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					WATER AND ECOLOGY
                WATER AND ECOLOGY

• Water reserves:
   – average for Slovenia: 9300 m3/inhabitant
   – average for Europe: 4000 m3/inhabitant

• Shortage of quality drinking water

• Waters in the EU are managed by the Water
  Framework Directive WFD 2000/60/E.
   – Surface waters (watercourses, lakes, sea) should reach a good
     “ecological" and " chemical" state by the year 2015
   – Subterranean waters should reach a good " chemical" and
     "quantity" state by the year 2015.
SURFACE WATER
• 13 % of assessed water bodies will reach the environmental objectives of the WFD.
• 32 % of assessed water bodies may reach the environmental objectives of the WFD.
• 25 % of assessed water bodies may not reach the environmental objectives of the WFD.
• 30 % of assessed water bodies will not reach the environmental objectives of the WFD.
SUBTERRANEAN WATER
• 38 % of assessed water bodies will reach a good chemical state (green)
• 38 % of assessed water bodies may reach a good chemical state (yellow)
• 10 % of assessed water bodies may not reach a good chemical state (orange)
• 14 % of assessed water bodies will not reach a good chemical state (red)
         PRIORITY TASKS FOR IMPROVING
             THE QUALITY OF WATER

•   Increase the ecological production of food (protection of drinking
     water sources)
•   Increase protected regions to one third of the country‘s
    territory (maintaining biotic diversity)
•   Protect existing swamps and create new ones (to reach a good
    ecological state of surface waters)
•   Build classical and plant-based water treatment plants
    (protection of subterranean water)
  POLLUTION OF SUBTERRANEAN WATER
             BY NITRATES
                                  Plain                      Atrazine   Desetil
                                                              (μg/L)    atrazine
                                                                         (μg/L)
   90 % of the inhabitants of
                                  Prekmurje                   0,26       0,38
Slovenia use subterranean water
                                  Mura                        0,05       0,12
  as a source of drinking water
                                  Drava                       0,55       0,32
                                  Ptuj                        0,18       0,24
                                  Bolska Valley               1,06       0,34
                                  Lower Sava Valley           0,18       0,25
                                  Sora                        0,04       0,11
                                  Kranj                       0,05       0,09
                                  Kamniška Bistrica Valley    0,13       0,31
                                  Ljubljana                   0,09       0,09
                                  Krško                       0,04       0,14
                                  Brežice                     0,02       0,04
                                  Soška Valley                0,02       0,04
                                  BORDER VALUES                0,1        0,1
           SOURCES OF POLLUTION OF
            SUBTERRANEAN WATER

• Point sources of pollution:
   –   industry
   –   trade
   –   storage of dangerous substances
   –   garbage dumps, hidden garbage dumps
   –   digging of gravel
   –   construction

• Dispersed sources of pollution:
   –   agricultural activity (nitrates and pesticides)
   –   settlement
   –   inadequate sewage system
   –   traffic infrastructure
PROTECTION OF UNDERGROUND WATER


 Water protection areas:
 •   first protection belt
 •   second protection belt
 •   third protection belt
                DRINKING WATER

…is intended for drinking, cooking, food preparation and
other household purposes, regardless of its origin or if it
has been obtained from the public waterworks, a cistern
or as prepackaged water.
                     DRINKING WATER


EU Legislation:
• EU Drinking Water Directives 80/778/EEC and 98/83/EC

Legislation in Slovenia:
• Water Law 2002
• Drinking Water Regulation 19/2004
• Regulation about Criteria for Determining Water Protection Areas
  64/2004
• Ordinance for the Quality of Subterranean Water

Inspection:
• Institute for the Protection of Health and
• The Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, which
   operate under The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Slovenia.
         THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER
                   IN BREŽICE


                      MICROBIOLOGY                  CHEMISTRY
Samples       No.      S     %     U    %      No.      S       %
 taken      Samples                          Samples
 from
 source       30      30    100    0    0      12       12      100
reservoir     48      46     96    2    4      25       25      100
network       158     146    92    12   8      73       73      100
 Total       236      222   96 %   14   4%    110      110      100
BREŽICE
Slovenia     5910            65         35                      99
           BREŽICE PUBLIC WATERWORKS

•   Managed by the public waterworks joint-stock company KOP
•   6 sources
•   20 000 or 86.2% of the inhabitants of the Brežice municipality

•   Annual consumption of drinking water:
     – 1.285.371 m3 or 392 L per household per day
•   380 km of water pipelines
•   Water is not chlorinated

•   Price/m3:
     – 0,4273 € + 0,0555 € (water fund) + 0,329 € (water tax) = 0,8118 €
               LOCAL WATERWORKS

• 28 local waterworks
• 3700 or 13.8 % of the municipality‘s inhabitants
• Consumption:
   – 190.000 m3

• 70 km of water pipelines
• Water is often chlorinated

• Price/m3:
   – 0,6 € + 0,5283 € (water tax) = 1,1283   €
           COMMUNAL WASTEWATER
European Legislation:              New Water Treatment Plants
• Water Framework Directive        •   By 2005: settlements with
  ES 2000/60/ES                        more than 100 000 inhabitants
                                   •   By 2010: settlements with
• Directive for the Treatment of
  Communal Wastewater ES               15 000 to 100 000 inhabitants
  91/271/EEC                       •   By 2015: settlements with
                                       2 000 to 15 000 inhabitants

Slovenian Legislation:
• National    Program       for
  Environmental Protection, RS
  83/99
• Regulation for the Drainage
  and Treatment of Communal
  Wastewater, RS 105/02,
  50/04
    PERCENTAGE OF INHABITANTS OF
   SLOVENIA ACCORDING TO TYPE OF
  COMMUNAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT



                1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005


 septic
            %    45     45     45     45    47.6   47.6   47.6    44
 tanks
 primary    %   10.5   8.4    9.3    8.7    6.1    5.2    4.4    5.1
secondary   %   5.9    7.6    4.7    6.7    10.9   13.8   16.4   40.2
 tertiary   %   2.6    3.2    4.5     5     2.9    2.1     6     5.2
Primary Treatment




Secondary Treatment




Tertiary Treatment
       TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER
       IN THE BREŽICE MUNICIPALITY

• 45 % of the inhabitants are connected to a water
  treatment plant
   – Operating:
     Water Treatment Plant Brežice (temporary) 1500 PE

      Water Treatment Plant Obrežje (new) 2310 PE
      1.800.000 €

   – Under construction:
     New water treatment plant 13.500 PE
     7.123.000 €; 46 % EU

• The rest of the wastewater flows directly into the
  Sava, Krka and Gabrnica rivers and pollutes
  subterranean water.
  WATER TREATMENT PLANT OBREŽJE

• 2310 PE €
• Secondary treatment
• 1.800.000 €
• Year of construction: 2006
PLANT-BASED WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
•   They are natural and environmentally-friendly (new biotope for
    plants and animals).
•   They reduce the amount of fecal and other bacteria (90–99 %).
•   They effectively remove nitrogen and phosphorus compounds,
    heavy metals and other poisonous substances (70 – 90%
    effectiveness).
•   Low costs of construction, operation and maintenance.
•   Neither energy nor machinery are needed for their operation.
•   Treated water can be used for irrigating or watering green
    surfaces, putting out fires and cleaning.
                       OPERATION AND USE
OPERATION
• Several successive pools
  are lined with foil and
  filled with a substratum
  where water is transfused
  under the surface.

• In    cooperation   with
  microorganisms      and
  swamp plants, the water
  is purified to meet the
  demanded standards.

USE
• treatment of water from settlements, farms, tourist complexes (hotels, camps),
• treatment of water in natural parks,
• treatment of rainwater run-off from highways
• treatment of industrial wastewater from smaller factories (textile, food industry)
We do not inherit the Earth from
our ancestors, we borrow it from
         our children.
       OUR TASKS FOR THE FUTURE

• Prepare the water study path
  Gabernica
• Reduce water use at our school
• Use environmentally-friendly
  cleaning products
• Clean up illegal dumping grounds
         THANK YOU FOR YOUR
             ATTENTION

Teachers: Lidija Volčanšek, Darja Kodrič, Deja Avsec, Elena Mlakar
Students: Anja Šalamon, Jan Petelinc, Darjan Travnikar


           School of Commerce and Economics Brežice


                            April, 2007

				
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