London Borough of Camden by linzhengnd

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									London Borough of Camden




    NOISE STRATEGY




September 2002
Contents
Introduction                                         Page
     1. Introduction, policy context and aims        3

Background
    2. Health issues                                 5
    3. Borough Characteristics                       7
    4. EU noise policy                               9
    5. Proposed National Noise Strategy              10
    6. GLA strategy                                  11
    7. Other agencies                                12
    8. Planning issues                               14

Specific Areas
     9. Domestic Noise                               15
     10. Commercial Noise                            18
     11. Construction Noise                          26
     12. Occupational Noise                          29
     13. Environmental Noise                         30
     14. Education                                   39

Appendices

     1. Policies and action plan                     40
     2. UDP Guidance                                 47
     3. Entertainment Licensing conditions           53
     4. World Health Organisation noise guidelines   54
     5. Legislation and enforcing authorities        55
     6. Camden‟s response to the Draft National      60
       Noise Strategy consultation
     7. Noise definitions                            66
     8. Glossary                                     68




                                          2
1.Introduction, Policy Context, Aims
1.1 Noise is a pollutant that has caused concern through the ages back to Roman
times. There is anecdotal evidence of complaints about noise from carts rolling along
cobbled streets in Roman London causing sleep disturbance. However, noise is also
one of the most difficult pollutants to tackle, in particular knowing how to classify
and monitor it and what limits to set. This difficulty stems back to the difference
between sound and noise. Noise is often defined as unwanted sound. This means that
there is a subjective element in addressing noise – something might be a noise to one
person but a pleasure to another person. The loud music at a party or concert may be
simultaneously a wonderful sound to one person and a terrible noise to another
person. It may be an enjoyable experience to hear birds singing during a walk in the
countryside but extremely irritating to be woken by a cock crowing at 5.00am.
However, there is no doubt that noise affects our quality of life, and there is objective
evidence that high levels of noise affect health, interfering with sleep, and increasing
stress.

1.2 The majority of noise experienced by residents in Camden is caused by traffic. In
areas where traffic noise is lower, then aircraft noise is also a significant factor. Many
residents also experience noise from railways. The majority of complaints received by
the Council however are about commercial activities including demolition and
construction, plant and machinery, and about music, neighbours and activities in the
street. The term noise also includes vibration, which can be a particular cause of
concern in certain situations.

1.3 Measures to tackle noise in the widest sense are now being developed at a
European, national and London-wide level. Camden has particular reasons to develop
its own noise strategy. As a centre for the entertainments industry, the borough has a
large and growing number of restaurants, pubs, clubs and other premises in area
which are also residential, which attract large numbers of people and which often play
loud music. It has a concentration of railway lines and terminals, with many people
living close alongside tracks. It is now host to one of the biggest civil engineering
works and urban re-building projects, with the Channel Tunnel Rail Link and
subsequent redevelopment of the railway lands, which will result in major
construction works in the area for 15 or more years.

Policy Context

1.4 The Community Strategy is the overarching framework for all the Council‟s
policies, embracing economic, social and environmental objectives. It notes that
Kings Cross will become one of the main gateways to Britain and Europe, and in
Target 57 it pledges to work to maintain Camden‟s high profile role in the cultural
field, including new media, design and tourism. It has no explicit targets in relation to
noise, but it sets an objective of making Camden an attractive place to live, learn,
work and visit, which implies controlling noise in homes, in educational
establishments and in public places to an acceptable level.




                                            3
Some of the Community Strategy targets primarily aimed at other issues should have
a beneficial side impact on noise – reducing traffic, introducing more 20mph zones,
and encouraging walking and cycling.

1.5 The Council also has an Environmental Policy, which commits us to minimising
noise pollution from our own activities. There are other corporate strategies that this
strategy needs to relate to, including Local Agenda 21 dealing with sustainability, the
Council‟s Air Quality Strategy which aims to minimise air pollution and a draft
Cultural Strategy aimed at maintaining and expanding the borough‟s wealth of
cultural activities. The Best Value regime also requires us to critically examine all our
activities to ensure that we provide the most appropriate services to the people of
Camden.

1.6 In developing this Strategy, the Council has also had regard to the European
Union‟s Noise Policy, the proposal by the Government to develop a National Ambient
Noise Strategy, and the London Mayor‟s draft London Ambient Noise Strategy.

1.7 This noise strategy sets out how the Council will work, in partnership with others,
to achieve the following aims.

Aims

1. To reduce people‟s exposure to noise as much as possible, using the ALARA
   principle - As Low As Reasonably Achievable;

2. To give priority to those experiencing highest levels of noise or at most antisocial
   times;

3. To achieve Noise Directive/WHO guidelines as minimum standards for exposure;

4. To encourage noise prevention wherever possible rather than trying to cure
   problems that have already occurred;

5. To raise awareness of noise issues amongst local residents and businesses;

6. In parts of the Borough where noise levels are low, to preserve the tranquillity of
   such area;

7. To reduce noise levels in open spaces to minimise effects of noise on wildlife.




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2.Health Effects of Environmental Noise
2.1 Whilst there is very little dispute that noise can cause annoyance and nuisance,
and affect the quality of peoples‟ lives, the link between noise and its impact on health
is less clear cut. The potential impacts on health can be divided into auditory and non-
auditory effects.

Auditory effects

2.2 It is thought that a noise level of 150 dB will cause instant and permanent
deafness. Long-term exposure to lower levels of noise can also cause hearing
damage. The amount of damage caused by noise is dependent on the frequency;
narrowband noise is more damaging than broadband noise (containing a wide range of
frequencies). This type of health effect is widely recognised and because of this, legal
controls have been put in relation to noise in the workplace, requiring noise
assessments and ear protection at certain noise trigger levels.

2.3 Tinnitus (a ringing in the ears) may be experienced after exposure to a noisy
environment, such as a concert or night club, for a relatively short period of time and
a temporary loss of hearing sensitivity called temporary threshold shift (TTS) may be
experienced. After a long enough rest, from the noise most people recover. Recover
times from TTS depend on exposure times and noise levels. However if a person is
exposed to intense levels of noise for long periods there is a danger that the temporary
damage may become permanent and persistent threshold shift may soon be followed
by permanent threshold shift. The same applies to permanent tinnitus.

2.4 To avoid hearing impairment, impulse noise exposures should never exceed 140
dB peak sound pressure in adults, and 120 dB peak sound pressure in children. A
lifetime‟s continuous exposure to an environmental average noise level of 70 dB will
not generally cause hearing impairment.

Non-Auditory effects

2.5 The non-auditory effects of environmental noise are subject to a lot of research
and debate. Across the world a large number of studies are being conducted. One of
the problems with drawing conclusions from some of the existing research is that the
studies took place in a laboratory environment and not in the field, often with no
account being taken of existing conditions or confounding factors. Some of the
studies have also extrapolated data from studies into the effects of workplace noise
and applied them to environmental noise. The main effects are outlined below.

2.6 Speech interference. Environmental noise can mask normal speech and make
speech incapable of being understood. Environmental noise can also mask other
sounds that are important to daily life such as doorbells, telephone signals, alarm
clocks, fire alarms and other warning signals and music. Speech interference is
particularly debilitating to vulnerable groups such as people with hearing
impairments, the elderly, children in the process of language and reading acquisition
and individuals who are not familiar with the spoken language.



                                           5
2.7 Annoyance. Annoyance has been defined as “a feeling of displeasure evoked by
noise” and “any feeling of resentment, displeasure, discomfort and irritation occurring
when a noise intrudes into someone‟s thoughts and moods or interferes with activity”.
The degree of annoyance felt (if any at all) varies from individual to individual.

2.8 Sleep disturbance. The main sleep disturbance effects of noise are difficulty in
falling asleep (however once someone is asleep it will take an increasingly intrusive
noise to wake them); awakenings; and alterations of sleep stages or depth (reduction
in amount of REM sleep). There is a considerable amount of evidence that suggests
that individuals can get used to noise (habituate), and there is some doubt as to the
real long-term health consequences of noise induced sleep disturbance. It is also
unclear how much sleep loss is required before being considered a health effect, but a
good nights sleep is known to be one of the key requirements for good physiological
and psychological functioning in healthy individuals. Sleep disturbance can affect a
person‟s mood the next day as well as their performance.

2.9 Ischaemic heart disease (Coronary Heart Disease). The European union noise
policy documents suggests that “long term exposure to noise levels above 65dB may
be responsible for a few percent of the heart attacks in the EU, including related
mortality”.

2.10 Performance by school children. Studies on the effects of aircraft noise on
children in and around the Heathrow area have found that chronic exposure to aircraft
noise does not always lead to generalised cognitive effects (connected with thinking
or conscious mental processes), but rather more selective cognitive impairments in
difficult tasks (Haines 2001).The World Health Organisation suggest that schools and
day-care centres should not be located near major sources of noise, such as highways,
airports and industrial sites.

2.11 Mental Health. Environmental noise is not believed to be a direct cause of
mental illness, but may accelerate and intensify the development of dormant mental
disorders. Susceptible people may suffer from anxiety; emotional stress; nervous
complaints; argumentativeness; sexual impotency; mood changes as well as general
psychiatric disorders such as neurosis, psychosis and hysteria.

Conclusion
2.12 That noise can have major adverse affects on quality of life is probably beyond
dispute. Health effects in industrial situations are clearly recognised but effects of
environmental noise are less certain. A DEFRA commissioned report by the National
Physical Laboratory in 1998 found that although there are potential adverse effects on
health, the evidence for actual health effects, other than annoyance or sleep
disturbance is weak. WHO standards have adopted a precautionary approach in
putting forward standards. It is generally recognised that more research is needed in
this area.




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3.Characteristics of the area
3.1 The Borough of Camden is defined as an inner London borough, although only part
of the Borough (the Central Area) lies within London's central core. The Borough has
an area of approximately 22 square kilometres and a population of 191,000.

3.2 The Borough is centrally located, between Westminster and the City to the south,
Brent to the west, Barnet and Haringey to the north and Islington to the east. It lies
immediately adjacent to the City and the West End, stretching northwards from
Holborn, Bloomsbury and Fitzrovia through Kings Cross, Camden Town, Kentish
Town, Primrose Hill and Swiss Cottage to the "urban villages" of Hampstead and
Highgate. It thus forms a small but important part of Europe's major capital city, with a
concentration of shops, offices, hotels, the country's legal centre, London University
and large teaching hospitals, together with residential areas of character and elegance,
and renowned urban squares and green spaces. More than 200,000 people work in
Camden.

3.3 The southern part of the Borough is dominated by activities in the fields of
education, law, medicine, the arts, broadcasting, business, commerce, tourism and
transport. Several important national and international companies have their
headquarters here. The area also supports a number of residential communities, a major
shopping centre (Tottenham Court Road) and local shops and services, which
contribute to the vitality and mixed-use character of the area.

3.4 Further north the Borough becomes more residential in character. Residential
communities here are served by the three major shopping centres of Kilburn High
Road, Finchley Road/Swiss Cottage and Camden Town, characterised not only by a
concentration of shops, but also by a mix of uses and local services and a large number
of pubs, club and restaurants. There are also a number of smaller district and
neighbourhood centres.

3.5 The Borough has a number of open spaces and landscape features of strategic
significance, including Hampstead Heath, Primrose Hill, Regent's Park and the Regent's
Canal. It also has a dense network of railway lines with links to the north and east of
the country and direct links with South London, Kent and Sussex via Thameslink rail
services. Camden will also become a significant entry point into Europe, with
construction now underway of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link terminal at the existing St
Pancras Station.

3.6 In recent years the growth of the hospitality and entertainments industries, and the
development of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link and associated projects have created new
tensions, particularly about noise issues. Traditionally commercial areas like Hatton
Garden are becoming more mixed, with residential flats being developed in vacant
premises and above businesses. These factors present Camden with a unique need for
an integrated approach to noise.

Population distribution

3.7 Apart from parks and open spaces, all areas of the borough have a residential
population. Even the commercial areas in Holborn and Bloomsbury also have a
significant residential population. There are large areas of social housing around


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Kilburn, Gospel Oak, Kentish Town, Camden Town, Regents Park, Somers Town,
Bloomsbury and Clerkenwell, while Hampstead is predominantly private housing.

3.8 Figure 1 below illustrates the population distribution across the Borough; this map
was produced using information from the 1990 census.

   Figure 1: Population Distribution (1 Dot Equals 14 Residents)




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4.EU Noise Policy
4.1 The European Union‟s (EU) early legislative controls in relation to noise were
focussed on noise emission by products (cars, trucks, aircraft and industrial
equipment). However, the European Commission‟s “Fifth Action Programme on the
Environment – Towards Sustainability” (1993-2000) proposed a number of measures
aimed at reducing people‟s exposure to night-time noise. In 1996, it published a
Green Paper on Future Noise Policy. In this document, it suggested that around 20%
of the EU‟s population (80 million people) suffer from environmental noise levels that
scientists and health experts consider to be unacceptable. In addition, it suggested that
a further 170 million people live in so called grey areas, where noise levels are such
as to cause serious annoyance during the daytime. In the Green Paper, it put forward a
proposal for noise mapping as a means of assessing and presenting noise data, and to
serve as a basic planning tool. Information on EC noise policy is available at
http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/index_en.htm

4.2 On the 18th July 2002, Directive 202/49/EC on the assessment and management of
environmental noise came into force. The Directive seeks to establish a common EU
framework for the assessment and management of exposure to environmental noise.

4.3 Firstly, it seeks to harmonise noise indicators and assessment methods for
environmental noise. It is proposed that two parameters should be determined, Lden
and Lnight. Lden is essentially a 24 hour LAeq, with additional weightings for the evening
and night-time periods. Lnight is an 8 hour LAeq between 23.00 hours and 07.00hrs.

4.4 Secondly, using the common indicators and assessment methods, it seeks to gather
noise exposure information in the form of „noise maps‟. The current proposals will
require Members States to undertake noise mapping for initially for agglomerations
(urban areas) above 250,000 people and later for agglomerations above 100,000
people.

4.5 Thirdly, it aims to make this information available to the public.

4.6 Fourthly, within one year of noise maps being published, it is proposed that action
plans must be produced laying out information and proposals in relation to
environmental noise. The exposure information will form the basis for action plans at
the local level. It is not proposed to set European-wide noise limits, but Member
States will be required to indicate limits values currently in force or proposed.

4.7 The government has started to develop a national noise mapping programme, and
has said that London will be a priority area for mapping. A national contract has been
let, and sub-contracts for London are expected to be let shortly.

Policy 1: The Council sees benefits in the proposals for noise mapping which
should for the first time provide comprehensive data on noise levels across the
Borough. The Council sees noise mapping technology as having a valuable role in
the planning process. The Council will work with DEFRA and its contractors on
mapping in London and seek to extract the maximum benefit for Camden from
this exercise.


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5.Draft National Noise Strategy
5.1 In December 2001, the Government published a Consultation Paper entitled
„Towards a National Ambient Noise Strategy‟, fulfilling a commitment in its 2000
Rural White Paper to develop such a strategy.

5.2 The Consultation Paper stresses that the objective of the exercise is to develop a
National Ambient Noise Strategy; it is not intended that it will covers all areas of
noise. Apart from fulfilling the commitment in the Rural White Paper, the other main
objective of the exercise does appear to be to set a context for the noise mapping that
will have to be undertaken to fulfil the requirements of the Draft European
Environmental Noise Directive that is likely to come into force in the next year.

5.3 The Consultation Paper proposes a three-stage process towards developing the
Strategy:

5.4 Phase 1 is an information gathering stage, gathering data on the numbers of people
affected by different levels of noise, sources of noise, and location of people affected.
Methods for assessing noise would be considered, as would noise control techniques.
Noise mapping, as required by the EU Directive would be one of the main tools used
for this phase.

5.5 Phase 2 would be the evaluation stage and the identification of options for
prioritising the various alternatives in Phase 1, having regard to all relevant factors.

5.6 Phase 3 is the stage at which the Government would decide on the policies to
move towards the National Ambient Noise Strategy itself.

5.7 The timetable envisages is that Phase 3 would be reached in 2007, with the
information gathering and evaluation phases taking place between now and that date.

5.8 The Consultation paper provides some background to noise strategy issues,
considers the adverse effects of noise and the action that has been taken against noise
to date, as well as starting to explore noise mapping issues. Despite being a
Consultation paper on a proposed Ambient Noise Strategy, it also includes a chapter
on Neighbour Noise that is outside the scope of the proposed strategy.

5.9 The Council‟s response to the Consultation Paper is attached at Appendix 5.

5.10 More information on Government noise policy is available at
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/noise/index.htm

Policy 2: The Council will lobby the government to accelerate the development of
a national noise strategy with effective policies to reduce ambient noise.




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6.GLA strategy
6.1 The Greater London Authority Act 1999 requires the London Mayor to produce a
number of strategies for London, including a London Ambient Noise Strategy. This
must contain:

      information about ambient noise levels in Greater London;
      an assessment of the impact of the Mayor‟s other strategies on ambient noise
       levels;
      a summary of action taken or proposed to be taken by the mayor to promote
       action to reduce ambient noise levels, and the impact of such noise levels on
       those living and working in Greater London.

6.2 In this context, “ambient noise” includes industrial noise, noise from road, rail air
and water transport, and noise caused by vibration.

6.3 The Mayor‟s draft Noise Strategy was submitted to the London Assembly on 4
July. It may be accessed at -
http://www.london.gov.uk/approot/mayor/strategies/index.jsp

6.4 The Council will respond to this draft and to the full public consultation draft
expected in the first half of 2003, and will liaise closely with the GLA on the
development and implementation of this strategy.

6.5 In addition to our own borough role, Camden also currently hosts and services the
London Pollution Study Group which, under the aegis of the Chartered Institute of
Environmental Health, brings together Environmental Health Officers and technical
officers to discuss pollution issues. It is an effective forum for sharing information,
promoting good practice, addressing common problems and promoting joint work.

Policy 3: The Council welcomes the Mayor’s draft London Ambient Noise
Strategy. As with other pollutants there is a need to address noise issues at
different levels local, regional, national and international. A London wide
strategy can only be of benefit in tackling the high levels of ambient noise that
exist in many parts of Camden. The Council will contribute to the development
of the Mayor’s strategy, seek to work with the Mayor on implementation, and
contribute to cross-borough noise initiatives where appropriate.




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7.Other agencies
7.1 Although local authorities have responsibilities in many different areas of noise,
there are various other organisations and agencies that also have important roles to
play. Some of the agencies that are involved in this field are described below,
although this is not intended to be an exclusive list.

7.2 In relation to domestic noise, all landlords have responsibility to ensure that
tenants can have the quiet enjoyment of their properties, and this has implications for
ensuring that the structure of the property is satisfactory and that appropriate control
is exercised in relation to the behaviour of tenants. Mediation services can play an
important role in resolving domestic noise disputes and the Camden Mediation
Service provides an excellent and long established service in this field. The Police are
another agency who inevitably become involved in domestic noise issues, although
they have no direct powers to deal with these issues.

7.3 In the commercial field, there are a number of agencies that become involved in
noise issues. The Health and Safety Executive is responsible for noise at work in
premises where it is the enforcing authority. In certain large industrial plants, the
Environment Agency has powers to deal with noise control, although there are no
such designated plants in Camden. In addition, businesses have obligations to deal
with health and safety and there may be opportunities to work with such organisations
on noise at work issues.

                                                7.4 In relation to transport noise,
Euston Remodelling Scheme
                                                Transport for London is responsible for
                                                the Mayor of London‟s roads which
In 1998, Railtrack commenced a three year
                                                are red routes and will have to play a
project to replace all infrastructure on the
                                                part in reducing noise from road traffic.
approached to Euston station. This project
                                                Railtrack and the Train & Freight
had serious potential to cause adverse
                                                Operating Companies who provide
community effects, primarily because a
                                                train services are the key agencies in
significant amount of the work needed to
                                                relation to rail noise. The Civil
be undertaken at night to minimise
                                                Aviation Authority is the main body
disruption to railway services. The Council
                                                responsible for aircraft noise, although
worked with Railtrack and its contractors
                                                the Government (DfT) is responsible
to develop and implement a range of
                                                for many key decisions regarding
measures to minimise noise effects. The
                                                regulation of noise at Heathrow,
general feedback from residents was that
                                                Gatwick and Stansted. The Police have
the project had caused less impact than
                                                powers to deal with motor vehicles
expected and we are developing this
                                                making excessive noise on the street.
approach in other major projects such as
the Channel Tunnel Rail Link.

7.5 In relation to all noise issues, Central Government departments review noise
policy on a regular basis and lead on legislative changes.

7.6 In London, the Mayor is required to prepare an ambient noise strategy and may
put forward noise control programmes in the future. From time to time, there will be


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cross boundary issues, which will require the Council to work with our neighbouring
Boroughs, Barnet, Brent, Corporation of London, Haringey, Islington and
Westminster.

7.7 In relation to development in the Borough, there will be a need to work with
developers, particularly on major projects.

7.8 There will also be community and voluntary organisations with an interest or
remit in the noise field, which can provide valuable input in particular areas.

Policy 4: The Council is committed to working with other agencies wherever
possible to deliver the best possible services to the community. In relation to
noise issues the Council will seek to develop partnerships and work with other
organisations to address noise issues in the Borough.




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8.Planning
Planning powers are one of the main tools for controlling noise arising from development.
The Council recognise that noise from new developments or change of use can affect local
residents and businesses.

The Council is concerned to ensure, therefore, that development proposals do not give rise
to unacceptable noise conditions. This applies to the development of new noise sources
close to residential premises or other vulnerable receptors, but more often to the
development of residential properties near existing noise sources such as roads and
railways. The Council will therefore make a careful assessment of likely noise levels before
determining planning applications where noise is likely to be present. The main noise-
generating uses are considered to be railways, roads, B2-B8 industrial/commercial uses and
places of entertainment (sport/recreation), including restaurants and clubs.

However, there is also a need to have regard to noise conflicts within residential
developments because of issues such poor building orientation and internal arrangement.

The Council has incorporated noise policies, standards and guidance into the Unitary
Development Plan (UDP). The UDP is supported by the Supplementary Planning Guidance
(SPG) which gives guidance on noisy operations, plant, siting of plant and equipment as
well as standards for types of developments. The Council also has regard to the
Government‟s policies on planning and noise, in particular „Planning Policy Guidance 24:
Planning and Noise‟.

The main elements of the UDP that are relevant to this document are contained within
Appendix 2.

Policy 5: The Council will regularly review noise standards contained within the
UDP and SPG to ensure that local residential amenity is protected and that there
is no increase in ambient noise levels in the Borough.




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9.Domestic Noise
9.1 Domestic noise can be considered to be noise that originates in residential
premises. The main categories of domestic noise are, amplified music, barking dogs,
behavioural noise (such as banging and shouting), noise from domestic appliances
(such as washing machines and boilers), and noise from burglar alarms. The Council‟s
main involvement with domestic noise is in responding to complaints.

Legal powers

9.2 The Council has a range of powers to deal with noise and noisemakers. They
include issuing legal notices such as Abatement Notices, seizing noise making
equipment and prosecuting offenders using powers under the Environmental
Protection Act 1990.

9.3 The Noise Act 1996 gave enhanced powers to deal with noise nuisance, including
a new offence of „Night Noise‟, as well as imposing additional obligations on local
authorities. The powers were adoptable, but like the majority of authorities, Camden
saw little benefit in the new powers and has not chosen to adopt the Act to date. This
decision will be reviewed from time to time.

9.4 In addition to these powers, the Council as a Landlord can enforce tenancy
conditions, including applying for injunctions and seek to regain possession of
tenants‟ homes. Although not commonly used for noise alone, the Council can apply
for Anti-Social Behaviour Orders.

Dealing with complaints

9.5 Because of the different legal obligations on the Council, there are two Council
Departments responsible for dealing with Domestic noise complaints. If the
complaint arises from a Council owned premise, then the complaint is investigated by
the Housing Department at District Housing Office level. If the noise arises from any
other type of residential premises then it is the Environment Department‟s
Environmental Health Team that investigates the complaint. A referral system exists
between the two departments in order to coordinate activities.

9.6 As well as the normal daytime service, both the Housing and Environment
Departments operate services outside normal working hours to deal with complaints
about noise.

9.7 Although there are legal remedies for domestic noise problems, the Council
recognises that there are other means of resolving these matters, such as mediation,
and will consider all dispute resolution options in dealing with complaints.

Policy 6: The Council seeks to deal with domestic noise matters in a consistent
and reasonable way, in accordance with clearly laid down policies and
procedures, which will be reviewed periodically to ensure that the needs of the
community are being met as far as possible.



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                                       Noise com plaints received by the
                                    London Borough of Cam den (1996-2002)

  6000



  5000



  4000



  3000



  2000



  1000



     0
           1996/ 97                  1997/ 98                          1999/ 2000                     2000/ 01                      2001/ 2002


                Domest ic   Commercial   Const ruct ion/ Demolit ion     Vehicles   Equipment in t he St reet    Transport at ion   Tot al




Housing Associations and other Registered Social Landlords

9.8 Housing Associations and Registered Social Landlords are the main providers of
new social housing; they also take over and manage existing ex-local authority stock.
Within Camden 30 Housing Associations own and manage properties.
Approximately 8% of Camden‟s housing stock is provided by Housing Associations.
Complaints of noise from Housing Association tenants are dealt with by both the
Landlord as a tenancy matter and by the Environmental Health Team in the same way
as other Private Sector tenants.

9.9 Within Camden a number of large estates have been turned over to Housing
Associations and Registered Social Landlords to manage. As the premises remain
within the ownership of the Council, complaints from tenants at these properties are
dealt with in the same way as other Council Tenants, e.g. as a tenancy management
issue, with the option of an Environmental Health Team referral.

Sound Insulation

9.10 Experiences of investigating noise complaints in the borough suggest that many
noise complaints are being caused by poor sound insulation, often compounded by
poor stacking arrangements (kitchens on top of bedrooms). The problems exist in all
dwelling types from purpose built flats to Victorian conversions. A building with
poor sound insulation will fail to protect the occupier of the dwelling from both
external and internal noise.

9.11 One way of reducing noise at source is to provide sufficient insulation when
constructing buildings. The Building Regulations made under the Building Act 1984
provide a framework of control of building standards supplemented by Approved
documents, on different aspects of construction work. In relation to noise, the
relevant document is Approved Document E: Airborne and Impact Sound. Approved
Document E is currently being revised.




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9.12 The Building Regulations require that sound insulation is provided in certain
instances in the construction of separating dwellings from each other and in the
separations between habitable rooms (bedrooms, living rooms) and kitchens and other
parts of the building not being part of the same dwelling. These instances are:

   (a) New buildings
   (b) Conversion of existing buildings to flats
   (c) Refurbishment work in existing flats, where existing construction is replaced
       or is adversely affected in respect of structural or fire safety.

9.13 The Council is unable to take action in respect of contraventions of Building
Regulations if the work was completed in accordance with plans which have been
passed under the provisions of Section 16 of the Building Act 1984 or where the work
has been completed for twelve months.

9.14 Prior to 1998, the Council was able to serve an Abatement Notice under the
provisions of Environmental Protection Act 1990, requiring the improvement of the
sound insulation between two dwellings. However, a House of Lords ruling has
meant that this procedure has had to change, and the Council can no longer serve
Abatement Notices to remedy poor sound insulation

9.15 The condition of residential houses is currently assessed using the Housing
Fitness Standard. Since its introduction, some aspects of the standard and associated
enforcement regime have been criticised. As a result of research into these criticisms,
the Government carried out a review of the Fitness Standard and in July 2000, the
new Housing Health and Safety Rating System was proposed.

9.16 The principle behind the Housing Health and Safety Rating System is that a
dwelling should provide a safe and healthy environment for the occupants and any
visitors. The rating system is designed to rate the severity of hazards. Noise is one
of the proposed hazards. The system looks at the risks associated with inadequate
sound insulation allowing penetration of excessive levels of noise or vibration from
local environment, from other parts of the building outside the dwelling, or from one
part of the dwelling to another. The system has yet to be formally enacted in
legislation. Consultation has recently taken place on enforcement proposals and
further research is being undertaken by the government into applying the system to
Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs).

Policy 6: The lack of adequate sound insulation remains a significant problem in
many properties leading to noise problems and a lower quality of life for affected
occupants. The Council will push for the highest possible standards in the
Building Regulations and will develop a policy outlining its approach to dealing
with sound insulation as a landlord and enforcing authority.




                                          17
10.Commercial Noise
10.1 This section covers commercial noise sources, such as entertainment premises, noise
from plant and equipment, which predominantly serve business premises, construction
noise, and delivery noise. This section also includes noise on the street other than traffic
noise.

10.2 The London Borough of Camden is a densely populated area with a mixture of
different uses. This can result in conflict between business and residents needs; the
Council receives about 3000 complaints about noise from commercial premises each
year. The Council has adopted policies to address this conflict through the planning
and licensing process and by good enforcement practice.

Planning Policies

10.3 Camden Council‟s main planning policy document, the Unitary Development Plan,
encourages mixed use developments but recognises the potential conflicts such
developments can cause and requires measures to be taken to mitigate such problems. Use
will be made of relevant guidance documents such as British Standard 4142 (Method of
Rating Industrial Noise Affecting Residential and Industrial Areas), British Standard 8233,
and the World Health Organisation „Guidelines for Community Noise‟ (Appendix 4) in
considering such proposals.

Policy 8: The Council will seek to avoid and prevent noise nuisance from
commercial activities through use of planning policies and powers. The Council
will regularly review noise standards contained within the UDP to ensure that
local residential amenity is protected and that there is no increase in ambient
noise levels in the Borough.

Noise control from Council owned commercial premises

10.4 The Council is a major landlord in the Borough, managing a portfolio of hundreds of
commercial premises. As a landlord the council has a responsibility to look into the use
empty properties are put to and prevent or minimise any nuisance. This is mainly done
through the terms of the commercial lease which has requirements not to create a nuisance.
Complaints about noise nuisance from Council-owned commercial premises are usually
dealt with by the Council‟s Property Services team in the first instance.

10.5 The Council‟s objectives in this area are:

   a. to ensure residents have the quiet enjoyment of their homes
   b. to encourage commercial services on estates and shops as this benefits local
      residents
   c. to support local businesses and create employment

Policy 9: The Council wishes to support local businesses and recognises their
importance to the local community. The Council will therefore seek to let
commercial properties in a way that will prevent conflict between residents and
occupying businesses.


                                           18
Plant and machinery

10.6 Noise from machinery causes many complaints every year. These range from power
tools used in vehicle repair shops to air conditioning and extract ducts, which are now
common on offices and other commercial buildings, restaurants and takeaways.

10.7 Any new plant, which is visible, is likely to need planning permission. The Council
seeks to prevent new noise problems through planning controls, and has detailed policy to
do this. The standards contained in the Unitary Development Plan (see appendix 2) aim to
prevent nuisance and loss of amenity and to prevent “background creep” where overall
sound levels in an area gradually increase through the incremental effect of many relatively
minor noise sources. Additional guidance on appearance, location, noise and odour is
contained in Supplementary Planning Guidance.

10.8 To ensure that the premises is suitable for the location of this type of equipment and to
ensure proper design the Council will generally require full details of all mechanical plant
and equipment, noise generation, hours of operation and extent of usage at planning
application stage.

10.9 Where the noise from existing plant and equipment is determined to be a statutory
nuisance the Council is obliged to serve a legal Notice under the Environmental Protection
Act 1990 requiring the noise to be abated.

Policy 10: The Council will use planning controls to prevent nuisance or loss of
amenity from new plant and equipment and enforcement powers to prevent or
rectify nuisance from existing plant.


Entertainment Premises

10.10 There are over 1200 premises in Camden that have a licence to sell alcohol. In
addition, under the London Government Act 1963, premises require entertainments
licences if three or more musicians perform at one time, if dancing takes place, and if plays
or films are performed. Around 130 premises in Camden have an entertainment licence.
These range from small restaurants to theatres, cinemas and large night clubs. Such
premises can cause noise problems from the entertainment itself as well as noise from
people on the street. The Council‟s recent consultation on licensing policy found that noise
was, unsurprisingly, one of the main issues raised by residents.

10.11 To control the entertainment noise the Council requires new premises applying for an
entertainment license to produce an acoustic report showing that the premises is suitable for
entertainment by demonstrating it can meet certain standards. The Entertainments Licence
then imposes conditions designed to achieve minimal noise impact on local residents
before 23.00 and effectively inaudibility between 23.00 and 07.00. The conditions are
worded in a way that recognises the particular problems of noise transmission between
different types of premises, and the problems of bass frequency transmission. The standard
conditions are set out in Appendix 3. If the nature of the premises poses particular noise
problems, additional conditions can be imposed.




                                           19
                                         10.12 Where only unamplified music will be
 Night In, Night Out                     performed, to less than 100 customers, then a more
 Noise associated with the many
                                         flexible “unplugged” licence will be considered
 entertainment premises in the
                                         with appropriate conditions and a reduced fee.
 borough is a significant issue for
 the Council. A formal licensing
                                         10.13 Other conditions attached to licences seek to
 policy, under the title of ‘Night In,
                                         minimise noise from patrons outside the premises.
 Night Out’ is being developed
                                         These can require the premises to have staff on duty
 which aims to secure the safety
                                         at the door, to display signs asking for considerate
 and amenity of residential
                                         behaviour, and to direct people leaving the premises
 communities while facilitating a
                                         to nearby public transport services. There is
 sustainable entertainment and
                                         however a limit to the extent that licensees can be
 cultural industry.
                                         required to control behaviour outside their premises.

10.14 Council officers carry out routine visits to check compliance with licensing
conditions and if noise complaints are made, to measure sound levels. If the premises
breach the licence conditions they can be prosecuted under the London Government Act
1963 and if found guilty can be fined up to £20,000 per offence. Enforcement action for
noise nuisance under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 can also result in prosecutions
and fines up to £20,000.

10.15 Noise conditions are also occasionally attached to liquor licenses granted by the local
magistrates, although these are usually only attached to resolve a historical noise issue.

Policy 11: The Council will use its powers under licensing and environmental
health legislation to prevent noise nuisance and where it does occur, will take
action in accordance with our enforcement policies to deal with any such nuisance
that occurs.

Tables and chairs on the highway

10.16 Some premises seek permits from the Council to locate tables and chairs on the
public highway. Noise from the use of such facilities has led to complaints in the past.

Policy 12: New permits will only be issued for operation between 09.00 and 18.00
except in predominantly commercial areas where permits will be issued for 08.00 to
23.00 Monday-Thursday, 08.00 to 23.30 on Friday and Saturday, and 08.00 to 22.30 on
Sundays. Where existing permits are renewed there will be a presumption that they
will be reissued with existing hours and conditions, but the Council will take into
account evidence of impacts and whether appropriate measures have been put into
effect by the applicant. (For further details see: Camden’s Draft Licensing Policy
March 2002)


Outdoor concerts and events

10.17 Outdoor events, ranging from parties in marquees to concerts, film shows and
firework displays, are increasingly popular, mainly but not only during the summer months.
If they are public events or paid entry, they are likely to require an entertainments licence
and can be controlled in the same way as other entertainments premises. Licence conditions


                                           20
can be used to limit the increase in sound above a predetermined background level. Other
conditions include restricting times and the location of loudspeakers etc. (Advice on
conditions and other controls can be found in the Code of Practice on Noise Control at
Concerts). If they are private events e.g. corporate entertainment then they can be
controlled by enforcement powers under the Environmental Protection Act 1990.

10.18 Many large open spaces within Camden are owned by the local authority (though
Hampstead Heath is owned by the Corporation of London). The Council has a special
responsibility to ensure that undue noise nuisance does not occur from its own events or
events on its own land. When the land is hired out an agreement is usually made with
agreed operating conditions, which provides an opportunity to impose controls on noise.

Policy 13: The Council wishes to encourage community festivals and other
outdoor events but recognises that these events can cause noise disturbance for
local residents and will use its powers to minimise this.


     Raves

     Many people in Camden have been affected by loud music and street
     noise from raves, usually from buildings that have been squatted for that
     purpose. We have had a lot of success in stopping raves, even though we
     usually get no advance warning about them.
      taking legal action to force the owners of the buildings to evict the
          squatters and secure the building
      acting directly, getting entry warrants from magistrates, and then,
          with the support of the Police, entering the building and seizing the
          sound equipment (amplifiers, speakers, records and CDs)
      when for practical reasons we cannot carry this out we have
          sometimes been able to persuade the organisers to stop or at least
          reduce the noise volume
      entering and boarding up buildings to prevent repeat raves
     Entering and seizing gear from a building occupied by lots of people
     requires detailed planning and a lot of police back-up. Sometimes that
     isn't possible, especially at night when police tend to be busy with higher
     priorities. Then we have to return on a later day and try to prevent a
     recurrence.




                                          21
Other noise in the street

10.19 This section deals with:

      Noise from people, slamming car doors, horns etc, especially associated with
       leaving places of entertainment/pubs
      Car alarms
      Parking
      Deliveries and collections
      Noise from machinery or equipment in the street
      Council vehicles


Noise from people in the street

10.20 Common complaints relate to rowdiness of people on the street, the slamming of car
doors and use of car horns and associated anti-social behaviour. This has been a particular
problem in the borough due to the close proximity of residential premises to entertainments
premises. It should be noted that it an offence use a horn between 11.30pm and 7.00am.

10.21 The Council is attempting to deal with this problem through integrated policies
including the location of entertainment premises in respect to residential areas, hours of
operation, transport links to and from these venues, parking controls and the location of
other associated businesses such as night cafes and taxi firms/offices.

10.22 The Council does have legal powers under the Environmental Protection Act to
control noise from machinery, vehicles or equipment in the street. This includes car alarms,
stationary machinery, loudspeakers and amplified music and musical instruments. However
much of the noise caused by such things is transient, and it is difficult to take enforcement
action. The Council has no legal power to control rowdy behaviour. The Police have
powers in respect to disturbance of the peace and some local authorities have passed
bylaws to try and control this problem. However this still needs to be enforced jointly by
local authority officers and the Police.

Policy 14: The Council recognises that some areas of the borough have a large
number of restaurants, bars and other entertainments premises, and receives
planning applications for more. This can lead to an increase in the number of
late night venues with the potential of increased nuisance. The Council has
limited discretion to refuse applications. The Council will seek to control noise in
the street from the sources above using all reasonable means at its disposal.

Car Alarms

10.23 The Council receives a significant number of complaints about sounding car
alarms are received each year. These can cause a serious nuisance if sounding at
night or for prolonged periods during the day. The Council has legal powers to take
action where prolonged nuisance is occurring.

10.24 There is some doubt that the fitting of a car alarm reduces car crime and there
are also other security systems available for vehicle protection. The Council‟s view


                                           22
is that alternative vehicle protection measures should be considered before car
alarms. We are also concerned that there does not appear to be any standard for
these. We think there should be an industry Code of Practice, including
requirements such as a 30 second cut-out, volume limits, and fail-to-silence system,
which would be more effective in reducing noise than local authority intervention.

Policy 15: The Council’s policy is to discourage the fitting of car alarms in
favour of alternative vehicle protection measures but also to seek satisfactory
standards for the fitting of car alarms where they are used.

Parking

10.25 Controlled Parking Zones (CPZs) have a number of benefits such as reducing noise
from car doors slamming, horns hooting and loud sound systems in cars. Visiting car
drivers are obliged to park in car parks or travel to and from the venue by public transport.
Where CPZs are in force at night they can significantly reduce the amount of disturbance
from vehicles in residential area adjacent to entertainment areas.

Policy 16: The Council recognises the role of CPZs in reducing disturbance to
local residents from car use particularly where the CPZ controls extend into the
evening.

Deliveries and collections

10.26 The Council receives a significant amount of complaints each year about
noise from vehicle collections and deliveries, especially early in the morning and
late at night. The Council can impose restrictions on the hours of deliveries and
collections to new developments to minimise the level of disturbance caused to
local residents.

10.27 Where we receive complaints about existing developments we can seek by
agreement to restrict deliveries are made between the hours of 8:00am and 8:00pm,
and to minimise the number of separate vehicle movements. We can also require
that all necessary steps should be taken to ensure that best practicable means are
employed, to keep noise levels to a minimum. These would include:

      switching off vehicle engines when not in use,
      use of properly maintained and silenced vehicles and/or plant.
      Care in opening and closing doors, together with no amplified music
       playing.
      Where beer deliveries are made to public houses, we ask for the use of
       trolleys with rubber wheels and the use of "bumper" pads for offloading
       beer barrels from lorries.

10.28 Because of the effects of traffic congestion many companies would prefer to
make deliveries and collections late at night. This would save them time and it
would reduce emissions of air pollution from vehicles moving slowly in heavy
traffic. The proposed Congestion Charging Zone in central London could
potentially further encourage this trend; although it is also expected to reduce the
problem of traffic congestion for daytime deliveries – companies that pay the £5


                                           23
daily charge will benefit from quicker and more reliable journeys. There is now
development work on “Environmentally Enhanced Vehicles (EEVs)” which not
only have cleaner exhausts but also have quieter engines, less rattle, and quieter
doors and hoists, and on quiet delivery systems such as loading bays fully enclosed
by acoustic screens.

Policy 17: The Council recognises the problems faced with making deliveries and
collections in London. We will continue to protect residential environments from
noise caused by night time deliveries and collections but will take a flexible
approach to demands for deliveries and collections outside normal hours and in
particular will look favourably on proposals to use EEVs and integrated quiet
delivery systems in both new and existing developments.

Council vehicles

10.29 The Council recognises the noise benefits arising from alternatively fuelled
vehicles. The Council will start a new waste contract from April 2003. It will
require the contractor to use gas-powered engines for smaller vehicles and if
feasible for domestic refuse collection vehicles too. These vehicles will be
significantly quieter than the existing refuse fleet.

Policy 18: The Council will have regard to the noise benefits from using
alternatively fuelled vehicles and will seek to use quieter gas or electric vehicles
in its fleets wherever possible.


Other noise issues

Fireworks

10.30 In recent years, the use of fireworks at commercial and domestic events has
become more frequent. Such displays are often are a spectacular highlight of the
vents concerned, but nonetheless do have the potential to cause significant noise
disturbance to others away from the event. In recent years, the Council has imposed
controls on the use of fireworks at the Kenwood summer concerts for this reason.
At the present time, it is not felt necessary to develop a general policy regarding
noise from fireworks, but if there is further growth in the use of fireworks at events
and an increase in complaints, this may become necessary.

Noise Abatement Zones

10.31 The Control of Pollution Act 1974 gave powers to local authorities to declare
all or part of its area to be a Noise Abatement Zone (NAZ). The purpose of these
powers was to try to provide a means on controlling levels in a neighbourhood from
certain types of premises. Very few NAZs have been declared partly because of the
cumbersome procedures involved but also because other sources, such as road
traffic are not controlled. The procedure is unlikely to be used in Camden as it
stands.




                                           24
Noise Codes of Practice

10.33 The DEFRA has issued three formal Codes of Practice relating to the control of
noise, under the Control of Pollution Act 1974:
     Noise from ice cream chimes;
     Noise from burglar intruder alarms;
     Noise from model aircraft.

These have statutory recognition but it is not a statutory offence not to comply with
them. The Council would have regard to them in appropriate cases.




                                          25
11.Construction Noise
11.1 Construction activities inevitably create noise from the operation of plant,
machinery and power tools, the movement of vehicles and deliveries of materials.
Construction activities include:

   Construction of new buildings
   Renovation of existing buildings (including houses)
   Demolition
   Repairing road surfaces, and installing / repairing utilities
   Other engineering projects e.g. on railways

Legal Controls

11.2 The council seeks to minimise noise nuisance to local residents and others in the
area its powers under the Control of Pollution Act 1974. Under Section 60 of Control
of Pollution Act (COPA) 1974, local authorities have powers to control noise (and
vibration) from building sites. The control is by the service of a notice making
requirements on the person responsible for the construction operations. The notice
can specify types of plants and machinery, permitted hours of operation, boundary
noise levels, and the use of “Best Practicable Means” to keep all noise to a minimum
– e.g. that plant and machinery used on the site shall be properly silenced, and radios
or other amplified music shall not be played. Detailed guidance on this is given in BS
5228: 1984: “Noise Control on Construction and Open Sites” - Parts 1(1997),
2(1997) and 4(1992); and relevant European Union Directives. The Council publishes
a contractor‟s code, giving detailed advice on minimising noise.

11.3 The most important control is over the hours of noisy operations. Unless there
are exceptional circumstances, the Council‟s policy is that all works that might be
audible outside the site must only be carried out between the following hours:

MONDAYS - FRIDAYS                                              0800hrs - 1800hrs
SATURDAYS                                                      0800hrs - 1300hrs
SUNDAYS, PUBLIC AND BANK HOLIDAYS                              None

11.4 Section 61 of the Act allows a contractor to apply for a prior consent for
operations before commencement of works. This is useful on some major sites, for
example on the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, where it enables detailed negotiation of
the work methods to take place before works commence.

11.5 Certain types of construction and other plant are covered by „The Noise
Emission in the Environment by Equipment for Use Outdoors Regulations 2001‟.
These regulations came into force on the 3rd July 2001 and set maximum sound
powers levels for certain prescribed categories of outdoor equipment, including
construction plant, but also equipment such as lawn mowers.




                                            26
Planning Controls

11.5 Many types of construction works and some cases of demolition require
planning permission. The planning process provides opportunity for early liaison
between the authority and the contractor. In exceptional circumstances, planning
conditions can be imposed restricting the impact of demolition or construction, but
more commonly a planning agreement under Section 106 of the Town & Country
Planning Act 1990 may be used to control noise and establish a liaison forum
between the architect, contractor and local residents on sites where works are likely
to extend over years and strongly affect local residents. The Council‟s experience is
that this approach can have mutual benefit for all parties.


 Controlling noise from building sites – involving the community

 Camden Council sets down strict time limits for noisy building works, and
 we try to enforce this rigorously (although there have to be some
 exceptions).

 But builders on major projects can do a lot more to reduce disturbance to
 local people, for example.
      Notifying residents about particularly noisy work,
      Scheduling drilling, piling and other very noisy work to give local
         residents and businesses some breaks
      Avoiding delivery and skip vehicles arriving before 8am

 So on some big projects that have the potential to cause major disturbance
 the Council seeks a legal agreement (called a Section 106 agreement)
  with the developers to set up a forum with local residents and council
 officers to discuss a range of impacts and improve relations. These forums
 have generally been very successful in improving information and
 reducing annoyance to local people.



Policy 19: The council will use planning and other enforcement powers to
minimise construction impacts on local residents from large and long term
building sites.

Streetworks

11.6 The Council seeks to control noise from streetworks, and can use the same
enforcement powers under the Control of Pollution Act 1974. The Council is also
the highways authority for most roads in the borough, and can set working periods
under the Street Works Act 1991. These are designed to keep works as short as
possible and to minimise disruption to traffic. Where possible works are required to
take place between 08.00 and 18.00 on weekdays, and 08.00 to 13.00 on Saturdays,
but where works are likely to cause major traffic disruption they may be required to
take place outside these times. When this is likely to cause major disturbance



                                          27
contractors are required to inform local residents by leaflet. Charges can be applied
to companies if works are longer than they intended.

11.7 Camden is also beginning the pilot of a national scheme from Jan 2002 until
March 2004. This will involve charging a “lane rental” to companies on a daily
basis for digging up roads. This scheme aims to encourage utilities to liaise with
each other to minimise the number of times roads are dug up. Although this is
primarily to prevent traffic congestion it should also reduce noise nuisance. Further
information on this scheme is available at http://www.street-works.dft.gov.uk/

Policy 20: Council will seek to minimise noise nuisance from streetworks and to
inform residents where inevitable disturbance is likely.

Contractual

11.8 As the main highways authority the Council also carries out its own street
maintenance programme. The new maintenance contracts awarded in January 2002
include a number of environmental criteria including noise nuisance, with financial
penalties for failing to comply. The criteria include:

 working times
 all plant and equipment including compressors and generators to meet current
EU standards for noise from plant;
 all cutting and drilling to be done in a way to minimise noise impacts

Railway maintenance works

11.9 As described in Chapter 13 below, Camden does have excellent railway
services. However, from a maintenance perspective, this does create a potential
conflict with the Council‟s policy on construction working hours because, for
operational and safety reasons, railway maintenance can largely only be done when
train services are not running. We recognise that railway maintenance does usually
need to done at night and sometimes at weekends. Generally, a particular location is
only affected for a short period of time, one or two nights or a single weekend. We
do expect the network operators and contractors to notify affected residents and
others in the local community beforehand where disturbance is likely to be caused
and generally to organise and implement works in such a way as to minimise noise
nuisance using the „best practicable means‟ principles described above. We will use
our enforcement powers to achieve these objectives if necessary.




                                          28
12.Occupational Noise
12.1 The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 is the primary piece of legislation
dealing with health and safety at work, including occupational noise. It provides a
comprehensive and integrated legislative framework to deal with health, safety and
welfare issues in the workplace and in public areas that may be affected by business
activities.

12.2 In 1986, the European Union adopted a Directive with the aim of providing
protection to workers from noise at work. This was implemented though the Noise at
Work Regulations 1989, which apply to all work situations. The Regulations require
employers to assess noise levels in the workplace. Three action levels are specified:
     First Action Level – a daily personal noise exposure (LEP,d) of 85 dB(A). At
        this level, ear defenders must be made available to employees who ask to use
        them;
     Second Action Level - a daily personal noise exposure (LEP,d) of 90 dB(A).
        At this level, employers must ensure that ear defenders are used and
        employees are obliged to wear ear protection provided;
     Peak Action Level – a peak sound pressure of 200 pascals (140 dB). As with
        the second action level, employers must ensure that ear defenders are used and
        employees are obliged to wear ear protection provided.

12.3 LEP,d is the total exposure to noise throughout the working day, and is primarily
dependant on the average noise level in the workplace and the time spent at work, not
taking account any protection from wearing ear defenders.

12.4 The onus for assessing occupational noise exposure does rest with employers and
they have a duty to carry out a noise assessment where it is likely that noise exposure
may exceed the Second or Peak Action Levels.

12.5 More than 200,000 people work in the London Borough of Camden and there are
in the region of 15,000 businesses. Responsibility for enforcement of the provisions of
the Act is split between Health and Safety Executive and local authorities. Camden
Council is responsible for dealing with the majority of businesses, primarily in the
commercial, retail and entertainment sectors.

12.6 Because of the nature of the work situations for which the Council is responsible,
occupational noise is, by and large, not the most significant health and safety issue.
However, there are certain situations where noise at work does warrant some
consideration. In certain entertainment premises, workers can experience high levels
of noise for a number of hours at a time. There are also workplaces with plant rooms
with high levels of noise, although duration of exposure in these situations in usually
very short.

Policy 21: The Council is committed to actively encouraging businesses to
consider noise at work in the context of general health and safety at work
responsibilities and to ensure that any necessary actions arising out of noise
assessments are implemented. The Council will provide guidance and advice to
assist employers in fulfilling these responsibilities.


                                          29
13.Environmental Noise
13.1 Environmental or ambient noise is the general sound that can be heard in any
locality. It can come from a variety of sources but the main contributing sources in
most areas are transport and industrial sources. In Camden, transport, in particular
road traffic, is the main source of ambient noise.

Road Traffic

13.2 Noise from road traffic in Camden is an unavoidable consequence of the
Borough‟s location in the heart of London. By and large, this fact seems to be
generally accepted, as the Council receives few complaints about road traffic.
However, surveys on environmental quality show that most people react negatively
when questioned about traffic noise. In a National Noise Attitude Survey in 1991,
approximately 30% of households were reported as having their home life spoiled by
ambient noise.

13.3 Road traffic is probably the main contributor to ambient noise in this country and
as Camden has high traffic volumes, road traffic noise is inevitably an issue for the
Council. Table 12.1 shows the number of traffic movements on the 20 busiest sections
of road in the Borough.

       Table 12.1 Traffic flows on the 20 busiest roads in Camden (1999)
                       Site              12 hour flow Annual
                                           (7.00am-     Average
                                           7.00pm)     Daily Flow

                     Euston Rd                     38365          55246
           Finchley Road (N. of Swiss C)           36948          53205
                      Kingsway                     28291          40739
                    Camden Rd                      25310          36446
            Finchley Rd (S. of SwissC)             22215          31990
                   Theobalds Rd                    22055          31759
                  Hampstead Rd                     19691          28355
                  Prince Albert Rd                 19533          28128
                     York Way                      18699          26927
              Russell Sq (West side)               18314          26372
                   High Holborn                    18217          26232
               Russell Sq (East side)              17844          25695
                      Gower St                     15859          22837
                  Kings Cross Rd                   15605          22471
                  Shaftsbury Ave                   15571          22422
                 Kentish Town Rd                   15497          22316
                  Haverstock Hill                  15277          21999
           Pancras Rd (N. of Goods Way)            14614          21044
                  West End Lane                    14564          20972
                  Spaniards Lane                   14454          20814




                                          30
Sources of traffic noise

13.4 The number of vehicles travelling along a road and vehicle speeds are the most
important factors contributing to ambient noise; and road usage has risen continuously
over the years. Noise generated by road traffic can be divided into two main types.
Firstly, there is noise from the vehicle itself – the engine and body parts – and,
secondly, there is noise generated by the interaction of the tyres and the road surface
as the vehicle passes over it. Vehicle engine noise tends to be a more significant issue
at lower speeds and tyre/surface noise tends to be more relevant at higher speeds,
although as improvements have been made in vehicle noise, the point at which
tyre/vehicle noise becomes relevant has reduced.

13.5 The first measures introduced in response to road traffic noise were in the Land
Compensation Act 1973, which introduced a power to provide noise insulation where
properties were affected by certain new or altered roads. It also provided the power to
carry out certain noise mitigation measures, such as noise barriers. Apart from these
measures, local measures have been taken to reduce traffic noise. In some cases,
traffic noise has been the main object of the controls, and in other cases controls have
been implemented for other reasons, but have also led to an improved noise
environment. The GLC night-time lorry ban in the 1980s was primarily introduced
because of the disturbance caused by lorries during the night-time period. Traffic
calming measures have often been introduced for public safety and environmental
quality reasons, but have also led to noise reductions.

13.6 Significant progress has been made in the last 20-30 years with reducing vehicle
noise, in particular engine noise, primarily as a result of a series of EU Directives
limiting noise emission, the latest being in 1996. Motorcycles have also been subject


                                           31
to noise controls, with the latest measures applying from 1999. Progressively, older
vehicles will be replaced by newer vehicles meeting the higher standards, with
resultant reductions in noise emissions. It is unlikely that while the internal
combustion engine remains the principal means of power generation, that there will
be further significant reductions in vehicle noise. However cleaner vehicle
technologies such as gas and electric powered engines are also significantly quieter,
and the Council‟s policy of encouraging wider take-up of such vehicles will have a
small noise benefit.

13.7 Tyre/road surface noise is caused by air being compressed and released as the
wheel rolls across the road surface. Traffic speed is the main factor. In Camden, as
there are no legal speed limits above 40 mph, and traffic speeds are generally lower,
this only an issue on a few roads. At night, however, when traffic levels reduce, and
when noise is more disturbing, some drivers drive much faster and so tyre noise
becomes more significant.

There has been research done in recent years into ways of reducing surface noise.
Different road surface types have been investigated and „quieter‟ road surfaces are
being used more extensively on motorways and other roads, including, increasingly
lower speed roads. A recent EC Tyre Directive represents a small step on the way
towards quieter tyres, but further action will be needed.

Controls

13.8 The Council has few options in seeking ways of controlling noise. There have
been significant technological improvements over the last quarter of the 20th Century
in reducing vehicle noise, which the Council welcomes and will continue to support.
In tandem with the technological improvements, there have been legislative controls
that have progressively tightened permitted noise limits for all road vehicles. The
relevant regulations, which generally implement the requirements of EC Directives,
are detailed in Appendix 4.

13.9 Transport for London‟s policy is to use noise-reducing surfaces wherever
practicable and cost effective. More information is needed on the range of
circumstances in which different types of newer surfaces can be effective and the
Council is willing to work with Transport for London and to trial such measures in
Camden. These will need to be evaluated in terms of their cost effectiveness. The
Council does have powers under The Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 to make a
traffic regulation order for preserving or improving the amenity of an area, for
example to eliminate „rat-running‟.

13.10 The Council is obliged, under the Road Traffic Reduction Act 1997 to prepare
plans to reduce vehicular movement. To some extent, this ties in with the Mayor‟s
proposals on congestion charging. This scheme is intended to reduce road traffic in
the central area, (in Camden, that means south of Euston Road). This may have
benefits in the southern part of Camden in ambient noise terms, but may lead to some
increased traffic and noise on the perimeter of the area.

13.11 The Council‟s Green Transport Strategy aims to reduce or at least slow the
growth of traffic. The Council considers that more could be achieved in relation to


                                          32
traffic reduction if a better approach was taken at a national level towards integrated
transport. There may be opportunities to increase the use of rail and the waterways,
particularly for freight, in order to reduce road traffic. If such a policy could be
implemented, there could be benefits for ambient noise levels.

Policy 22: The Council is concerned about levels of road traffic noise in the
Borough, particularly night time noise levels. The Council believes that night
time noise levels at residential receptors should not be more than 55dB, LAeq(1hr),
but would prioritise any action on dealing with residential receptors
experiencing levels of more than 65dB, LAeq(1hr).

Policy 23: The Council encourages the use of cleaner vehicle technologies such as
gas and electric power that also have noise benefits and supports technological
research into traffic noise reduction measures.

Policy 24: The Council supports technological research into traffic noise
reduction measures.

Policy 25: The Council supports the Mayor’s proposals for congestion charging
which are likely to include the southern part of the Borough and will seek to
monitor adverse impacts on the edge of the area.

Policy 26: The Council recognises the need to gather more extensive information
on road noise levels and population exposure across the Borough and will
investigate noise mapping techniques for this purpose.


Railway Noise

13.12 From a public transport perspective, Camden is extremely fortunate in having a
significant number of railway routes crossing the Borough, providing an excellent
range of public services. These are as follows:


              National Rail                            London Underground

      West Coast Main Line                         Piccadilly Line
      Midland Main Line                            Victoria Line
      Thameslink Line                              Northern Line
      East Coast Main Line                         Circle/Metropolitan Line
      North London Line                            Jubilee/Metropolitan Line
      Gospel Oak to Barking Line
      Chiltern Line



13.13 In addition to the passenger services on these lines, there are a number of
regular freight routes, particularly on the North London and Gospel Oak/Barking
Lines.


                                           33
13.14 As with road traffic, there are two main sources of railway noise, rail vehicle
and vehicle/track interface, although there are particular sub-features of each.

13.15 Rail vehicles can basically be diesel or electric, and be locomotive hauled or
have an integral power unit. Diesel engines are a significant source of railway noise,
although newer trains are considerably better than the older ones.

13.16 Track condition is an important feature of railway noise. Ballast condition and
proper drainage of the track is important. Jointed track, as opposed to continuously
welded track, causes most noise. Rail can develop corrugations and wheels can
develop „flats‟, both of which contribute to increased noise. Tracks with tight radius
bends are prone to „wheel squeal‟. It is difficult for local authorities to obtain
information on track quality and maintenance regimes, particularly since railway
privatisation.




13.17 There are no specific powers to deal with railway noise and the only legislation
available to local authorities is Part III of the Environmental Protection Act, which
deals with statutory nuisances. Even this legislation is constrained by section 122 of
the Railways Act 1993, which prohibits nuisance actions in relations to operational
noise against railway operators.

13.18 Given the number of routes and density of the population in the Borough, the
numbers of complaints about operational railway noise are relatively few. There is
anecdotal evidence that railway noise has been more tolerated than other forms of
transport noise with the result that fewer complaints are made. Of the complaints that
have been made, there are more complaints about ground borne noise and vibration,
particularly about disturbance experienced at night. This may in part be tied in with
moves to promote railways as an alternative to road traffic in order to reduce road


                                          34
congestion, and in particular to increase the amount of freight on the railways.
However, the Council has little data on ambient noise levels along the railway
corridors in the Borough and the impacts on the communities affected. Proposals for
noise mapping could be useful in filling this information gap, and in providing data to
develop action plans in conjunction with railway operators.

13.19 The Mayor‟s draft Noise Strategy raises the possibility of providing noise
barriers along appropriate sections of railway and London Underground lines, perhaps
containing photovoltaic (PV) cells to generate electricity renewably. Camden has
sections of track that might be suitable for this.

Policy 27: The Council recognises a need to gather information on ambient noise
levels in the vicinity of the borough’s railways and will look to develop noise
mapping techniques for this purpose.

Policy 28: The Council will look to work with railway operators to develop
mitigation strategies targeted at areas where noise impacts are found to be most
significant.

Policy 29: The Council will explore with the GLA the possibility of a pilot project
to install noise barriers with PV cells on appropriate stretches of railway and
LUL track.

13.20 Plots of land in the vicinity of railways are often put forward for development,
principally because there is so little land left for development in the Borough. Such
proposals need to be scrutinised carefully to ensure that substandard developments
with unsatisfactory internal noise levels are not allowed (see also the Planning
chapter).


Aircraft Noise

13.20 Aircraft noise is probably less significant than road or railway noise in its
effects on Camden. Nonetheless, there are regularly used flight paths across parts of
the Borough, which can lead to considerable noise intrusion. In the last 20 years, there
has been a massive rise in air traffic and further significant increases are forecast for
the foreseeable future. Therefore, there is a need to maintain a close interest in policy
developments in the aircraft and airport field.

13.21 Noise standards are drawn up by the International Civil Aviation Organisation
(ICAO) – a United Nations body - and the European Civil Aviation Conference
(ECAC). UK standards are revised in accordance with the standards laid down by
these organisations.

13.22 Noise certification standards for aircraft are agreed by ICAO. The noisiest
aircraft are called Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 aircraft and these are now banned from the
EU, the latter from the 1st April 2002. Chapter 3 is now the basic standard that has to
be met. A new standard, Chapter 4, has been described, but this is not considered to
be likely to be a significant step forward as many aircraft currently designated as



                                           35
Chapter 3 will be able to meet the standard and therefore will be able to be
reclassified.

13.23 Local authorities have no control over aircraft noise. The Civil Aviation Act
1982 provides that no action for trespass or nuisance can be taken as long as an
aircraft observes the rules of the Air and Air Traffic Control Regulations. In addition,
Part III of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 specifically excludes noise from
aircraft (other than model aircraft) from the definition of statutory nuisance.

13.24 Camden in not obviously affected by the take off and landing of aircraft and the
only issue is overflying aircraft. The main area affected is the north of the Borough,
which appears to be on a flight path for aircraft that have taken off from Heathrow
when the airport is operating in an easterly direction. The around Hampstead Heath
area appears to be more affected than areas of the Borough to the south because the
ambient noise levels are lower and do not mask the overflying aircraft.

13.25 Government data for Heathrow and Gatwick seems to show that noise impacts
from aircraft landing and taking off at the airports are reducing. However, this does
not seem to be supported by the views of the local population. There appears to be
some doubt about how far the noise index reflects people‟s attitudes at the current
level of aircraft movements.

13.26 There has been an almost inexorable growth in aircraft flights and with the
approval of the new Terminal 5 at Heathrow, there will be increased concerns about
noise impacts in the future, in West London in particular, but also further afield, as
boroughs such as Southwark and Greenwich are already reporting increasing
disturbance. In particular, there is concern about night-time movements.

13.27 There may be benefits to be gained if a better approach was taken at a national
level towards integrated transport. There may be opportunities to increase the use of
rail in place of short haul flights, which would free up space for long haul flights.

13.28 Although Camden does not experience serious aircraft noise problems at the
present time, there is a need to maintain an awareness of proposals for new airports
and runways in the south east of England, flight paths and proposed changes in flight
times and numbers at the London airports, because of impacts that may occur in the
future.


Policy 30: The Council supports Government and EU initiatives to tighten noise
emission standards for all aircraft flying through UK airspace.

Policy 31: The Council opposes night flights to or from airports that may affect
the Borough.

Policy 32: The Council believes that there should be more information available
on aircraft movements across London including flight paths and numbers of
aircraft.

Policy 33: The Council supports a review of the method of presenting


                                           36
information about arrivals and departures at airports.


Policy 34: The Council believes that there may be benefits to be had by
improving rail services in order to take over some short haul routes thus freeing
up space on longer haul routes. Above all, there is a need for an integrated
approach to transport planning, in order that developments are planned to take
place having proper regard to sustainability and environmental issues.

Noise on the Regent’s Canal

13.29 The Regent‟s Canal is the only significant watercourse running though the
Borough. The canal is a unique asset to the borough and is of historical and ecological
importance, as well as providing leisure and visual benefits. Under the Council‟s
Unitary Development Plan, the canal is designated as a conservation area and is
described as The Regent‟s Canal Area of Special Character. There are a variety of
policies to protect and promote the benefit of the canal.

13.30 In noise terms, the canal provides significant stretches of tranquillity along its
route. Water transport along the canal is currently very limited and although there are
aspirations to exploit the potential offered by water transport, there is unlikely to be a
significant change in current usage in the foreseeable future.

13.31 In line with the Council‟s planning objectives, the Council will seek to protect
the amenity of the Canal in noise terms.

Policy 35 : The Council will seek to protect the tranquillity of the Canal as far as
reasonably practicable and will support measures that encourage the use of the
Canal in line with this objective.


Ambient Noise Data

13.32 There is little data available on ambient noise levels across the whole of the
Borough. In the 1960s the former London County Council and Building Research
Station undertook a major survey of ambient noise across central London. The
Council also has data from adhoc surveys associated with proposed planning
developments. The Council commenced a limited of ambient noise survey in 1998,
focussing on sites at Swiss Cottage, Kentish Town and St. Pancras. Results of this
monitoring are shown in Table 12.2. The Swiss Cottage and St. Pancras sites are
alongside main roads and the noise levels are very high. The Kentish Town site is a
residential location.

13.33 There is a need to gather more data on ambient noise levels across the Borough
and although it is intended to expand the ambient noise monitoring programme, it is
unlikely that it will be possible to gather sufficiently adequate data by this means to
properly assess population exposure. However, noise mapping does provide a means
of gathering widespread data on the ambient noise environment and as has been stated
in Section 4, the Council will investigate noise mapping options for the Borough
having regard to the EU requirements and local needs.


                                            37
              Table 12.2 Ambient noise levels in Camden
                       Time       1998      1999              2000
                                  L90        L90     L90          LAeq
Swiss Cottage          Day        68         66      66           73
(Finchley Rd)          Evening    67         65      65           71
                       Night      61         59      58           70
Kentish Town           Day        46         44      44           55
(Caversham Rd)         Evening    42         41      41           55
                       Night      40         39      37           48
St. Pancras            Day        66         63      68           76
(Euston Rd)            Evening    63         60      67           75
                       Night      59         57      60           73

Note: Day (07.00-19.00), Evening (19.00-22.00), Night (22.00-07.00)




                                        38
14.Noise Education
14.1 Prevention is better than cure; the Council views noise education as one of the
key tools in combating noise pollution and its effects. The Council aims to increase
its noise education role, and therefore rely less upon enforcement as a means of
achieving policy objectives.

14.2 The Council has been involved in a number of noise education initiatives, as
outlined below and will aim to continue and develop such initiatives.

Citizenship

14.3 The national curriculum now requires that Citizenship be taught in Schools. As
part of this initiative the Council and the Police visit schools in the borough and speak
with Year 8 pupils about the effects and consequences of anti-social behaviour. Part
of the program concentrates on noise issues.

Noise Action Days

14.4 Every year at the beginning of the Summer, the Department for Food,
Environment and Rural Affairs, via the National Society for Clean Air, funds and
organises a day of Noise Action. Local Authorities and other interest group take part
and arrange local events. The Council has taken part in these days in the past and
have organised large displays in local areas as well as using the day to launch noise
related initiatives such as considerate contractor schemes and burglar alarm
registration campaigns.

Vulnerable Persons

14.5 Anecdotal evidence suggests that a number of the persistent noisemakers have a
vulnerability issue that may inadvertently be contributing to the overall domestic
noise problem. A recent study of one area of Council owned housing revealed that
75% of the ongoing noise cases involved a vulnerable person.

Pilot project
14.6 The Mayor‟s draft Noise Strategy proposes to set up pilot projects to explore
ways to reduce noise in London. Such a project could usefully involve expanding
noise awareness and education.


Policy 36: The Council recognises the role of education in dealing with noise in
order to raise awareness of noise as a pollutant and particularly in cases of noise
nuisance. The Council will develop and implement initiatives to support this
Noise Strategy and complement its enforcement role.

Policy 37: The Council will explore with the GLA the possibility of developing a
pilot project on noise awareness and education.




                                           39
APPENDIX 1
Policies and Action Plan

           Description                                                                                                  Target &
                                                                                                                        Lead Agency
Policy 1   The Council sees benefits in the proposals for noise mapping which should for the first time provide
           comprehensive data on noise immission levels across the Borough. The Council sees noise mapping
           technology as having a valuable role in the planning process. The Council will investigate noise
           mapping options for the Borough having regard to the EU requirements and local needs.


Action     To investigate noise mapping options to meet the Council‟s obligations and requirements.                     Dec 2003
                Review EU requirements & DEFRA proposals.                                                              Environmental
                Investigate mapping options, inc. software.                                                            Health
                Liaise with neighbouring boroughs & GLA.

Policy 2   The Council will lobby the government to accelerate the development of a national noise strategy with        Ongoing
           effective policies to reduce ambient noise.                                                                  Environmental
                                                                                                                        Health
Policy 3   The Council welcomes the Mayor‟s draft London Ambient Noise Strategy. As with other pollutants               Ongoing
           there is a need to address noise issues at different levels local, regional, national and international. A
           London wide strategy can only be of benefit in tackling the high levels of ambient noise that exist in       Environmental
           many parts of Camden. The Council will contribute to the development of the Mayor‟s strategy, seek to        Health
           work with the Mayor on implementation, and contribute to cross-borough noise initiatives where
           appropriate.

Policy 4   The Council is committed to working with other agencies wherever possible to deliver the best possible       Ongoing
           services to the community. In relation to noise issues the Council will seek to develop partnerships and
           work with other organisations to address noise issues in the Borough.                                        Environmental
                                                                                                                        Health
.          Description                                                                                                Target
Policy 5   The Council will regularly review noise standards contained within the UDP to ensure that local            Ongoing
           residential amenity is protected and that there is no increase in ambient noise levels in the Borough.
                                                                                                                      Planning,
                                                                                                                      Environmental
                                                                                                                      Health
Policy 6   Policy: The Council seeks to deal with domestic noise matters in a consistent and reasonable way, in
           accordance with clearly laid down policies and procedures, which will be reviewed periodically to
           ensure that the needs of the community are being met as far as possible.

Action     To review the Council‟s domestic noise complaints service                                                  Environmental
               Review departmental responsibilities.                                                                 Health/Housing
               Review operating hours.
               Review enforcement responsibilities

Policy 7   The lack of adequate sound insulation remains a significant problem in many properties leading to
           noise problems and a lower quality of life for affected occupants. The Council will push for the highest
           possible standards in the Building Regulations and will develop a policy outlining its approach to
           dealing with sound insulation as a landlord and enforcing authority.

Action     Develop a corporate Sound Insulation Policy                                                                Dec 2003
                                                                                                                      Environmental
                                                                                                                      Health/Building
                                                                                                                      Control/Housing

Policy 8   The Council will seek to avoid and prevent noise nuisance from commercial activities through use of
           planning policies and powers. The Council will regularly review noise standards contained within the
           UDP to ensure that local residential amenity is protected and that there is no increase in ambient noise
           levels in the Borough.

Action     The Council will require noise impact assessments where proposed developments are likely to have a         Ongoing
           significant noise affect, and will use planning conditions to prevent significant loss of amenity or       Environmental
           nuisance from new developments.                                                                            Health/
                                                                                                                      Planning


                                                                  41
            Description                                                                                               Target
Policy 9    The Council wishes to support local businesses and recognises their importance to the local               Property
            community. The Council will therefore seek to let commercial properties in a way that will prevent        Services
            conflict between residents and occupying businesses.

Policy 10   The Council will use planning controls to prevent nuisance or loss of amenity from new plant and          Planning &
            equipment and enforcement powers to prevent or rectify nuisance from existing plant.                      Environmental
                                                                                                                      Health
Policy 11   The Council will use its powers under licensing and environmental health legislation to prevent noise     Consumer
            nuisance and where it does occur, will take action in accordance with our enforcement policies to deal    Protection &
            with any such nuisance that occurs.                                                                       Environmental
                                                                                                                      Health
Policy 12   New permits for tables & chairs on the highway will only be issued for operation between 09.00 and        Streets
            18.00 except in predominantly commercial areas where permits will be issued for 08.00 to 23.00
            Monday-Thursday, 08.00 to 23.30 on Friday and Saturday, and 08.00 to 22.30 on Sundays. Where
            existing permits are renewed there will be a presumption that they will be reissued with existing hours
            and conditions, but the Council will take into account evidence of impacts and whether appropriate
            measures have been put into effect by the applicant. (For further details see: Camden‟s Draft Licensing
            Policy March 2002)

Policy 13   The Council wishes to encourage community festivals and other outdoor events but recognises that
            theses events can cause noise disturbance for local residents and will use its powers to minimise this.

Action      Develop an outdoor event policy and procedures to control noise events in Council owned open spaces.      Dec 2003
                                                                                                                      Leisure/
                                                                                                                      Environmental
                                                                                                                      Health




                                                                  42
.           Description                                                                                                   Target
Policy 14   The Council recognises that some areas of the borough have a large number of restaurants, bars and
            other entertainments premises, and receives planning applications for more. This can lead to an
            increase in the number of late night venues with the potential of increased nuisance. The Council has
            limited discretion to refuse applications. The Council will seek to control noise in the street from the
            sources above using all reasonable means at its disposal.

Action            Review forms of control for dealing with noise in the street                                           Ongoing
                  Continue to use existing legal powers to control noise in the street.                                  Environmental
                  Review relevant planning and licensing policies from time to time.                                     Health/Planning/
                  Review the success of new forms of control with other local authorities where these have been          Licensing
                   adopted.

Policy 15   The Council‟s policy is to discourage the fitting of car alarms in favour of alternative vehicle protection   December 2003
            measures but also to seek satisfactory standards for the fitting of car alarms where they are used.
                                                                                                                          Environmental
Action            Consider ways of lobbying for a Code of Practice on fitting and maintaining car alarms with a          Health
                   view to avoiding noise nuisance.

Policy 16   The Council recognises the role of CPZs in reducing disturbance to local residents from car use
            particularly where the CPZ controls extend into the evening.
            Controlled Parking Zones

Action            To continue to work to extend CPZs and operate them in a way that brings greatest benefits to          Ongoing
                   residents.                                                                                             Parking
                                                                                                                          Solutions

Policy 17   The Council recognises the problems faced with making deliveries and collections in London. We will           Planning &
            continue to protect residential environments from noise caused by night time deliveries and collections       Environmental
            but will take a flexible approach to demands for deliveries and collections outside normal hours and in       Health
            particular will look favourably on proposals to use EEVs and integrated quiet delivery systems in both
            new and existing developments.




                                                                   43
            Description                                                                                              Target
Policy 18   The Council will have regard to the noise benefits from using alternatively fuelled vehicles and will
            seek to use quieter gas or electric vehicles in its fleets wherever possible.

Action            Review corporate purchasing policy for Council vehicles and carry out before and after            Corporate &
                   monitoring on sound levels produced by existing and new refuse fleets.                            Environment Dept

Policy 19   The council will use planning and other enforcement powers to minimise construction impacts on           Planning/Environmental
            local residents from large and long term building sites.                                                 Health

Policy 20   Council will seek to minimise noise nuisance from streetworks and to inform residents where
            inevitable disturbance is likely.

Action      Use of lane rental schemes to minimise noise impacts of street works.                                    Ongoing
                 The Council will use the lane rental scheme to minimise number and extent of streetworks
                 The Council will liase with Transport for London to achieve similar policies on the re routes      Streets
                    roads operated by TfL.
                
Policy 21   The Council is committed to actively encouraging businesses to consider noise at work in the             Consumer Protection
            context of general health and safety at work responsibilities and to ensure that any necessary actions
            arising out of noise assessments are implemented. The Council will provide guidance and advice to
            assist employers in fulfilling these responsibilities.

Policy 22   The Council is concerned about levels of road traffic noise in the Borough, particularly night time      Planning/Environmental
            noise levels. The Council believes that night time noise levels at residential receptors should not be   Health
            more than 55dB, LAeq(1hr), but would prioritise any action on dealing with residential receptors
            experiencing levels of more than 65dB, LAeq(1hr).

Policy 23   The Council encourages the use of cleaner vehicle technologies such as gas and electric power that alsoPlanning/Environmental
            have noise benefits and supports technological research into traffic noise reduction measures.         Health




                                                                   44
            Description                                                                                               Target
Policy 24   The Council supports technological research into traffic noise reduction measures

Action      Consider feasibility of „quiet‟ road surface experiment, liase with TfL                                   Dec 2003
                                                                                                                      Highways/
                                                                                                                      Environmental Health

Policy 25   The Council supports the Mayor‟s proposals for congestion charging which are likely to include the        Environmental Health
            southern part of the Borough and will seek to monitor noise impacts around the edge of the area.

Policy 26   The Council recognises the need to gather more extensive information on road noise levels and             Environmental Health
            population exposure across the Borough and will investigate noise mapping techniques for this
            purpose.

Policy 27   The Council recognises a need to gather information on ambient noise levels in the vicinity of the        Environmental Health
            borough‟s railways and will look to develop noise mapping techniques for this purpose.

Policy 28   The Council will look to work with railway operators to develop mitigation strategies targeted at         Environmental Health
            areas where noise impacts are found to be most significant.
Policy 29   The Council will explore with the GLA the possibility of a pilot project to install noise barriers with   Environmental Health
            PV cells on appropriate stretches of railway and LUL track.

Policy 30   The Council supports Government and EU initiatives to tighten noise emission standards for all
            aircraft flying through UK airspace.
Action      Respond to government consultation on Future Development of Air Transport                                 Planning/Environmental
                                                                                                                      Health September 2002
Policy 31   The Council opposes night flights to or from airports that may affect the Borough.                        Planning/Environmental
Action      Respond to government consultation on Future Development of Air Transport                                 Health September 2002
Policy 32   The Council believes that there should be more information available on aircraft movements across
            London including flight paths and numbers of aircraft.                                                    Planning/Environmental
Action      Respond to government consultation on Future Development of Air Transport                                 Health September 2002
Policy 33   The Council supports a review of the method of presenting information about arrivals and departures
            at airports.                                                                                              Planning/Environmental
Action      Respond to government consultation on Future Development of Air Transport                                 Health September 2002


                                                                   45
            Description                                                                                              Target
Policy 34   The Council believes that there may be benefits to be had by improving rail services in order to take over
            some short haul routes thus freeing up space on longer haul routes. Above all, there is a need for an
            integrated approach to transport planning, in order that developments are planned to take place having
            proper regard to sustainability and environmental issues.                                                Planning/Environmental
Action      Respond to government consultation on Future Development of Air Transport                                Health September 2002
Policy 35   The Council will seek to protect the tranquillity of the Canal as far as reasonably practicable and will
            support measures that encourage the use of the Canal in line with this objective.

Policy 36   The Council recognises the role of education in dealing with noise, inorder to raise awareness of
            noise as a pollutant, and particularly in cases of noise nuisance. The Council will develop and
            implement initiatives to support this Noise Strategy and complement its enforcement role.

Action      School citizenship programmes                                                                         Ongoing
                We will continue to participate in the Schools Citizenship program.                              Environmental
                                                                                                                  Health/Housing
Action      Noise Action Day
                We will continue to participate in national noise action days                                    Ongoing
                Will also undertake to raise awareness of noise issues throughout the year as and when issues    Environmental Health
                   arise.

Action      Vulnerable Persons                                                                                    Ongoing
                Development of noise education programs for young people leaving care and living                 Social Services/
                   independently for the first time.                                                              Housing
                Development of cross agency working practices and policies to support vulnerable people
                   and prevent neighbour noise.

Policy 37   The Council will explore with the GLA the possibility of developing a pilot project on noise          Environmental Health
            awareness and education




                                                                  46
APPENDIX 2
UDP Planning guidance
The Unitary Development Plan sets out the Council‟s principles and policies relating to
development in the Borough. It includes important measures relating to the control of noise
and key extracts are set out below. As well as the Council‟s UDP, there are other planning
documents that are relevant to noise control such as PPG24 – Planning and Noise. The
Council also has Supplementary Planning Guidance, which includes guidance on
controlling noise.

     Noise and vibration

     EN5 In assessing developments which will place noise generating uses
         adjacent to noise sensitive uses, or where such uses are proposed
         in areas that contain noise generating uses already, the Council
         will have regard to the likely impact of noise disturbance.
         Although complete elimination of all noise is impracticable, the
         Council will seek to ensure such disturbance is kept below the
         threshold levels set out in Development Standard DS6 (chapter
         16).

     Disturbance from plant and machinery

     EN6 When considering proposals for, or which include, ventilation
         ducts and/or air handling equipment the Council will need to be
         satisfied that such equipment can be operated without causing
         injury to local amenity in terms of their appearance, location,
         noise and smell. In assessing the noise impact the Council will
         have regard to the noise levels set out in Development Standard
         DS6 (chapter 16).

4.27 Noise and vibration can affect health and have a direct impact on local amenity.
     Its impact can therefore be a material planning consideration. Planning Policy
     Guidance Note 24 - Planning and Noise gives guidance on noise levels and
     noise exposure categories and these have been used as the basis for the Council's
     standards. The Council is concerned to ensure, therefore, that development
     proposals do not give rise to unacceptable noise conditions. The Council will
     therefore make a careful assessment of likely noise levels before determining
     planning applications where noise is likely to be present. For the purposes of
     this policy, noise-generating uses are considered to be railways, roads, B2-B8
     industrial/commercial uses and places of entertainment (sport/recreation),
     including restaurants and clubs. Guidance and advice on ways of minimising
     noise disturbance through design is included in Supplementary Planning
     Guidance (SPG).

4.28 Ventilation ducts and/or air handling equipment are important aspects of many
     commercial buildings, restaurants and takeaways. General guidance on
     appearance, location, noise and smell are contained in SPG. Since these are
      important aspects as to whether a use may be acceptable, the Council will
      require full details of all mechanical plant and equipment at planning application
      stage.

      Noise and disturbance during construction activity

      EN7 Where the construction phase of development proposals is likely
          to cause particular problems by virtue of its duration, scale,
          location or complexity of working, the Council will seek to
          minimise disturbance to amenity and the environment by the
          use of planning conditions.

4.29 Policies throughout this Plan seek to minimise any adverse effects of proposals
     on amenity and environment, in the interests of all those who live, work and
     visit the Borough. Some of the worst problems affecting the environment and
     local amenity are experienced during the construction phase of development.
     Although this phase is temporary, it can be long in duration. Where construction
     is likely to affect residential amenity, the Council may assist in co-ordinating a
     working party of representatives from the local residential community and the
     developers. Experience has shown that many areas of concern can be overcome
     through the adoption of a co-operative stance involving the Council and local
     residents, and through the negotiation of an agreed programme and phasing of
     works. The Council has published a Considerate Contractors Manual which sets
     out and encourages good practice in construction.

      STR2 The Council will seek to reduce the adverse impact of transport
           on the quality of the environment.

5.3   To improve environmental quality for people through transport requires tackling
      such issues as air and noise pollution, physical danger, visual intrusion, comfort
      and convenience, severance, intimidation, townscape quality and ecology. One
      of the most persistent problems is the effect of road transport on air quality and
      therefore health. The Council's transport policies are designed to assist the
      Healthy Cities Project. Because of the increasing adverse impacts of traffic on
      the quality of the environment, targets which can be measured will be set in the
      Council's annual Interim Transport Plan (to become Local Implementation Plan
      with the setting up of the Greater London Authority). It includes the most
      effective and efficient use of land and road space, minimising both the use of
      energy resources and the production of air and noise pollution. Relating
      transport and land-use is a vital element in creating a more efficient transport
      system and minimising the need to travel.

      Conversions

6.65 Conversions have made an important contribution towards meeting the
     requirement for at least 9,135 additional units to be provided in the Borough
     between 1987 and 2001. The exact level and nature of that contribution in
     future years will depend on the level of conversion activity sustained by the
     market, the supply of properties with potential for conversion and the operation
     of planning policies designed to maintain a range of accommodation within the


                                          48
     Borough. The Council seeks to control conversion activities through the
     application of long established policies and standards towards maintaining a
     range of accommodation types and sizes within the Borough in order to provide
     a good standard of accommodation and amenity. The Council is also mindful of
     the potential disadvantages associated with widespread conversion activity.
     These include reductions in the amount of housing suitable for families and
     larger households, a threat to lower priced accommodation in the private rented
     sector, and a lowering of standards of amenity and environmental quality caused
     by increased noise, increased demand for parking space and loss of privacy. The
     Council has identified heavily parked streets, outside the Central London Area,
     where additional off-street parking provision cannot be provided in line with
     environmental and parking standards and where the number of units provided in
     schemes for conversion will be restricted (see policy TR18 in chapter 5 -
     Transport).


6      DS6 - NOISE AND VIBRATION STANDARDS

16.19 This development standard particularly relates to the implementation
of policies EN5 and EN6 to which reference should be made. Its purpose is
to indicate circumstances in which planning permission may be refused or
acoustic measures may be required by planning condition.

16.20 In setting these standards, the Council has had regard to the Planning Policy
      Guidance Note 24 - Planning and Noise (September 1994). For residential
      development near a source of noise, PPG24 sets out a range of noise levels
      from different transport-related noise sources for four Noise Exposure
      Categories. Local Planning Authorities are to determine into which of the four
      Noise Exposure Categories a proposed site falls and then have regard to the
      advice in the PPG for that Category. The Council's standards, outlined below,
      set out the trigger levels within the Noise Exposure Categories at which the
      Council will expect developers to take appropriate action to ensure an
      adequate level of protection against noise.

16.21 Guidance on design solutions that can be employed to minimise noise and on
      methods of measuring noise levels (and definitions) can be found in
      Supplementary Planning Guidance.

       Measurement

16.22 Noise can be measured in many different ways. The most frequently used
      method is in decibels (dB). However, in order to relate the measurement of
      noise to the human ear‟s response to it, it has become common practice to use
      the unit dB(A) which is a noise "scale" which more closely represents the
      human response. The Council has adopted environmental noise standards
      which are detailed below. Within the standards the following terms are used:

       LA90,T This is the "A weighted" level of noise exceeded for 90% of a time
              period (referred to as 'T') under consideration and is usually used to
              assess background noise.


                                        49
       LAeq,T This is the equivalent continuous sound level - the sound level of a
              steady sound having the same energy as a fluctuating sound over the
              period 'T'.

16.23 Unless otherwise stated, all noise levels are taken to be measured and/or
      predicted one metre from noise sensitive facades. Facade levels are assumed to
      be 3dB(A) higher than the “free field” levels obtained when noise levels are
      measured away from buildings. Free field values should be corrected by the
      addition of 3dB to derive approximate facade values.

       Sites adjoining railways and roads

16.24 Where measured or predicted noise levels one metre from the facade of a
      proposed noise sensitive building (that is, residential properties or particular
      uses such as schools or hospitals) exceed the following standards, developers
      should introduce measures such as acoustic secondary glazing in combination
      with acoustic ventilation, to reduce the internal impact of this external noise.

            Period             Time              Sites adjoining        Sites adjoining
                                                     Railways                Roads
             Day            0700 - 1900          65 dB LAeq,12h         62 dB LAeq,12h
            Evening         1900 - 2300           60 dB LAeq,4h          57 dB LAeq,4h
             Night          2300 - 0700           55 dB LAeq,1h          52 dB LAeq,1h

16.25 Where noise levels on the site (free-field level) exceed the levels set out
      below, planning permission should normally be refused for development
      involving residential units.

          Period            Time                Sites adjoining       Sites adjoining
                                                   Railways               Roads
           Day             0700 -              74 dB Laeq,12h        72 dB Laeq,12h
                            1900
         Evening           1900 -              74 dB Laeq,4h          72 dB Laeq,4h
                            2300
          Night            2300 -              66 dB Laeq,8h          66 dB Laeq,8h
                            0700

16.26 There are three time periods in the standard, rather than the two
time periods in PPG24, because of the considerable density of the rail and
road network and the wide range of tourism and entertainment facilities in
the Borough. These factors combine to make the area particularly
susceptible to road and rail noise during the evening period, when local
residents are entitled to expect reasonable peace and quiet in their own
homes.

       New industrial developments

16.27 The Council considers that for new developments involving noisy
      plant/equipment or other uses, design measures should be taken to ensure that


                                          50
       noise levels predicted at a point 1 metre external to sensitive facades are at least
       5dB(A) less than the existing background measurement (LA90) when the
       equipment is in operation. Where it is anticipated that equipment will have a
       noise that has a distinguishable, discrete continuous note (whine, hiss, screech,
       hum) and/or if there are distinct impulses in the noise (bangs, clicks, clatters,
       thumps), special attention should be given to reducing the noise levels at any
       sensitive facade by at least 10dB(A) below the LA90 level.

       Sites adjoining places of entertainment

16.28 The Council would expect the developer to ensure that noise as a result of
      entertainment taking place within the development, particularly entertainment
      involving amplified music, does not cause a disturbance to occupants of
      adjacent dwellings either within or outside the development.

16.29 Where it is anticipated that, as a result of a development providing
entertainment, there will be an increase in the existing LAeq,15 minutes
within nearby residential units compared with the value when no
entertainment is taking place, special attention should be given to acoustic
measures to reduce the impact. Developers should also consider suitable
acoustic measures if it is predicted that between the hours of 2300 and 0700
hours there is any increase in noise audible at adjacent noise sensitive
facades as a result of entertainment in the development.

       Sites which may be affected by vibration

16.30 To protect residents from unacceptable vibration as a result of new
      development, particularly those which result in dwellings being situated
      adjacent to major roads and railways, the following internal Vibration Dose
      Values (VDV) should not be exceeded (taken from BS 6472:1992):

                          Place                  Vibration Levels (VDV ms-
                                                            1.75)
                       Critical area                         0.1
                 (e.g. hospital operating
                         theatre)
                    Residential (day)                    0.2 to 0.4
                   Residential (night)                      0.13
                          Office                             0.4
                        Workshops                            0.8

16.31 If it is predicted that these levels will be exceeded, the developer should
      introduce measures to reduce levels to within these standards at the design
      stage.

16.32 Where dwellings may be affected by ground-borne regenerated noise internally
      from, for example, railways or underground trains within tunnels, noise levels
      within the rooms should not be greater than 35dB(A)max.




                                            51
       Ventilation ducts and air handling equipment

16.33 The following standard applies to all air-cooling, heating, ventilation,
extraction and conditioning systems and to any ancillary plant, ducting and
equipment which would have an impact on the external environment. The
Council seeks to ensure that noise level output from all such systems does
not increase existing ambient noise levels, in order to protect existing levels
and prevent "creep" (a rise in background noise levels). This may require
close co-operation between an environmental or air handling engineer and
the architect to agree an acceptable design solution for the particular
premises and uses for which the system is designed.

16.34 The Council considers that for new developments involving noisy
      plant/equipment or other uses, design measures should be taken to ensure that
      noise levels predicted at a point 1 metre external to sensitive facades are at least
      5dB(A) less than the existing background measurement (LA90) when the
      equipment is in operation. Where it is anticipated that equipment will have a
      noise that has a distinguishable, discrete continuous note (whine, hiss, screech,
      hum) and/or if there are distinct impulses in the noise (bangs, clicks, clatters,
      thumps), special attention should be given to reducing the noise levels from
      plant and equipment at any sensitive facade to at least 10dB(A) below the LA90
      level.

       Noise sensitive activities

16.35 For particularly sensitive uses such as schools and hospitals, an internal day-
      time standard of 40 dB(A) LAeq,T (during period of use) should be achieved.
      For hospital wards at night time, an internal level of 35 dB(A) LAeq,1 is sought.

       Standards related to specific land uses

16.36 Developers should aim to achieve the predicted noise levels indicated below in
      respect of the following activities:

                General offices (internal). 45dB(A) LAeq,1h.
                Parks and open spaces.      LA.10 55dB(A) during period
                                            of use.




                                           52
APPENDIX 3
Standard Public Entertainment License
Noise Conditions
Up to 2300hrs applicable to entertainment premises, which adjoin or are adjacent to noise sensitive
properties

The noise climate of the surrounding area shall be protected such that the A-weighted equivalent
continuous noise level (LAeq) emanating from the application site, as measured 1 metre from any
facade of any noise sensitive premises over any 5 minute period with entertainment taking place
shall not increase by more than 5dB as compared to the same measure, from the same position, and
over a comparable period, with no entertainment taking place.

The unweighted equivalent noise level (Leq) in the 63Hz Octave band, measured using the "fast"
time constant, inside any "living room" of any noise sensitive premises, with the windows open or
closed, over any 5 minute period with entertainment taking place, should show NO increase as
compared to the same measure, from the same location(s), and over a comparable period, with no
entertainment taking place

Up to 2300hrs applicable to entertainment premises, which do not adjoin and are not immediately
adjacent to noise sensitive properties

The noise climate of the surrounding area shall be protected such that the A-weighted equivalent
continuous noise level (LAeq) emanating from the application site, as measured 1 metre from any
facade of any noise sensitive premises over any 5 minute period with entertainment taking place
shall not increase by more than 5dB as compared to the same measure, from the same position, and
over a comparable period, with no entertainment taking place.

The unweighted equivalent noise level (Leq) in the 63Hz Octave band, similarly measured, should
not increase by more than 5dB as compared to the same measure, from the same position, and over
a comparable period, with no entertainment taking place.

After 2300hrs applicable to all entertainment premises

The noise climate of the surrounding area shall be protected such that the A-weighted equivalent
continuous noise level (LAeq) emanating from the application site, as measured 1 metre from any
facade of any noise sensitive premises over any 5 minute period with entertainment taking place
shall not increase by more than 3dB as compared to the same measure, from the same position, and
over a comparable period, with no entertainment taking place.

The unweighted equivalent noise level (Leq) in the 63Hz Octave band, measured using the "fast"
time constant, inside any living room of any noise sensitive premises, with the windows open or
closed, over any 5 minute period with entertainment taking place, should show NO increase as
compared to the same measure, from the same location(s), and over a comparable period, with no
entertainment taking place.

No sound emanating from the establishment should be audible within any noise sensitive premises
between 23.00 and 07.00 hours.




                                             53
APPENDIX 4
World Health Organisation
Guidelines for Community Noise
(Published 1999)

Table 1: Guideline values for community noise in specific environments
                                                                                                  Time     LAmax
                                                                                     LAeq
 Specific environment                   Critical health effect(s)                                 base      fast
                                                                                   [dB(A)]
                                                                                                 [hours]   [dB]

 Outdoor living area      Serious annoyance, daytime and evening               55            16            -
                          Moderate annoyance, daytime and evening              50            16            -

 Dwelling, indoors        Speech intelligibility & moderate annoyance,         35            16
                          daytime & evening                                    30            8             45
 Inside bedrooms          Sleep disturbance, night-time

 Outside bedrooms         Sleep disturbance, window open (outdoor values)      45            8             60

 School class rooms &     Speech intelligibility, disturbance of information   35            during        -
 pre-schools, indoors     extraction, message communication                                  class

 Pre-school bedrooms,     Sleep disturbance                                    30            sleeping-     45
 indoor                                                                                      time

 School, playground       Annoyance (external source)                          55            during        -
 outdoor                                                                                     play

 Hospital, ward rooms,    Sleep disturbance, night-time                        30            8             40
 indoors                  Sleep disturbance, daytime and evenings              30            16            -

 Hospitals, treatment     Interference with rest and recovery                  #1
 rooms, indoors

 Industrial, commercial   Hearing impairment                                   70            24            110
 shopping and traffic
 areas, indoors and
 outdoors

 Ceremonies, festivals    Hearing impairment (patrons:<5 times/year)           100           4             110
 and entertainment
 events

 Public addresses,        Hearing impairment                                   85            1             110
 indoors and outdoors

 Music and other          Hearing impairment (free-field value)                85 #4         1             110
 sounds through
 headphones/
 earphones

 Impulse sounds from      Hearing impairment (adults)                          -             -             140
 toys, fireworks and      Hearing impairment (children)                        -             -             #2
 firearms                                                                                                  120
                                                                                                           #2

 Outdoors in parkland     Disruption of tranquillity                           #3
 and conservations
 areas

1.   #1: As low as possible.
     #2: Peak sound pressure (not LAF, max) measured 100 mm from the ear.
     #3: Existing quiet outdoor areas should be preserved and the ratio of intruding noise to natural
     background sound should be kept low.
     #4: Under headphones, adapted to free-field values.




                                                       54
APPENDIX 5
Legislation & enforcing authorities
There are a variety of legislative controls relating to noise in our society. By and
large, these have been introduced in response to single issues rather than as a co-
ordinated approach to dealing with noise. The main pieces of legislation are listed
below by subject area followed by a table who is responsible for taking action under
relevant legislation in relation to different types of noise. This useful guide is taken
from the Mayor‟s Draft Ambient Noise Strategy

Legislation
                                     Development

Town and Country Planning Act 1990 – noise is a material planning consideration
and there is specific guidance in PPG24: Planning and Noise on the general principles
of how noise should be taken into account in the planning process.

                                    Noise Nuisance

Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA90) – Part III deals with statutory nuisances,
which includes noise. Wide ranging power which can be used to tackle noise
nuisances from a variety of premises, including residential premises. Aircraft noise
excluded.

Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993. Amended Part III of the EPA90 to cover
noise emitted from vehicles and equipment on the street, and burglar alarms.

Noise Act 1996 – Created a specific offence of night-time noise. Powers need to be
adopted by local authorities.

Control of Pollution Act 1974 – S.62 restricts use of loudspeakers in a street. SS.63-
67 give powers to designate Noise Abatement Zones, as a means of long term noise
control.

                                  Construction Noise

Control of Pollution Act 1974 – SS.60&61 gives powers to deal with construction
sites and construction activity.

                                 Entertainment Noise

Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA90) – Part III deals with statutory nuisances,
which includes entertainment noise.




                                           55
London Government Act 1963 & Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act
1982 – Power to licence all places used for public music and dancing. Licences may
include whatever conditions are considered reasonable.

                                   Occupational Noise

Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA74) – Act provides a comprehensive
and integrated system to deal with health, safety and welfare at work and with the
effects of work activities.

Noise at Work Regulations 1989 – Introduced under HSWA74 to implement EU
Directive 86/188/EEC. Regs set duties in relations to noise exposure and set three
action levels.

                          Industrial & Commercial Noise

Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA90) – Part III deals with statutory nuisances,
which includes industrial and commercial noise.

Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales) Regulations 2000 – Made
under the Pollution Prevention Control Act 1999, to implement EU Directive
96/61/EC. Apply noise control to certain prescribed industrial processes.

[Construction and outdoor plant]

                                   Road Traffic Noise

Road Traffic Act 1972 – Framework Act for controlling motor vehicles.

Road Vehicles (Construction & Use) Regulations1986 (and amendments); Motor
Vehicle (Type Approval) (Great Britain) Regulations – Set maximum noise limits
from the engines and exhausts when new and in use. Regulations include
requirements laid down by EU Directives.

Motor Cycle Noise Act 1987
Motor Cycle Silencer and Exhaust Systems Regulations 1995 – Maximum noise
levels set for motorbikes and requirement that replacement silencers must be sold with
correct approval marks.

Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 – Power to make a traffic regulation order for
preserving or improving the amenity of an area though which a road runs.

Land Compensation Act 1973 and Noise Insulation Regulations 1975 (as amended) –
Compensation and/or sound insulation grants where a property affected by noise from
a new road.

Road Traffic Reduction Act 1997




                                          56
                                     Aircraft Noise

Civil Aviation Act 1982 – Framework Act for controlling airports and air travel.
Controls under the Act and secondary orders, including noise limits, night-time flight
restrictions, prescribed routes, aircraft certification. All controls exercised by national
government.

Town & Country Planning Act 1990 – Powers to control new airports and proposals
for permanent helicopter landing ports.

                                     Railway Noise

Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA90) – Part III deals with statutory nuisances,
which includes railway noise, although this is limited by the xxx in s.122 Railways
Act 1993.

Land Compensation Act 1973 and Noise Insulation (Railways and other Guided
Transport Systems) Regulations 1996 – Compensation and/or sound insulation grants
where a property affected by noise from a new railway.


Who does what
Type of noise     Responsible               Main legislation
                  authority
Aircraft – policy DTLR,                     Civil Aviation Act 1982
                  Civil Aviation            International and national regulations for
                  Authority                 noise certification
Noisy aircraft    Airport operator
Airports          DTLR for Heathrow         Civil Aviation Act 1982
                  (designated airport)
                  Borough (London           Town and Country Planning Act 1990 as
                  City, Biggin Hill)        amended - planning conditions and
                  MoD (Northolt)            agreements
Construction      Borough                   Control of Pollution Act 1974, sections 60
sites                                       and 61 (reactive action or prior consent
                                            respectively)
Disorderly          Police                  Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001,
licensed                                    section 17
premises
Dogs and other      Borough                 Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part
domestic                                    III – statutory nuisance
animals




                                            57
Type of noise       Responsible         Main legislation
                    authority
Entertainment       Borough             Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part
noise                                   III – statutory nuisance
                                        London Government Act 1963, section 52
                                        and schedule 12 (as amended) - licensing
                                        of premises and outdoor festivals for public
                                        entertainment
Industry            Environment         Integrated Pollution Prevention and
                    Agency              Control Regulations 2000
                    Borough             Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part
                                        III – statutory nuisance
                                        Control of Pollution Act 1974, Noise
                                        Abatement Zones (few operated)
                                        Town and Country Planning
                                        (Environmental Impact
                                        Assessment)(England & Wales)
                                        Regulations 1999
Intruder alarms     Borough             Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part
(buildings)                             III – statutory nuisance
                                        London Local Authorities Act 1991
Loudspeaker in      Borough             Control of Pollution Act 1974
street                                  Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993
Machinery and       Borough             Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993
equipment in
street, incl. car
repairs, car
radios and lorry
refrigerator
units
Motor vehicles      DTLR                Road Traffic Act 1972
and motor           Police              Road Vehicles (Type Approval)
cycles                                  Regulations - DTLR
                                        Motor Vehicles (Construction and Use)
                                        Regulations 1986 - Police
Neighbour or        Borough, social     Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part
neighbourhood       landlords, police   III – statutory nuisance
noise                                   Noise Act 1996 – night time noise offence
                                        (adopted by few authorities)
                                        Housing Act 1996, Crime and Disorder Act
                                        1998 – anti-social behaviour
Occupational        Health and Safety   Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974
noise exposure      Executive (HSE)     Noise at Work Regulations 1989
                    Borough             Factories – HSE
                                        Distribution, retail, office, leisure,
                                        residential care homes, hotel and catering -
                                        Boroughs




                                        58
Type of noise        Responsible               Main legislation
                     authority
Planning             Borough                   Town and Country Planning Act 1990 as
                                               amended
                                               Planning conditions and agreements, e.g.
                                               hours of operation
                                               Town and Country Planning
                                               (Environmental Impact
                                               Assessment)(England & Wales)
                                               Regulations 1999
Public works –       Borough                   Land Compensation Act 1973
new roads, etc.                                Noise Insulation Regulations 1975 as
                                               amended – new roads
                                               Noise Insulation (Railways and Other
                                               Guided Transport Systems) Regulations
                                               1996, 1998 – new railways
Railway noise        Borough                   Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part
                                               III – statutory nuisance
Waste sites          Environment               Environmental Protection Act 1990, Part
                     Agency                    III – statutory nuisance
                     Borough                   Waste Management Licensing Regulations
                                               1994
Vehicles             Borough                   Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993
(stationary, e.g.
car alarms)
Adapted from Environment Agency „Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Draft Noise
Guidance, Part 1 – Regulation and Permitting, March 2001




                                               59
APPENDIX 6
Camden’s response to the DEFRA
Consultation Paper ‘Towards a National
Ambient Noise Strategy’
This response is set out in the format requested by DEFRA, centred around specific
questions on the Consultation Paper. A summary of the government‟s proposals is
included before each response (shown in italics).

Overall Approach

The Government’s Consultation Paper stresses that the objective of the exercise is to
develop a National Ambient Noise Strategy; it is not intended that it will covers all
areas of noise. Apart from fulfilling the commitment in the Rural White Paper, the
other main objective of the exercise does appear to be to set a context for the noise
mapping that will have to be undertaken to fulfill the requirements of the Draft
European Environmental Noise Directive that is likely to come into force in the next
year.

The Consultation Paper proposes a three-stage process towards developing the Strategy:
Phase 1 is an information gathering stage, gathering data on the numbers of people
affected by different levels of noise, sources of noise, and location of people affected.
Methods for assessing noise would be considered, as would noise control techniques.
Noise mapping, as required by the EU Directive would be one of the main tools used
for this phase. Phase 2 would be the evaluation stage and the identification of options
for prioritising the various alternatives in Phase 1, having regard to all relevant factors.
Phase 3 is the stage at which the Government would decide on the policies to move
towards the National Ambient Noise Strategy itself. The timetable envisages is that
Phase 3 would be reached in 2007, with the information gathering and evaluation
phases taking place between now and that date.

The Consultation paper provides some background to noise strategy issues, considers
the adverse effects of noise and the action that has been taken against noise to date, as
well as starting to explore noise mapping issues. Despite being a Consultation paper on
a proposed Ambient Noise Strategy, it also includes a chapter on Neighbour Noise that
is outside the scope of the proposed strategy.

We strongly welcome the paper as a step in the right direction because we feel that
noise has been neglected in the field of environmental impacts.

We are not sure that the proposed approach is the best. It is not clear why the
development of the strategy has to wait until 2007. It is possible to consult on strategy
now and concurrently gather information as part of the strategy. The National Air
Quality Strategy was decided upon before information gathering, assessment and
evaluation had been undertaken.




                                            60
In any event, we think that Phase 2 and Phase 3 are the wrong way around. It would
be better to carry out Phase 3 first – setting out policies – in order to do Phase 2 –
evaluating and prioritising options for action.

We would prefer the Strategy to be a comprehensive National Noise Strategy, not just
an Ambient Noise Strategy. We would like to see noise nuisance brought within the
remit of the strategy. The announcement of the strategy document together with
proposals for revising the Noise Act has already given the impression to the public
that this is one process. Some issues covered by neighbour noise in the document
could benefit greatly from national action – for example construction site noise and
car alarms.

Local neighbour noise

Although the Consultation Paper makes clear that Neighbour Noise is outside the
intended remit of the proposed Strategy, it somewhat bizarrely goes into some detail
about this issue, outlining legal remedies, responsibilities of different agencies, the need
for partnership working and education. It outlines some of the initiatives that the
Government has taken and is still looking at to assist in addressing the problem but
offers no new solutions.

As has been stated above, we believe that neighbour noise should be covered as part
of a National Noise Strategy. There are no easy solutions to dealing with neighbour
noise, but there needs to be a holistic approach taken so that the causes of neighbour
noise are addressed as well as the resultant nuisance. The Consultation Paper talks
about the need for partnership working and we believe that this is an area where there
is potential for improving the effectiveness of the resources used for tackling
neighbour noise.

Adverse effects of noise

This chapter of the Consultation Paper looks at the adverse effects of environmental
noise. It discusses the main areas where adverse effects are known or have been
suggested and examines the evidence for such adverse effects. It considers the issue of
tranquility, an issue of importance in rural areas, and possibly even in certain areas in
Camden. It also discusses possible noise standards and reviews those suggested by
different organizations and studies.

We agree with the Consultation Paper that there is not a clear understanding of the
effects of environmental noise. We believe that there are probably adverse health
effects in a limited number of circumstances, but mainly the issue is one of annoyance
and loss of quality of life.
It would be useful to carry out further research, perhaps to repeat the 1990 National
Noise Incidence Survey, but ensure that this covers metropolitan areas such as
Camden.

We agree that annoyance is an important Quality of Life indicator, but we are not yet
sure how best to define it noise to this end.




                                            61
We agree that an expert panel would be a good idea. It would also be helpful in
responding to EU proposals, which generally arise from Working Groups on the lines
of Expert Panels.

The Council for the Protection of Rural England‟s definition of tranquil areas appears
reasonable. However, it probably excludes many „tranquil‟ urban areas. Perhaps we
should have two definitions – „tranquil rural area‟ and „tranquil urban area‟.

Action against ambient noise

This chapter provides an overview of what has already been done to reduce, abate and
mitigate environmental noise, and what is planned for the four major sources of ambient
noise – road, rail, air traffic and industrial – and who will take responsibility for it.

We agree that action has been successful to a degree. The main source of ambient
noise is probably road traffic. The number of vehicles on road is increasing, but the
proposals say nothing about traffic reduction, or an integrated approach to transport –
encouraging rail freight over road freight, or switching short haul flights to rail to free
up spaces for long haul flights and thereby reduce domestic overflights, better use of
water transport etc.

There don‟t seem to be any proposals for action on rail noise. There is a need to look
at the wider use of noise barriers, track improvements on freight routes, extended
noise insulation policy for properties in worst affected areas.

We would like to see research done to assess usefulness of „low noise‟ road surfaces
in urban areas where traffic speeds are lower.

We believe that the allocation of responsibilities depends on what they are.

As regards the consequences of noise abatement actions, we believe that these will be
determined by the policies in the affected strategies, together with the stated priorities.
There may be a need to use research from Quality of Life surveys to determine
priorities.

Collection of information on the noise environment

This chapter deals with the problem of assessing ambient noise data in a systematic way
across England. It discusses noise mapping as a way of carrying out this assessment,
and what the issues and options are for producing such maps, including who should be
responsible for producing them.

We are in favour of DEFRA co-ordinating the first tranche of noise mapping because
of the tight timescales proposed but believe local authorities need to be involved.
Subsequently, we believe that noise mapping could usefully be done at a local level.
In London, there would need to be close co-ordination between the boroughs and the
GLA. This could build on existing joint work between boroughs and the GLA and on
the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. We would like to see approach
followed on air quality with „clusters‟ of boroughs working together, with GLA
involved. This approach would give the advantage that boroughs would be directly



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involved, and would have the option of carrying out finer grained noise mapping for
local purposes, as would the GLA, which may need to take a strategic view on issues,
particularly when it comes to action plans. There approach would only work if the
transport operators were obliged to provide accurate source data.

Analysis of Costs and Analysis of Benefits

This Chapter briefly describes how the relative merits of options to reduce noise
nuisance might be assesses and describes the research that is being taken into
cost/benefit assessment methodologies.

We have no particular comments on this section but will look forward with interest to
the outcome of the research that is being undertaken.

Other comments

The Consultation paper invites comments on any other matters not specifically
addressed above.

Chapter 3. Neighbour noise

3.3.2.2. It should be noted that Abatement Notices may also require reduction in
volume of sound produced. Fines are imposed but in many cases are inadequate to
provide effective deterrent.

3.3.3 It should be noted that only certain kinds of noise in street are covered. The
Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993 does not cover rowdy behaviour in the street.
Complainants often face problem that police and local authorities pass responsibility
to each other. Local authorities do not have the power, and police often lack
resources. This type of problem needs to be addressed in licensing controls, Anti-
Social Behaviour Orders and other spheres.

3.3.3 With regard to car alarms, there does not appear to be any standard for these.
We think there should be an industry Code of Practice, including requirements such as
a 30 second cut-out, volume limits, and fail-to-silence system, which would be more
effective in reducing noise than local authority intervention.

3.3.5.2 Fines relating to construction works especially are often derisory, and when
compared to financial penalties facing contractors for late completion of works do
not act as deterrent. Guidance to magistrates regarding fines and compensation is
needed.

3.4.3 Perhaps more should more be done to encourage Registered Social Landlords to
take action?

3.8 Education. Perhaps noisy equipment e.g. stereos should carry a warning?

3.9.4. Building Regulations. We think that the recent amendment relating to sound
insulation was disappointing. There is a need for further improvement, and the



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Regulations cover noise between commercial and residential, particularly where
denser mixed use developments are encouraged, and the 24 hour economy is a factor.



Chapter 4. Adverse effects of noise

It is important to collate research on impacts of noise on wildlife, and identify gaps
for further research. For example, studies have suggested an impact of traffic noise on
breeding songbirds along trunk roads.

Chapter 5. Action against ambient noise

5.2.10. Road humps can be controversial. Although it is suggested that they reduce
speed, and can reduce noise, there is a need for more definitive guidance on this.
There have also been concerns raised about increased vibration.

5.2.25 Publicising new controls from 2002 would be useful – and would set a
benchmark for what we could expect from operators e.g. in refuse contracts,
supermarket deliveries.

5.2.28. Cleaner engine technologies will reduce engine noise and so reduce urban
noise levels but will make little difference on roads where tyre noise is dominant
source.

5.3.7. The Consultation Paper suggests that the HSE enforces the ten minute rule. Has
HSE reported on extent and effectiveness of this enforcement activity? Could local
authorities enforce it where complaints arise?

Will new track body replacing Railtrack have explicit duty to reduce noise, like the
Highways Agency now does?

5.4.6. Should there not be a general requirement on airport operators to report
consistently on noise impacts?

5.4 This Section makes no reference to the wider impact of aircraft noise beyond the
immediate airport surrounds, although the 1990 survey suggests that aircraft noise
affected 62% of all sites. The Strategy should seek to reduce aircraft noise impacts in
all areas. In quieter areas, aircraft may be a main noise source even though absolute
numbers and levels are low compared to airport vicinities.

It is not clear why, for example, leisure use of aircraft should be allowed to cause
noise disturbance to large numbers of people, when playing loud music to the
annoyance of a few people is not.

5.5.1. It would be useful to disseminate good practice notes on use of planning
conditions in controlling industrial noise.




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Chapter 6. Defining the Problem – Noise Mapping

We have concerns about the methodologies that might be used to undertake noise
mapping. For example, Calculation of Rail Noise assumes that all track is in good
condition, when it is generally known that this is not the case. Our Borough
experiences environmental noise from over-flying aircraft at relatively low levels but
we are not clear how this source will be included in the mapping exercise. We are
concerned that the noise maps that are produced may not reflect peoples‟ perceptions
of environmental noise, with a resultant loss of confidence in the process.

Chapter 7. Costs and Benefits

7.2 Assessments should take into account impacts on other environmental aspects, not
just noise.

7.3 There is no consensus that placing a single monetary value on an environmental
impact is a useful or meaningful assessment tool. Multifactor analysis might be a
better approach.




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APPENDIX 7
Noise definitions
Sound and noise
Sound is a pressure variation in air that is detectable by the human ear.

Sound is a form of energy and it propagates from a vibrating source which causes
oscillations of molecules in a intermediate medium, usually air, which are detected by
a receptor, usually our ears. The emission of the pressure variations from the source
are often likened to the ripples on a still pond when a pebble is thrown in. Pressure is
measures in Pascals (Pa). The human ear can respond to an enormous range of
pressure variations from about 0.00002 Pa to 100 Pa. Given that atmospheric pressure
is 100000 Pa, it can be seen that the pressure variations detectable by the ear are
incredibly small.

Noise may be considered to be unwanted sound.

Decibels
Because the range of pressure variations detectable by the ear is so great, a system has
been devised to represent this range with a numerical scale that is more manageable.
This is called the decibel scale (dB). This is logarithmic scale based on the range of
human hearing running from 0 dB to 140dB. Figure xx demonstrates the relationship
between Pa and dB, and shows the level of certain noise sources.

The difficulty with the decibel scale is that there is no linear relationship between the
perception of loudness by people and the loudness level in dB. An increase of 3dB is
usually accepted as being just perceptible by humans. A change of 10dB is perceived
as being twice as loud. Also, for this reason, sound levels in decibels can not be
arithmetically added. If a noisy machine was measured at 80dB and an identical
machine was placed next to it, the measured noise would be 83dB, not 160dB.

Frequency
Frequency is another important factor in assessing noise. Frequency is the number of
pressure variations or cycles produced per second and is expressed as Hz. The human
ear cannot only detect an enormous range of pressure variations but also an enormous
range of frequencies, from about 20Hz to 20000Hz. However, the human ear does not
respond equally to sound at of different frequencies. It is less sensitive at very high
and very low frequencies. So, at very high and very low frequencies, sound pressure
has to be higher for it to be perceived as being equally loud as a lower sound pressure
in the middle frequency range. When measuring noise, weightings are applied to
measurements to compensate for the different frequency response of the human ear.
The weighting most commonly used is the „A‟ weighting and measurements are
written in terms of dB(A) or LA.

Groundborne Noise and Vibration
Groundborne noise and vibration both fall into the general definition of noise. Firstly,
with groundborne noise, the primary medium through which sound waves travel is the



                                           66
ground, as the name suggests, with the energy though the air re-radiated to the
receptor. A typical situation is a house above a railway tunnel where a deep rumble is
heard when a train passes though the tunnel. Secondly, with vibration, the sound
energy is detected not by the ears, but by the body in contact with the part of the
ground through which the energy waves are moving. Again, with the example of the
house above the railway tunnel, vibrations are felt as the train moves though the
tunnel. Groundborne noise and vibration can occur together but each can occur with
out the other being detected.

Groundborne noise is measured in decibels. Vibration may be measured it in terms of
the velocity (mm/s), the peak particle velocity (PPV), acceleration (mm/s2) of the
wave, or Vibration Dose Value (VDV), depending on the reason for the assessment.

Noise Parameters
There are a variety of parameters that have been used to try to quantify noise impacts
and relate these to human perceptions. Examples of these are Leq L10, L90, and Lmax.

Leq is one of the most commonly used parameters When a sound level meter is used to
carry out monitoring, it can be seen that the sound level is constantly changing, even
when our perception is that the sound environment is fairly constant. To overcome
this problem, a form of averaging is used to generate a single figure which represents
the measured sound. Leq is the energy equivalent continuous sound level over a
specified period. It is the constant sound level that would result in the reception of the
same total energy as the actual varying level over the measurement period (T). When
this is an „A‟ weighted reading, the result is written as LAeq(T). Variations of the LAeq(T)
are used in a number of situations for specific purposes. LAeq is used in a wide variety
of situations and is the most commonly used noise parameter.

L10 and L90 are statistical parameters that have been found to be useful in assessing
environmental noise. L10 is the level exceeded for 10% of the time period under
consideration and L90 is the level exceeded for 90 % of the time under consideration.
L10 measured over an 18 hour period (L10 (18hr)) is the usual measure used for assessing
road traffic noise and L90 is used for assessing the background or underlying noise in
an area.

Lmax is the highest measured level on a meter in a particular measurement period. It is
useful for assessing noise situations where there are sudden high impacts sounds.

LEP,d is the total exposure to noise throughout the working day and equates to an
LAeq (8hr). It is used in occupational noise assessments.

Other factors
There are other factors that are relevant to assessing noise impacts, including distance
of the receptor from the source, duration of noise, time that the noise occurs, local
topography, whether there are barriers or reflecting surfaces as well as meteorological
conditions.

For most noise sources, a doubling of distance from the noise source results in a 6dB
reduction in sound level. For roads, which can be considered a line of sources, rather
than a single point source, the reduction is only 3dB with doubling of distance.


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APPENDIX 8
Glossary
ALARA   As Low As Reasonably Achievable
COPA    Control of Pollution Act
CPZ     Controlled Parking Zone
dB      Decibel
DEFRA   Department for Environment, Food and the Rural Affairs
DTLR    Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions
ECAC    European Civil Aviation Conference
EPA     Environmental Protection Act
EU      European Union
GLA     Greater London Authority
HMO     House in Multiple Occupation
ICAO    International Civil Aviation Organisation
PPG     Planning Policy Guidance
SPG     Supplementary Planning Guidance
TfL     Transport for London
UDP     Unitary Development Plan
WHO     World Health Organisation




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