prevention, 462, 476                     mass media, 127
   health and, 317-318                                cardiovascular health, 448                      mood disorders, 75-76
   limiting intake, 335, 407, 437, 446-448            dietary folate equivalents, 356                 muscle size and strength, 377
   omega-6 fatty acids, 318, 476                      functions and sources, 323-324                  psycholOgical disorder-s, 71
   recommended intake, 318-319, 329, 331~332,         pregnancy, 197,210,328-329,339                  stress responses, 35
         350,437                                      recommended intake, 328, 356                    transgendered people, 126
   substitutes, 408                                   upper intake level, 358                         See also men; women
   types and sources, 313, 316-317, 335-336,      follicles, 198-199                                gender identity, 126-127. See also sexual orientation
         437,446-448                              follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 119           gender roles
  See also specific types offatty adds            food                                                definition, 34, 90
fatty acids, 316-318, 344, 435, 437, 448, 476         additives, 345-346, 348                         flexibility, 127
fecal occult blood test, 462, 481                     allergies, 349, 498                             in marriage, 104
feces, HIV in, 526                                    inspection, 354, 680-681                        during parenting, 106
feedback, 97                                          intolerances, 349                               sexual orientation, 126-127
fellatio, 132-133                                     irradiation, 348-349                          gene, 198, 199,472
female athlete triad, 401                             labels, 340-344                               gene chips, 482-483
female condoms, 152-154, 160-161                      safety, 211                                   general adaptation syndrome (GAS), 36-37, 54
female genital mutilation, 127                        supply, 682                                   generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 71, 81
FemCap, 166                                           See also dietary recommendations; nutrition   generativity, 63-64
fenfluramine, 414                                 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 342-343,      generic drugs, 625, 629
fenlphen, 414                                            614,634                                    genes and heredity
fertility, 144-145, 198-199,297,682               foodborne illness, 211, 345-347, 478                in alcoholism, 271-272
fertility awareness method (FAM), 147, 158-161,   food chains, 680, 683, 687                          in body composition, 401-402
       166,169                                    Food Guide Pyramid, 211, 328-334, 406,              in cancer, 473-475
fertilization, definition, 198-199                       556-557. See also nutrition                  in cardiovascular disease risk, 433
fertilized egg, 198-199                           Food Pyramid for Vegetarians, 338                   in drug dependence, 233
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 210, 266-267        footwear, exercise, 381-382                         ethnicity and genetic disorders, 196-197
fetal-cell implantation, 556                      foreplay, 132-133                                   family health tree, 200
fetal development, 205-209                        foreskin, 116-117                                   in general health, 9-10
fetal programming, 208-209                        formaldehyde gas, 292, 688, 692                     in HIVlAlDS progression, 530
fetus, definition, 195                            fortified wines, 258                                Human Genome Project, 10
fever, 497, A-5-A-6                               fossil fuels, 684, 688                              in psychological disorders, 70, 72, 75, 78




                                                                                                                                         Index      1-9
                                                      hand washing, 72, 516-517                               heart transplants, 586
gene therapy, 10,462,482
genetically modified (GM) foods, 344                  hangovers, alcohol, 261-262                             heart valve disorders, 445-445
                                                      hantavirus, 514, 681                                    heat stress, 655
genetic differences, 70
                                                      hardening of the arteries. See atherosclerosis          heavy metals, 678, 690-692
genetic discrimination, 474
                                                      hard liquors, 258                                       height-weight charts, 396
genetic diseases, 196-197,200
                                                      hardy personalities, 34-35                              Heimlich maneuver, 654
genetic testing, 19, 474
genital herpes, 466, 509, 540, 541-542                hashish, 243. See also marijuanalhashish                Helicobacter pylOri, 436, 471, 478, 502, 504, 511
                                                      hate crimes, 661                                        helmets, 645, 650-651
genital self-examination, 546
genital warts, 466,538,539,540-541. See also          Hatha yoga, 50                                          helper T cells, 494, 495-496
      human papillomavirus                            Hawaiian and other Pacific lslander Americans, 8        hemochromatosis, 196
                                                      HDls (high-density lipoproteins), 317, 366,             hemolytic uremic syndrome, 346
geriatricians, 569
German measles, '212-213,499,508-509                         428-431,450                                      hemophilia, 526
                                                      headaches, 38-39, A-9-A-I0                              hemorrhagic stroke, 442-443
germ cells, 114
                                                      head lice, 544                                          Henson,Jim,514
gerontologists, 569
                                                      health care                                             hepatitis, chronic, 543
gestational diabetes, 400
GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), 239-240, 378, 666           costs, 625, 637, 639                                 hepatitis, viral, 501-502, 510, 543
                                                         government programs, 640                             hepatitis A, 346, 499, 510
Giardia lamblia, 346, 502, 512
                                                         managed-care plans, 638-640                          hepatitis B
giardiasis, 512
G1FT (gamete intrafallopian transfer), 202-203           traditional fee-for-service, 638                        ethnicity and, 8
                                                         See also complementary and alternative medi-            liver cancer, 478
gingivitis, 298, 436
                                                                cine; conventional medicine                       overview, 510, 523, 542-543
 Ginkgo biloba, 563, 614-615
                                                      health care proxy; 582, 583                                 pregnancy, 212
ginseng, 561, 615, 617
                                                      health care workers, HN infection in, 526                   statistics, 540
 glans, 116-117, 122, 124
 glaucoma, 557, 558-559                                health clubs, 381-383                                      vaccines, 499
 global warming, 513, 684-686, 689                     Healthfinder, 27                                       hepatitis C virus (Hcv), 235, 266, 478, 510, 530
                                                       health information sources, 16, 26                      HER2,465
 glucosamine, 561
                                                       health insurance                                        herbal ecstacy, 242, 413
 glucose, 320
 gluten intolerance, 349                                  aging, 566, 569                                      herbal remedies
                                                          choosing a policy, 640-641                              contamination, adulteration, and toxicity, 617
 glycemic index, 437
                                                          current system, 637-640                                 drug interactions, 615-616
 glycogen, 320
                                                          genetic discrimination, 474                             lack of standardization, 601, 616-617
 Go Ask Alice, 27
                                                          statistics, 625, 637, 639                               safety of, 616-617
 goiter, 325
                                                       health journals, 19-20,22,26                               tabulated, 615
 gonads, 114
                                                       health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 639               traditional Chinese medicine, 611
 gonococcal conjunctivitis, 537
                                                       Health on the Net Foundation, 16                           See also dietary supplements
 gonorrhea
                                                       "healthy," on food labels, 342                          Herceptin (trastuzumab), 465
    antibiotic-resistant, 506
                                                       Healthy People 2010                                     heredity. See genes and heredity
    bacteria, 502
                                                          binge drinking, 269                                  heroin, 52, 226, 232, 238
    early treatment, 546
                                                          blood pressure management, 450                       herpes viruses
    overview, 537
                                                          cesarean deliveries, 219                                 cold sores, 509, 541
    pregnancy and, 212-213
                                                          clean drinking water, 677                                definition, 508
    statistics, 540
                                                          dietary calcium, 339                                     Epstein-Barr virus, 478, 502, 509-511
 gout, 436
                                                          obesity targets, 394-395                                 genital herpes, 466, 509, 540-542
 grains. See carbohydrates
                                                          Pap testing, 466                                         herpes simplex viruses, 212-213, 502, 509,
 Graves' disease, 515
                                                          physical activity, 362                                         523,541
 green activities
    air pollution prevention, 688-690                     smoking during pregnancy, 301                            in infants, 212-213
                                                        Healthy People lnitiative, 5-7, 25, 27, 219                overview, 502, -509-510
    carpooling, 690
     chemical pollution prevention, 692                 hearing loss, 559, 694                                     statistics, 540
                                                        heart attacks                                              varicella-zoster, 499, 502, 509
     garbage reduction, 679-680
                                                           from cocaine use, 240                               heterosexuality, 102
     green consumers, 680
                                                           death rates, 438                                     HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles), 689
     noise pollution, 695
                                                           definition, 439                                      Hib Q:laemophilus injluenzae type b), 499, 503
     protecting water supplies, 677
     radiation avoidance, 694                              first aid for, 440                                   high,237
                                                           from smoking, 294                                    high blood pressure. See blood pressure; hyper-
     writing letters, 696
  greenhouse effect, 684-687                               symptoms, 425, 442                                         tension
                                                        heart circulation, 426-428                              high-density lipoproteins (HDls), 317, 366, 428,
  greenhouse gases, 685-687
                                                        heart disease                                                 429,430-431,450
  grief, 562-563, 575, 593-595
                                                           alcohol, 266                                         "high-fiber," on food labels, 342
  Group B streptococcus (GBS), 212
                                                           behavior and, 9                                      highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 530,
  guarana seeds, 413
  Guillain-Barre syndrome, 345                             carbohydrates, 320                                         532
  guns,654,660-661,669                                     cholesterol,317-318                                  Hindus, 289
                                                           environmental tobacco smoke, 300                     hippocampus, 38
  gyms, 381-383
  gynecology, 607                                          ethnicity and, 8                                     Hippocrates, 603
                                                           hormone replacement therapy, 561                     Hispanics. See Latinos
 HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), 530,        hostility and, 69                                    histamine, 495, 498-500
                                                           infectious agents, 511                              Histoplasma capsulatum, 502
      532
 habitat destruction, 683                                   omega-3 fatty acids, 317-318                       histoplasmosis, 512
                                                            personality types and, 34, 37                      HN antibody test, 528
 Haemophilus ducreyi, 523, 544
                                                            physical fitness and, 363                          HlV education programs, 534-535
 Haemophilus injluenzae type b (Hib), 499, 503
 Hahnemann, Samuel, 612                                     sexual dysfunction, 125                            HN infection
                                                            statistics, 4-5                                       anal intercourse, 133,525,527
 hair dyes, 478
                                                            tobacco use, 294-295, 299                             costs of treatment, 532-533
 hallucinations, 76,268-269
 hallucinogens, 226, 244-245. See also LSD                  See also cardiovascular disease; coronary heart       diagnosis, 528-529
                                                                  disease; heart attacks                          early treatment, 546
 halon-1211,687




 I-lO      Index
  education programs, 534-535, 545-546                 hypertension                                           injectable microspheres, 166
  ethnicity and, 8                                       cardiovascular disease, 428-429, 437-439, 450        injection drug users (IDUs), 235, 526-527, 534.
  global incidence, 524                                  DASH diet, 448-449, 454                                     See also drug abuse
  HPV infection and, 539, 541                            definition, 429, 437                                 injuries
  from injection drug use, 235, 534                      exercise and, 366                                        causes, 646-647
  overview, 506, 522'-524                                salt intake, 336, 339                                    emergency care, 670
  post-exposure prophylaxis, 530-531                     stress and, 37                                           at home, 652
  pregnancy 212-213, 526, 531-532                      hyperthyroidism, 459                                       intentional, 646-647
  prevention, 136, 533-536                             hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 445                           from leisure activities, 654-656
  progression of, 525                                  hypnosis, 614                                              motor vehicle, 647-652
  prostitution, 135                                    hypnotics, 78                                              preventing, 650
  self-tests, 628                                      hypothalamus, 32-33, 117                                   statistics, 5, 645-647
  St.Jolni's wort interference, 616                    hysterectomy, 162                                          unintentional, 646-657
  statistics, 142,501,522,524,540                                                                                 from violence, 645, 657-670
  symptoms, 527-528                                    ibuprofen, 462, 561, 563                                   work, 656-657
  through contact with blood, 526                      identical twins, 199                                       See also motor vehicle injuries; safety, personal;
  through sexual contact, 525-526                      identity crises, 63                                              unintentional injuries; violence
  transmission of, 525-527                             identity formation, 62-65                              in-line skating injuries, 656
  treatment, 530, 54€-- - - .                          illness vs. disease, 587                               inner-directed, 60, 61
  vaccines, 533.                                       imiquimod, 539                                         insect control, 681
HIV-positive diagnosis, 528                            immune cell therapies, 471                             insect stings, 498
HIV RNA assay, 528-529                                 immune systems, 491-519                                insoluble fiber, 322
HMOs (health maintenance organizations), 639              alcohol and, 265                                    insomnia, 38, 45, 57, 78
Hodgkin's disease, 472-473, 478                           allergies, 498-500                                  insulin, 320, 398-400
holiday heart, 266                                        exercise and, 367-368                               insurance. See health insurance
holism, 602-603                                           fetal, 207                                          integration, 64
home care, 580                                            infection process, 492-493                          intellectual wellness, 2
home injuries, 652, 653-654                               inflammatory response, 495-496                      intentional injuries, 646-647
homeopathy, 610, 612-613                                  intimate relationships and, 105                     intercerebral hemorrhages, 443
homeostasis, 33                                           lymphatic system, 492, 494                          interferons, 495, 497
homesharing, 567                                          phases of immune response, 495-497                  interleukins, 495                                        \
                                                                                                                                                                       _
homicides, 647, 658, 660-662                              physical and chemical barriers, 494                 internal medicine, 607
homocysteine, 434-435, 563                                stress and, 37-38, 43, 472, 485, 516, 542           Internet
homophobia, 130                                           symptoms and contagion, 497-498                        abortion, 191
homosexuality, 102-103, 130-131, 526-527. See             tobacco use, 297                                       contraception, 170-171
     also sexual orientation                              white blood cells, 4'94,497                            cybersex, 134
honesty, 94                                            immunity, 496, f.97 -:498                                 cyberstalking, 664
hookworm, 513                                          immunization, 498-499                                     evaluating resources, 16, A-14-A-16
hormone replacement therapy (HRT),121, 200,            iinmunocontraceptives, 166                                intimate relationships, 110-111
     434,462,558,561                                   immunoglobulin E (IgE), 498, 500                          online relationships, 101, 134
hormones                                               immunotherapy, 500                                        pregnancy and childbirth, 222
  actions of, 31-32                                    Implanon, 147                                             psychological help, 86-87
  body fat and, 403                                    implants, contraceptive, 147-148, 166,169                 sexual behavior, 138-139
  definition, 30                                       impotence, 113, 125,297,466                               stress, 56-57
  differentiation ofthe embryo, 117-118                incest, 666, 667                                       Internet addiction, 229
  menstrual cycle, 119                                 income groups. See socioeconomic status                interpersonal wellness, 3
  oxytocin, 35                                         incontinence, 466                                      intersexed individuals, 126
  sex, 117                                             incubation, 497                                        interventional studies, 606
  See also names of individual hormones                indemnity plans, 638                                   intestate, 578-579
hospice, 580-581                                       indinavir, 616                                         intestines, 315
hospitals, 609, 635                                    indoor air pollution, 688                              intimacy, 62, 64
hostility See anger and hostility                      induction chemotherapy, 481                            intimate relationships, 89-111
hot reactors, 37                                       infants                                                   attracting a mate, 128
HTLV-l,511                                                chlamydial infection, 536-537                          challenges in, 93-95
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), 119,201,              environmental tobacco smoke and, 300-301               choosing a partner, 99-100
     208                                                  HIV infection, 528                                     civil unions, 103
Human Genome Project, 10                                  mortality rate, 8, 215, 300, 638                       commitment in, 94-95, 104-105, 108
human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), 510-511                      nutrition, 356-358                                     communication in, 96-99
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 522. See              postpartum period, 219-220                             competitiveness, 95
     also HIV infection                                   sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 215, 300          conflict and conflict resolution, 97-99
human papillomavirus (HPV), 466, 475, 511, 523,           See also fetal development; pregnancy                  cultural diversity, 100
     536,538,539,540-541                               infatuation, 92                                           dating, 100
humor, 47-48, 57, 68                                   infections                                                empty nest syndrome, 558
hyaluronic acid, 561                                      definition, 492                                        ending, 95-96
hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 689                      opportunistic, 522-523, 531                            enhanCing support in, 96
hydrocephalus, 185                                        preventing, 493                                        friendships, 91-92
hydrogenation, 316-317, 446, 448                          process of, 492-493                                    gay and lesbian, 102-103, 109,
hydrostatic (underwater) weighing, 396-397                See also diseases; HIV infection                              130-131
hydroxyurea, 530                                       infectious diseases, 3-4, 506-507. See also diseases      jealousy, 95
hygiene hypothesis, 501 .                              infertility, 199-202, 220, 538                            living together, 101-102
hyperactivity disorder, 78-'79                         inflammatory response, 436, 441, 495-496, 501             love, sex, and intimacy, 92-93
Hypericum peiforatum (St. John's wort), 74, 77, 341,   influenza, 5, 497,499,507-509                             marriage, 103-105
     344-345,614-616                                   Influenza A (H5Nl), 514                                   online, 101, 134
hyperplasia, 459 ~                                     inhalants, 226, 232, 245-246, 252                         same-sex marriage, 103




                                                                                                                                                   Index        I~ll
intimate relationships (continued)                    Kishline, Audrey, 273                                  motivation for change, 12-17, 23
   self-concept and self-esteem, 90                   Kobasa, Suzanne, 34                                    personalized plans, 19-24
   separation and divorce, 105                        kola nuts, 413                                         procrastination, 23-24
   singlehood, 101-102, 109                           Koop, C. Everett, 187                                  pros and cons of changes, 12-13
   successful, 95                                     kreteks, 299                                           rewards for, 20-21
   wellness and, 105                                  Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth, 588-589                        sample change plan, 21-22
intoxication, definition, 226-227. See also alcohol   Kyoto Protocol, 686                                    self-efficacy, 14-17
intracerebral hemorrhage, 443                                                                                social influences, 13,23
intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICS!), 202           labels                                                stages of change model, 17-19, 25
intrauterine devices (IUDs), 147-148, 149-150,             dietary supplements, 343                          target behaviors, 12-13, 17-19
      160-161, 182                                         food, 340-344                                     tips for today, 25
introverts, 72 ,                                           over-the-counter drugs, 630                       See also wellness
in vitro fertilization (IVT), 202-203                      prescription medications, 636                 life-support systems, 576-577
iodine, 325, 357-358                                   labia majoraiminora, 115, 118, 124, 127           lifting techniques, 657
ipecac syrup, 654                                      labor, 216, 217, 218-219                          "light," on food labels, 342
iron-deficiency anemia, 324-325                        lactation, 218, 219, 241, 356-358, 527, 531       light bulbs, 675, 689-690
iron intake, 325, 329, 338-339, 357-358, 436           Lactobacillus addophilus, 501,544                 lightening, 204-205
iron overload, 196                                     lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 337                        light therapy, 75, 77
ischemic stroke, 442-443                               lactose intolerance, 197, 349                    linoleic acid, 316
Islam, 65, 289                                         lacto-vegetarians, 337                           lip cancer, 470
isoflavones, 561                                       landfills, 678-679, 693                          lipids, 316. See also fats
isometric exercises, 374-375                           laparoscopy, 162                                 lipoproteins, 366, 435
isothiocyanates, 477                                   L-arginine, 449                                  liposuction, 415
isotonic exercises, 376                                larynx, cancer of, 298-299                       liquor. See alcohol
IUDs (intrauterine devices), 147-150, 160-161, 182    last rites, 585                                   listening, 97-98
IVT (in vitro fertilization), 202-203                  Latinos                                           Listeria monocytogenes, 211, 346-347
                                                          aging, 570                                    lithium carbonate, 78
Japan, 303, 586                                           alcohol abuse, 274                            liver, cholesterol in, 430
jaundice, 510                                             asthma, 501                                   liver diseases
jealousy, 95                                              attitudes toward death, 578-579                   alcohol, 260, 266
Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy         cardiovascular disease, 433                       hepatitis and, 543
       and Campus Crime Statistics Act, 669               diabetes, 400                                     liver cancer, 8, 478, 501, 510-511
jock itch, 512                                            health-related differences, 8, 196                statistics, 5
Joe Camel, 290                                            heart disease, 438                            liver transplants, 586
Johnson, Virginia, 122-123                                hemochromatosis, 196                          living together, 101-102
Journal Entry activities                                  HIV infection, 527                            living wills, 582-584
   abortion, 190                                          obesity, 394                                  local anesthetic, 184
   aging, 572                                             sickle-cell disease, 196                      lochia, 219
   alcohol use, 282                                       Single-parent families, 107                   lockjaw, 499
   benefits of, 629                                       tobacco use, 292                              locus of control, 15-17, 34
   cancer, 488                                        laxatives, 418                                    loneliness, 68-69, 84
   cardiovascular health, 454                         LDLs. See low-density lipoproteins                Louganis, Greg, 305
   complementary and alternative medicine, 622        lead poisoning, 212-213, 690-691                  lovastatin, 449
   contraception, 170                                 Lea's Shield, 166                                 love
   death, 597                                         Lee, Russell, 570                                     in intimate relationships, 92-93
   diseases, 518                                      Legionnaire's disease (Legionella pneumophila),       pleasure and pain of, 93
   drug use, 253                                             502-503                                        transformation of, 93
   environmental health, 697                          legumes, 315                                          triangle, 93
   exercise, 389-390                                  leisure injuries, 654                                 types of, 92-93, 109
   headaches, 39                                      lesbian partnerships, 102-103. See also homo-         See also intimate relationships
   healthy diets, 353                                        sexuality                                  love addiction, 228
   humor,48                                           leukemia, 458, 460-461, 472,511                   Love Canal, New York, 679
   intimate relationships, 110                        leukoplakia, 298                                  low back pain, 368
   lifestyle changes, 19-20, 22, 26                   levodopa, 556                                     low birth weight (LBW), 214-215, 638
   parenting, 221                                     Levonorgestral IUD, 149                           low-calorie sweeteners, 393
   personal safety, 672                               lice, 544                                         low-denSity lipoproteins (LDLs)
   psychological health, 86                           life expectancy                                       definition, 429
   self-care, 642                                         definition, 565                                   health effects, 317, 336,428-431
   sexuality, 13 7-138                                    factors influencing, 564-565                      particle size, 435-436
   sexually transmitted diseases, 550                     goals,5-6                                         recommended levels, 451
   stress management, 52-53, 56                           obeSity and, 398                                  smoking and, 428
   tobacco use, 310                                       religion and, 456                             "low-fat," on food labels, 342
   weight management, 421-422                             smoking and, 297                              LSD,232,236,239,244-245
Judaism, 65, 289                                          statistics, 4, 564-565, 638                   lumpectomies, 463
                                                      life force, 610-612, 620                          Lunelle, 148, 169
Kaposi's sarcoma, 478, 510-511, 528                   lifejackets, 654                                  lung cancer
kava kava, 615                                        life span, 564, 565                                   beta-carotene and, 477
Kegel exercises, 213                                  lifestyle choices                                     detection and treattnent, 461-462
ketamine, 239, 245, 666                                  barriers to change, 17, 20                         environmental tobacco smoke, 300
Kevorkian, Dr. Jack, 583                                  committnent to, 21, 23                            ethnicity and, 8
kidney cancer, 471                                        evaluation of, 14-15                              pollution, 478
kidney diseases,S                                         finding help, 12                                  radon, 479
killer T cells, 495, 496                                  genes and, 10                                     risk factors, 461
kilocalories, 314-315                                    health j ournals, 19-20,22,26                      small-cell, 462




1-12      Index
       smoking and, 295-296, 302,461,475,        memorial services, 584-587                        expressive writing and chronic conditions, 629



                                                                                                                                                       1
             483-484                             memorial societies, 587                          healthy connections, 43
       statistics, 460-461                       memory, exercise and, 367                        helping others, 574
    lung disease, 5, 295-296, 299, 438           memory T and B cells, 494-495, 496-497           immunity and stress, 516
    lupus erythematosus, 495, 515, 560           men                                              intimate relationships, 105                          ,1

    luteinizing hormone (LH), 119                   abusive behavior by, 662-663                  mind-body interventions, 611, 614
    Lyme disease, 499, 502, 504, 681                aging, 121,564                                nature and the human spirit, 677
    lymphatic system, 458-459, 492, 494,509         alcohol abuse, 274                            paths to spiritual wellness, 65
    lymphocytes, 494-495, 497                      bladder cancer, 471, 478                       placebo effect, 613
    lymphomas, 460-461, 472-473, 478               body composition, 397                          relaxation techniques, 48-51
    lymph system cancer, 509                        circumcision, 116-117                         religion and wellness, "456
                                                    CVD, 433, 434, 438                            in search of a good death, 590
    macrophages, 296, 494, 495, 496-497             date rape prevention tips, 667                social support, 23, 35, 42-43, 53, 485
    mad cow disease, 513-514                        dietary recommendations, 339, 356-358         stress and disease, 37-39
    magnesium, 121, 325-326, 356, 358              infertility, 199-201                           stress and genital herpes, 542                  ')
    magnetic resonance imaging (MRJ), 440-441,     male sex organs, 115-117                       stress and pregnancy, 209
         480-481                                   nocturnal emissions, 128                       stress and the brain, 38
    ma huang, 413                                   obeSity prevalence, 394                       stress management, 42-51
    mainstream smoke, 298, 299                     oral cancer, 470                               in strong families, 105
    maintenance stage, 18-19                       percent body fat ratings, 397                  support groups and cancer SUrvival, 485
    Make Today Count, 593                          preventing date rape, 667                      ten warning signs of wellness, 4
    malaria, 501, 512                              schizophrenia, 48, 52-53                       tobacco use and religion, 289               .
    male cOI)doms. See condoms                     sexual dysfunction, 125                        See also psychological health; religion; spiritual
    malignant tumors, 458-459. See also cancer     sexual health problems, 125                          wellness
    mammograms, 463, 481                           sexual maturation, 120                       minerals, dietary, 324-325
    managed-care plans, 638, 639-640               sexual response cycle, 122-124               Mirena,149
    manganese, 326, 357-358                        suicide, 564                                 miscarriage, 174,214-215
    mania, 74-75                                   testicular self-exam, 471                    Miss America pageant winners, BM! of, 416
    manipulative and body-based methods, 611,      tgesticular cancer, 470                      mitral valve prolapse (MVP), 446
         615-617                                   transgendered, 126                           Moderation Management (MM), 273, 282
    manual vacuum aspiration (MVA), 184, 190       victims of violence, 660                     molds,498
    margarine spreads, 344-345, 449                weight training, 377                         moles, 468-470
    marijuanalhashish                              See also gender differences                  molybdenum intake, 357-358
      infertility, 199                           meningitis, 501, 503, 509                      monoclonal antibodies, 465
      long-term effects, 244,252                 meningococcal disease, 499                     mononucleosis, 478, 509
      medical uses, 243-244                      menopause, 120-122,434,561                     monosodium glutamate (MSG), 348-349
      potential for dependence, 232, 244         menstrual cycle, 118-120, 159,201-203          monoterpenes, 477
      pregnancy, 213                             menstrual problems, 119-121                    monounsaturated fats, 316-318, 437, 446, 463
      prevalence of use, 226, 242                menstruation, after childbinh, 219             mons pubis, 114-115
      short-term effects, 243-244, 252           mental health profeSSionals, 82-83             mood disorders
      stress and, 52                             menthol, 293                                     alternative remedies, 77
    marriage, 103-106. See also intimate         mercury, 211-213, 692                            bipolar disorder, 75
         relationships                           meridians, 611                                   depression, 73-77, 81, 84
    mass media. See media                        mescaline, 245                                   gender differences, 75-76
    mast cells, 498, 500                         metabolic rate, 364-365, 402                     prevalence of, 71
    mastectomies, 463                            metabolic syndrome. See syndrome X               self-assessment, 74
    Masters, William, 122-123                    metabolism, exercise and, 364-365, 402         mood stabilizers, 78 .
    masturbation, 126-128, 132-133               metabolism, of alcohol, 258-259                mopeds, 650-651
    materia medica, 614                          metastasis, 458-459                            moral development, 64-65
    mature understanding of death, 577           methamphetamine, 232                           morbidity rates, 637
    maximal oxygen consumption (MOC), 374        methane, 687                                   morphine, 52
    MDMA ectasy, 239,245                         methaqualone (Quaaludes), 232                  mortality rates, 8, 215, 300, 637, 638
    meaning-focused coping, 591                  methotrexate,.185-186                          mosquitoes, 517
    measles, 212-213, 499, 501, 508-509          methylphenidate, 78-79, 241-242                motorcycles, 650-651
    meat food group, 329, 331-332, 475           Michelman, Kate, 176                           motor vehicle injuries
    meat inspection, 354, 680-681                mickey (chloral hydrate), 232                    aggressive driving, 647-648
    media                                        microbes                                         alcohol and other drugs, 648-649
      gender and sexuality, 127                    cancer from, 466, 475, 478                     definition of, 647                .
      health research repons in, 606               ulcers, 297, 436, 471, 491, 504                cell phones, 648
      portrayal of mental illness, 77              water contamination, 676-677                   fatigue and sleepiness, 648
      portrayal of parenthood, 195               microbicide, 533                                 motorcycles and mopeds, 650-651
      prescription drug advertiSing, 634, 636    middle knowledge, 588-589                        pedestrians, 652
      violence in, 659                           mifepristone (RU-486), 149, 175, 181-182,        preventing, 650
    Medicaid, 561, 569, 640                            185-186                                    safety belts, air bags, and child seats, 648-650
    medical clearance for exercise, 371          migraines, 39                                    speeding, 647                                         I
    medical doctors (M.D.), 605                  mildew, 498                                      statistics, 5, 645-647                                I
                                                                                                                                                        I
    medical errors, 634-635                      milk, 317,329,331-332,337                      mourning, 593. See also grief                               1


    Medic Alert, 636                             mind/body/spirit connections                   mouse allergies, 501
    medical insurance. See health insurance        anger, hostility, and heart disease, 432     Mozambique, 183
    medical self-tests, 626, 628                   coping with dying, 587-592                   MRl (magnetic resonance imaging), 440-441,
    Medicare, 553, 569, 581, 640                   coping with loss, 593-595                         480-481
    meditation, 49                                 decision making about drugs, 251             MSG (monosodium glutamate), 348-349
    MedWatch monitoring program, 343               exercise, body image, and self-esteem, 409   mucous plug, 207
    melanomas, 466-468, 470, 479, 483,687          exercise and the mind, 367                   mucus method of contraception, 159




                                                                                                                                    Index       1-13



b
mucus production, 498                                 No-Doz. See caffeine                                 genetic factors, 393, 401-402
multi-infarct dementia, 562                           noise pollution, 694-695                             health risks of, 364, 397-398, 431
multiple myeloma (MM), 473                            noncorporeal continuity, 577                         kidney cancer, 471
multiple sclerosis (MS), 511, 515                     nonessential (storage) fat, 394                      prevalence of, 393-395
mumps, 499, 508-509                                   non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 472-473                socioeconomic status and, 404
murder, 647, 658, 660-662                             nonnutritive sweeteners, 393                         See also weight; weight management
muscle mass, 364-365, 377                             nonoxynol-9, 151,525                              obituaries, 589
muscular endurance, 362-363                           nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),    obsessions, 72-73
muscular strength, 362-363, 377. See also strength          560-561,563                                 obseSSive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 72, 73, 81,
     training                                         nonverbal communication, 96":'97                        511
music therapy, 51, 56                                 norepinephrine, 32-33, 76, 367                    obstetrics, 607
mutagens, 472, ,,!- 73                                normality, 58, 60                                 occupational exposure, 478
mutations, 473-474                                    Norplantimplants, 147-148, 161                    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
mycardium, 294                                        nortriptyline, 307                                      (OSHA), 656-657, 694
Mycobacterium tuberculOSis, 502, 504                  Norwalk viruses, 346                              Oenothera biennis L., 615
mycoplasmas, 502-503                                  Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation, 79           oil pollution, 675
mxocardial infarction, 294-295, 439. See also heart   NSAlDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs),    oils, 331, 437. See also fats, dietary
  11 attacks                                                560-561,563                                 older adults. See aging
myotonia, 123, 125                                    nuclear power, 692-693                            olestra, 414
                                                      nuclear weapons, 693                              olive oil, 437, 446, 449
naltrexone, 274                                       nucleotide bases, 473                             OlympiC games, drug testing at, 378
Na,rcoticsAnonymous (NA), 248-249                     nurse-midwives, 215-216                           omega-3 fatty acids
National Center for Complementary and Alterna-        nurses, 607-608                                      Alzheimer's disease, 563
     tive Medicine (NCCAM), 603, 609, 619, 622        nursing homes, 568                                   colon cancer, 476
National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP),        nutrition, 313-359                                   in eggs, 344
     319,429,446-447                                    additives and residues, 345-346, 348               heart health, 317-318,435,437,448
National Health Information Center (NHIC), 27           aging and, 556-557                              omega-6 fatty acids, 318, 476
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 57, 86      alcohol and, 265                                oncogenes,474-475
National Institutes of Health (NIB), 612, 614           antiOxidants, 322, 325-327, 476-477, 563, 565   oncologists, 460-461
National Nutritional Foods Association (NNFA), 343      assessment, 333                                 On Death and Dying, 588
National Nutrition Summit 2000, 395                     average American diet, 332                      ophthalmology, 607
National Sleep Foundation, 57                           behavior change strategy, 452-453               opioids, 52, 238, 252
National Women's Health Information Center, 27          beverages, 336-337, 352                         opportunistic infections, 522-523, 531
Native Americans. See American Indians                  caloric intake, 403                             optimism, 34, 47-48, 58, 66-67
Nature Hawaiians, 8                                     cancer prevention and, 457, 462-463, 465,       optometrists, 607
natural killer cells, 494, 495-496                            475-477                                   oral cancer, 298, 470, 476
nature and the human spirit, 677, 683                   carbohydrate craving, 403                       oral contraceptives (OC)
Necator americanus, 502                                 carbohydrates, 121,320-322,334-336,342,            advantages, 145
necrotizing faSCitis, 503, 514                                350,407                                      costs, 161
needle exchange programs, 235                           cardiovascular health and, 434-435, 446-449        definition, 142
neglect, 664                                            college students, 340                              disadvantages, 145-147
Neisseria, 502                                          commitment to a healthy diet, 349-350              effectiveness, 147, 160
Neisseriagonorrhoeae, 523, 537                          daily menu example, 359                            as emergency contraceptives, 147-148
Neisseria meningitidis, 503                             definition, 315                                    interference by antibiotics, 636
neoplasms, 458-459. See also cancer                     dietary fiber (See fiber, dietary)                 lupus, 515
Nepal, 183                                              essential nutrients, 314                           nutrition and, 357
nervous system. See central nervous system              ethnic foods, 351                                  smoking and, ,302, 428, 434
Netherlands, 167                                        exercise programs, 383                             St. John's wort and, 616
neurology, 607                                          fats (See fats, dietary)                           types of, 142-147
neurotransmitters, 76, 365, 366-367                     food labels, 340-343                            oral-genital stimulation, 132-133
neutrophils, 494-495                                    food safety, 211                                oral sex, 132-133,525,533-534
Newman, Paul, 571                                       low-calorie sweeteners, 393, 408                Orasure test, 529
niacin, 323, 356, 358                                   minerals, 324-325                               Oregon, physician-assisted suicide in, 582-583
nickel intake, 358                                      organiC foods, 346-348                          organ donors, 575, 584-586
nicotine                                                phytochemicals, 327                             organic foods, 346-348
   addiction to, 225, 286-288, 299                      preconception, 196-197                          organ transplants, 586, 616
   in clove cigarettes and bidis, 299                   during pregnancy, 210-211                       orgasm, 123
   definition, 287                                      premenstrual problems and, 120-121              orgasmiC dysfunction, 125-126
   heart disease, 428                                   proteins, 315-316                               oriental traditional medicine, 609-611, 616-617
   immediate effects of, 293-294                        recipes, 354                                    orlistat (Xenical), 414
   insomnia, 45                                         safe food handling, 346-347                     OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Adminis-
   poisoning by, 292                                    stress and, 44                                        tration), 656-657, 694
   potential for dependence, 232                        supplements, 121, 211, 378                      osteoarthritis (OA), 560-561
   replacement therapy, 307                             vitamins and minerals, 322-325                  osteopaths, 605
   in spit tobacco, 297                                 water, 324-326                                  osteoporosis
   substitutes, 307                                     Web sites and organizations, 354                   aging, 560-562
Nigeria, 183                                            See also dietary recommendations; dietary          calcium intake, 324-326
Nipah virus, 514                                              supplements                                  definition, 324, 562
nitrates and nitrites, 336, 348, 471, 476-478         nuts, 331                                           ethnicity, 197
nitrogen dioxide, 684                                                                                     exercise and, 366
nitrosamines, 478                                     obesity                                             injectable contraceptives, 148
nitrous oxide, 687                                      cancer and, 462-463, 477-478, 484                  prevention, 553
NOAH: New York Online Access to Health, 27              definition, 394-397                               smoking, 302
nocturnal emissions, 128                                ethnicity and, 8                                other-directed, 60, 61




1-14      Index
     outpatient, 637                                 penicillins, 506                                 Piper methysticum, 615
     ovarian cancer, 145,467, 4H, 477                penis, 114-118, 123-124                          pipes, tobacco, 298-299
     ovaries, 114-115, 199                           percent body fat, 394, 397. See also body fat    pituitary gland, 32-33, 117, 119
     overcommitters, 45-46                           perfectionism, 45,67                             placebo effect, 77, 237, 613
     Overeaters Anonymous (OA) , 412                 performance anxiety; 42                          placenta, 205-207
     overload, exercise, 372-373                     perinatal transmission, 526                      Plan E, 149
     over-the-counter (OTC) medications, 628,        periods, menstrual, 118-120                      Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v.
          629-630                                    peripheral vascular disease, 439                       Casey, 174, 176, 180
     overweight, 394-395. See also obesity; weight   persistent vegetative state, 580                 plant sterols and stanols, 344-345, 448-449
          management                                 Persona device, 166                              plaque, 294-295, 439
     oviducts, 115, 163, 198-199                     personal flotation devices, 654                  Plasmodia, 502
     ovulation, 119, 142, 143                        personality                                      plastiCS, in solid waste, 678
     oxytocin, 35                                      addiction and, 227, 231                        plastiC surgery; 607
     ozone,461,675,684-685,687                         alcohol and, 34-35                             platelets, 428-429
     ozone layer, 686-687, 689                         hardy, 34-35                                   PMS (premenstrual syndrome), 113, 120-121
                                                       heart disease and, 432                         Pneumococcal conjugate, 499
     Pacific Islander Americans, 8, 438                inner- vs. outer-directed, 61                  Pneumococcal polysaccharide, 499
     pain management, 583, 590                         locus of control, 13, 15                       Pneumocyctis cannii pneumonia, 528, 531
     pain relievers, 226, 508                          stress and, 34-35                              pneumonia, 1,5,438,501-503,528,531
     palliative care, 580                              Type A and Type E, 34, 37, 432                 PNI (psychoneuroimmunology), 37, 54. See also
     Panax ginseng, 615, 617                           TypeD,432                                            mindlbody/spirit connections           I
     Panax qu!nquefolium, 617                        pertussis, 499, 501-502, 505, 513                podiatrists (D.P'M.), 605
     pancreatic cancer, 299,460,470-471              pescovegetarians, 337                            podofilox, 539
     pandemics, definition, 508                      pessimism, 66-67, 79. See also optimism          podophyUin, 539
     panic disorders, 71, 81                         pesticides, 345-346, 348, 690-692                point-of-service (POS) plans, 639
     pantothenic acid, 323, 356                      peyote, 236, 245                                 Poison Control Center, 654
     Pap tests, 146, 466, 481                        p53 gene, 474-475                                poisoning, 653-654
     ParaGard, 149                                   pharmaceuticals. See drug therapy                Poland, tobacco advertiSing in, 303
     Paralympics, 368                                pharmacies, 229, 634-636                         poliomyelitis, 510-511
     paramyxovirus, 502                              pharmacogenomics, 10                            'polio vaccine, 499
     paranoia, alcoholic, 270                        pharmacology; 229                                poliovirus, 506
     paraphilias, 133                                pharmacopoeia, 614                               political action, against tobacco use, 302-305
     parasites                                       phenylpropanolamine (PPA), 242, 413              pollen allergies, 498, 500
       definition, 507                               pheromones, 122                                  pollution, 682-695
       pinworm,513                                   phlebotomy, 196                                     air, 478, 683-690
       pubic lice, 544                               phobias, 70-72, 85,130                              cancer from, 478
       scabies, 544-545                              phosphorus, 325, 356, 358                           chemical, 690-691
       tapeworms, 502, 513, 681                      photosynthesis, 687                                 indoor air, 688
       viruses as, 506                               phototherapy, 462                                   noise, 694-695
     parasitic worm, 512                             Phthirus pubis, 523                                 water, 676-677
     parasympathetic division, 30-31                 physical activity                                   See also environmental health
     parenting                                         definition, 369                                polychlorinated biphenyls (PCEs), 346-347,678
       decision to become a parent, 194-195            examples of moderate amounts, 369              polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 476
       family life cycle, 106                          frequency of, 371                              polypeptide supplements, 378
       gender roles in, 106                            how much is enough, 369-371                    polyphenols, 477
       single parents, 106-107                         pyramid, 371                                   polyps, 462, 463
       stepfamilies, 107-108, 110                      weight management, 407-409, 420                polyunsaturated fats, 316-318, 446-448, 476
       surrogate, 202                                  See also exercise                              population growth, 675, 681-682, 689
       violence against children, 664                Physical Activity and Health, 362                pornography; 133-135
     Parkes, Colin Murray; 594                       physical dependence, 225, 230-231, 239           portals of exit and entry; 492-493
     Parkinson's disease, 556-557, 613               physical exams, 632                              positron emission tomography (PET), 563
     partial birth abortion, 174-175, 180            physical fitness                                 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), 511
     partial vegetarians, 337                          amount of activity and, 370                    postpartum depression, 218-219
     particulate matter (PM), 684                      assessment of, 383-384                         postpartum period, 218, 219-220
     passion, 92                                       definition, 362                                post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 38, 72-73
     passive-aggressive behavior, 68                   disability and, 368                            potassium, 325-326, 358, 448-449
     passive euthanasia, 582                           exercise programs for, 369-371                 poverty. See socioeconomic status
     passive immunity; 498                             five components of, 363                        power of attorney for health care, 583-584
     pathogens, 345-346, 492. See also microbes        See also exercise programs                     prana, 610
     pathological gambling, 228                      physical training, prinCiples of, 372-373        preconception care, 195-197,220
     pathology, 607                                  physical weUness, 2                              precontemplation stage, 18
     PCp, 232, 245                                   physician-assisted suicide (PAS), 575, 582       preeclampsia, 214-215
     peanut butter, 331                              physicians                                       preejaculatory fluid, HN in, 525
     pedestrian safety, 652                            appointments with, 631-632                     preferred provider organizations, 639
     pediatrics, 607                                   communicating bye-mail, 632                    pregnancy
     pedophiles, 667                                   complying with instructions of, 642               alcohol use, 210, 213, 266-267
     peer counseling, 81-82, 248-249                   diagnostic process, 632                           bacterial vaginosis, 544
     pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)                 medical and surgical treatments, 633-637          changes in woman's body, 201-204, 220
        contraceptives and, 145, 147, 150              partnership with patients, 630-631                chemicals and pollutants, 210-213
        definition, 539                              phytic acid, 477                                    childbirth classes, 213-214
        from gonorrhea and chlamydia, 522, 536-538   phytochemicals, 327-328, 476-477                    cloning, 202-203
       infertility; 199                              phytoestrogens, 477, 561                            complications, 214-215, 221
       overview, 123-125,538                         PID. See pelvic inflammatory disease                conception process, 198-199
        prevention, 521                              pinworm, 513                                        dietary recommendations, 356-358




                                                                                                                                        Index       1-15



--                                                                                                                                                         Tt
pregnancy (continued)                                     central nervous system stimulants, 240-242       ionizing, 478-479
   drug abuse during, 237, 239, 241                       changes in brain chemistry, 235-236              medical uses, 462, 482, 693
   emotional responses, 204-205                           date rape drugs, 239                             during pregnancy, 213
   exercise, 212-213                                      definition, 226-227                              radon,479,692-694
   fetal abnonnality detection, 207-208                   dose-response function, 236                      sickness, 692
   fetal development, 205-209                            medical uses, 243-244                             ultraviolet, 466-469, 479
   fetal programming, 208-209                             opioids, 238                                  radiology, 607
   first trimester, 201-203, 205-206                      phannacological properties, 236               radon, 479, 692-694
   genital herpes, 541                                   potential for dependence, 232                 rage, 69. See also anger and hostility
   gestational diabetes, 400                              prevalence of use, 225-226                    raloxifene (Evista), 465, 561
   hepatitis-B,542                                        purity of street drugs, 225                   range of motion, 364, 377-379
   HIV infection~ 212-213, 526, 531-532                  religion and, 233                              rape, 133, 239, 664, 665-668
   home test kits, 627                                   risk factors for dependence, 233-234          rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, 44-45
   infertility, 199-202, 220, 538                        sources, 230                                   rationalization, 68
   Lyme disease dUring, 504                               time-action function, 236                     rational medicine, 603
   nutrition during, 210-211                             user factors, 237                             Rational Recovery, 273, 283
   preconception care, 195-197, 220                      See also drug abuse                           raves, 239
   prenatal care, 209-214, 221                         psychodynamic models, 80-81, 84                 Reality female condom, 152-153
   reproductive technology, 202-203                    psychological health, 59-87                     Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), 328, 358
   rubella during, 509                                   adult identity fonnation, 62-65               rectal cancer, 462, 481
   second trimester, 203-206                              anxiety disorders, 70-73                     red rice yeast, 449
   smoking, 210-211, 213, 301                            behavioral model of, 80, 84                    reds, 238
   stress and, 39, 208-209                               biolOgical model of, 78-80, 84                refractory period, 123
   teenage, 167                                           cognitive-behavioral therapies, 81           Reiki,618
   tests, 201                                             cognitive model of, 80, 84                   reinforcement, 80, 227, 288
   third trimester, 204-207                              communication, 67-68                          relationships. See intimate relationships
   unintended, 188-189                                    defense mechanisms, 66, 68                   relaxation response, 48-49
   weight gain, 204                                      Erikson's stages of development, 62-65        relaxation techniques, 48-51
   See also childbirth                                   Internet resources, 86-87                     religion
premature ejaculation, 125                               loneliness, 68-69                                 alcohol use and, 233
premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), 120              media portrayal, 77                               circumcision and, 17
premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 113, 120-121                mood disorders, 71, 73-77                         complementary medicine, 620
premenstrual tension, 120                                optimism, 34, 47-48, 66-67                        death and, 576-577
prenatal care, 209-214                                   peer counseling and support groups, 81-82         drug abuse and, 233
preparation stage, 18                                    prevalence of disorders, 71                       mental health help, 81
prepuce, 114-116                                         profeSSional help, 82-83                          spiritual wellness, 2-3, 65, 108,456
presbyopia, 560                                          psychodynamic model of, 80-81, 84                 tobacco use and, 289
prescription medications, 634-636                        schizophrenia, 71, 76-77                      remission, 462:463
Preven, 149                                              self-esteem, 64-66                            repetitive strain injuries (RSls), 38, 657-658
primary care physicians, 601, 608-609                    self-help, 81                                 repression, 68
prions, 502,512,513                                      self-talk, 17, 66-67, 379, 409                reproductive systems
problem-focused coping, 591                              shyness, 72, 79, 85                               alcoholand,265
Prochaska, james, 17                                   psycholOgists, 82                                   circumcision, 116-117, 127,525-526
pro-choice pOSition, 175, 190                          psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), 37, 54. See also       female anatomy, 114-115
procrastination, 23-24, 46                                  mind/body/spirit connections                   female sexual maturation, 118-120
prodromal period, 497                                  psychosis, 240-241                                  genital mutilation, 127
Progestasert, 149-150, 161                             puberty, 118-120                                    health problems, 124-125
progesterone, 117,118-119                              pubic lice, 544                                     honnones, 117-122
progestins, 117, 147-148                               public health                                       male anatomy, 115-117
progreSSive relaxation, 48                               assumptions, 603-604                             male sexual maturation, 120
projection, 68                                           breakdown of, 513                                 smoking and, 297
prolactin, 516                                           statistics, 4                                 research, evaluation of news reports, 606
pro-life position, 175, 190                              violence prevention, 668-669                  reservoirs, pathogen, 492
proof value, 258-259                                     See also environmental health                 residential care homes, 568
Propecia, 213                                          pulmonary circulation, 427-428                  resistance, 36
proprioception, 244-245                                pulmonary edema, 445                            resistance exercise, 369-371, 374-375
prostaglandins, 120, 185, 560-561                      pulmonary heart disease, 295                    respiratory system, smoking and, 296, 300
prostate cancer, 8, 105,465-466,474-475,481            Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, 680             response, 80
prostate gland, 116, 123-124                           purging, 417-418. See also bulimia nervosa      restenosis, 441
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, 465, 481   pus, 495                                        resting metabolic rate (RMR), 402-403
prostatitis, 125                                                                                       resveratrol, 477
prostitution, 134-135                                  qi, 610-612, 620                                retarded ejaculation, 125
protease inhibitors, 483,530, 616                      qigong, 618                                     Retin-A, 469
proteins, 315-316, 342, 358, 378,407,473               Quaaludes (methaqualone), 232                   retinol, 326, 357
protozoa, 502, 512-513, 523, 528                       Quinlan, KarenAnn, 580-581                      retirement communities, 568
Prozac, 76, 78-79, 262, 419                                                                            retirement planning, 554, 558-559
PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood test, 465, 481   rabies, 499, 511                                reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 530
Psilocybe mexicana mushrooms, 245                      racism, hate crimes and, 661                    Reye's syndrome, 508
psychiatrists, 82                                      radiation                                       rhabdovirus, 502, 511
psychiatry, 607                                           avoiding, 694                                rheumatic fever, 445
psychoactive drugs, 225-255                               as cancer cause, 478-479                     rheumatoid arthritis, 495, 515, 560
  alcoholand,262-263                                      from cell phones, 479                        Rh factor, 210
  central nervous system depressants, 238-240,            definition, 692                              rhinovirus, 502
         252,261                                          electromagnetic, 693                         riboflavin, 323, 356




1-16      Index
RICE principle, 384-385                                    complying with physicians' instructions, 642      paraphilias, 133
rickettsias, 502, 504                                      home medical care kit, 631                         relationships, 92-93
right to die, 580-581                                      medical errors, 634-635                           sexual problems, 123-126
ringworm, 471,512                                          medical self-tests, 626, 628                      sexual response cycle, 122-124
risedronate (Actonel), 562                                nondrug options, 628                               smoking and, 297
risk assessment, personalized, 10                          personal health profile, 633                      stimulation, 122, 132
risk-taking behaviors, 646                                 physician-patient partnership, 630-631          sexual harassment, 668-669
Ritalin, 78-79, 241-242                                    questions to ask about surgery, 637            sexual intercourse, 128-129, 133
road rage, 647-648, 652                                    self-medication, 628-630, 636                      cancer and, 457
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 502, 504, 681                self-treatment, 627-630, A-5-A-12                 HIVinfection, 525-526, 533-535, 546
rodents, 517, 681                                         when to visit a physician, 626-627, A-5-A-12       reasons for consent, 536
Roe v. Wade, 174, 176', 189-190                        self-concept, 64-65, 84, 90-91                      sexuality
Rohypnol (!lunitrazepam), 239-240, 666                 self-disclosure, 69, 97, 135                          adult, 129
role models, 17                                        self-efficacy, 14, 15, 16-17                          aging and, 121-122
Roman Catholic church, 289                             self-esteem, 60, 64-67, 84, 90-91, 367, 409           definition, 114
rooming-in, 217                                        self-help, 81 .                                       education for teenagers, 164-167
Rosenman, Ray, 34                                      self-talk, 17, 66-67, 379, 409                        mass media and, 127
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 414-415                      Seligman, Martin, 67                               sexually transmitted diseases (SIDs), 521-551
RU-486 (mifepristone), 149, 175, 181-182,              Selye, Hans, 36, 54                                   age and, 536
      185-186                                          semen, 115, 123-124                                   bacteria, 502
rubella, 212-213, 499, 508-509                         seminal vesicles, 116                                 cervical cancer and, 466
runner's high, 367                                     semivegetarians, 337                                  circumcision and, 117, 525-526
run-walk: test, 384                                    senior adults. See aging                              in college students, 536                    .,
                                                       senna, 413                                            contraceptives and, 136, 151-152, 155, i.50,
safe sex practices, 533-534, 547-548                   The Sense of Wonder, 677                                     163,167                              .
safety, personal, 645-674                              sensitization, 500                                    definition, 114, 142,522
   adult lifesaving steps, 655                         septic systems, 678                                   diagnosis and treatment, 546-547
   behavior change strategy, 671-672                   Serenoa repens, 615                                   education programs, 545-546
   on campus, 669                                      SERMs (selective estrogen-receptor modulators),       hepatitis, 478
   Web sites and organizations, 673                           465,474,561                                    infertility, 193
   weight training, 377                                seroconversion, 528-529                               informing partners, 547
   See also unintentional injuries; violence           serotonin, 74, 76, 120,403,414                        overview, 522
safety belts, automobile, 645, 647, 649                serving sizes, 330, 350                               PID and, 125
SI. John's wort (Hypericum peryoratum), 74, 77, 341,   sewage, 678                                           during pregnancy, 212
      344-345,614-616                                  sex, determination of, 117-118, 137                   prevention, 535-536, 545, 547-549
saliva, HIV in, 526                                    sex addiction, 228                                    risk factors, 545
Salmonella, 345-347, 681                               sex chromosomes, 117                                  statistics, 142,521,540
salmonellosis, antibiotic-resistant, 506               sexual anatomy                                        treatment, 537, 546
salt intake, 120, 336, 448-449                            female sex organs, 114-115, 118                    Web sites and organizations, 550-551
sanitary landfills, 678-679, 693                          female sexual maturation, 118-120                  See also HIV infection; names of individual diseases
Sarafem, 120                                              male sex organs, 115-118                        sexual orientation
sarcomas, 460-461, 478                                    male sexual maturation, 120                        bisexuality, 131
Sarcoptes scabiei, 523                                    See also reproductive systems                      childhood sex play, 129
saturated fats, 313, 316-319,335-336,446,449           sexual assaults, 645, 664, 665-668                    definition, 102
Saunders, Cicely, 581                                  sexual behavior                                       gay and lesbian partnerships, 102-103
Saw Palmetto, 615                                         adolescent, 128-129, 167                           gender identity, 126-127
scabies, 544-545                                          age of initial, 162-163                            health-related differences, 9
scanning procedures (body composition), 397               alcoholand,263                                     origins of, 103, 131-132
scarlet fever, 503                                        anal intercourse, 133, 525                         statistics, 130
Schistosoma, 502                                          atypical, 133                                   Shigella, 345-346
schizophrenia, 71, 76, 77-78, 511                         autoeroticism and masturbation, 126-128,        shingles, 509
school violence, 662                                             132-133                                  shin splints, 385
Schut, Henk, 594                                          celibacy, 132-133                               shoes, athletic, 381-382
scientific method, 604                                    childhood, 128                                  shopping, compulsive, 228-229
scleroderma, 515                                          consentual, 135-136                             shyness, 72, 79, 85
scooter injuries, 656 .                                   contraception, 136                              sibutramine, 414
scrapie, 513                                              cybersex, 134                                   sickle-cell disease, 10, 196
scrotum, 114-116,118,123-124                              date rape, 239, 664, 665-666                    side stitch, 385
scurvy, 324                                               gender roles and identity, 126-127              sidestream smoke, 298-300
seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 75                     HIV prevention, 533-536                         SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome), 215, 300
secondary reinforcers, 288                                motivation for, 129                             Silent Spring, 691
secondhand smoke, 286, 293-294, 299-302, 461,             oral-genital stimulation, 132-133               simple (specific) phobia, 70-71
      688                                                 paraphilias, 133                                singlehood, 102-104
sedative-hypnotics, 238                                   privacy, 136                                    Sin Nombre virus (SNV), 514
sedatives, 226, 238                                       responsible, 135-136                            sinsemilla, 243. See also marijuanalhashish
Seinfeld, 48                                             safe, 136,533-534,546-548                        sinusitis, 297, 509
selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs),          sexual intercourse, 133                          skating injuries, 656
      465, 474, 561                                      statistics, 142                                  skill training, 379
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRls), 120      touching and foreplay, 132-133                  skin, function in immune system, 494
selegiline, 563                                        sexual coercion, 133, 645, 665-668                 skin cancer, 460-461, 467-470, 478-479, 481
selenium, 325, 327, 357-358, 476                       sexual dysfunctiOns, 123, 125-126                  skinfold measurements, 396
self-actualization 83-84                               sexual functioning                                 sleep
self-assessments, 'See assessments                        aging and, 121'--122                               deprivation, 44, 648
self-care, 625-643, A-5-A-16                             alcohol and, 261, 265                               exercise and, 367




                                                                                                                                              Index        1-17
sleep (continued)                                   sodium, 325, 342, 358. See also salt                      Single-parent families, 107
   fatigue while driving, 648                       solid waste disposal, 678-679                             smoking-related deaths, 286
   immune system, 517                               soluble fiber, 322, 448-449. See also fiber, dietary      tobacco use, 287, 292, 299
   insomnia, 38,45,57,78                            soluble vitamins, 322-323                                 tobacco-related deaths, 286
   rapid eye movement, 44-45                        somatic nervous system, 34                                violence in the United States, 660
   stress and, 44-45                                sono grams, 207                                           worldwide sexual behavior, 142
smog, 683-685                                       soot, 478                                              statutory rape, 664, 665
smoke detectors, 652-653                            sore throat, 497                                       SIDs. See sexually transmitted diseases
smoke inhalation, 653                               sound intensity, 694                                   stem cells, 482, 483
smokeless tobacco. See spit tobacco                 Southern Poverty Law Center, 661                       stem cell transplants, 482-483
smoking                                             soy protein, 448-449, 561                              stepfamilies, 107-108, 110
   action against, 302-305                          Spanish flu, 508                                       sterilization, 147, 158, 159-163, 165-166, 169
   addiction to, 286-288                            special K (ketamine hydrochloride), 666                Sternberg, Robert, 92, 109
   advertising, 290-291                             specific absorption rate (SAR), 479                    sterQids, 232, 235
   aging and, 558, 562                              spending, compulsive, 228-229                          sterol esters, 344-345, 448-449
   bladder cancer, 471                              sperm cells, 123, 199                                  sterols, plant, 344-345, 448-449
   cardiovascular disease and, 428, 431, 434, 450   spermicides, 150-158, 160-161,525                      stimulants, 78-79,226,240-242
   cervical cancer, 466                             SPF ratings, 457, 469                                  stimulus, 80
   cessation products, 307                          sphygmomanometer, 437                                  St. John's Wort (Hypericum peiforatum), 74, 77,
   clove cigarettes and bidis, 299                  Spiegel, David, 485                                          341,344-345,614-616
   colon cancer, 462                                spina bifida, 210                                      Stoebe, Margaret, 594
   contraceptive risk, 147, 302                     spiritual wellness, 2-3, 65, 108,456. See also         stomach cancer, 471, 478
   death from, 286, 294-295, 303                           mindlbody/spirit connections; religion          stomach flu, 507
   environmental tobacco smoke, 286, 293-294,       spit tobacco, 287, 297-298,470,484                     stool blood test, 462, 481
         299-303,461,688                            sponges, 153, 156-157, 161                             SIP,245
   fire safety, 652-653                             spontaneous abortion, 174, 214-215                     strains, muscle, 385
   gender differences, 285                          sports safety, 654-656                                 strength training, 371-372, 375-377, 379, 562.
   health care costs, 285, 297, 301-302             sport utility vehicles (SUVs), 675, 689                      See also muscular endurance; muscular
   helping someone quit, 304                        sprains, 385                                                 strength
   high risk situations, 309                        squamous cell carcinomas, 468-469                      strep throat, 445, 502-503
   immediate effects, 293-294                       squeeze technique, 125                                 streptococcus, 445, 502-503, 511, 514
   kidney cancer, 471                               stability, 64-65                                       Streptococcus pneumoniae, 503
   long term effects, 285, 294-297                  stages of change model, 17-19,25                       streptokinase, 440
   low sperm counts, 199                               self-assessment, 18                                 stress, 29-57
   lung cancer, 295-296, 302, 461, 483-484             stages in, 18-19                                       aging and, 558
   menthol, 293                                     stalking, 664                                             allostatic load, 36-37, 54
   mutations in the p53 gene, 475                   standard of living, 682                                   assessment of, 31
   pancreatic cancer, 471                           stanol esters, 344-345, 448-449                           brain and, 38
   in PMS and PMDD, 120                             staphylococcus, 502, 503~504                              cancer and, 485
   during pregnancy, 210-211, 213, 301              Staphylococcus aureus, 346, 503                           cardiovascular disease and, 37, 431-432, 451
   quitting, 285, 291, 296, 304-306, 308-309        starches, 320. See also carbohydrates                     definition, 30
   reasons for, 288-291                             state dependence, 240-241                                 disease and, 34, 36-39
   sexual dysfunction, 125                          statins, 441                                              divorce, 105
   sleep and, 45                                    statistics                                                emotional and behavioral responses, 31, 33-35
   social and psycholOgical factors, 288               abortion, 179-180, 182                                 exercise and, 43-44, 367
   social pressures, 13                                alcohol, 263, 269-271                                  fight-or-flight reaction, 32-33
   stress and, 51-52                                   average American diet, 332                             gender differences, 35
   tolerance and withdrawal, 287                       binge drinking, 270                                    general adaptation syndrome, 36-37, 54
   user profiles, 291-292                              cancer deaths, 458, 460                                genital herpes and, 542
   vitamins and, 329                                   cardiovascular disease, 438                            help for, 53
   Web sites and organizations, 310-311                complementary and alternative therapies, 602           immune system, 37-38,43,472,485,516,542
   See also lung cancer; tobacco                       contraceptive effectiveness, 161                       nutrition, 44
snorting, 237                                          contraceptive use, 165                                 personal background, 35
snuff, 297, 470                                        drug use, 226, 247                                     personality and, 34-35
social influences, 13, 23                              eating disorders, 416-417                              physical responses, 30-33
social phobia, 71-72, 85                               evaluating, 606                                        during pregnancy, 208-209
Social Security, 566-567, 569-570                      fatal and disabling injuries, 646, 647                 psychoneuroimmunology, 37, 54
social support, 23, 35, 42-43, 53, 451, 484, 485,      health care expenditures, 639                          sleep, 44-45
      593,595                                          HIVlAIDS, 522, 524                                     sources of, 39-42
socioeconomic status                                   infant mortality, 215                                  symptoms of, 31
   aging, 566                                          infectious diseases, 501                               test anxiety, 54-5 5
   asthma incidence, 501                               leading causes of death, 4, 5                          weight management and, 411, 418
   contraceptive use, 165                              life expectancy, 4, 565                                See also stress management
   CVD risk, 433                                       marital status, 104                                 stress management
   drug use and abuse, 232-233, 246                    nonmedical drug use, 226                               barriers, 23
   eating disorders, 417                               obeSity, 394                                           biofeedback, 51
   emerging infections, 514                            older Americans, 566                                   cognitive techniques, 47-48, 54
   general health status, 7                            organ donors, 585                                      communication, 42-43
   health insurance coverage, 637                      physical activity levels, 362                          counterproductive coping strategies, 51-52
   HIVlAIDS, 527                                       population growth, 681                                 deep breathing, 49-50
   infant i:nortality, 215                             prevalence of psychological disorders, 71              exercise, 43-44
   Pap testing rates, 466                              quantity vs. quality of life, 6                       humor,47~8
   tobacco use, 291-292, 298                           sexuality, 125, 129,130,142                           meditation, 49
   violence, 659 .                                     sexually transmitted diseases, 540                    music therapy, 51




1-18      Index
        nutrition, 44                                     surgery, 414-415,607,635,637                         testicular cancer, 125,470,481
        personal plans for, 52-53                         surrogate mothers, 202                               testosterone, 117-118, 121
        progressive relaxation, 48                        surrogates, 582, 583                                 tetanus, 499, 501-502, 505
        relaxation techniques, 48-51                      swimmer's itch, 502                                  tetracycline, 213
        sleep, 44-45                                     swimming, 654                                         Thailand, 303, 524
        social support, 42-43                            sympathetic division, 30-31                           thalassemia, 197
        systematic desensitization, 54-55                syndrome K, 436-438, 450                              THC, 242-243. See also marijuanalhashish
        t'ai chi ch'uan, 50-51                           synesthesia, 244                                      therapeutic touch, 618
        time management, 45-48                           synOvial fluid, 374-375                              thiamin, 323, 356
        visualization, 48-49                             syphilis, 212-213, 501, 540, 543                     3-second rule, 650
        yoga, 50                                         syringe exchange programs (SEPs), 235                throat cancer, 470
    stressors, 30, 40-42', 52-53                         systematic desensitization, 545755                   thrombotic strokes, 443
   stress response, 30                                   systemic Circulation, 427     ("                     thrombus, 442-443
   stretching exercises, 371-372, 377-379                system infections, 492-493                           thrush, 512
   strokes                                               systole, 427                                         thyrOid, 325, 459
        definition, 442                                  systolic pressure, 438                               thyroid cancer, 479
        diagnosis and treatment, 444
                                                                                                              tickborne infections, 499, 502, 504-505, 681
       effects of, 443-444                               t'ai chi ch'uan, 50-51                               time-action function, 236, 237
       ethnicity and, 8                                  Take Action exercises                                time management, 41, 45-47
       exercise and, 366                                     abortion, 190                                   Times Beach, Missouri, 679
       smoking and, 295                                      aging, 572                                      tinnitus, 694
       statistics, 4-5                                       alcohol use, 281                                Tips for Today guidelines
       symptoms, 442                                         cancer, 488                                          abortion, 189
       types of, 443                                         cardiovascular health, 453                           aging, 570-571
   structured intermittent therapy; 530                      childbirth, 221                                      alcohol use, 279
   subarachnoid hemorrhage, 443                              complementary and alternative medicine, 621          cancer, 486
   substance abuse, definition, 230-23L See also drug        contraception, 170                                   cardiovascular disease, 451
           abuse                                             death, 597                                           complementary and alternative medicine, 621
  substance dependence, definition, 230-23L See              drug abuse, 253                                      contraception, 169
           also drug abuse                                   environmental health, 697                            death, 596
  substitution, 68                                           exercise programs, 388                               drug dependence, 251
  suction curettage, 184, 190                               immunizations, 518                                    environmental health, 696
  sudden cardiac death, 440                                 intimate relationships, 110                           exercise programs, 386
  sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 215, 300             nutrition, 353                                       healthy eating habits, 350
  suffocation, 654                                          personal safety; 672                                 immune system, 516-517
  sugars, 320, 331-332, 336. See also carbohydrates         psychological health, 84                             intimate relationships, 109
  sugar substitutes, 393, 408                               self-care, 642                                       lifestyle choices, 25
  suicide                                                   sexual functioning, 13 7                             pregnancy and childbirth, 220
      aging and, 563-564                                   sexually transmitted diseases, 550                    psychological health, 83
      anorexia and, 418                                    stress, 56                                            quitting smoking, 306
      compulsive gambling and, 228                          tobacco use, 310                                     self-care, 640
      firearms, 660                                        weight management, 421                                sexual behavior, 136
      myths about, 75                                      wellness,26                                           sexually transmitted diseases, 549
      older men and, 564                                Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), 412                     stress, 53
      physician-assisted, 575, 582                      tamoxifen, 465, 474                                      unintentional injuries, 670
      prevention, 73-74                                 tampons, toxic shock syndrome from, 504                  weight managemen~, 419
      in schizophrenia, 77                               Tanacetum parthenium, 615                          tissue plasminogen activator (TPA), 440
      school violence, 662                                tangles, 563                                      tobacco
      statistics, 5, 646-647                              tanning salons, 468, 484                              bidis,299
      warning signs, 61, 73                              tapeworms, 502, 513, 681                                Cigarettes, 292-294
      See also depression                                target behaviors, 12-13, 17-19                         cigars and pipes, 298-300
 sulfites, 348-349                                       target heart rate, 374-375                             clove Cigarettes, 299
 sulforaphane, 327, 344, 476-477                         tartrazine, 349                                        control around the world, 303
 sulfur dioxide, 684, 688                                Taxol (paclitaxel), 465                                definition, 287
 Sulu Islands, 128                                       Tay-Sachs disease, 196-197                             legal settlements, 301-302
 sunbums, 467-469                                        TB (tuberculosis), 1,8,501-503,506,528                 oral cancer, 470
 sunscreens, 457, 467, 469                               T cells, 494-495, 516, 522-523, 525, 528, 530          poisoning, 292
 Superfund program, 679                                  TCM (traditional Chinese medicine), 609-611,           religion and, 289
support groups                                                 616-617                                          smoke composition, 285, 292-293
     for alcohol abuse treatment, 272-274                teeth                                                  spit, 297-298        .
     for cancer patients, 485                               bulimia and, 418                                    statistics on use, 226, 287, 292
     for coping with dying, 593                             care of, 608                                        See also smoking
     for drug abuse treatment, 248-249                      fluoridation of water, 676                     Tobacco Free Initiative, 289, 303, 311
     for grief, 595                                         smoking and, 297-298                           tofu, 331
     for infertile couples, 201
     for psychological problems, 81-82
     for smoking cessation, 306
                                                            sugar intake, 336
                                                        temperature inversions, 684-685
                                                                                                           togavirus, 502
                                                                                                           Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), 328, 358         /
                                                        temperature method of contraception, 158-159       tolerance, 230-231, 236, 269. See also
    for stress management, 53                           teratogen, 210                                             addiction!dependency
for weight loss, 412-415                                termination stage, 19                              touching and foreplay; 132-133
suppressants, cough, 508                                test anxiety, 54-55                                toxic shock syndrome (TSS), 154-157, 502,
suppressor T cells, 494, 495-496                        testator, 578-579                                          503-504
Supreme Court. See U.S. Supreme Court                   testes (Singular, testis), 114-116, 123-124,       toxic waste, 678-679
Surgeon General's report on physical activity;                 198-199,470                                 toxins, 492
        368-369                                         testicle self"examination, 471, 481                Toxoplasmagondii,211




                                                                                                                                             Index      1-19
traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 609-611,        upper respiratory infections. See colds                     statistics, 645, 660
      616-617                                       urethritis, 536-537                                         workplace, 662
traditional medicine, 602-603. See also comple-     uric acid, 436                                              See also injuries; safety, personal
      mentary and alternative medicine (CAM)        urinary tract infections (UTIs), 117, 505                viral encephalitis, 510, 514
trajectory of dying, 590-592 ~                      urine, HlV in, 526                                       viruses
tranquilizers, 226, 238-239      ,1                 urokinase, 440                                               cancer and, 478
trans fatty acids, 316-318, 437, 446, 448           urology, 607                                                 diseases from, 502
transgender, 126                                    U.S. Supreme Court                                          hepatitis, 501-502, 510
transient ischemic attack (TIA), 444-445               abortion cases, 174-178                                  immune response, 496-498
transition stage, 217                                  assisted suicide cases, 582-583                          infection process, 497-498
transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs),     withdrawal oflife support cases, 581                      overview, 506-507
      513                                             tobacco control cases, 291, 302                           rheumatoid arthritis, 515
transseXual men and women, 126                      uterine cancer, 466-467, 481                                sexually transmitted, 523
transtheoretical model, 17-19, 25                   uterus, 114-115, 124, 198-199                               treatment, 511-512, 530
transvestites, 126                                  UV (ultraviolet) radiation, 466-469, 479,686-687         vision changes, 560
trash, 678-679                                                                                               visualization, 17, 48-49
tremors, 556                                        vaccines, 498-499, 504, 508, 516, 533, 542               vis vitalis, 610
Treponema pallidum, 523, 543                        Vacco v. Quill, 582                                      Vital StatistiCS. See statistics
Trichinella spiralis, 346                           vacuum aspiration, 184, 190                              vitamin A, 212-213, 323-324, 326, 344, 357, 358
Trichomonas, 123                                    vagina, 114-115, 123-124                                 vitamin B-6, 121, 323-324, 356, 358, 448
Trichomonas vaginalis, 502, 523, 544                vaginal contraceptive film (vCF), 157                    vitamin B-12, 323-324, 329, 338, 356, 448, 557
trichomoniasis, 512, 540, 544                       vaginal infections, 123,501,512                          vitamin C
triglycerides, 316, 318, 366, 428, 431              vaginal ring, 166                                           cancer prevention, 476
trimester, definition, 201                          vaginismus, 125                                             colds,508
triple marker screen (TMS), 208                     vaginitis, 123                                              intake levels, 326-327, 329, 357, 358
Trypanosoma brucei, 502                             valerian, 615                                               sources and functions, 323-324
trypanosomiasis, 513                                Valium (diazepam), 78, 232, 274                          vitamin D, 323-324, 326, 338, 356, 358, 557
tsetse flies, 513                                   valley fever, 512                                        vitamin E
TSS (toxic shock syndrome), 154-157, 502-504        values, development of, 64-65                               cancer prevention, 476
tubal blockages, 199                                vanadium intake, 358                                        cardiovascular health, 448
tubal pregnancy, 184, 187,214-215,538               varicella-zoster, 499, 502, 509                             intake levels, 327, 357, 358
tubal sterilization, 162-163                        vas deferens, 116, 124, 160                                 menopause and, 561
tuberculosis (TB), 1,8,501-503,504,506,528          vasectomy, 160-162                                          PMS and, 121
tumors, 458-459. See also cancer                    vasocongestion, 123, 125                                    sources and functions, 323-324
tumor suppressor genes, 474                         vectors, 492                                             vitamin K, 323-324, 326, 329, 357
12-step programs, 248-249, 272, 412                 vegans, 337                                              vitamins
twins, 199                                          vegetable food group, 329-332, 335, 476-477                 deficiencies and excesses, 324
Tylenol, 561                                        vegetarian diets, 329, 337-338, 354, 357,682                definition, 322
Type A and B personalities, 34, 37, 432             veins, 427                                                  food labels, 342
Type D personalities, 432                           vena cava, 427-428                                          functions, 322
typhus, 502                                         ventricles, 427-428                                         sources, 324
                                                    ventricular fibrillation, 440. See also cardiovascular      See also names oJ individual vitamins
Uganda, RN prevention in, 524                             disease                                            voluntary active euthanasia (VAE), 583
ulcerative colitis, 462                             Vermont, same-sex marriage in, 103                       volunteering, 574
ulcers, 297, 436, 471, 491, 504, 511                vertical transmission, 526                               vulva, 114-115
ultrasonography, 207-208, 463, 465, 480             very-Iow-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), 430
ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 466-469, 479, 686-687   Viagra, 125-126                                          waist circumference, 399
umbilical cord, 205                                 Vibrio cholerae, 514                                     walking, statistics ori, 361
UN Convention on Climate Change, 686                Vibrio vulnificus, 346                                   warfarin, 615-616
Uniform Donor Card, 584-585                         violence, 657-670                                        warmup,374-375
unintentional injuries                                 alcohol and other drugs, 660                          warts, 511, 539-541. See also human papillo-
   back, 657, A-I0                                     assault, 661                                                mavirus
   bicycles, 651-652                                   against children, 664                                 Washington v. Glucksberg, 582
   causes of 646-647                                   battering, 662-663                                    waste disposal, 677-680
   choking, 654-655                                    child sexual abuse, 667-668                           water
   exercise, 368, 384-385, 654-656, A-lO-A-ll          domestic, 661-663                                       contamination and trea.tment, 676-677
   falls, 652                                          drugs and, 246, 660                                     dietary need for, 324-327,383
   firearms and, 654                                   elder abuse, 664-665                                    diseases from contaminated, 512, 515
   fires, 652-653                                     emergency care, 670                                      shortages, 677
   at home, 652-654                                   factors in, 658-661                                    water breaking, 217
   in-line saking, 656              ,                  family and intimate, 662-665                          Web sites. See Internet
   during leisure activities, 654-656                  firearms, 654, 660-661, 669                           Websterv. Reproductive Health Services, 174,180
   motorcycles and mopeds, 650-651                    gang-related, 661                                      weight
   motor vehicle, 647-650                             gender and, 660                                          acceptance and change, 415
   pedestrians, 652                                   hate crimes, 661                                         body image and, 399-401, 409
   poisoning, 653-654                                 homicides, 647, 658, 660-662                             coping strategies and, 409-410
   repetitive strain, 657                             interpersonal factors, 660                               eating habits and, 403-405
   scooters, 656                                      in the media, 659                                        evaluation of, 395-397
   swimming, 654                                      prevention, 668-670                                      gain during pregnancy, 204
   rates of, 646                                      rape, 133, 665-668                                       genetic factors, 401-402
  smoking and, 297                                    school,662                                               hormones and, 403
  at work, 656-657                                    sexual harassment, 668-669                               lifestyle factors, 403-404
United Nations, 685-686, 698                          social factors, 659                                      media images of beauty, 401, 415
United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), 343                stalking, 664                                            metabolism and, 402




~~                                                                                                                                                             I
  negative emotions and, 409                           intimate relationships and, 105                PMSIPMDD, 113, 120-121
  nutrition guidelines, 334                            motivation for change, 12-17,23                preventing date rape, 667
  psychosocial factors, 404-405                        profile, 9-11                                  sexual anatomy, 114-115, 118
  smoking and, 293                                     spiritual, 2-3, 65, 108,456                    sexual dysfunction, 125-126
  See also weight management                           target behavior choices, 12-13, 17-19          sexual health problems, 124-125
weight-bearing exercise, 562                           ten warning signs of, 4                        sexual maturation, 118-120
weight machines, 376-377                               world changes, 24                              sexual response cycle, 122-124
weight management, 393-423                             See also lifestyle choices                     smoking risks, 302
  aging, 557                                         Western blot, 528                                stress and, 35, 42
  behavior change strategy, 420-421                  Western medicine. See conventional medicine      transgendered, 126
  body composition, 364-365, 394-397                 West Nile virus, 514, 681                        victims of violence, 660
  body fat distribu,tion, 398-399                    wet dreams, 128                                  weight training, 377
  body mass index, 334, 396-397                      white blood cells, 494, 497                      See also gender differences
  diet and eating habits, 406-409                    whole grains, 320                              Women for Sobriety, 273, 283
  dietary supplements and diet aids, 412             whooping cough, 499,501-502,505,513            Women Organized Against Rape (WOAR), 666
  diet books, 410-412                                Willke,]. c., 177                              work injuries, 656-657
  doing it yourself, 410-411                         wills, 578-579, 583-584                        workplace sexual harassment, 668-669
  energy balance, 395-396, 420                       withdrawal, 231                                workplace violence, 662
  evaluation of weight and composition, 395-397      withdrawal method, 159, 161                    World Health Organization (WHO)
  exercise and, 407-409                              women                                            acupuncture, 612
  extreme leanness, 401                                aging, 121                                     alternative medicine, 603
  fat ~nd sugar substitutes, 408                       alcohol abuse, 274-275                         tobacco use, 289, 303, 311
  fat calories, 407                                    alcohol metabolism, 257, 259-260               water shortages, 677
  health effects of excess body fat, 364, 397-398,     autoimmune diseases, 515                       Web sites, 673                      ·7

        431                                            battered, 662-663                            World Health Report 2000, 638        ~/
  motivation and commitment, 420                       body composition, 397                        World No Tobacco Day (WNTD), 303, 311
  prescription drugs, 414                              body image, 416
  self-monitoring, 421                                 cardiovascular disease, 434                  Xenical (orlistat), 414
  surgery, 414-415                                     cervical cancer, 8, 466, 475, 481,539        X rays, 693
  target weight, 401                                   chlamydia in, 535-536
  Web sites and organizations, 422                      contraceptive use, 165-166                  years of potential life lost, 646-647
  weight cycling, 399                                   date rape prevention tips, 667              yeast infections, 123,501,512,528
  weight loss programs, 412-414                         depression, 75-76                           Yellow River, 677
  See also obesity                                      dietary recommendations, 338-339, 356-358   yellows, 238
weight training, 371-372, 375-377, 379, 562             eating disorders, 416-419                   Yersinia enterocolynca, 346
Weisman, Avery, 588                                     female sex organs, 114-115                  yin and yang properties, 610-611
wellness                                                financial planning, 559                     yoga, 50, 614
  continuum, 2                                          gender roles in marriage, 42, 104           yo-yo dieting, 399
  definition, 3, 25                                     genital mutilation, 127
  dimensions of, 2-3                                    infertility, 199                            zidovudine (AZT), 530
  disparities in, 6                                    life expectancy, 564-565                     zinc, 325-326, 338, 357-358, 508
  evaluating current habitS, 12, 14-15                  marital status, 104, 105                    zona pellucida, 166
  exercise and, 366-367                                 menstrual cycle, 118-121                    zygote, 199
  factors that influence, 9, 25, 517                    obesity among, 394, 397                     zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), 202-203
  Healthy People Initiative, 5-7, 25, 27                ovarian cancer, 467, 474, 477




                                                                                                                                        Index        1-21
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