Ch. 7 by linzhengnd


    UNIV 1001
Freshmen Seminar
    Chapter 7

Listening, Memory,
  and Test Taking
             What helps listening?

   Decide to improve at listening
   Fight distractions with concentration
   Choose to listen even when info is dry
   Withhold judgment and negative responses
   Look for speaker’s organization, transitions, and
   Adapt note taking to speaker style
           What Hinders Listening?
   Caring little about the listening process

   Stopping listening with first distraction, or when
    losing interest

   Getting preoccupied with controversy

   Getting sidetracked by unimportant details

   Thinking about other things
          Stages of Listening
 Sensation stage
   – hearing
 Interpretation stage
   – attaching meaning to message
 Evaluation stage
   – deciding how you feel about message
 Reaction
   – Direct feedback
       Improve Your Listening Skills
   Manage listening challenges
    – Divided attention and distraction
        Shutting out the message

        Rush to Judgment

        Partial hearing loss and learning disabilities
        Improve Your Listening Skills

   Become an active listener
     – Set purposes for listening
           Why are you listening?
           What do you want to achieve?
    – Ask questions
           Seek information
           Clarity points
    – Pay attention to verbal signposts
           Transition words/phrases
              – For example.....Similarly
      How Does Memory Work?
 Encoding stage
 Storage stage
   – Sensory memory
           lasts only a second
    – Short-term memory
           10 to 20 seconds
    – Long-term memory
           relatively permanent
   Retrieval stage
      How to Improve Your Memory?
   Decide the information is important for you to
   Understand what you memorize
   Recite, rehearse, and write
   Separate main points from unimportant details
   Study during short but frequent sessions
   Separate material into manageable sections
   Use visual aids
   Flash cards are a great visual aid
    – Carry the card with you and review frequently
    – Shuffle the cards and learn information in
      various orders
    – Test yourself
     Making the Most of Last-Minute
   If you must cram.....
   Go through your flashcards
   Focus on crucial concepts
   Create last-minute study sheet with hard-to-
    remember material.
   Arrive at exam early and study notes
   At the start of the exam, if permitted, record
    helpful information on scratch paper or edge of
            Mnemonic Devices

 Definition: Memory techniques that associate new
  information with information you already know.
 Create visual images and associations
   – Much better memory for pictures than for words
 Idea Chains
   – Connecting images
 Acronyms
   – PQ3R
   – Roy G. Biv (colors of the spectrum)
        Using Tape Recorders
 Ask instructor’s permission
 Sit close to the front
 Take notes
 Make review tapes (audio flashcards)
           Improving Test Scores
   Identify test type
    – Short-answer
    – True/false
    – Multiple-choice
    – Essay
    – Combination
   Material covered
    – Single chapter or everything covered so far
    – On text, lecture, or activities
   Material covered (continued)
    – Predicting what’s on the test
          Instructor clues
             – Topic mentioned more than once
             – “One of my favorite topics”
             – Information written on handout, board, or overhead
          Use PQ3R to identify important ideas and facts
          Ask former students about course exams
          Ask if there are old exams to see
       Use Specific Study Skills
 Choose study materials
 Set study schedule
 Prepare through critical thinking
 Take a pretest
 Become Organized
 Use Pretest Checklist p. 207 Figure 7-2
              Prepare Physically
 Get plenty of sleep
 Manage stress
 Eat well
    – Sugar and caffeine increase anxiety which
      interferes with memory
   Set two alarms, if needed
          Conquer Test Anxiety
 Prepare so you feel in control
 Put test in perspective
 Make a study plan
 Practice relaxation
Returning Students and Test Anxiety
   Acknowledge skills gained from life
    – Time management skills learned from
      balancing work and family
    – Understanding of economics and relationships
          Coping With Math Anxiety
   Attitude creates the anxiety
   Mathematical thinking is a type of critical thinking
   Math can help you get good job
   Use positive self-talk
   Don’t believe that some people can’t do math
      Coping With Math Anxiety
 Use the people and resources around you
 Become comfortable with math
   – Computer math games, math puzzles
 Find daily applications
   – Shopping
   – Checkbook
   – Percentages for loans
         General Test Strategies
 Before you look at the test, write down formulas
  and key information (if instructor permits)
 Skim the entire exam
   – What type of questions?
   – How many questions?
   – Are all questions worth the same amount of
           Know the Ground Rules
 Read test directions
 Begin with parts that seem easiest
 Watch the clock
 Do intelligent guessing
    – Eliminate what you are sure is wrong
   Follow directions on machine-scored tests
Use Critical Thinking to Avoid Errors
   Recall carefully
   Think about similarities
   Notice differences
   Think through causes and effects
   Find best idea to match example
     – e.g. formula that applies to problem
   Support ideas with examples
   Evaluate each test question
    Master Multiple-Choice Questions
   Read the directions carefully
   First read each question thoroughly
   Underline key words and phrases in question
   Pay special attention to ONLY, EXCEPT, NOT
   If you don’t know answer, narrow down choices
    Master Multiple-Choice Questions
 “Always, never, all none, or every” are often
 Look for patterns
   – Middle value in a range
   – If two choices have similar meanings, one is
     probably correct
 Read every word of every answer
    Master True/False Questions
 Look at face value, do not search for hidden
 Guess unless you are penalized for wrong answers
 Qualifiers are significant -“all, only, always,
  because, generally, usually, and sometimes”
              Essay Questions
 Focus on what the question is asking you to do
 Watch for action verbs
    – analyze, compare, contrast, criticize, define, describe,
      discuss, list, explain, evaluate, illustrate, interpret,
      outline, prove, review, state summarize, trace
       Essay Questions (cont.)
   Budget your time and begin to plan
   Create informal outline or think link
   Support your ideas with examples
   Write legibly
   Reread for ideas you left out and mistakes in
    grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage.
          Techniques for Math Tests
   Analyze problems carefully and include all “givens”
   Write down formulas, theorems, or definitions
   Estimate answer before you begin
   Break the calculation into the smallest possible pieces
   Recall how you solved similar problems
   Draw a picture to help you see the problem
   Take your time
   Be neat
   Use the opposite operation to check your work.
   Look back at question to see if you did everything
        Learn from Test Mistakes
 Did you make careless mistakes?
  – Misread question or directions
  – Blacken the wrong box
  – Skip a question
  – Use illegible handwriting
 Did you make conceptual or factual errors

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