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									Judy Echeverria
Annotated Bibliography
Student and Career Development Theory Outcomes
November 17, 2009

Arthur, M. B. (2008). Examining contemporary careers: A call for interdisciplinary
    inquiry. Human Relations, 61(2), 163-186.

    The article is a transcript from a presentation reviewing theories associated with the
    study of careers. The two primary traditions presented are organizational theory
    from schools of management and occupational theory from schools of education.
    The term “career” in occupational theory (education discipline) stems from
    vocational guidance. Careers are seen from the perspective of the individual and
    how the individual manifests “career” in a lifetime. Whereas “career” from an
    organizational perspective (management discipline) is more aligned within the
    organization’s perspective of how the individual interacts with the organization or
    the environment. “Boundaryless” careers, “protean” careers, and “kaleidoscope”
    careers are terms developed within this tradition. The author suggests that the
    organizational perspective uses similar tenets like identity development, impacts of
    social networks, and integration of work and family roles.

Bresciani, M. L. (2008). Global competencies in student affairs/services professionals: A
    literature synthesis. College Student Journal, 42(3), 906-919.

    The development of a list of global competencies is created based on a literature
    synthesis related to multiculturalism, diversity, globalism. The list includes ten
    competencies categorized as knowledge and skills for student affairs practitioners.
    The actual practice of implementing the competencies into services or programs
    includes five steps. The first is the need for self awareness and developmental
    theorist are cited (Erikson, 1968; Gilligan, 1981; Kohlberg, 1976) to support the
    need for self awareness. The synthesis is an effort to provide competencies that lend
    themselves to measurements. The final step for practitioners refers to evaluation and
    outcome assessment. Bresciani states, “practitioners should adapt competencies into
    outcomes that represent their organizational values, limitations, and strengths.” The
    author suggests that the process of outcomes evaluation actually reflects and
    incorporates the “intellectual inquiry of diverse thought” and can be considered an
    expression of a global competency.

Green, A. S., Jones, E., & Aloi, S. (2008). An exploration of high-quality student affairs
    learning outcomes assessment practices. NASPA Journal, 45(1), 133-157.

    A qualitative study of three universities is used to explore assessment methods to
    measure learning outcomes. The article mentions how outcomes were selected
    briefly and what kind of learning is measured in the outcomes. The method to select
    the participants screened out developing or immature assessment practices and the
    goal was to select institutions with more involved and mature practices of
    assessment. The study found that institutions are measuring lower levels of learning:
    remembering, understanding and applying. Affective domains related to managing
    emotions was only 20% of measured learning outcomes.

Grier-Reed, T. L., Skaar, N. R., & Conkel-Ziebell, J. L. (2009). Constructivist career
    development as a paradigm of empowerment for at-risk culturally diverse college
    students. Journal of Career Development, 35(3), 290-305.

    An empirical study used to measure empowerment (a shift from resignation to
    control) toward career decision making of 66 first year college students in a career
    planning. Measurements of empowerment were determined by pre and posttest
    using the Career Thoughts Inventory and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy
    Scale. Constructivism is discussed as a viable approach to educate and empower
    students regarding career planning. Rather than an emphasis on trait-factor theory
    alone to inform individuals of careers, constructivism is allowing the individual to
    create meaning with regards to personal career path. Self efficacy toward career
    decision making is a desired outcome of the approach.

Magolda, M. B. B., & King, P. M. (2007). Interview strategies for assessing self-
   authorship: Constructing conversations to assess meaning making. Journal of
   College Student Development, 48(5), 491-508.

    A presentation of two interviewing strategies that allow data collection for outcomes
    related to student development and maturity. The strategies described were parts of
    a qualitative study and an assessment of a higher education institution. Self-
    authorship is a term describing the three dimensions of development:
    1)epistemological, 2)intrapersonal, and 3)interpersonal. (i.e. thinking, feeling, and
    social) The author cites theories of student development which capture the concept
    of self authorship including Chickering, Perry and Josselson. The primary tenant is
    the development of an identity (thoughts, feelings, and relationships) that withstands
    external pressures, an identity that is developed and owned by the individual. The
    article discusses the interview method used in the study as not only producing data,
    but serving as an intervention lending itself to the development of self authorship.
    The authors maintain that self-authorship can be measured using constructivist
    interviewing methods. The method provided a richer picture of how the individuals
    made meaning of their experiences.

Perry, J. C. (2009). A combined social action, mixed methods approach to vocational
    guidance efficacy research. International Journal for Educational and Vocational
    Guidance, 9(2), 111-123.

    An examination of vocational guidance outcomes is compared to outcomes in social
    action theory. The author suggests vocational guidance incorporate tenets from
    social action theory. To make effective changes in society, a desired outcome of
    social action theory, the author suggests expanding the individual quantitative
    outcomes of job attainment and graduation rates to include qualitatitive research
    methods and results. Research on self efficacy for decisions regarding one’s career
    is not connected in research to “life success” which could be measured as annual
    income or college enrollment. School-to-work programs which tend to measure
    aforementioned quantitative outcomes are not linked with data regarding annual
    income and college enrollment.

Strange, C. C. (2004). Constructions of student development across the generations. New
     Directions for Student Services, (106), 47-57.

    A discussion of generational cohort differences is presented and how those
    differences can be used to revise current theory on student development. Theory on
    careers is also mentioned as being a product of the generation from which it came.
    The concept of independence is reflective of the characteristics the recent generation
    of students, Millenials, present upon entering higher education institutions. Prior
    generations, like the post WWII generation, created theories, like trait-factor theory,
    that reflect the need to normalize and categorize individuals.

Super, D. E. (1954). Career patterns as a basis for vocational counseling. Journal of
    Counseling Psychology, 1(1), 12-20.

    This conceptual article presents the idea of career patterns as useful to vocational
    guidance. Career patterns are identified in the individual to determine how
    individuals make vocational choices. The idea of career patterns as being
    complementary to trait theory is discussed in depth. From career patterns, themes
    would be highlighted and more effective vocational guidance could be provided.
    Patterns, or themes, would provide further data of how the individual interacts with
    the environment. The interactions impact the development of vocational decision
    making. The author emphasizes the need for further research to define patterns.

Tomlinson, M. J., & Fassinger, R. E. (2003). Career development, lesbian identity
   development, and campus climate among lesbian college students. Journal of
   College Student Development, 44(6), 845-860.

    This empirical study explores the relationship between career development, lesbian
    identity development, and campus climate for 192 lesbian college students.
    Instruments were selected to measure 1)lesbian identity, 2)vocational decidedness
    and efficacy, and 3)the “developing purpose” vector in Chickering’s theory.
    Findings indicated that positive perceptions of campus climate were aligned with
    greater vocational decidedness and efficacy for students. Students who perceived
    more positive environments also expressed a more defined lesbian identity. Those
    students who felt the campus climate to be negative also measured lower in their
    career decidedness. The author states a desire to link vocational theory with student
    theory. Points are made regarding identity issues that can be addressed through a
    positive campus climate.

Wendlandt, N. M., & Rochlen, A. B. (2008). Addressing the college-to-work transition:
   Implications for university career counselors. Journal of Career Development, 35(2),

    This article is a review of literature to identify traits in the transition from college to
    work for college students. The three factors are a change in culture, lack of
    experience and skills, and inflated expectations. Models of organizational
    socialization are used to frame the discussion. Transition into an organization begins
    prior to organizational entry. The authors suggest practice should reflect an
    understanding of the anticipation, adjustment and achievement phases of entry into
    an organization. Using aspects of career development theory as it pertains to
    transitions from one reality to another.

Wolf-Wendel, L., Ward, K., & Kinzie, J. (2009). A tangled web of terms: The overlap
   and unique contribution of involvement, engagement, and integration to
   understanding college student success. Journal of College Student Development,
   50(4), 407-428.

    Terms used in student development theory are clarified through two stages of
    interviewing and a literature review. Involvement is related to activities the student
    participates in and focuses on the behavior of the individual. Engagement is a
    contractual relationship between the student and the institution. The measurement
    unit would be the institution. Integration focuses on the acceptance or rejection of
    the societal and cultural environment of the institution of higher education. Vince
    Tinto and A.W. Astin are interview subjects. Tinto mentions the idea that theory of
    integration may need to be re-addressed as it served its purpose to turn attention to
    retention issues in students of color. The terms are used to develop measurement
    units to evaluate what an institution can do to provide opportunities that lead to
    degree attainment.


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