Issues and Challenges in Physical Education and Sport

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					Issues and Challenges

     Chapter 14
    Issues and Challenges
   Leadership in consumer education and physical
   Promotion of values
   Conduct of youth sport programs
   Name debate
   Gap between research and practice
   Promotion of daily, quality physical education in the
   Advocacy and the professionals’ role
   Attainment of physical activity goals in Healthy
    People 2010
   Promotion of lifespan involvement in physical activity

   Leadership in physical activity movement
   Promotion of affective development
   Leadership of youth sport programs
   Growing field of physical education and
   Closing the gap between research and

   Daily quality physical education K-12
   Advocacy
   Attainment of national health objectives
   Lifelong involvement in physical activity for
    all people
        Leadership in Physical Activity
   We have a responsibility to educate the public
    about the benefits of physical activity and fitness.
   Let public know which programs meet health
   Professionals’ leadership
      Corbin: Seek active leadership roles

      Ewers: Be “pace setters” of the exercise
      “Because it falls within our domain.”
        Teaching Values
   Development of values, character, and ethical
    decision-making skills has long been touted as
    one of our primary purposes.
   Values commonly ascribed to:
       Cooperation
       Self-discipline
       Fair play
       Emotional control
       Teamwork
       Self-esteem and self-confidence
        Teaching Values

   Ethical and moral abuses associated with sport at
    all levels has received increased attention.
   Use of physical education practices that
    humiliate, embarrass, and belittle students have,
    unfortunately, been tolerated.
       How do these practices enhance individual
       How do these practices contribute to lifespan
   Careful planning by professionals is needed in
    order to structure programs to promote the
    development of values and ethics.
        Teaching Values

   Promoting an active lifestyle can be enhanced by
    the development of affective behavior in our
    program participants:
       Confidence in their abilities as movers
       Sense of self-worth
       Appreciation of the value of health and the
        contribution of physical activity to well-being
   Provide more individualized programs and
    empower participants to take responsibility for
    their lives.
     Leadership in Youth Sport

   Youth sports programs involve over 25 million
    boys and girls and 3 million adult volunteers.
   Purpose of youth sports:
       Promote the healthy physical, psychological, and
        social development of participants.
   Criticism of youth sports
       Overemphasis on winning and competition.
       Losing sight of the developmental focus of youth
   Need for physical education and sport
    professionals to assume a greater role in the
    conduct of youth sports.
       Young Athletes’ Bill of Rights

   Opportunity to              Shared leadership and
    participate regardless       decision-making.
    of ability.                 Right to play as a child
                                 and not as an adult.
   Participation at a          Proper preparation.
    level that is               Equal opportunity to strive
    commensurate with            for success.
    each child’s                Treatment with dignity.
    developmental level.
                                Have fun through
   Qualified adult              sport.
        Leadership in Youth Sport

   “Youth sports programs are neither inherently good nor
    bad.”... Their value depends on the quality of adult
    leadership and the supporting environment.” (Seefeldt)
   Volunteers should focus on promoting continued sport
    involvement of children rather than on winning.
   Volunteers should be aware of the reason’s children
    participate in youth sport and try to incorporate them into
    every practice:
       Fun
       Learn skills
       Be with their friends
       Excitement of competition on their own terms
            Improving Youth Sports

   Make changes to accommodate children of
    all abilities and interests.
   Continue research in order to base
    programs on sound principles.
   Develop and implement sound training
    programs for coaches.
    Leadership in Youth Sport

   Provide experiences that will “turn kids on
    to physical activity for the lifetime.” (Martens)
   Principle’s for Youth Sport:
       Modeling principle
       Reinforcement principle
       Self-determination principle
       Self-worth principle
       Fun principle
       Our Growth

   Since the late 1960s, there has been an
    increased depth and breadth of the field.
   Development of the subdisicplines has led to
    research traditions, professional
    organizations, and publications
   New and expanded career opportunities.
    The Field

   Concerns about fragmentation and
    specialization of the field.
   Important to recognize the role of each of
    the subdisciplines in achieving our
    mission of helping people to be physically
    active throughout their lifespan.
   Need to integrate our knowledge to
    better respond to the needs of individuals
    with whom we work.
What is the best name?
   Is it time for a “new” name for the
   Do we have a “confused identity that lacks an
    accurate concept of who we are, what we do,
    and where we are going?”
   What is the best name to represent
    physical education, exercise science and
    The Gap Between Research &
   Time lag between publication of research
    and the utilization of relevant findings.
   Critical to narrow the gap so that our
    programs are based on sound current
   A diversity of factors contribute to this gap
      Practitioner factors
      Researcher factors
      Closing the Gap Between
      Research and Practice
   Professional preparation programs better preparing
    students to interpret research and utilize the findings.
   Practitioners and researchers working collaboratively to
    investigate problems.
   Researchers addressing practical applications of their work
    when reporting findings.
   Research “translators”:
      Consolidate findings, identify practical applications, and
       disseminate easy-to-understand information through
       newsletters and journals.
     High-Quality Daily Physical
   Regular, appropriate physical activity
    can contribute to good health and
    enhance the quality of life for people of
    all ages.
   Therefore physical activity should start
    at an early age.
       School PE programs can reach over 50 million
        children and youth and help them learn the skills,
        knowledge, and values necessary to incorporate
        physical activity into their lifestyles.
        Components of a High
        Quality Program (NASPE)
       Instructional periods of 150 minutes a week
        for elementary students and 225 minutes a
        week for middle and secondary school
       Qualified physical education specialist
        providing a developmentally appropriate
       Adequate equipment and facilities
           Components of a High
           Quality Program (NASPE)
       Instruction in a variety of motor skills to
        enhance the physical, mental, and
        social/emotional development of each child
       Fitness education and assessment
       Inclusion of cognitive concepts
       Opportunities to improve social skills and gain
        a multicultural perspective
       Promotion of regular amounts of appropriate
        physical activity throughout life
        Components of a High-Quality
        Program (NASPE)

       Full inclusion of all children
       Maximum practice opportunities
       Well-designed lessons that facilitate student learning
       Out-of-school assignments that support learning and
       No physical activity for punishment
       Uses regular assessment to monitor and reinforce
        student learning
    High Quality Physical
   Each teacher must support the crusade for
    high-quality daily PE.

   Importance of shaping healthy behaviors,
    during the early years; harder to change
    unhealthy habits.

   Capitalize on current societal interest in
    wellness, fitness, and physical activity. Don’t

   Physical education and sport professionals must
    take an active role in promoting their programs.
   Must capitalize on societal interest in sport,
    physical fitness, and health otherwise there will be
       decline of PE programs in schools
       increased privatization of sports
       need for for health promotion and physical activity
        programs in the worksite, community, and medical
   Important to market programs to gain support and to
    involve more people.
   Our responsibility to address the tremendous disparities
    that still exist in physical activity and disease conditions
    according to race, ethnicity, age, sex, education, sexual
    orientation, ability/disability, and income.
   Increase access to, and promotion of quality programs.
   NASPE:
       May is National Physical Fitness and Sports Month
       May 1 to May 7: National Physical Education and Sport Week
   AAHPERD and American Heart Association
       Jump Rope for Heart
       Hoops for Heart
   National Girls and Women in Sports
   Passage of state and federal legislation
   Use various forms of media to reach
   Contact organizations that promote
    physical activity and health and ask
    them to become more “proactive.”
          Goals of Healthy
           People 2010

   To help individuals of all ages increase life
    expectancy and improve their quality of
   To eliminate health disparities among
    segments of the population, including
    differences that occur by gender, race or
    ethnicity, education or income, disability,
    geographic location, or sexual orientation.
       Achievement of National
       Health Objectives

   Take an active role in working with other
    health professionals.
   Personal commitment of physical education
    and sport professionals to be role models for
    healthy, active lifestyles.
   Attaining these goals with lead to an increased
    public recognition of the worth and value of
    our field, as well as increased employment
      Lifespan Involvement for All
   Expansion of physical education,sport programs,
    and services to new settings and population
        Preschoolers
        Adults
        Elderly
        Persons with disabilities

   Increased recognition that regular and
    appropriate physical activity can make a vital
    contribution to the health throughout the lives of
    all people.
     Lifespan Involvement for All
   Enhancement of quality of life and longevity.
   For maximum benefits, healthy habits should
    be developed early in life.
   Growth of sport involvement for all ages and
   Changes in our programs to accommodate a
    wider range of individual differences.
       Culturally competent and developmentally
        appropriate physical education programs.
        Lifespan Involvement for All

   Access to programs for underserved populations
    is critical.
       Growth of commercial programs for those who can
        afford to pay will limit participation by those who can
        not afford the fees.
       Access should be available to all individuals regardless
        of socioeconomic background.
   Professional preparation for students to work
    with an increasingly diverse population across
    the lifespan.

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