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Leisure At The International Scale SPORT


									   Leisure At The
International Scale:
                        Cross Country
Rank   Country    No. Of Participants In Global Top 200   GNI Per Capita (2007) US$
 1     Kenya                       58                              1,600
 2     Ethiopia                    24                               700
 3     USA                         13                              46,000
 4     Japan                       12                              33,800
 5     Morocco                     10                              3,800
 6     France                      10                              33,800
 7     Spain                       9                               33,700
 8     Portugal                    7                               21,800
 9     UK                          6                               35,300
 10    Russia                      6                               14,600
Rank     Country      No. Of Participants In Global Top 200   GNI Per Capita (2007) US$

 1     USA                             96                              46,000
 2     UK                              27                              35,300
 3     Japan                           16                              33,800
 4     Australia                       16                              37,500
 5     Sweden                          13                              36,900
 6     South Africa                    5                               10,600
 7     Argentina                       4                               13,000
 8     Spain                           3                               33,700
 9     Ireland                         2                               45,600
 10    Germany                         2                               34,400
Factors Affecting Participation In Sport
 • There are many variations of sporting activity by
 • The USA, for example, is strong on Baseball,
   American Football, and Basketball.
 • In contrast, Cricket is largely played in parts of the
   former British Empire.
 • Galic Football and Hurling are played almost
   exclusively in Ireland.
 • Australian Rules Football is played mostly in… (wait
   for it)… Australia.
 • Global sports include REAL Football and Athletics.
                 Physical Factors
A number of Physical Factors have an impact on sporting
participation and success such as…

• Skiing and winter sports are associated with areas, such as the
  Alps, that have regular and reliable snow in winter.
• Coastal areas with large plunging breakers produce ideal
  conditions for surfing, such as Hawaii and California.
• Hilly areas can promote mountain biking, as in the case of
• Rivers and lakes promote fishing.
• It has been suggested that the increase in red blood cell
  concentration at high altitude favours long-distance runners in
  the high-altitude regions of Kenya and Ethiopia.
               Human Factors
• Most sports take place in sporting venues, such as
  tennis courts, football pitches, and swimming pools.
• Thus, physical geographical factors might not be as
  important as human factors.
• There is a strong correlation between economic
  wealth and the provision of sporting facilities.
• Most golf courses are found in MEDC’s and NIC’s.
• An obvious exception to this is the large number of
  golf courses that may be located in LEDC’s for the
  benefit of tourists.
             Political Factors
• The “Eastern Bloc” uses sports to show how
  successful the communist system is.
• The Emergent Nation Model for South-East
  Asia and Africa often uses organisations such
  as the police force and the army to develop its
  sporting talent.
• The American Model is based on competition
  and rewarding success.
             Political Factors
• In the UK, the government has attempted to
  use sport to develop underprivileged areas and
  rural areas.
• In some LEDC’s, a lack of funding means that
  sports resources are limited.
• This is especially important in explaining
  variations in success in sport.
• Within the education system, boarding schools
  are often seen as having superior facilities to
  day schools (non-boarding).
              Social Factors
• Some people cannot afford membership fees
  associated with certain sports.
• Golf clubs are generally expensive.
• Boxing is a sport generally associated with a
  working-class population.
• Polo is another sport that is largely the
  preserve of the wealthy.
            Cultural Factors
• Low participation of Muslim women in
  Athletics and Swimming.

• The convention for Muslim women to remain
  robed means that successful Muslim athletes,
  such as the Moroccan middle-distance runner
  Hasna Benhassi, receive much criticism at
    How can various factors affect peoples’
participation in sport for those living in MEDC’s,
         NIC’s, and LEDC’s? (15 marks).

Explain your answer commenting on Human,
physical, political, social, and cultural reasons.

        (Maybe a table would be useful)

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