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       ESSAYS,

    M O RA L,          P OL IT IC A L ,


                       .A.ND




      L   I     T    E     R AR           Y,


                PART            II.f



                * tulr.tsnro in t752.
                    t' ;6 9 )




         E                AY          I.


             Of   CoMMERcE.




  I' H E greater part of mankind mav be divid-
cd_into rw6 clafes-; that of Jballow thinkers,who
ibll {hon of tbe truth; and ihat of abltrufeihink-
ers, who go beyondit. The latterclais are bv
fa-r _the mo-ftrare': and I may add, by far the moft
ufeful and valuable. They'fuggift hints, at leaIt,
and ftart diiiculties, whiih tliy want,- perhaps,
Iki)l to porfue; but whichmay-produce d-it-
                   'handled                 hne
coveries,'when              bv mej dho have a more
juft way of thinking, Ai worft, whatthev fav is
uncommon and i-f it lhould coft fome Jains'to
             ;
compreh-end one has, however,the pleifure of
               it,
hearingfomething     that is ne\y. An author is little
to be valued, who tells us nothiog but .what we
canlearnfrom every      cofee-houfe coiverfation.
    .All people _/hiltozuthought are apr to decry
                of
even thofe of folid. undnftanding, ab/trw|e
                                     as        thinli-
 ers, and metafihy{icians, rehners
                             and        i      n.u"t
                                          "id wlll
   2TOESSAYI,
    will allow any thing to be juft which is beyond
    therr own weak conceptions,There are fome iafes,
    I own, where an extraordinaryrefinement                          affords
    a ftrong prefumption of fallh6od, and where no
    reafoning. i3 to be trulted but what is natural and
    eafy, When a man deliberatesconoernins his
    condu&. in ar.y
                              .?artiular affair, and forms fch"e        mes
   rn porrtlcs,trade, economy, or any bufinefs life,                 in
   n e n e v e ro u g h t t o d r a w h is a r Au m e n ts o n n e .o r
                                                              to
   conne&.too. long a chain of co--nfequences                     together.
   Dometnlngts lure to happen,that will difcbncert
   nls realonlng, and producean eventdifferent from
   what he expe&ed. But when we reafonuDonsf,_
   neral-{ubje&s, one may ju0ly affirm,that our fie-
   culatlons       can lcarcelyever be too fine. providedthev
   be  juft ; and thar the difference              betweena'.ornrroi
   man and a man-of geniusis chieflyfeenin the Ihal-
  rownelsor depth of the principles                    upon which thev
  proceed. Generalreafonings                   ieemintricate,mereli
                   .
  pec_aule_ are general nor is it
                  they                    ;                 eafy for thi
  Dulk ot mankind to diftinguift, in a greit number
 or partrcutars,             that conmon circumftance which      in
  t h e y a l l a g r e e o r to €xt r a &it, p u r e a n d u n m ixe d ,
                             ,
 rro-m tne other luperfluouscircumftances, .Everv
 ludgT5,nt or conclufion, with them, is particu'-
 lar.^ hey c-annot                enlargc thcir viervto thofe uni_
          .l
 vertal                            wh ich co m p r ch e n u n d e r th e m
                                                            d
            hn t pol r on o
 a n l n ^ p rroen ulmrb ers, f in d ivid u a ls, n d in clu d ea
                                                        a
 who.Je        fciencein a- finglc thcorern. fneir eye is
 c o n t o u n d e d l t h l uch a n e xte n llvep r o fX€t;- a n d
                        w
the conclufions,derivedfrom it, .u.ri thJugtrcl.a.-
Iy exprelled,          feem intricateand obfcure, S'"t ii""._
ever intri-ate.
                           l h . y.p ^ y fe e r n , ir is ce r ta in ,itL a t
S e n e r a.tl r r r n c l p t e s, ju ft a n d Io r r n d ,m u it a h va ys
                                  il
                    n
p r e y a l t . . r r h e g e n er aco u r fe f th ir r g s, o u r b th e v
                                      l     o              th
may-tarlrn parricular                cales; antl ir is the ci'ief bu'_
             .
t r n e l so t p h i l o f o p h e rto r e g :r r dth e
                                       s                Acr r e r rco u r fe
                                                                   i
o t t n r n g s . I n r a yad d ,th a r ir is a lfo lh e ch i,,i^ u _  b
                                                                 llnels
ffi,ffiffi

ffiffi
   L7z              ESSAy                 I.
  when he bs embracedan oppofite fet of man.
  ners and opinions.
      The bullr of every Ilate may be divided into
  h.ulbandnen nanufa1arerr. The forme arc em-
               znd                              r
  pl-oyed the culturi of thelandI the latterworks
           in
  'up'the materials               by
                       furni{hed thi former, into all
 tlie comrnodities     which are necellaryor orn"*err-
  trl to human life, As foon as men ouit their
 favageftate wheretbey live chieflyby bui.rting
               ,                                      and
  fifting, thcy muft fall into thefc two cla{fes;    tho'
 th€ arts of agriculture      employal   jrf   the moft
 numcrous     part of the fociety   *. Time and expe.
 rienc.e  improve fo much theft arts, that the land
 rnay eafily maintain a much greater number of
 men, than tl:ofe who are imme         diately employed
 in its culture, or who furni{h the more necef.
                        to
 fary manufa&ures fuch as are fo employed,
     lf thefcfuperfluous     handsapply themfclves     to
the finer arts, which are commonlydenominated
the a:ts of luxury, theyadd to the happinefs the  of
{tate; fince they afford to many the opportunity
of receivingenjoyments,         rvitb which they would
othervife have been unacquainted.          But may not
anotherfchemebe propofed           for the employnrent
of thefcfuperfluous      hands May not the fovereign
                               ?
lay claimio thcm,, and emplolithem in fleets        aid
armies, to encreafe        thc dominionsof the ftate
abroad,and fpreaditrsfame overdiftantnations            ?
It is certain    that the fewer defiresand wantsare
found in the proprietors        and labourersof land,
                                                     tne

  . " Monf, Melon, in his political ellay on commcce, allerts,
 drat evenat prefent, you dividc Fiance into ,o f"rtr, r6
                      if
areIabourers peafantstwo only artizans onebelolqingto
             or          ;                   ;
the law, churchand milicary; aod onc merchants,   finiciirs,
andbourgeois.This calculatioris cerreinlyvery erroDeousr
ln Franci, England,and indeedmoft parr! of burope.half
of ihe inhabitintslive in ciriesr and'.u.oof rhofeivholive
in.rhe country, a great number are ardzaas,perhapsabove e
tlljo.
                        Of e o lr rrr

    *-
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              Ji Tlj:]l :r,;:il
          ,l"d"h':n andmrnr
  :1:l:c-

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                         l':: t
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 pJoyed their fervice. fn"
                                              ;:;::'       : #':il:
       in                                              .rrl.*r'["
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      "it' ?"'" n;::":*i
 I u x u r y o f i n d i v i d u r ls fJ th
                                                "".


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                       :l'
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                ; ;11.i"
                            s     entir
l?l::*"r. rheirbourers l;;:il;r-Ji,:T;;
                     , ti.o
ili'"ll'.iin.t'il!,n:*;"",1'J,i;if                   iil,"llff
g r e x t a n l r r b e r o f Sp a r r a n s, a d th e fe
                                                                 .o'?;
                                           h              lu r t.. iiu -
e o r n e a t e a n d d elica cy, n d g ive n
                                         a              e m p lo vr n e n t
   a S r l a t v a r r c r y .orIr a d e s n d ,ia n u f,r &u ie s.'
                                         a
f.f porrcy                                                        The
'rc r           m : y b e r cn r a r l< ein Ro r n e , An d in _
                                               d
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                  fll",-t".sconnft
       "r"';il;:.":?,'ft
    1 ffi hrl r.r
      "
                    ",f
O,"U:::i..", txceedone to a hundred.Bui we
                   avf


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                        IJT   LOMMIRCE.
                                                                     -/J
        lt is natural on this occafionto alk, whether
   -
   fovereignsmay not return to the maximsof an_
   c i e n t p o l i c y , a n d co n fu ltr h e ir o wn in te r e ft r h is
                                                                    in
  refpe&, more than the happinefs their fubjefts?     of
  r - a n l w e r , r h a t r t a p p e a r s m e , a lm o ft im p o ffi-
                                              to
   b l c ; a n d t h a t b e cr u fea n cie n tp o licy r u a svio lcn t,
  a n d c o n t r a l y t o t hc r n o r en a tu ia la n d u fu a lco u r fe
  o t t h i n g s . I t i s we Jl kn o tn with wh a t p ccu lia r
  Ia\s Spartr. was governed, and tvhat a pt.odiqy
  t l r a t r c p u h l i ci s . j uftly e fte e m e d y e ve lyo n ., *Eo
                                                     b
  n a s c o n t l d e r c d u m a n n a tu r ea s it h a s d ifu la ve d
                              h
  it{elf in other nations,and other ?ses. Weie ih.
  teftim-onyof hiftory jefs pofitive a"n                  d
                                                             r"ircumftan-
  t r a l , l u c h a g o v e r n m e n t u lda p p e aa m e r en ir i_
                                            wo
 lofopiricalwhim or fiftion, and iinporlble evJr to
  b e . r e d r : c e d o p r a&ice . An J t) r o u g h e Ro m a n
                        t                                     th
  and other ancient republicswere -fupported on
 p n c r p t r sl-o n t e w ha m o r e n a tu r r l, 1 ,e t r va sth e r e
                                      t
  a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y o n cu r r e n cef cir tu n r fta n ceto
                                   c              o                      s
  m a k et h e m f u b n r i tto fu chg r icvo u s u r th e n s. h e v
                                                       b            T
 were frce ftates; they we"rcfmall ones; and thl
 a g e b e i n g m a r t i a l ,a ll th e ir n e ig b b o u r s r eco n -
                                                               we
 t i n u a l l y i n a r m s . F r e e d o mn e r i_ r r a b e g e tsDu b -
                                                            lly
 Iic fpiLit, efpecially fmall ftates; and"thisfub-
                                     in
 lic fpirit, this anor patria, muft encreafe, vhen
 the public is almoft- continual alarm.and men
                                       in
a r e o b l i g e d ,e v e r ymo m e n t, o e xp o fe e n r fclve s
                                               r           th           to
t h e g r e a t e f td a n g e r s r ir s d e [e ;ce . A co n tin u -
                                      fo
al fucce{llonof -wrrs makcs every citizen a fol-
d i e r : H e r a k e sr l r e .fie ldin h is iu r n : An d d u r -
ing- his lervice he is chiefly ma;ntained him-                   by
feif. This fervice is indeed equivalent a hea-                 to
v y t a x ; y c t ; s i t le fsfc) r b y a p e o p le a d d ifte d
to arms, wbo fight {or honour and rivenee more
t h a n p a y , a n d i r e u n a cq u a in ter vith q ;in a n d
                                                        d
i n d u f t r y a s w e l l a s p le a fu ie .. No r to m e n tio n
                                          Tz                           the
                        . seeNOTE[o],
276                  E S S AY                      ].
 the gr"€t,equaliry of fortunes among the inhabi-
 tants
             ' r f t l r e a n c i en tr e p u b lics, e r J e ve r y fie ld ,
                                                     wh
 belongiug to a different prt,prietor, was able to
 rrraintaina famlly, and render the number of ci-
 tizers very confiderable,                      even without trade and
 rnanufa&u s.        re
       But tbough the want of trade and manu-
 f'actures, arnong a free and very martial peo-
 ple, nray fanetiner hare lo otlier efit& ihan
 t o r c n d e ri h e 1 . l ub ) icr o r ep o we r fu l, is ce r ta in ,
                                         n                    ir
t l r a t , i n r h e c o m mo n co u r feo f h u m a n a ffa ir s, it
w i l l l : a v e a q u i t e co n tr a r yte n d e n cy. So ve r e ig n s
 r n u f t t a k e r n i n k i n d a s th e y fin d th e m , a n d cin -
n o t p r e t e n d t o i n tr o d u cee n y vio le n t ch a n g e in
r l r c i r p r i n c i ; - ' l ea n d wa ys o f - th in kin q . A- lo n g
                                 s
 c o u r f eo f t i n r e , w i r h a ia r ie ty o f a ccid ln ts n d cir l
                                                                     a
                          sr
c u r r r { t a n c e a , e r e q u ifir er o ' p r o d u ce th o fe p r e a t
r e r o l u r i o n s ,w l i j c h io m u ch .d ive r lifyth e fa cl o f
h u n r a n r f l a i l s . A n d th e le fs n a tu ia l a n v fe t o f
p r i n c i p . e s r e , w h i ch fu p p o r ta p a r ticu la fo cie ty,
                       r                                              r'
t h e r u o r e d i f i c u l r y will a ' le e ifla to rm e e t *ith in
 r e i f i n g a n d c u k i v atin gth e m : Ir is h is b e ft p o -
l i c y i o c o i n p l yw i rh ih e co m m o n b e n t o f m ^ a n -
kind, and give it ail the improvements which                       of
it is fufceptible. Now, accordingro the molt na-
t u r r l c o u r f c o f r h i n g s,ir r d u ftr y d a r r sa n J tr a d e
                                                       in
encreafe           the porveroI tl.re [overeignas wcll as the
l r a ; ' p i r r e _ f s r h e f u b je &s a u d tlia t p o licyis lio -
                     c                        ;
l e n t , w h i c h a g g r r n d iZ cs e p u b Jicb y tlr e ' p o ve r ty
                                            rh
o f i n J i v i d u a l s i - ' t ' lr is
                                        will .u illy u p p .it fr o m a fe r i
confiderations,                                          -to
                              which will preieni              us the con-
                      s
f e q u e n c c o f { l o t h a n d b a r b a r ity.
     W h e r c n ' r u u f r { t u r c; a n d r n e ch a n ic r tsa r e n o t
                                                                a
c r r l r i v a t e J , r eb r r l ko f tlr c p e o p le r u fta p p lyth e m -
                       rl                               n
f e l v e s o a q r i c u l : u rc;a n d if tL e ir lkitt iiU in a u f_
             t
t r v e n c r c a f e , h r r c r n u l[ r r ife a g r e a .t p e r flu itv
                           t                                      fu
i r o m t l r c i r l r i r o r r r b e yo n dvlr a t fr iflr - ce s m a in ' -
                                                                   to
t a i n t h e n : . T i ' l y hilc 1 1 ote o ) p ta tio nth e r e fo r e ,
                                                                   ,
                                                                           to
                    O I Co ,ltM ERcx'                             277
to encreafe         their {ki)l and induftry ; fince'theycan-
not exchangethat fuperfluity for any cotnmodi-
ties, which may ferve either to the'rr pleafureor
vanitv. A habit of indolencenaturaliy prevails.
T h e ' g r e a t e r p a r t o f th e la n d lie s u n cu ltiu r te d .
W h a L - i s c u l t i u a t edyie ld s n o t its u tm o ft[o r wa n t
                                      ,
of llill and affduity in the farmers' If at any
ti m e t h e p u b l i ce x i g e n ciers q u ir e ,th a rg r e r t n u m -
                                               e
b e r sf h o u l db c e m p l o ye d th e p u b lic fe r r ice ,th e
                                            in
labour of          the people furniihes now no fuperflui'
ties, by which thefe numberscan be maintained.
The labourers cannot encreafe                        their {ki]l and in-
duftrv on a fudden, Lands uncultivatedcannot
                                                  ye
b e b r o u e h ti n t o t i l l ag e r fo n te a ls, T h e a r m ie s,
                                        fo
           *"hii.- muft iithcr mal<efudden and vio-
-.^tt conquefls,or di{bandfor want of fubllltence.
lent
A reeular attack or defence, tberefore, is not
to be"expefted from fuch a people,                        and their fol-
diers muft be :rs iqnorant and i.rnflilifulas rbcir
farrners and manufi&urers.
    E v e r'and i n g i n t h e wo r ld is p u r ch a le d y la -
             y th                                                 b
bour ;                  o-urpaflionsare the only caufes la-        ol
bour. When a nation abounds in manufa&ures
and mechanicarts' the proprietors land, as well        of
as the farmers' *udy agriculture a fcience,            as              and
redouble their induftry and attention. The fu-
perfluitv. which arifes from rheir labour, is not
 ioft ; but is exchanged                 vith manufat-tures rltofc
                                                               for
commoditi;s, whicli men'sluxury n^orv                      makesthcm
c o v e t . B y t h i s t r r ea r r s, n d fu r ttillr ex g r e a td e a l
                                           Ia               s
nrore of ihe nece{Iari.t'of life, than                     q'hat fufices
for tl.rofe       rvho cultivateit. ln tines of peace                  and
                                              g
tr a n c u i l i t v .t h i s f u p er flu ity o e s th e m a in L e n a n ce
                                                    to
o f r n a n u i & u r e r s , ' a n dh i iir p r o ve r s f tib e ta a r ts'
                   a                    r                o            l
But ir eafy for the public to convertmany of thefe
manufa&urersinro foldiers,and tnaintain                        them by
tbat fuperfluity,w]iich arilesfrom the labour o[ the
farmeri, Aciordingly we find, that this is the cafe
   278                 E S S AY                       L
     in. all civilized governments. When the fover.eiEn
    r a r l e sa n a r m y , w h a t is th e co n fe q u e n ceHe iir -
                                                                   ?
    p o f c s a t a x . T h i s ta x o b lig csa il th e p r o p le lo
    retrench what is leaft nece{Iar--ytheir fuifiIlencc.
                                                       to
    Thofe, who labour in fuch cotnmodities,                       muft either
    cnlift in the troops,or,turnthemfelves                     toagriculturc,
    a n d t h e r e b y o b l i g e fo m c la b o u r e r sto " e n lift fo i
    w a n t o f b u f i n c f s . An d to co n fid e rr h e m a ttr r a b -
    ftra€iedly, manufaftures                  encreafe po*., of ih.
                                                        the
    I t - a t e n l y a s t h e yl l o r e u p fo m u ch la b b u r ,a n d r h a t
              o
   o l a l r t n dt o t v h r c hth e p u b lic m a y la y cla ir n , h _ wir
   our oepnvrng any one oi the nccc{Iaries life.                      of
   T h e m o r e l a b o u r , th e r e fo r e is e m p lo ve db e vo n d
                                                     ,
   mere neceffaries, more powerful ii
                                    the                                  fiateI
   I r n c et h e p e r i o n se n g a g e d th a t la lo u"ny a v e a _
                                                 in                r m
  l r l y . b e c o n v e r r e do th e p u b licfcr vice . In a ' fta r e
                                    t
  w l t h o - u tl n a n u t a t t ur eth e r e yb e th r la m e n u n r _
                                            s, ll:a
  ber of hands; but thereis not ihe fame quantitvof
  i a b o u r , n o r o f t h e fr m e kin d . AII r h .: tt;;.;;
  th r - r e ef t o r . r ' eu p o nn cce fa r ie wh ichca na d m it o f
              b                 d                   .,
  l l t t l e o r n c a b a t e r n e n t.
     . T h u s . t h eg r ( a r n efs f r h e fo ve r e ig n n d th e h a p -
                                         o                      a
 p r n e l so t t h e j l . a r e e , in a g r e a tr n ca fu r eu n ite d
                                      ar                               ,
 w r r n r e g a r d t o t r a de r n d n r a n u fa ftu r e s.It is a
 v l o l e n t, n e r h o d a n d in n r o ftcr L feim p r a clicr b le ,
                                ,                         s                  to
 o b l i g et h e l a b o u r e rto to iJ,in o r d e r ' tor a ile fr o m
 tl r e i a n d r n o r e t h a n s.h a t fu b fiflsh im fe lfa n d fa -
 mily. Furnillr hirn with manufa&ures                          nna .oro*o_
                , h
 d 1 , i 5 sa 1 - d c w i l l d oit o f h im fcJf. Aftcr .,a r d syo u
 w l l f i n d .r r r a l y r - o l u ize fo n r ep a r t o f. ltis
                                                                      fu ie r _
 n u o u st a b o r r r x r ) dc m flo y ir in r lr e p u b ) icfcr vice ,
                              j
wlulout
                 . 6 l r l t A h r r n Lis wo n te dr e r u r n . Be ir r qa c-
c u l c o r n c d o l r d u l t r ) ' , lr e sir l tlr in li. is lclsq l.ie v-
                     t                                      th
o u s , t h r n r t . . t t o n ce )
                                         1 .o uo b lig eb im to a h - a u g _
m c n r a t r o n t l a b o l l r\ \ lth o ltta n y r e tva r d . T h c
                     o                                                    ca ie
is t h e f a m er v i t hr e g ar d o r h e o ' r hr
                                          r             e
I t" , : . , l , h c S r e x r c r                            ja U.r r o f a
                                       is r h c ito cli o"fr .,nb o u*- o iJ.ll
x r n d s , r c , g r c a t e q . r r r r r tity a y b e ta l< e n o m
                                   r           m                   lr      th e
nerp, w,rhout nrahingrny fcnfibiealterr.tion it.                      in
                                                                  A p u b lic
                     O f Co u M ERcE,                              q jg
      4 public granary of corn, a ftorehoufeof cloth,
a magazine armsi a1lthelemuft be allowed real
                     of
riches and ftrength in any ftate. Trade and induf-
try are reailynorhingbut a ftocl< iabour, which,  of
i n t i m e so f p e a c e n d tr a n q u illir y, e m p lo ye d r
                            a                      is               fo
the eaG and fatisfa&ion individuals but in the
                                       of                I
exigencies llate, may, in part, be turned to pub-
                    of
lic    "advantage.
                          Couldwe .onu.rt n city into a'kind
of fortifiedcamp,andinfufeinto each                   breaft Io mar-
tial a ge.nius,          and fuch..a.    pa{fionfor pub.iicgood
a s t o r n a k er v e r yo n e wiilin gto u n d e r g o eg le a r -
                                                            tlr
eft hard{hipsfor the lake of the public; thcfeafi-ec-
t i o n s m i g h tn o w , a s in a n cie ntim e s, r o vea lo n e
                                              t        p               a
 Iufficientfpur to induftry, and fupport the com-
munity. lt would then be advantageous, in                         as
camps, to bani{hall arts and luxury; and, by re-
                                   e             m
 f t r i & i o n so n e q u ip a g a n dta b le s, a ke tl,e p r o vifi-
ons and forage lalt longer than if the army were
loadedwirh a iumber offi:perfluous                   retainers: But
as thefeorinciplesaretoo difinterefted too diffi-       and
cult to fuppori, it is requiGte to govern men by
other pa{fions,and animatethem with a fpirit of
avarice and induftry, art and luxury. The camp
is, in this cafe, loaded with a fuperfluousreti-
n u c ; b u t t h e p r o v ifio nffo win p r o p o r r io n a b)lvlg e r .
                                    s                             a
The harmonyof the whole ii ftill lupportc'd ind                  ;
the naturalbent of the mind being more cornplied
                            as
with, individuals, well as the public,find their ac-
c o u n ti n t h e o b f e lva n cef th o fem a vim s,
                                     o
      'Ihe fame methodof reafoninc                will let us fee the
rdvantage forr;gn commerce, augmenting
                   of                          in                   the
porver of tbe ftate,as rvell as richesand happinefs
                                           the
of the fubie&, It encreales ftock of ]abour in
the natiorli and the              -{overeign    may convertwhat
{hareof it he findsnecefary                 to the {ervice of the
public. Foreigntracie, its imports, by                 furrii{hes   ma-
terialsfor new manufa&ures and by its esports,it
                                          ;
produceslabour in particuiar comurodities,                       which
                                                 I              could
48o                 ESSAY                           L
could not be confunedat home, In {hort, a king-
d o m , t h a t h a s a l a r g e im p o r t a n d e xp o r t, m u ft
aboundmore vith induftry, and that emp|,yrd upon
delicacies        and luxuries,than a kingdom v,hich rc{ls
                 w
c o n t e n t e d i t h i t s n a tive m m o d ir icr , Ir is. r h e r e -
                                          co
fore, more          p o w e r f u l, s we ll a s r ich e ra n d h a p p ie r .
                                      a
                              r
T h e i n d i v i d u a l s e a p tb e b e n e fit f th e feco m m o -
                                                          o
dities, fo far as they gratlfy tbe fenfes                         and apperjres,
And the publicis alfo a gainer,whilc a greaterftock
                                                    {
o [ . l a b o u r , i s , b y t his m e a n s to r e d u p a g a in l" a n y
p u b l i c e x i g e r r c;y t h a t is, a 6 r e a lcrn u m b e r o i la -
b o r i o u s m e n a r q n ain ta in e d , o m a y b e d ive r t-
                                                     wb
ed      t o t h e p u b . i cf er vice , ith o u t r o b b in ga n yo n e
                                              u
o f t h e n e c e l l i r i e s , r cyL n tlr e ch ie f co n r e n ie n cie s
                                 o
of life.
     If rve confulthiftory, we fhall find, that, in rnoft
nations, foreign trade haspreceded                            any refinelnent
i n h o m e m a n u f a { tu r e s,n d g ive nb ir th to d o n r e ftic
                                        a
                                           n
l u x u r y , T h e t e m p ta tio is lfr o n g e rto m a ke u fe o f
 foreign commodities,                 u,hich are readyfor ufe, and
'yhich are entjrelyne\./to us, tbanto makc irnpror                                e-
 m e n t so n a n y d o n r e { lic n tu r o d ity, ich a lla ys
                                          co                      vh
 advanceby llow degrees,and never afi-e&us by
 their noveity. The irofit-is alfo .verygreat, in e;-
 porting what is fuperfluotrs honte,and what bears
                                                at
                                                   lh
 n o p r i c e , t o f o r e i g nn a tio n s, o fe lo ilo r c]im a te             is
 n o t f a v o u r a b l e o t ha r co m n ' to d itl.
                            t                                    ' Iir u s :le n b c-
 comr       a c q u a i n t e* \ th r ) te l,lfu r tso f lu r r :r y a r r d e
                           d               p                                     tlr
proi6ts      of'commt,rce ancL     ;,         thiir dt lit,tryard'indufry,
                                        ,
 b e i n g o n c ea w a k c n e dclr r v th cn ro n r o la r r lr , im -       i
                         n
 p r o v e m e n t si , e v e ly b r a n ch f d o m e { tic s u cll a s
                                                    o                    a
               t
. f b r e i g nr a d e . A n d th isp e r h a p is th e ch ie fa d va n -
                                                        s
  r;rgewlrich arifesfronr a commcrce ith ftrangers.            u
  I t l o u l c s n r e r rf l o r n tlicir in d o le n ce a n d p r e ie n t-
                                                               i
  irrt   t h ( F a y c rr n d m cr e o p u le r ' r ;r r to f th e n a tio n
                                                         p
                          o
  w i i h o l i . 1 c i t . f I u xr r r r ' , r r h iclr ' tle v n e r .crb cfo r e
                 of,
  dreamed railcsin thirn a defireofi more fple:rdid
  way ol iile tharrwlrat their anceftors                       enjoyed. And
                           OfCo r u M ERcr ,                                 z8r
 at the fametime, the few merchants,
                                                                   t,ho po{Iets
  t h e l e c r e r - otfh i s im p o r ta r io a n oe xp o n a tr o n .
                                                      n                      m a ke
 g r r a t p r o h t s ; - - a nb e co m in gir .a ls r r ca lr h ' to
                                        d           r        in
 a n c r e n tu o b i l i t y ,- m p t o ih ., ,d u .n r u r .r ,
                   ,                                                             rhc
                                       te                                   ,o b .I
               , n : ' r , r i v a ts in co m m e r ce , Im ita tio n
 olr n u t e s i i , t h o l c r- ts;wlr iletlo r n e ftic
 : p:                                                                          fL r o n
                 a                 a                             m a r r u fa &u r e r s
 c m u r a t f t h e l o r eig n in th e ir im p r o ve m e n ts,
 * o . 5 ^ y p ev e r y ho m e co r r r m o d ir y                              and
                                                                ,o tt.r a,tr o n
 p e r f e f l i o n . o { r r . l r ich is fu fce p ti6 le .
                                           it                      T l .i;- ;;;
 , t e e t a n d i r o n , i n fu ch la b o r ;o ul,u n d r ,
                                                          i          b e co *e
 q u a , l , t oh e g o l d . an dr u b ie s f tt.,.tn a i.r , - - - ' " e-_
                 t                                 o                              -
        v y n e nt_ e a f l a tr s l th e fo cie ty r e o n ce
                      n                  o                  a            brought
 t o . t h i s f i t u r r i o n ,a n a tio n m a y iofe m o ft
                                                                            ir r ? r -
 r e r g nt r a d e , a n d , y e tco n tin u ra g r e a t a n"i p o we r _
                                                                       d
 rur peopje,                      j t ra n g e r .s n o t- r a ke
                         . . dfl r y
                             t                   will             a n y j:r ticu -
 r i l r . c o m m . o o i o u r .s,             we m u { t ce a fcio ' la b o u r
 I n r f . l h e i a m e h a n d s r vill tu r n r h e m fclvcs
                                                                                 to -
wards-        fome refinement other commodities,
                                              in                            which
may be wanted at home. And there muft
                                                                                 aL
w a y s b e m a t e r i a ls l th e m to \vo r k u p o n :
                                        fo                                       till
elery perfon in the ftate, '',vto potf.flJ, ,i.h.r-
e , n l o y s .s g r e a t p le n iy_f lto r n eco r n m cd itie s,
               c                              o                                anj
t n o t e r n a s g r e a t p e r fe 6 lio n ,s h e d e fir e s;wh ir " lr
                                                      a
c a n n e v e r p o l h b Jy a p p e n , Ch in ais r cp r e fcn te d
                                       h                                          as
o n e o f r h e m o l t f l o u r iflr in g n r p ir ein ih e wo r ld
                                                   e           ,                    ;
                    n a sv e r y lir ile co m m e r ce e yo n d o wn
                                                              b          its
:lo9.gn.,t
teffttone s.
      I t i v i l l n o t , I h op e , b e co n fid e r cds a fu o e r flu -
                                                            a
ous                          i f, I h e r eo b fcr ve ,th a t, a s th i m u l-
         .drgreffion
n t d r o l m e c l r r n icaa r r sis a d va n ta g e o u s,is
                                       l                            fo th e
grrat number of perlonsto rvhofe                         "firare-thc
                                                                        pro_
d r r & i o n s f t h e f e r ir s fa lj. A r o o q r e a rcifo r o o o r _
                   o
t r o n a m o n gt h e c i tize n s .e a ke na n ! flr r e . '
                                          u            s              Eve r v
p e r l o r r i,J p o r l i b l e ,o u g h rto e n jo 1r,h e fr u its
                                                                       o f h ii
l i r b o u r ,i n a ^ f r r l l p o fle r lio n f' e il th e n e ce fl- r r ie s,
                                                o
a n o m a n y o l t h e co n r .cn ie n cie f life , No o n e
                                                      os
can doubt, but fuchan eqLraliry *olt tu:iolt. i"     is
h u l n a n n a t u r e ,a n d d im in ilh e s- m u ch fsir o n .r e
                                                            le            tb
bappit:rf,of the rich than it adris,o ,lnt oi ti,.
                                                                        POo l-.
  2 82 Essd,Y I .


 fft\#;}:.**rq*i*Jf{f^;i
                 1;
 *l$#**in*+'
       ,ffi
          Hkl:*.ii,lli
 fr,f*t$,ril,f
['f*;l*Trg[jff
fr#i"pflffiffi'
       iirT:#ll'i
;il;[#i'lk:t'.fiffi
           *;.it
riii:i[:,ll*,t iLliil*:,
  rii
fr]ffi#,:',ffi:ffi
                      Of Co a r M E Rc E ,                             283
!o work for lon' wages, and to retain but a fmall
part of tbe fruits of their labour, it is di6cult for
ihem, even in a free governmentr better their           to
condition, or confpireamongthemfelv€s height-                    to
cn their wages. B.ut even $'hcre ttrey are accuf-
tomed to a more plentiful rvay of liie, it is eafy for
the rich, in an arbitrarygovernment, confpirea-            to
 gzinft thenr, and throw the rryholeburtLcn of the
ia-'.erotr their {houlders.
      I t m a y f e e m a n o d d p o litio n ,llr ath e p o vcr tyo f
                                                           t
t h e c o m m o n p e o p le r F r a n ce lta ly,a n d Sp a in ,is.
                                    ir             ,
 in fome meafure,owing                      to the luperior richesof
 the foii and happlne{sof the clin.rate yet there              I
 want        nor reafonsto juftify this paradox. ln fuch
 a 6ne mould or foil as tbat of thofe more fouthern
 r e g i o n s ,a g r i c u i t u r c a n e a ly a r t; a n d o n c m a n ,
                                    is
 w f t h a - c o i p l e o f fo r r y h o r fe i, will b e a b le , in a
 f€alor, to cultivateas inuch land as will pay a pret-
 ty confiderablerent to the Proprietor. Ail thc
 art, wbi.h the farmerknows,is to leavehis ground
 fallow for a year, as foonas ir is exhaufted;and the
  warmth of tie fun aloneand tempet'ature the cli-               of
  mate enrich it, and reftoreits fertility. Suchpoor
  p e a l a n t st,t t e r e f o re r e q u ir eo n ly a fin r p le :r a in r e -
                                    .,
  nance for their labour. They have no {lock or
  riches, 'rvhichclaim more; and at the fametirne,
  thev are for ever dependant their landlord, who
                                                on
  qivis no leafes, nor fears that his Iand rvill be
  ipoiledby the ill methodsof cultivation' ln Eng-
  lind, the land is ric\.but coarfe muft be -culti-   I
  v a t e d a t a g r e a t cxp in cc,                              fle
                                                 a n d p r o d u ce s n d e r
  c r o p s ,w h e n - n o t ca r cfu lly a n a g cda n d b y a m e -
                                              m              ,
  t h o d w h i c h g i v e sn o ttlle fu Jl 1 ' lr ' o fit t in a co u lfc
                                                          bu
  of fevcralyeairs. A fartner, therefore,in'[ngJand
  m u f t h a v e ' a c o n f id e r a b le ck, a n da lo n g lca fe
                                             lio                              ;
                                              p
  r ' , h i c hb e s e t p r o po r tio n a l r o fits. T h e fin e vin c-
  v a r d s o f " C i r i n r p ag n ea n d Bu r g u n d y,tl:lt o ttcn
  i:ield to the landlord above five pounds?cr acre,
  ire cultivatedby peafants,                 who havefcarcelybread:
                     (e g s l




          ESSAY                       IIT.

                 O f M oNr y .

lVI O N E Y is not, properlyfpeakinq,one of
the fubje&s conrmerce 6ut 6nly the iiftrum.nt
           of        I
which men baveagreedupon to facilitate the ex-
change of one commodiry another, It is none
                              for
of thi wheelsof trade: li is the oil which renders
the motion of the wheelsmore fmooth and eafv. If
we confiderany one kingdomby itfelf, it is evident,
that the greateior lefs plinty of inoneyis of no conl
fequence-;  fince the prices'of commodities al-are
ways proportioned the plenty of money, and a
                     to
crown-inHarry \rll's. tjmefervid the famJpurpofe
as a pound doesat prefent, It is only tni pittic
rvhich drawsany advintageflom the gr'."t.r fl.nty
or moneyi and tna! onry ln tts wars and ncgoclatl_
ons with foreiEnftates. -And this is the readn. whv
all rich and "trading countriesfronr Carthasetl
 Great Britainand H;lland, haveemployed      meri.na-
ry troops, vhich they hiredfrorntheir poorerneigh-
bours. Were they to make ufe of- their native
fubie&s,theywould find lets advantase      frorn tbeir
fupirior riches, and fronr their qreatile'ntv of eold
and filver ; fincethc pay of a)liheir Tervants   fruft
rife in proportion thi publicopulcnce, Our fmall
                  to
                                                armv
   284ESSAYI.
   The reafonis, that fuchpeafants needno ltock but
  th.ei own limbs, virh inftrurnents hu{bandry.
      r-                               of
  which theycan buy for twentythillines. The iai]
         are                    -better"circumftances
  _mers commonlyin fome
  tn thole countries. Bur the grafiers   are moft at
  their eafeof all thofewhocultiiatethe land. The
  reafonis ftill thc fame. Men mult have nrofits
  proportio_nable to theirrxpence hazard, lhhere
                                 and
   l o c o n l t d e r a b la n u m b cro f th e la b o u r in g o o r a s
                                e                                   p
   the peafants           and farmers are in very low';ir;;_
   flances,a.ll the reft muft p"""t. of'tt.ir. poui.iv,
   whetherthe gov.ernment that nation be 'n,onai_
                                           of
  c n l c a to r r e p u b l lca n .
        We may. ibrm a fimilar remark with regard to
    ,
  the general hiliory of manhind. What is ?he;e;:
  l o n , . w h y n o p c o p le ,livin g b e twe e nth e tr o p ics.
  could.ever yet attainto any art or civility, or riach
  S v e n l l y . p o l i c e i n. th e g o ven m e t, "r id a n y m i-
                                       ir      r      n
     rary orlcrptlne wbtle lew nationsin the temperate
                            ;
  c l i m a t e s a v e . b e en lto g e th ed e p r ive d f tt.t! ,J_
                h                  a             r           o
  vantages lt is pr.obable
                 i                        that one caufeof this ohr_
 nolnenon is the warmth and equality of weither
 in- the torrid zone, which render                 ilothls          fr""i.,
 lefs requifite for the inhabitants,and therebv re-            ""a
 move, in part, that neceffiry,               which, is the great'fpur
to rndultry and inventjon. Curit acuenlnprt'alia
torda, Not                   mention, that the fev.,er          n""ar'"a
porletlrons -to kind aly peopleenjoy, i-hefewer
                   ot this
               s
q u a r r e r a r e l l k e l y - toa r ile a m o n g { th e m , a n d th e
                                                        l
r e l sn e c e r r y - w l l lt h e r € e fo r a fe ttle d o liceo r r e .
                                       b                    p
gurar autno.rrry prote& and defend
                           to                             thim from fo.
rergn enemles, trom eachother.
                          or




                                                     E S S A1
           299 )




   ESSAY           III.

     OfMoNrr.


          jrii"f.ffilf
ql'f;fl:i+i -,,;#..$
         fl
fitrfi*fiiffir**l
illqnTH#**Hif',*
$:l*ls,i+trti
l;*ri*ffi
       u.i.'i**np'g       army
  3o o                ESSAY                       III.
   army of 2orolo men is maintainedat as grcat ex.?
   p e n c e a s a F r e n cha r m y twicea s n u m e r p u s, T h e
   Englilh fleet,during the larewar, requiredas much
   mone to fupport ir as all rhe Roman
             y                                            legions,which
   kept the whole world in fubje&ion,during the time
                       r
  o t t h e c m D eo r s ",
      'fhe greater numbcr of peopleand their srrate[
  i n d u f t r y - a r ef e r vice a b le - a llia fe s; a t h o ;e a n d
                                         in
  abroad,in private,and in public, But the greater
  plenty of nroney,is very limited. its ufe, an? mayin
  evenfometimes a lofs to a nationin its commerce
                             be
 with foreieners.
      There fiems to be a happyconcurrence caufes               of
 in human affairs,which cieiks the growrh of trade
 and riches, and hinders them from-bcins confined
 , c n t i r e l yo o n e p e o p ) c; a s m ig h cn a tu r a lly a t Ar ft
                 t
 be drcadedfrom the advantages an eftablilhed        of
 c o m m e r c e , Wh er eo n e n a tio r i a s so tte nth e fta r t
                                                  h
 of anotherin trade, ir is vcry difiiult for the lat-
 t e r t o r e g a i nr h e g r o u n d it h r s lo ft; b e ca u fc fth e
                                                                    o
f u p e r i c r i n d u f t r ya n d ikill o f th e fo r m e r , a n d th e
greaier {locks,_of which its merchantsare pof-
feffed, and which cnablethEm to trade on fo niuch
fmaller pro6ts. But thefeadvanttges                       are compen-
f a t e d ,i n f o m e me a fu r e ,b y th e .lo w p r ice o f ia -
b o u r i n e v e r y n a tio n wh ich h r s n o t a n e xte n five
commerce,and does not much abound in eold.
and filver. Manufa&ures,                   thereforeqradually        Thift
their places,leaving thofc countriesind provinces
w h i c h t h e y ) r a v cclr e r d y e n r iclr e d , n d fyin g to
                                                         a
o t h e r s ,w h i t h e r t h e y a r e a llu r cdb y r h e ch e a [n e fs
of provifions and libour ; till they have enriched
thefealfo, andareagainbanifhed the fanre           by             caulei.
A n d , i n g e n c r a l,r ve n r a y o b fcr ve ,th a t r h e d e a r -
n e l ! o [ e G r y t h i n g , fr o m p ]cn ty o f m o n e v. is a
                          ,
d i f a d v a n t a s en h iih a ttcn d sa i cfta b lifh e d - co m -
merce, an-dIets boundsto it in, everycountry,.qy
                                                               enaDIlng

                       ' S e eNO T E [ P ] .
                        Of Monry,
 enabling the poorer flares to underlel the richei
 In alt torergn markcts_
  , This has-made me entertaina doubtconcerninE
 the benefitof
              -banfu andpoper_rr"di,;i.i;-;;?
 ro genera y elteemedadvantageous                      to every na-
 rron, I hat provilio-ns                  labour {hould betorne
 oear , tile encreale -and
         Dy                       of trade and money, is, in
 many refp,e€ts, inconvenience;but a'n'incon-
                           arr
 venlence that is unavoidable,and :he eft.e& of
 that p}blic wealth_and             profperity*f,i"tr ure-airt-o
 eno ot tll our wrlhes. lt is compenfated the                  bv
 advantages,         which we reap from tire pofefi6n of
 thete precioos metals,and rhe weight,'which thev
 grve rhe nation in all forei;a wars and negocia'-
 rrons._ .|Jut there appearsno reafonfor enireaf_
 rng. that inconyenience a counterfeit money,
                                     by
 wnlcn lorergners            wrll not acceptof in anv pav_
 m.ent, and which any great diforder in tti. haie
vnll reduce to nothing. There are, it is true,
 many peoplein every rich ftate, rvhohaving larEe
lurls ot rnoney,would prefer paperrvith good fi_
cu"lltyi^as.berng- more eafy tranfport and rnore
                            ol
l a t e c u l t o d y . I f th e p u b lic' p r o vid in o t a b a n k,
p n v a t c b a n k e r s r ll ta ke a d va n ta g e f th is cir _
                           w                          o
cumftance; as rhe goldfmiths               form"erly in Lon_
                                                        did
don, or as the bankers do at prcfenl in Dublin:
A n d t h e r e f o r ei r is b e tte r , ir ' m a y b e th o u sh t.
that a public companylhould enjoy the benefiioi
that paper-credit,           which alwayswiil haveplacein
e v e r y o p u l e n tk i n g d o m . Bu i to e n d e a vo ua r ti_
                                                                r
hclally-to-encreafefuch a credit, can never be the
rnrerelt
           -o_l   .any trading nation; but muft lay them
under drladvantages, encreafing  by                money leyond
Its.natural proportion to labour and corirmodities,
and thereby heighteningtheir price to the mer-
c n a n t a n L [n r a n u ta Ctu r e r An d in th is vie w. it
                                        .
muft be allowed, that no bank could be more
advantageous,           than fuch a one as locked up ali
                                                                  !r e
                        6r
     302                            b           Y       IJI.
                           .,
    rbe rnoney it. received and neveraugmented
                                                  the
    clrculatrng corn, as is ufual, by returininE
                                               part of
    lrs trcalure tnto commerce, A public binir.
                                                   bv
    this expedient,
                 migJrt
                      cut
                                     "S' -ir.[ "lih;":l*ii
    rngs or pnva-tebankcrs and money-jobbers;
                                                                and
    llouql T.   l r a te _ o r e th e ch a r g e ' 6 f fa la r ie s
                         b                                        to
    rne drrectorsand tellersof this bank (for,
                                                           accord-
   ing^to.thepr.eceding  luppofition, ,,j"ia'il*'.
                                   ii
                             the
   |ji.!:,_tj"T..," .dealings), narional           "'.
                                          advanrage,
     r e l u t n n g r r o m th c lo w p r ice o f la b o u r a n d
     (IetrruCtron p-aper_credit,                                            in i
                        ot                      would be a fufficient
    compenlatlon,
                               _Not to rnenrion, that fo laree a
    rum., tyrng ready at command, would be "con-
                                                                      a
    veJllence       tn .tlnrrs ol great and public dangerand
    clrrrels; and.what parr of it was ufed mi;ht
                                                                             be
                            rlure, $ hen peace and tran!uiility
   :.?":.-X "l ,le
   rvas rettored to the nation.
        But,of this
                            . f ub je &o f p a p e r e d irwe ( h a lltr e a t
                                                   cr
   more largely hereatter. I /hall finifh this
                                                                         ellav
   on money, by propofing and explaininqtwo
                                                                           ;b1
   terva ons,. whlch may perhaps,ferve t-o
                                                                    emnlov
   I n e t n o u g h t so t o u r fp e cu lr r ive o liticia n s.
                           ,                          p
       l t , y " r a . l h r e wd o b fe r va tioo f An a ch a r fis
                                                   n
   ^ c y r n l a n )w n o h a d n e ve r fe e n m o n e y               I th e
  J                                                            in h is' o wn
  c o u n t r y , . r h a rg o ld a n d filve r fe e m e d ' to n
                                                                tir
  ule. to the Greeks,.               but to aflift them in nume_       "i " "
  r a 0 o n a n d a r r t h m e r ic, It is in d e e de vid e n t,
                                                                         th a t
  morey is nothing but the reprefentarior;l l;b*;
 a n d c o m m o d r u e s,n d fe r ve s n ly a s a m cth o d
                                 a             o                            of
 r a u n go r e l t r m a t ln th e m . Wh e r eco in is in q r e a te l.
                                  g
 p r e n r y ;a sa g r r a t erq u a r ) tity fit is r e q u ir e d
                                            o                     to " r e n r e -
 t e n tt h c l a m eq u a r) tity fg o o d s ir ca nh a ve
                                    o          ;                 n o e ffe &_
 e l r n e r g o o d . o rb a d , ta kin g a n a tio nwith in
                                                                     itfclf:
 a n y _ m o r en a n l t wo u ld r la ke a n a lte r ltio n
                   t                                                  on a
merchanr's
       books, inftead thet;l;;;jb";
            il      of

   ',This is rhecrfe wirh the bankof Amllerdam,
              \ua'nono lri' /uat pro/rttut ;a Li,tute rt,rt;/.
,od.'''u''
       Ol Mo

 'x',.:,:#li:'
$*fi i."H*: r,,':
          t*t1",.t
                 ifii
iT*#,',ffimi:*
*g$;ru"g;r
*n*tm$,,ndffiffi
*t*r;,i:.m$;,ljffi
#g*;*inrtrti*
*rui#;$s,,g$iir#
ft$i#ntrfi**f
     J -.t              ll                     Y       ilt.
    t i o n , w i t h . t h e ne w q u ? n t;tyo f fp e cie
        *i:
    ,'1,'.*;l *.ffi..,tJ I! l_::r t:
           T;,. il?l:" l*
                                                           wb ich is in



                     i: ffl'iJ'"
       lf"'-",T[i;i:'J1[ ii: "',i:
   i#Il' in,o, n",ion,'ll
   rsrmporred
   ff#;l :T""             is connned
                         ':"X:1't"itorft":ifl
                                     rothe
            ?:Trol?:j;,'.our
   elRrp't :oad,anrage.
                     il;J'iT.'t^'illfr.l::
   ruracturersor merchants,rve
                               ilrall fupoofc. wh.
             j'Lo1l.r"l{,,Xl,o"i]';.in"-::l:
  *i;:n'[:;"i."1"1
  Dreo       tb emplov more workmentiian formerly, who
       ':ffi
      ef ,;iJ"'"T'i,11*,1
  ;I:"J' beconre th:rr%f rergives
                               * *nlj:
 i1_T::1T." butfcarce, e.niu ufatlu
 nlgner wages,-                 at firft requiresan enc.eaieof
 l a b . o u r ;a n d t h i s is u illin g ly iu b r n ittcd
                                                              t" tu - tt- .
 arElran,     who ctn now eat and drinli better to torn-
 p c n f a t e h i s a d d i tio n ato il a n d fa tig u e ,
                                     l                       il.;;;
 rrs                to markrt, s.here he findseverv thino
      ,money
 at tne lame price as formerJr, but ,eturd,
                                                                    witf,
 ST,';*r"l,",iii-tfr        \ rn s, rortr u
                                d       ie re
 th€t
                  *:,:l'J',"
                ,Xu
     authe;r     cornmodities                                :i:X:
l:raT
                                  ",.',Xt.f^J*:i;?,f
      v ' r h . a l a c r ity to th e r a ifin g m o r e ' ;' a n da t
, ; I . , I 1 q . t r m c c a n a ffo r J to ta ko b e r te r
                                                            andmore
ciotns ftom thcir tradefmen,whofe price
                                                                is the
rarne as iormerly, and thcir induftry only
                                                              whened
o y r o . m u c h n e w g a in . It is ca ly r o tr a ce
                                                              th e m o -
li.t"uil,"i,nHl*lii',ililil..}..;'ii,-l'';"'*lT:il|:
en   t n e d l t i g e n c e F e ve r y in d ivid u ;r l, e ffte ' it
                           o                           b              en_
c r e a r et h c p r i c e o f la b o u r .

,.*il,l jt;,ilr'i;il"". illl,,ioln..ll
                     i,I,i'
       ;Lx', inftances,
pears,among'{t
                                   :
             other     from                           the fr.quiit
             3                                          6peraiions
                    OfMoNsv.                    J" J

                                            where
oDerations the Frenchking on the moneyi
          of
                                           or tne
it'was alwavsfound, that thc augmentatron
                                a
                 did not produce ProPortronal   rrre
numerarv rlalue
ofthe orices.at leaftfor fometime' ln tne lalt ycar
;i i;J;                                   but
           iln' ;on.v *.t raifed e-fevenths'
                               thre
                                         now
                                         is
                       ont' Corn in France
t.i*t
                                             or
iold at"t--.",.a-oniy or for the lame numDer
        thi fameprice,
i;;;:                                             at
          i;-;;; i; iosr ; tt'ougt'filverv:s tl)en 30

            :r'l.rJrili;*l,lY
l*t*}iri*i^l{jl*i"ff
              "r' l;';
               ir1'li
ilttn***+ifi#ilTlTilrsr'r
         1"":l;':';'I
:;;;.;Tm;'.:'i;frif''*"'iitr
               lil' .i
                  il::Td
       u:ill:i'i',iftlil.'
[::"l;lf         li'i'
         **:,ld::,1; ;:ltl.xil
 ;:"l'."Ti': ;l;'*ii *'#
            :'
 i';t :*:ih::
            :l1[[_:"]i._\ilr:
                    ixd'*,Ll,
 $"lY];l:,T {ii.,:,'it"*J
               JJ"i*l iH
          tr*,'ilr          !;
 ni,rli'ru+;#iT:i[:"iif
            i:'ihh',':"il
          ''ll;H ;'m,
 $:ffi+i"ffi t"r"#
              ;:il*
 :itxd jq-:*St"r*minirlEt
       1;r
            j;: '"? T"".w
 [irfifttH;ti': tt':1%n
              fl       ;               his landlord'
  ,'h::gli'ffi;ft r,'l tr;- 11" r€ntto

                  * See
                      NOTE I Q-.].
  3a6       ESSAY          I[.
  The poverty, beggary, iloth,whichmult en-
             and      and
   l u f , a r ee a ll Y l o re le e n .
       IL The fecond obfervatlon                rrhich I propofcdto
  make_vishregardto money,mf,ybe explaiied after
  t h e l o l l o w l n gm a n n r r , f. h er e a r e fo m ekin g d o m s,
  a n d t n a n y p r o v i n ce s Eu r o p c, ( a n d a ll o T th e m
                                    in
  were oncein the famecondition)                   u'hcremonevis fo
  fcarce,      that the .landlord get nore at all from his
                                         can
  t e n a n t s ; b u t i s o b lig e d ta kch is r e n rin kin 4 a n d
                                        to
  eirher to confume hi':tfelf, or tranfportit to jaces
                               it
 wherehe rnayfind a market. ln tbofecountries,                       tlre
 princecan levy few or no taxes, but in the fame
 manner: And as he will receirre                    fmall benefitfrom
 impofitionsfo paid, ir is evident              that fuch a kinsdom
 has little force evenat home; and cannot rnaintain
 fleetsand 4rrlies to the fameexr€nt,as ifevery part
 qf it abounded gol{ and 6lver. Theve is fuiciy a
                         in
 greaterdifproportion              between forceof Germany.
                                              the
 a.t prefent, and what                    was three centuries    ago i,
 than there is in its.induftry,     -it
                                             .people,   and manifai-
tures. I he Auttrian dominionsin the empireare
i ; r g e n e r aw e l l p eo p le d n d u cll cu ltiva r e din d a r c
                   l                  a                        ,
o l g r €a t e x t e n t; b u t h e r e n o t a p r o p o r tio n a b le
w e i f h t i n t h e b a l an cc [.fu r o p e ; p r o ce e d in ga s is
                                   o                               ,
conrrnon)y           fuppoled,frorn Lhe fcircirv of ironev.
How do ill ihefe fae[sagree rvichthai principleof
r e a f o n t h a t t h e q ua n r ity f e o ld r n d filve ris' in it-
              ,                         o
feif altogether         indifferent A"ccor,jing that princi-
                                        i               to
p1e,    wherever fovereign lunrbersof fubje&s,
                       a               has                         and
rhefehaveplcntyof commodities, flrould'of        he             courG
b e g r e a ta n d p o w e r lu l, n dr h e vr ich a n d h a n o v.in -
                                     a
                                         r
d e p E n d e n tf t h e gr ca te o r le fr cr b u n d a n .' "' Jf "
                  o                               a                 th
preciousmetais, Thefe aduritof diviGons                      and fub-
divillons to a great              extent; and where the piices
                        -fo
might become                  Imall as to be in dangelof being
                                                                lqft,
  I The lt"lians gaveto the EmperorMaximilian, nick-
                                             the
nameof Pocci-danari.Noneof the enterprifcs that prince
                                        of
ever Iilcceeded rvant of money.
               for
                             Of Mo:
    Ioft., isgaty
        it      to^.mix *,j l, nf
                       ,n.
    metat,as. pra&itedin fofie countries*i,f," Ujill
                                    "* of Eu.op.,
             is
                         ;i,
                     ".,tffll;_:1,:';ri
           ll;i,:".it:;,?*
   ffit.i:f exchange, ,fr.i,
   fl.p^*:          whaterir
   oe,ir      whatever
                     colour they *"y b. ""*il..',n^i
                                        f"pp"i;j";;

   r,#l[l'i: i:T',ll'i-rj"x':*::r etr1g
                             s":-the h.e-re
   ill'l:L*#**,ir_t?"ri:ili#
            Ltti$.:d,?"TJx1.,:;.lt*
   llxu;h,.11'66f; ;"r';,.'";;:
        bv whichwecanreconcils
  X',':;:)l):'
         f.."rrr a maxirn.almoltfelf_evident,
  ..-,I-,, ot
  pnces every_                              that the
                    thing depend tt,. p.o.o*ion bl_
                               on
       ""ll ilff il,i
  ::.'"'f,.'i:l':X" I?;, ;*:ruit :
         ff
        i?:j:i i::# :xt:it
  diln"iff:i, .".:i,T:i ".
 money, they rife     :.;           iheir value, As, on rhe other
 h a n d , a d i m i n u.in n f th e fo n n e r ,
                              t io o                  in d th " t o fth e
 l a t r e r , n a v ec o n t r ay tcn d e n ci( s,
                                  l
     I t i s , a l f o v i d e nr ,ih ath e p r ice s o n o t fo
                      e                 t           d
 , epend
 d                                                                  m u ch
               o n t h e a b f o lu te u a n iity f co m r r r o d i;ie ;;;;
                                      q          o
 iil3'.""',,,l3li,T:,,-T;[f; ffi: ':J#J:lX?.:,_T,f
 K e r ,a n do f t h e m o n e yr vh ich "u la r is. If
                                        cir             r h eco in
 oe tocKed rn chefts,it is the fanre                    rhing r.,ri1i1
                  .up                                                  1s-
 g a r q . o p r r c e sa s i l ir r ve r e n n ih ila r e d ; e
          r                 ,                a              ifth co m _
                                 d.in magazines granaries,a
                                                     and
iif_"lIr^o"",,h""rde
r K e e n e c t o l l o w s . As r h e m o n e y n dc6 m m o d itie s-
                                                    a
r n , r n e t e c a l c s ,e v er r n e e r , e y ca n n o ta fe 6 t
                         n                  th
onter, \\ ere we, at any time, to form                               .a cli
             .                                             conie&rires
                       g
c o r l c " c r n r ltrh e _ p r r cef p r o vifio n st e co r n .
                                    o                th            wh ich
rne tarm-er        nluit relervefor leedand for the mainte-
nance of hinrfclf and family, ought n.u.",o
                                                                   ."i..
                                       x z                           into
  3o g                 E S S. A                Y       I iI .
  into the eftimation, ft is only the overplus,
                                                                     com.
  pared to the denrand,that determines ualle.-              tirej
 . To app^ly           thefeprinciples, muft con0d.i ihat.
                                               ".e d
 l n t n e h r t t a n d n r or eu n cu lti\a te a q e s f a n y ftite .
                                                              o
 e r e f a n c yh a sc o n l b u n ileh e r *a n t. lu ir h,h ;iJ.];;:
                                            d
 ture, mcnJ content with tbe produceof thejr own
 f i e l d s ,o r l . i t l r r h oler u d e im p r o ve n te nwh ichr h e v
                                                                ts
                     s
 t n e m l €l v ec a n r v o r kr :p o nth e m , h a vcIittle o cca fio i
 f o r e x c h a n g e a t l ca ftfo r r n o n e y,u ,L iclr , y a g r e c-
                             ,                                   b
 ment, is thc comnron
                    mcafure .*.hrneJ. ili.
                          ti
 wool o[ the farmer's             own flock, f1:uni" fll               fo_
           ,"9 wrought by a neighbourir,g                lr."u.r,"""
lt]Il e l y e s l s . p a y m e n t
rec             h                  in co r n o , *o il, fu filce s r "-l;
                                                                       fo
t u r n r t u r e n d c l o a th in g . lh e ca r p e n te rtlr e fm ith ,
                a                                             ,
r n e m a 1 o nt,n e t a r l or , r e r e ta in e b y r va g e o f a
                                 a                d             s    lil< c
n a t u r e ; a n d t h e l a n d lo r d im f- lf,' d r u e ilin g th e
                                         h                        in
neighbogrhood, contentto recdivef.,i,,.""t';" ,i,.
                          is
                   i
c o m r n o d i t ser a i f e d y th efa r m e . T h cg r e a te r a r t
                               h               r                     p
oJ  t n e l en e c o . n l u me s h e m e , in r u ftic h o fp ir a lir v:
                                 at
 l ne.r.ett,     perlraps,hc difpofes fo. mon"l to r'he
                                               of
D e r g h D o u n ntg w n , wh e n ceh e d r a wsth e le w m a _
                        o
r e n a l so t h l s e x p c n ce n d Iu xu r y.
                                  a
                  mcnbeginro rc6nJon all theleenjoy_
-.Py .     "l:n d l r v en o t a lwa ) sa t
n r e n t s ,a                                   h o n r e ,r o r a r eco n te n t
 w l t t rw l ) a tc a nb e r a ifcd r h cir n e ig lr b o u r h o oth,e r e
                                       in                                  d
 is more excirangeand conrnlerceir                               ti"li,
 morc noney cnters                                          "
                                  into that exchange, The tadcf-            ",iJ
t n e n w i l l n o r b e pa i,lin co in b ." ca u fe e v.l,a n r  th
                                                   I
                      g
J o m e t h r nm o r et h a nb a r c,y ca t, T h e fa r n ,6 r
                                             to                            eoes
beyond hrs.own prrilh for rhc conrmodities                             he i,ur-
c i l a l e s ,a n d c a n n o t h va ys r .r yh is cr m m o d itiisto
                                   a         cr
t l l e , m e r c h a n t l r of up p lie h im .- T h e h n d lo r d Iivcs
                           w                s
r n t h e c a p l t a l ,o r i n a fb r e ig n u n r r l,;ln d
                                                co                   demarrds
n r sr e n t l n E o ; da n d filve r ,wlticlrca ne a filv tr a n f.Se
P o r t e dt o h i r l l . G re a t u n d e r ta ke r s, n d ' n r r n u fa c_
                                                             a
ttrrers,                n r c r c ha n ts,r ifc in e ve r y co m m o d ity:
                                        a
                 -a c d
i r t r r l . t n e tDa ' rc o n Ye n ie n r d e a l in n b r h in r
                     r                       ly                        b u t ' in
t l ' r c r t . A r r d c o n f e q u e n r ll., th is fitu a tiJn
                                              in                        o f fo -
                                                                        cletv,
                                     OfM o wr v.
                                                                           309
      ciety, the coin enrcrsinto maoy nlorecontra6ls,                      and
     by that meansr s mu ch m o r e e m p lo ye d a nin th e    th
     former.
          'Ihe-neceffary          e{ic€tis, that, pr.ovided monevrhe
                     c
     e n c r e a ln o t i n t h e n a tio n ,e ve r y in r m u ftb e co m l
                                                       th
                               ir
     m u c h . c h e a p eu t im e s o f in d u ftr va id r e fin e r n e n t.
     t h a n r n r u d e , u n c u ltiva tea g e s. ir is th e p r o p o r tij
                                               d
     o n .b e r w e r .tn e c i rcu la tin g o n e y, n d th .' co m m o _
                           h                  m          a
    o r t l e s . r n h e n r a r ke t,wlr ichd e tir m in e sth e p r ice s,
                     t
     ttoods, tllxt are con[umed horne,or exch'anped
                                               at
    w i t h o t h e rg o o d s n th e n cig h b o u r h o o n .u .i.o "r r r J
                                  i                            d,
    to malket ; they aft'edt in the leait tbe curr'ent
                                          noi
    l p e c r e w i t h r e g a r d ir r h e ya r ea s ifto ta lly a n n i_
                                      to
               ,;
    n a t e d _a n dc o n l cq u e n r ly ism e th o d f u fir ieth e m
                     ;                      r ir            o
   t r nK s t h c p r o p o r r i o n n r h e fid eo [ th e co m m o ' d itie s.
                                      o
   a n d e n c r e a f e s e pr ice s. Bu t a fte r *o n a y.a n ," r ,
                             th
   l r l t o ^ a l lc o n t r a €l s d fa le s,a n d is e ve r ywh e r eth e
                                    an
   mealure of exchange,tLe famenationai                         ca{hhrs a
   Inuch.grerter            tafli to perform; all cornnrodities           are
   t n e n r n t h e m a r k et; th e fp h e r e f cir cu la tiois e n _
                                                     o                 n
  l a r g e d ; i r i s t l : e f a meca fea s il r h a t in d ivid u afu m
                                                                         l
  wcre to. fervea larger.kingdom and therefore,the  ;
  proporrion           beinghereleffeneJ the fideof the mo_
                                                 on
  n e y , e v r r y r h i n g m u ft b e co m ech e a p e ra n d th e
                                                                  ,
  p nc e sg r a d D a l l ya l l.
                                t
       By the moft exaG computations,                    that haye been
  -
  J o r m e d l l . o t e r E u r o p e , fr e rn :a ) < ina llo wa n ce r
                 a                        a                g             fo
 the alteration tbe numeraryin                    valLie"or denomi-
                                                             tlre
  n a t i o n , r i s f o u n d t h a tth e p r .iccsf a ll th in e sh a ve
                i                                     o
  o r r l y r i [ e n t h r e e ,o r a t m o ft, fo u r tim cs,fin ' ceth e
 dilcovery the Weft Indies. Brrtwill anyoneaffert.
                    of
 t h a rt h e r ei s n o t m u chm o r etb a nfo u r tim e sth e co in
 i n E u r o p e ,t h r r r v asin th e filte e n thce n tu r v.a n d
t h e c e n t u r i cp r e c e d inicI T h e Sp a n ia r d s d id o r tu -
                         s              g                      an
             e
g - u e f f r o m . t h e i rr l i n e l, th e In g lilh , F r e n ch ,a n d
I)utch, by their Africantrade,andiy their interiooers
in the Weft-Indies,bring homeaboutfix millionsa
year, of which not abov-e third goesto the Eaft.
                                           a
                                                                    Indies.
.3 to               E SSAY                       IIL
I n d i e s , T h i s f un r a lo n e , in te n ye a r s,wo u ld p r o -
b a b l yd o u b l et h c a n cie n fto ck o f m o n cyin Eu r o p c,
                                         t
Ard no other fatisfa&oryreafoncan begiven, wiy
all prices ltavenot rilen to a mpch :nordexorbitani
height, exceptthat which is derivedfrom a change
of cuftomsand manners. Befides that
modities are producedby additionalinduftry, the              -ot" "oit-
famc commodiries               .o-.            to market. afiei'men
depart      l i o m t h c ira n cie n-or.p licity f m a n n e r eAn d
                                        t
                                        fim         o                .
though rhis encrcafe noi bee-n    has                equal to that of
moncy, it has, howevcr,                 beenconliderable, has    and
prefervcdthe proportionbetween                    coin and comnro-
ditiesnearerthe ancientftandard.
    l,I/crc the queftionpropofed,Which of thefc me-
thodsof iivirrgin the people, fimpleor refined,is
                                      ' r o the
t h e m o f t a d v a n ta g e o u s th e fta t; o r p u b iicI I
{ h o u l d , w i t h o u t n iu ch fcr u p le ,p r e fe rth i la tte r , in
a viewto politicsat lcaft ; and {houldproducdtbis as
a n a d d i t i o n arlea lo n r th e cn co u r a q e m eo ftr a d e
                                 fo                              nt
and rnan        ufa&ure    s,
    While men live in the ancientfimplemanner,                       and
fupply all rheir neceflaries               from domlftic induftry or
from rhe neighbourhood, fovereigncan levi no
                                          the
taxesin moniy from a confiderabie                     iart of his fub-
j e €t s a n d i f h e wili im p o fco n th e m a n y b u r r h e n s,
        ;
h e m u f t t a k e p a yr n e n in co m m o d itie s,
                                    r                        *ith wh ich
alonethey abound; a method anendedrvith fuch
great and obvious inconveniencies, they need           that
not here be in{iftedon. All the monev he can ore-
t c n d t o r a i l e ,m uftb e fr o m h isn r in cip acir ie s,
                                                           [       wie r e
a l o n ei t c i r c u l a te s;a n dth e ie ,it is' e vid e n t,- ca n n o t
aflbrd him fo muchasthe wholeltatecould,did gold
and filvcr circulate           throughoutthe whoh, But-be-
fidesthis obviousdiminutionof the revenue,                       thereis
anotber       caufeof rhe povertyof the public in {uch a
lituation. Not only-the lovereign                   rlceiveslefs nro-
                 -
ney, but the fame moneygoesnot fo fir as in times
o f i n d u f t r y a n d g en cr a l' cd m m e r ceEve r .y in g is
                                                        ,        th
                  .Of
                        Mt




itlxiffiru-;r":;,l
_nI T.. #tilTfi
 Lf i,ri f :lj:i:i#l,i;}
                             Ij:i:n:
ffittffi[: r{iii
*ffi$$f'tr'F#H*TT
$ffiffi
ff*tffffi
$[n*{i[iF#T#H]ffi            Iived
 ' Lib. ii. cap, t5:
3 t2EssaYIII.
lived morefociablyanrongft              themfclves     than the Ro-
Inuls;   t o t t t r a t , ln         e n tr r ta in m e n t, ich , a s
                                                           wh
                              - €vcr y
rorergn mrnrlters,they received,                 they fti)l obferved
tne Iamc platear cvery,tablc The abfolute
                                        f,                    quanti-
ty or tne prccrous          metals a matterof sreatindiffer-
                                   is
ence. There areonly two circumltanies anv im-             of
portance,namely, thi:ir gradualencreafe,                    and'their.
thorough conco€tion              anii circulationthioueh the
Itate ; and the influence both thefecircum-ftances
                                   of
has here beenexplained,
    ln^th_efollowingEffay *e fhall fee an inftance a             of
-..
Irke.lallacy tl)ac
              as            abovementioned where a colla_
                                                   ;
teral effe& is taken for a caufe, and where a con{e-
quencc, afcribedto the plentyof moneyi rhoughit
         is
De rea y.owing to a cbange the mannersand-cuf-
                                       in
romsot the DeoDle.




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