Acknowledgement

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					Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


                                  Acknowledgement


        First and foremost I would like to thank my supervisor Mr. Lili Budiman for

being a supportive mentor all these time during my project development.       His

guidance and assistance had helped me in finishing this project on a higher level of

standard.    Besides my supervisor, the second most important person that I would like

to show my gratitude is my project advisor Mr. Chau Kien Tsong for being such a

helpful hand in which he had provided me with many opinions and criticisms towards

my work.      His professional point of view towards the system allowed me to look at

the project in a larger scale and thus improving on what is lacking.



        Lastly I would like to show my appreciation to everyone who was involved in

this project; these people include a local drift expert Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng for being

such a good sport for teaching me so much about drifting and also letting me ride in

his drift car; Mr. Tan Wei Chai for being a close friend and also a good criticizer for

my system from a user point of view; Mr. David for testing out my system from time

to time and giving me informative feedbacks on how to make the system better; and

also Mr. Smurf who had helped me heaps in 3D modelling.



        Without the help of these people, my project would not have gone this far.        I

am deeply satisfied with the outcome of this project and also feeling fortunate to gain

the help all I can through the development of this project.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       -1-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


1-1        Introduction


1-1.1 Overview


     At this decade, information technology is growing rapidly as information can be

found at many sources and also be presented in many different ways. This is also

where software based learning applications comes into play, many industries

nowadays are slowly adapting to electronic learning, rather than the traditional face to

face training programs, it is a scene where computer technology are proved to be very

useful and helpful when it comes to assisting humans in achieving many things.



     This project is a Level Three Degree Project of Computing specializes in

Multimedia Technology.          The title for this project is called Interactive Drifting Guide,

a multimedia application whereby it provides guidance on Drifting. The guide

ranges from simple basics, to the in depth view of the techniques involved.          The aim

of this system is to provide Malaysians an all in one full package in learning Drifting.

Although there are no limitations of what software or languages to be used in this

project, the choice of the tools for the project are all carefully chosen and are meant to

work best for the development and achieving the requirements of this project.



     Throughout this report, details regarding the research and analysis work based on

the Drifting will be documented and shown here, things such as the description of the

problem areas, the goals, the objectives and also the deliverables and others.         All the

design phases, implementation and testing phases will be documented from time to

time during the development of the project.         This not only works as a requirement


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                           -2-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


for the project itself, but it can also be a useful material for future references.   Least

but not least, this report uses the Harvard Referencing System, where information

from other authors will be properly referenced and cited, the originality of the source

will also be listed down on the bibliography page.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                         -3-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


1-1.2 Project Goal and Objectives


     The major goal of this project is to come up with a CD-based multimedia system,

called Interactive Drifting Guide.        This system is required to be developed within the

estimated time duration and meeting the user requirements by producing the expected

deliverables at the end of the development.



The objectives of this project are:

    To learn and apply the various multimedia and Human Computer Interaction

     Design Principles to the system design.

    To learn and master the advance features of 3D authoring tool and integrating it

     to the system.

    To come up with an All-in-one package, where the system includes guides to all

     aspects of Drifting, from the car, to the techniques applied.

    To design the system in which it provides detailed yet easy to understand

     information and guide about Drifting.

    Re-define information presentation with the use of different media elements such

     as videos, animations, or sounds instead of simple texts.

    To make full use of the resources and tools available, in order to come up with a

     product that meets the user or client‟s requirements.

    In partial fulfilment of the award of the level three degree requirement for

     Computing in Multimedia Technologies.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        -4-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


1-1.3 Target Audience


     User is one of the main concerns on how and why a system is been developed,

for this current system, the target users have been categorized into three types:



Race Drivers – These are the people that are active in the motor sport scene, with that

said, it also means that they conclude a greater chances in getting into this Drifting

sport.

Drifters – For the ones that have already been Drifting for a while or just got started,

this system will be helpful as well as it can be referred as an extra guidance material

or knowledge.

Typical users – These would be the normal people of all ages, they can be teenagers,

or even old man, this system is free for all, it doesn‟t require any special skills

requirements in order to use it, yet it provides guidance to the users of what Drifting is

all about.



     While the scope of the users is being narrowed down to three categories, it is also

to be ensured that these users would most likely be Malaysians only. The purpose of

this system is to accommodate to the Malaysian needs in terms of Drifting and its

appropriate knowledge and guide. There are no limitations to the age, basically

anyone that owns a personal computer may use this system as they like.



     Further analysis on the scope of the target users will be covered in the primary

research chapter.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                         -5-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


1-1.4 Feasibility Study and Rationale


     A feasibility study is defined as an evaluation or analysis of the potential impact

of a proposed project or system.         Its sole purpose is to assist the developer in

determining whether or not the project should be implemented or continue.



     Because of the existence of the identified problems which will be further

described in the second chapter, there is a need for such a system. This project

consists of a multimedia application which provides guides to the world of Drifting.

The system will be using multimedia elements to improve the interactivity and

usability. The benefits gained from this project are:



Tangible benefits:

Profits and attention gained for the local motor sport scene – The current motor

sport scene here in Malaysia are lacking proper popularity, the sport is not growing as

fast as the rest of the world, there are still a lot of Malaysians not having better

interest or involvement in this type of sports (with the exception of F1 or Super GT).

This Interactive Drifting Guide system will help introduce the local motor sport scene,

mainly Drifting, in an interesting and interactive way to help attract more audience

into loving and supporting this new sport, and thus providing the motor sport industry

a greater opportunity in gaining more attention and profit to keep the industry alive

and strong.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                          -6-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Intangible benefits:

User get to obtain extra knowledge besides Drifting – With the vast growth of auto

technology nowadays, people around the world are driving a vehicle each and

everyday, yet, news of drivers getting injured or killed in car accidents are also rising

every once in a while, the numbers are still increasing, even though the safety

technology implemented in the cars nowadays are getting better and better, yet the

problem lies within the driver itself, not the vehicle, the drivers simply lack of the

proper knowledge required while driving on the roads. The drivers may have the

basic knowledge in how to drive a car and obeying the laws, but some of them might

still lack the knowledge of how a car really works, and the technical driving

techniques which they don‟t learn during their driving license test;       with this system,

not only will the user get to learn more about how a car works, they also get to learn

more about driving a car to its extreme, how to control a car at its limits, this might

not be required on daily driving, but it may always come in handy one day if

something unprepared happens.



Reducing number of illegal street activities – Youngsters nowadays love to follow

the hype and then trying to imitate those stunts, not only are these sorts of actions

dangerous, but it also endangers other people‟s lives. This proposed system is to

provide the concept in which motor sport can be a healthy and fun sport when it is

done right and under a safe environment.           By providing the user better understanding

of the sport, they will be able to understand the risk involved as well; this system will

be able to guide the user onto the right track of safe motor sport, not performing

illegal street race or stunts on public roads.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                         -7-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


1-1.5 Project Scope and Deliverables


     This system introduces the basic elements and fundamentals of Drifting, from the

vehicle and the performance parts it uses, to the deep down techniques applied in

Drifting. The system itself will be designed specifically as a non-passive application

which allows a certain level of interactivity between the user and the system, the

overall features and function of the system will be done with the combination of 3D

interactivity, video presentation, animations, text, special effects, sounds and also

graphical images. The scope of this system is to provide essential information of the

basics and fundamentals of drifting and to provide interactive guides for the user to

have better learning experience and understanding towards Drifting, this project will

cover every aspect of Drifting, from the beginning until the end of this project, the

main deliverables are:



    Project Proposal Form

    Project Specification Form

    Soft cover documentation of the system

    Hard cover documentation of the system

    A prototype of the system application on CD




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        -8-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


     Interactive Drifting Guide will include a good variety usage of Multimedia

elements in order to enhance the interaction between the user and the system, the

main deliverables for the system‟s core functions are:



    The Drift Machine

    Drifting Basics

    Drift Styles

    Drift Techniques

    FAQ and Help

    Test it yourself




     Extra features are also been implemented to the functions in order to provide

better interactivity and usability to the system, those features are:



Video presentation

     Throughout the system, video clips will be used for further presentation and

demonstration purposes, these videos will be edited footage taken from various

sources.



Animated demonstrations and Sound

     The explanation of most information will be demonstrated with the help of

simple animations and also sound, sound as in voice output, instead of reading from

the text, the user also get to listen and see of what they learn.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     -9-
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


3D interactivity

     Interactive 3D objects are used throughout the system, especially for

demonstrating how a drift car works, whereby a 3D rendered car will be featured in an

interactive interface whereby user are able to open/close the door, hood of the car, or

to access the interior, engine or other parts of the vehicle to learn more.



Customizability

     The system will enable a certain level of customizability, for example, user get to

choose between different languages, or toggle on/off of the sounds and music.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 10 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


1-1.6 Evidence of Limiting the Project Scope


     For this Interactive Drifting Guide system, parameters are set to limit the scope

of the project only for the solutions and functions mentioned above, in other words,

functions which are not listed above will not be implemented or included in the

system, it is to be reminded that these possible features or functions will also not be

included in the system as well:



Simulations – Features such as simulation trainings systems in which it provides

simulated scenario and actions for the user to interact in real time and perform the

trainings, the system is a guide system and these sorts of simulation training features

will not be included.



Dynamic contents – Most of the system‟s content will be static, there will be no

options to update, modify or remove the content of the system, the only part where it

will integrate with the database is the main page where the users are required to sign

up as a registered member of the system in order to gain full access to all the

functions and features.



History of Drifting – The system will not include information regarding the history

of Drifting, as it is not necessary in this Drifting guide system.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 11 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


1-1.7 Development Plan


     While the project follows the four major phases of the Spiral model, I have

broken down the overall process to some more detailed tasks for the development

plan; here is a breakdown list of the plan with its possible durations:

Start date: 16th May 2005

Duration : 31 Weeks

End date : 18th January



    1. Project Definition

        Duration: 1 week

        Tasks:

                     Idea Generation

                     Project Title Selection

                     Feasibility Studies

                     Abstract Draft Project Proposal

    2. Project Planning

        Duration: 3 weeks

        Tasks:

                     Work Breakdown Structure

                     Schedule and Time Estimation

                     Critical Path Method

                     Gantt Chart

                     Project Proposal Form




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                   - 12 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


    3.     Requirement Analysis

         Duration: 12 weeks

         Tasks:

                     Identify project specifications

                        -   Project Background

                        -   Resources required

                        -   Techniques to be learnt

                        -   Goals and Objectives

                        -   Determine System Functionalities

                        -   Identify scope of research

                     Project Specification Form

                     Investigation ad Research

                        -   3D software

                        -   Action Scripting

                        -   Human Computer Interaction

                        -   Primary Research (Questionnaires, Interviews)

                        -   Current multimedia applications

                        -   User requirements

                        -   Drifting

                     Analysis

                        -   Domain analysis

                        -   System analysis

                        -   Risk analysis

                     Mid point Interview




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                            - 13 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


    4.     System Design

           Duration: 3 weeks

         Tasks:

                     Navigational Design

                        -   Use Case Specification

                        -   Data flow Diagram

                     Abstract Interface Design

                        -   Story Boarding

                        -   Content Design

                        -   Interactivity Design

                        -   Functionality Design



    5.     Production and Implementation

         Duration: 13 days

         Tasks:

                     Code generation

                     Media processing

                     3D Car Modeling

                     Module Integration



    6.     Testing and Evaluation

         Duration: 10 weeks

         Tasks:

                     Prototype Evaluation

                     Test Plans

                     Unit Testing


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Interactive Drifting Guide


                     Integration Testing

                     System Testing

                     Critical Evaluation



    7.     Project Ending

         Duration: 4 weeks

         Tasks:

                     Submission of the finished product

                     Presentation




     The tasks listed above shows the overall progress and time duration for the

thorough development of this particular project, some of the task may start at a similar

time with the other tasks as they have dependencies to each other, so overlapping may

occur and it will be expected. Research investigation and Prototyping will be the

two main priority tasks in this project, throughout the implementation phase, the

testing and prototyping will be carried out as it progress.



Gantt chart of this project can be found in the Appendices.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 15 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


1-2        Problem Context and Description


1-2.1 Problem Descriptions


        In the current motor sport‟s scene, there is a new type of driving style which is

now taking the world by storm, it is a unique sport called Drifting (A type of motor

sport whereby driver performs controlled slides around a corner), the sport itself has

been spreading world wide, starting from Japan, to the United States, United

Kingdom, Australia, and now to Malaysia, yet there are some problems coming from

this new sport, which had greatly affected not only to the society, but also to the motor

sport industry itself.



        Here is an elaboration of points describing the problem areas that have arose

since the arrival of Drifting in Malaysia:



Lack of proper knowledge and understanding towards the sport



     Drifting is considered as one of the newest and fastest growing sport in the motor

sport history, because of that, there are a lot of people, especially Malaysians who

have yet fully understand what Drifting is all about, people usually misunderstood it,

or even misinterpreted it, without knowing the true purpose, fundamentals, the basics

techniques and the rules of this new sport, things can go pretty bad.    Unlike other

type of motor sports, Drifting has yet to have a good range of facilities, trainings,

sponsorships and supports, this can be a problem for the drivers that are interested in

taking part, as they are forced to learn by themselves, what‟s worse is that they may


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 16 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


find themselves learning or experimenting using the wrong or ineffective concepts

and methods. Time, money, resources and efforts will be wasted because of this

problem. Drifting is the same as the other motor sports, it can be dangerous as well,

without proper knowledge and understanding, it can be a problematic and frustrating

experience for the ones that are truly dedicated and interested to the sport, but also

new and fresh to the scene. (Further details can be found at the Primary Research

chapter where it will showcase the survey which indicates and supports this

statement)



New hype, new threat



     Illegal street races or street stunts performed on the public streets have been a

well known issue throughout the world, this includes Malaysia as well. When

Drifting was first introduced, people were attracted to the sport easily, within a short

duration of time, it quickly became a new trend or a “cool” thing to do.     Drifting

brings great hype, heaps of rush and plenty of excitement to a driver, because of that,

car enthusiasts, illegal racers, or immature youngsters tend to follow the trend and

causing risk by bringing the sport onto the public streets, this sort of actions and

behaviours would have cause more havoc and threats to the public roads, lives as of

drivers, bikers, or even pedestrians‟ are endangered under these circumstances.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 17 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Incomplete information by different sources



     When something becomes real popular, the web will be scattered with tons of

information regarding of that new thing, the same goes to Drifting.       Drifting has

become so big and widely known by many people around the world, web sites that are

dedicated to drifting are getting more, even forums in which the people get to talk and

discuss purely on Drifting itself. With this much information scattered on the web, it

has become an issue as there are possibilities that these information may be inaccurate

or been misinterpreted.       Internet can be very powerful and helpful when it comes to

communication and network of information, it provides almost infinite amount of

resources to the seeker, but it can also be hazardous when those information provided

are inaccurate or fake.      Although there are other good sites which provide a good

range of information about Drifting, yet there are very few that provide a full aspect

of information which covers everything, from basic knowledge, to deep down guides

towards Drifting.      People may have read about Drifting, but it is also a possibility

that they have just read only a small part of the full story.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                         - 18 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Lack of attention and popularity of Malaysia‟s motor sport‟s scene



     Since the construction of SIC (Sepang International Circuit), Malaysia finally

had the chance to adapt and organize its own motor sport as the rest of the world.

Throughout the history, many great events have been held in SIC, with a few good

examples like the F1 races, Japan GT Championships, which gathered thousand of

spectators to the scene.      Yet, with the exceptions of F1 or JGTC, the other Asian

events such as the AFOS (Asian Festival Of Speed) was having low attention from the

public, the number of tickets sold were minimal, the worse goes to the local motor

sport events.    There are many who said that Drifting may be the new solution which

may bring Malaysia‟s motor sport‟s scene to a higher ground, and to attract more

supporters and fans to the scene.




1-2.2 Justification of Problem Stated


     Due to personal interests in the motor sports scene, the problems stated above are

all easily visible to anyone by speculating the outcomes from the local motor sport

events, the newspapers, magazines or even the online forums.        With these identified

problems, it has brought me with enough ideas of coming up with this plan of

building a multimedia application which could provide the local motor sport scene

with some assistant and guidance towards drifting.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 19 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3        Literature Review


2-3.1 Introductions


     For many projects of any form throughout the history, research and literature

review are what brings the developer in finding out the solution for the existing

problem. Research is an important factor in determining the success for this project,

as a good research will provide better insights and understanding of the desired data.



     The main subject here is drifting, and seeing it as a new born sport in Malaysia, it

is not an easy subject to be studied on. But drifting has caught my attention two

years ago, and this unique way of driving a vehicle has led me into this desire of

wanting to know more about it.



     From what I have learnt, drifting is still considered as a type of motor sport, but

it acts like figure skating, where style and showmanship plays a big role in it.         Unlike

racing, where drivers would compete with each other, trying to drive faster and faster,

with the fastest being the ultimate winner.        In drifting, being fast is not the real case

of concern for the drifters. The drivers that performs drifting aims to slide their cars

in the most smooth and well controlled manner as possible, and most importantly, as

from what many drifters have mentioned, drifting is all about having fun.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                            - 20 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2 Secondary Research


2-3.2.1          Academic


2-3.2.1.1        Drifting


What is Drifting?



     According to www.d1gp.com (a popular web site which is dedicated to the

world‟s top drifting competition, the D1GP), it is said that “Drifting is a high-skill

level motor sport in which drivers control a car while it slides from side to side at high

speed through a marked course”. The sport is said to be similar to the well known

rally racing, but the difference between rally racings and drifting is that the latter is

done on a closed, paved course and judged on execution and style rather than just who

finishes the fastest.



     The goal of drifting is to apply enough power to the rear wheels in order to break

the tires‟ traction and initiate a slide, or “drift”.   This also means that drifting is

mostly done on rear-wheel-drive vehicles only.          Once a drift is initiated, it must be

maintained through the turn using a precise balance control of power, braking and

steering. (D1 Productions, Inc. 2004)



     One may ask how is a drift performed, the answer lies within the laws of physics.

Drifting actually refers to the difference in slip angle between the front and rear tires

of a car. When the rear wheels are slipping at a greater angle than the front wheels,



Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                           - 21 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


the car is drifting, or as a more formal term, oversteering (Wikipedia 2005).     In

normal driving, there are two conditions in which a car can get into, understeer and

oversteer. Understeer happens when the front tires approach the traction limit more

rapidly, the effect is that the front of the car takes a wider radius curve (while taking a

corner) than the driver intended, which in other words, the car may not turn properly;

Oversteer is exactly the opposite, where the rear tires approach their traction limit and

causes the car to over turn, without the proper counter steering, the car will certainly

end up in a spin.




        Example 1. Understeer                        Example 2. Oversteer



     Drifting can also be referred as oversteering on purpose, while doing it on a

controlled manner. While the car is sliding, the driver actually applies throttle to the

rear wheels which will act as a force to push the car and keep the slide going, and the

front wheels will be utilized as a direction tool where it guides the car to where it is

sliding to. (Richard Bower 1998)


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 22 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


Drifting Techniques



     In order to perform a drift, it requires certain techniques to make it happen.

There are many different methods and techniques to start a drift.     From my research,

I have come up with a list of the more applicable drift initiation techniques, although

there are some more to be found, but they are not being used as much as the ones to

be mentioned here. The techniques mentioned here are referred from Keichi

Tsuchiya, also known as the Drift King, and also from www.driftclub.com and

Wikipedia.



Basic: techniques that does not require weight shifting:



Power-over Drift

     This is done when entering a corner at a decent speed, while applying full

throttle to produce heavy oversteer after it passes the apex of the corner.    Cars with

higher horsepower will be found more effective using this technique.       It is

considered as the easiest drifting technique and most recommended for beginners.



Emergency-brake Drift

     This is another commonly used drifting technique, it is very effective and

efficient and it is being used a lot by both beginners and experts. This technique is

done by pulling the emergency brake to lock up the rear tires so that it will induce

traction loss and then the rest will be balancing the drift through steering and throttle

control.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 23 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Clutch-kick

     This is performed by depressing the clutch pedal on approach of a corner or

during a mild drift, the driver then releases the clutch under power to give the car a

sudden jolt through the driveline in order to upset the rear wheel‟s traction, with the

traction loss, the car will then start to drift.



Advance: techniques that require weight shifting:



Braking Drift

     This technique is performed by trail braking into a corner, it causes weight to

shift and causes the loss of traction, then the slide or oversteer is balanced through

proper steering and throttle inputs.



Shift Lock

     This is performed by letting the car‟s RPM (rotation per minute) drop upon

downshifting into a corner and then releasing the clutch to put stress on the driveline

to slow down the rotation of the rear tires, which in turn induces over steer.     It is

similar to Emergency-brake drift, but it is usually recommended to be performed

during wet conditions to minimize driveline damages.



Feint Drift

     This technique is done by turning the car towards the outside of a turn and then

using the inertia effect of the car to swing it back to the desired drift line.   This

technique requires a whole lot of weight to be shifted; therefore the suspension of the

car should be setup properly. A common technique used by the professional rally

drivers.


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                           - 24 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Throttle-off Drift

     One of the more difficult techniques to perform, where it is usually done at race

speeds, when entering a high speed corner a driver lifts his foot off the throttle while

slightly turning into a corner to induce a mild oversteer and then balances the drift

through steering, braking and throttle control. It is recommended the car should be a

neutral balanced car so that this technique might work better.




Types of Drifting Styles



     In the world of drifting, all it matters is the styling, the car control and most

importantly the fun and excitement. The sport is a pretty subjective type of sport,

there can be drivers that have totally different styles in performing their own drifts.

A research based on the two most popular drifting styles is done here:



Speed (Race) Drifting

     This is a type of drifting where speed is all it matters, the drivers tend to drift

their cars through corners as fast as they could get. The driver would use racing

lines for this type of drifting and the angle achieved are minimal; with fewer angles in

a drift, the more speed you would achieve. Speed drifting was widely used during

the earlier days in motor racing, due to the lack of technology built in those old race

cars (such as traction control system), some of the more powerful race cars tend to

oversteer at corners, without sacrificing speed, the drivers then started to adapt to the

oversteering car and make the best out of it by maintaining the slide in a controlled

manner, while sliding, the car is at a minimal angle and the speed is maintain, it is a


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                           - 25 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


high level technique which allows the driver to tackle a corner at very high speed at

the car‟s limit.



Exhibition Drifting

     Also called Recreational Drifting, this is what the current drift trend is about.

The drivers that perform such drifting aim for the biggest angles, most exciting lines,

and with as much smoke as they could possibly achieve. There are many events and

competition been organized and they are all based on exhibition style of drifting,

where the judging criteria are mainly based on angles, line, and lastly speed. The

purpose of this type of drifting is all about having fun, speed is not as important as

mentioned in Race Drifting, although the faster the drift is, it still looks spectacular,

especially when it is done with big angles.



In exhibition drifting, it also consists of several sub categories such as:

Twin or Tsuiso (Chase and Run in Japanese) Drift – A type of drifting performed

by two cars, one would be following and the other one would be leading.          Twin

Drifting requires both drivers to go against each other in a coordinated drift.     When

the leading driver is drifting, the chaser or the follower will try his very best to keep

close to the leading car while drifting as well, if it is done right, the action can be

pretty intense and exciting as both cars are sliding laterally side to side with only

inches away from each other.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                          - 26 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


Tandem (Group in Japanese) Drift – This type of drifting is similar to twin drifting,

except that it is performed by more than two cars.      The objective is the same, as each

following car will try to stick as close as possible to the cars in front of them,

maintaining the slide through all corners in one consistent order.      It demands high

degree of team work and cooperation in order to get it right.



Manji Drift - Manji is a Japanese term, which in terms of drifting, would be referred

as fish tailing down a straight road. This is a popular drifting style whereby driver

purposely swings its rear of the car down a straight continuously. Manji is

sometimes used to link corners as well, for example, if two corners are separated too

far apart from each other, the driver would perform a Manji on that short straight, thus

eliminates the need of killing the drift, in the end it looks like the car is drifting the

two corners in one complete drift. Manji can also be done on multiple cars, though

in such cases, great control over the car is required, or else it would cause a big pile

up of crashes.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                         - 27 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Drift Setup



     Drifting requires certain types of vehicles to perform the perfect drifts, the best

platform for Drifting is rear-wheel-drive, as it provides the driver with the best

versatility the car has to offer and is able to perform the best looking drifts.   During

my research, it is also found that Drifting does not limit to rear-wheel-drive vehicles

only, even front-wheel-drive and all-wheel-drive cars can be drifted, with the proper

settings and techniques, they are able to perform similar drifts as the rear-wheel-drive

cars do. Due to the scope of this project, only rear-wheel-drive car and techniques

will be discussed and elaborated.



     As mentioned before in the primary research section, drift veteran Mr. Ee Yoong

Cherng had demonstrated several critical criteria and parts that should be focused on

while setting up for a drift car.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 28 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2.1.2        Human Computer Interface (HCI)


     In order to produce a good multimedia application, it requires a good HCI

concept behind the system.         HCI is the study, planning, and design of what happens

when a user and a computer work together. As its name implies, it consists of three

major components, which are the user, the computer and the interaction between these

two. (Nicky Danino, 2001)



Importance of HCI:

    To improve usability

    To improve utility or functionality

    To improve safety

    To improve effectiveness

    To improve efficiency

    To improve simplicity




Model of Interaction and Interaction Style



        According to Norman‟s Gulfs of Execution and Evaluation, when a user

interacts with a computer, there are a seven stages of actions involved, these set of

actions are:

    Forming the goal to achieve something

    Forming the intention on what has to be done to achieve the goal

    Specifying the action sequence in performing something

    Executing the action


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Interactive Drifting Guide


    Perceiving what is happening

    Interpreting or trying to make sense of the perceptions available

    Evaluating the outcome as in comparing what happened with what was wanted.



In terms of interaction styles, there are:

      Styles                                       Description

                      This is the first ever type of interactive dialog style to be used,

                      whereby user key in command lines using keyboard. This type of

                      interaction style can be found in DOS.



                                   Advantages                        Disadvantages

                           Offer direct access to system        Difficult to use

Command Line                functionality                        Difficult to learn

                           Quick to use                         Difficult for error

                           Easily extensible                     correction

                           Suitable for experience user         Difficult for novice user

                                                                 Text only data

                                                                  representation




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Interactive Drifting Guide


      Styles                                         Description

                      Menu is one of the most commonly seen and used interaction

                      styles throughout the whole world, there are few set of options

                      available on the screen, and it requires recognition rather than

                      recall.



Menu                                Advantages                       Disadvantages

                             Requires less memorization          Limited choices per

                             Structure the user‟s decision        menu

                             Easy to program                     Slow to use in large

                                                                   systems

                                                                  Take up more space

                                                                  Slow response time

      Styles                                         Description

Question/answer This type of interaction style consists of computer prompt, where

and query             the system may ask one question and requires a response from the

dialogue              user.

                                    Advantages                       Disadvantages

                             Easy to use for novice users        Requires reading time

                             Conversational systems              Limited support for

                             Computer initiated and               correcting errors

                              controlled dialogue                 Slow to use, each

                                                                   question needs to be

                                                                   answered to proceed to

                                                                   the next one.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                          - 31 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


      Styles                                        Description

                      This interaction style requires little experience with computers and

                      it enables the user to carry out repetitive clerical data collection

                      tasks.    It is usually designed for a specific type or task.

Form fill and                      Advantages                         Disadvantages

spreadsheets               Offers a neat, structured way         A form is designed

                            of gathering information.              specifically for one task

                                                                   only

                                                                  User will require a

                                                                   certain level of typing

                                                                   skill

      Styles                                        Description

                      This is one of the interaction styles that is considered to be most

                      effective and welcomed by a broad audience.          By using WIMP,

                      user carries out some physical action rather than typing commands

                      with complex syntax.

Windows, Icons,                    Advantages                         Disadvantages

Menu and                   Results are seen immediately          Less control over the

Pointer (WIMP)             Novice users get to learn the          system

                            basic functions quicker

                           Most actions are reversible

                           Users can be less anxious

                            using WIMP




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                           - 32 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Usability Principles



     Usability plays a major role in HCI; it is a structured presentation of general

principles to be applied during the designing of an interactive system.     Its main

purpose is to enhance the communication between human and computer.            The reason

why it is important is because it makes the differences between performing a task

accurately and completely or not.         A system with good usability design may

determine the success of a system, while a poor usability design could also reduce

productivity and waste more cost time and effort.



Usability consists of three major principles, these principles are:



Learnability

     The ease in which a new user can effectively learnt something and performs at its

maximum.       It consists of:

    Predictability – How well the user is able determine the effect of future actions

     based on past interaction.

    Synthesizability – Assessing the effect of past actions, providing users the

     feedback on how was the effect taken place.

    Familiarity – Shows how the user could apply his past knowledge to the new

     system.

    Generalizability – Extends specific interaction knowledge to new situations.

    Consistency – The similarity or likeness in both input and output behaviour

     arising from the similar situation or task objectives.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


Flexibility

     The multiplicity of ways in which the user and the system can exchange

information with each other.        It consists of:

    Dialogue Initiative – Allows either the user or the system to interrupt the

     opposites operations.

    Multithreading – Also referred as multi-tasking, whereby it provides user the

     ability to perform multiple tasks at one time.

    Task Migratability – The ability of user or system to take control of the

     interaction, in other terms, passing responsibility for executing a task between

     the user and the system.

    Substitutivity – Allowing different values of input and output to substitute with

     another one as long as they are equivalent to each other on a certain degree.

    Customizability – Ability for user to modify the current interface of the system.



Robustness

     The level of support provided to the user in determining successful achievement

and assessment of goal directed behaviour.            It consists of:

    Observability – Ability of user to know what the system is doing or its progress

     on performing a specific task.

    Recoverability – Ability of user to make corrections once an error was

     recognized. The correction can be done as forward recovery or backward

     recovery.

    Responsiveness – Refers to the response time in which the system takes to

     express state changes to the user.

    Task Conformance – Degree to which system services support all of the user

     tasks.


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 34 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Summarized Analysis and Conclusion



     During the research based on the sport of Drifting and also Human Computer

Interaction, it had helped me in gaining better understanding of Drifting in a greater

extend and also the importance of HCI in a system.        Not only that, these two topics

are been researched in order to assist in coming up with a good multimedia

application.



     This application will guide and lecture the user into the world of Drifting, in

order to achieve that successfully, proper HCI principles are required to be

implemented into the design of such application.        In the HCI research, the main

purpose of it is to understand the usage of the principles and methods, and knowing

how to apply them in the current system, which would assist in presenting information

to the user or providing interaction in the best way possible.



     For this Interactive Drifting Guide application, the WIMP method is chosen as

the main interaction style for the system, other methods to be used are Menu,

Question and Answer.         The former provides the user a set of options to gain control

or full access of the systems functions; while the latter one may be included in the

evaluation section, which is used to determine whether the user is capable of being a

part of the Drifting family.      Anyhow, the WIMP, Menu and Question/Answer

interaction methods are chosen because they all met the criteria in that particular area,

with their own specific advantages and disadvantages, they can be fully utilized into

the design and making the whole system better.



     As for the usability principles, they are also being implemented into different


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 35 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


components of the system.         The system is aimed to maximize the use of HCI

usability principles in the system to achieve the optimum user satisfaction and

acceptance. Further elaboration on how the HCI usability principles are applied is

available in the Implementation chapter.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                   - 36 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2.2          Technical


2-3.2.2.1        Developing Tools


     To develop a good application or system, certain tools are required to assist in

completing the task. Choosing the right tool for the right task can be crucial in

guiding the project to its success.       Some of the tools that are considered in

developing this project consists of normal vector based authoring tools, or even 3D.

With combinations of different tools and good manipulation, it is possible to come up

with good results in a more efficient way and also under shorter time. The base

developing tool that I have researched on are Macromedia Flash and Macromedia

Director, together with three other 3D developing tool that I have chosen, which are

3D Studio Max, Maya and lastly LightWave 3D.



Macromedia Flash

     Flash is a popular vector based authoring tool which is widely used in producing

graphics animation program or components that is viewable in a web browser.               Flash

is also been used most commonly in animated advertisements on web pages and

rich-media web sites. Flash specializes in vector images, and also ActionScript as its

proprietary scripting language.



Macromedia Director

     A powerful media authoring application which uses a script language called

Lingo.    It can incorporate many different formats thus making it possible to integrate

without re-encoding files.       It also supports vector graphics and 3D interactivity.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                           - 37 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Comparison between Flash and Director

     Both Flash and Director has their own specialized areas, advantages and

disadvantages.      Both tools are capable of producing great application if it is utilized

properly.    Here are some of the brief differences between these two tools:

(durbnpoison 2004)



                     Flash                                          Director

Specializes in vector images, and the              Not really good with vector images, but

editor for vector shapes is accurate and           handles bitmap images very well.     It

easy to use.                                       allows user to edit a bitmap images pixel

                                                   by pixel.



Produces SWF file and the size is smaller          Produces DCR file but the size is bigger.

due to vector images used.

Provides only one window for editing               Provides several windows for editing

                                                   purposes.



Enables greater flexibility in dealing with        Lack of flexibility dealing with movie

movie clips.                                       clips.



Uses Action Script, more procedure                 Uses Lingo, more objects oriented and

oriented.                                          the syntax is similar to Visual Basic.



Has not no so good stability                       Has better stability




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                             - 38 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


3D Studio Max

     3D Studio Max is a 3D authoring tool developed by Discreet.          It allows the user

to model different types of objects, and also create animations with different varieties

of effects and textures included.       In Studio Max, it provides scripting language called

the Maxscript for the user to perform further and more dynamic operations with the

things they have created.

    Widely used in gaming industry, due to better performance while dealing with

     low polygon rendering

    Includes user customizable interfaces

    It is cheaper compared to other 3D tools

    Many plug-ins available



Maya

     Developed by Alias, Maya is often considered as one of the most compared 3D

software with 3D Studio Max, because of its widely used popularity in the Hollywood

movies, it is known to be one of the greatest 3D developing tools on the market.

Similar to 3D Studio Max, it allows user to perform tasks such as modelling 3D

objects, to creating animations.

    Widely used in big Hollywood movies and animations

    Harder to use, but allow greater depth of control and customization

    Also includes customizable interfaces

    More expensive compared to other 3D tools




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 39 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


LightWave 3D

     This is a 3D development tool created by NewTek.       It uses LScript as its base

scripting language. This software is also one of the more commonly used 3D tools

in the 3D development industries. The feature and the function it provides are not

much of a difference with the two 3D tools which are mentioned above.

    Cheapest among the other two 3D development tools

    Easier to learn and use with good user interface

    Not very good in creating character animations as it does not have built in hard

     body dynamics



Swift 3D

     Developed by ElectricRain, Swift 3D is one of the first ever 3D vector based

animation tool available on the market, and it is also one of the only 3D tools that

directly integrates with Macromedia Flash and provides unrivalled vector rendering

quality and output style options.

    Very easy to use

    Direct integration with Macromedia Flash

    Creates impressive 3D vector images and objects




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 40 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2.2.2        Choosing the Right Tools


     With all four 3D development tools been briefly reviewed, it is found that the

three main 3D development tools, namely 3D studio Max, Maya and LightWave 3D,

all have similar characteristics and features amongst them, it is difficult to come up

with the best tool amongst them, while they all have their distinctive strong points,

they basically allow users to perform anything they want regarding 3D development.

All three software are great tools and are widely known and used by a lot of the

developers or industries around the world.



     The only thing that matters would be choosing the right tool that suits the users

own needs. Which in my case, I have chosen the Discreet 3D Studio Max out of all

three as my main 3D development tool for creating some of the 3D models which

would be included in my final system. The reasons that I chose 3D Studio Max are

also pretty simple, apart from the fact that I have past experience with using this

software before; it also has more reliable support from friends which could be very

beneficial in making full use out of this particular software.



     Besides 3D Studio Max, Swift 3D and Macromedia Flash are also chosen as the

main development tools for this project.           Flash is chosen to act as the main

developing platform for the whole system, even the programming flow will all be

done with the use of Flash Actionscripts, and it is a powerful developer tool.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 41 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Flash is chosen because:

    Familiarity with the interface and functions

    Vector images can be created and manipulated easily

    the Actionscript allows great control in developing an interactive system

    it works great at both online and offline as it          produces fairly small size of files



     Swift 3D was chosen to act as the main integration tool for both 3D Studio Max

and Flash. Due to the ability of integrating with Flash directly, Swift 3D would

allow great flexibility in creating interactive 3D environment and objects, with the

great extensive customizability of 3D modelling found in 3D Studio Max, it is

possible to import the finished model into Swift 3D, and then further convert it into a

3D vector object, thus making it compatible with Flash, which by then would allow

the developer to produce some very cool and nifty 3D interactivity applications.



Here is a diagram showing on how the three software tools get to work together

effectively:



                                            3D Studio Max                      Create models


                    Convert to
                    3D vector

                                                   Swift 3D                      Render
                                                                                Animation

                            Import


                                          Macromedia Flash




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                              - 42 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2.2.3        Techniques and Programming Language


     While choosing the right developing tools is important, it is also important to

understand how to utilize different developing techniques and also programming

languages to further enhance the development progress of a project.



2-3.2.2.4        ActionScript


     ActionScript is a type of scripting language unique to Flash.          In order to create

interactivity in a Flash application, ActionScript is the language to be used.        With

Flash chosen as the main developing tool for this project, ActionScript comes second

in playing the role as the main language to be used to develop the interactivity and

system flow of the entire application. ActionScript has rules of grammar and

punctuation that determine which characters and words are used to create meaning

and in which order they can be written.            For example, in English, a period ends a

sentence.    In ActionScript, a semicolon ends a statement. (Macromedia Flash MX

2004)



     ActionScript follows the ECMA standard for scripting languages, therefore it is

similar to JavaScript in many ways, if one is familiar with JavaScript, he would have

little problem in getting used to the ActionScript format and style. Although one

does not need to know JavaScript to use and learn ActionScript; however, it could be

beneficial if JavaScript is something that is what you have known.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                              - 43 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


     Some of the differences between ActionScript and JavaScript are as follows:

(Macromedia Flash MX 2004)

    ActionScript does not support browser-specific objects such as Document,

     Window, and Anchor.

    ActionScript does not completely support all the JavaScript built-in objects.

    ActionScript does not support some JavaScript syntax constructs, such as

     statement labels.

    In ActionScript, the eval() action can perform only variable references.



Advantages and Disadvantages of ActionScript

        ActionScript is not only a scripting language, but it is also an Object-Oriented

Programming (OOP) techniques. Some of its advantages and disadvantages are

stated below.



Advantages of using OOP:

Encapsulation – By “encapsulating” the code into a code structure that can be reused

and be unaffected by changes in the rest of the program, time in the current project

can be saved because the already working code are not broken with changes and the

code that is used frequently don‟t need to be rewritten anymore. Not only that, it

also helps to organize the code so it is easier for others to understand. (Gabriel

Gittings, 2005)

Portability, Scalability, and Manageability – One can affect an animation

dramatically by tweaking an equation or a few variables in its ActionScript. (Ian

Blackham, 2005)




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 44 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Disadvantage of using OOP:

Centralization – In ActionScript, the biggest difficulty that programmers have when

they start using flash is that the code can easily be scattered ever where, nested deep

with in movie clip after movie clip, which can make it very difficult to track down

bugs. (Gabriel Gittings, 2005)




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 45 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2.2.5        3D Modelling


     In the world of 3D, there are a lot of areas to be concerned, such as modelling,

animation, texturing, and also render. Each phase is related to one another, when all

is done accordingly and done right, and then he may come up with a good 3D

animation or model.



     I have chosen this great opportunity to venture into the realm of 3D model and

animation, here are some of the research I have done based on the techniques I am

going to apply in the system. Here three main phases would be discussed on how

the whole process of a 3D car is being created.



Modelling

     Modelling in 3D can be likened to sculpting. Many different techniques can be

used to create the objects in a scene.       In 3D modelling, there are several things that

need to be considered, such as vertex, edge, border, polygon and also element.         Each

of these plays a big role in coming up with the complete model.         There are many

different approaches in modelling an object, some of them are:



Box Modelling – One of the most common and easiest modelling technique used.

This type of modelling is done by creating a simple box, and by further expanding and

modifying it into much more complex objects.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                         - 46 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


Lathe Modelling – This is done by resolving the outline around a central point to

create a shape, not unlike the way wood is turned on a machine lathe.



NURBS Modelling – NURBS are spline based surfaces which have been the standard

for virtually all high-end modelling work due to their implicit UV texture space,

resolution independence and intuitive curve-derivation.



Animation

     This is the second phase of the process, whereby the basic model of the object is

finished and is ready to apply animation to it.    While the main objective of this

project is to come up with a Drift based car that has all the necessary parts and

interiors in it, making the car animated would be an important tasks as the animation

created would later be used in other tools to make it interactive according to user

events.



Render

     Last phase of the whole process, the model would be added with the suitable

materials and textures to its surface, making the object comes to life and look more

realistically, with the created animation, the whole thing is rendered, giving the

maximum quality to both the object and its animations.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 47 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Reason and advantages for applying 3D

     The reason why 3D has been chosen as a part of the implementation is that it

provides a greater flexibility in manipulating a particular object.   As for this project,

a 3D modelled vehicle can be used for several purposes, and eliminates the trouble of

re-creating every model each and every time. The model can be moved in different

positions, rotate, and even be animated to suit to the application needs. Not only

would it save time, but also enhances the look and feel to the system. As it is often

said that, what you see through your eyes is more than a thousand words, and this is

exactly what this application is aiming to achieve.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 48 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2.2.6        PHP and MySQL


     As an enhancement of the current system, PHP scripting and the use of MySQL

has allowed the current system to go online and also become a dynamic web site with

the system embedded onto it. PHP is known as Hypertext Pre-processor, and it is

said to be “an HTML embedded scripting language” which according by

www.php.net.



     PHP can be interspersed within HTML which makes developing dynamic Web

sites more accessible.      Also, PHP is a scripting language, as opposed to a

programming language, which means that PHP is designed to do something only after

an event had occurred.       Not only is it a scripting language, but it is also a server-side

and cross platform technology. (Larry Ullman)



     MySQL is a very fast, robust, relational database management system. A

database enables you to efficiently store, search, sort and retrieve data.      The MySQL

server controls access to your data to ensure that multiple users can work with it

concurrently, to provide fast access to it, and ensure that only authorized users can

obtain access.     Hence it is a multi-user, multi-threaded server and it uses the

Structured Query Language which is the standard database query language worldwide.

(Luke Welling)




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Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


     Here is a table showing the strengths of both PHP and MySQL and why the two

of them are known to be the one of the best combination for creating dynamic web

applications: (Luke Welling)



                      PHP                                           MySQL

    High performance                                 High performance

    Interfaces to many different database            It is free

     systems                                          Easy to configure and learn

    Built-in libraries for many common               Portable

     Web tasks                                        Availability of SQL tutorials and

    It is free                                        sources.

    Ease of learning and use

    Portability and available for many

     different operating systems.

    Availability of source code




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                           - 50 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2.2.7        PHP with Flash


     There are many types of dynamic web sites out there which use scripting

languages such as ASP or PHP, and there are also many flash interactive web sites

available on the Internet as well. But the thing is that although many dynamic

websites with flash components imbedded can be found throughout the Internet, there

are very few which actually has the full flash sites which is dynamic. Which also

means a flash site is only an html site which has the flash movie embedded to it, there

are no dynamic operations taking place in the flash itself.



     By integrating PHP into a flash application is pretty easy and also

straightforward. The flash uses a library function called “loadVariables” which loads

the PHP page which consists of all the operations such as connection to the database

and also data queries.      All the flash needs to do is by creating variables which could

then receive those values passed from the PHP or by doing it the opposite way. This

means that the flash application remains the same with only the inclusion of the

“loadVariables” statement which calls in the PHP page when an operation is required,

thus making the flash application performs as it is dynamic. (Steve Webster)




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 51 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Some of the advantages by applying PHP with Flash:

    User input and queries can all be done within the flash application itself and there

     is no need for external html pages to perform these operations.

    Because it is done in a flash, which means the interactivity is greatly enhanced

     and many possibilities of creating an over the top dynamic website with great

     cool effects.

    The look and feel of the system can be greatly improved due to the use of vector

     images instead of html generated graphics.

    The variables are stored inside flash instead of using the session or cookies like

     the normal html dynamic web pages do, this also improves security of the

     system.



Some of the disadvantages of PHP with Flash:

    The time taken for the flash to receive the values from the PHP page varies from

     time to time and due to the fact that flash is running on time frames, it does not

     wait for the values. Therefore a set of predefined time frames need to be

     created for the sake of “loading” times which allows the variable from the PHP

     to reach the flash application.

    Comparing flash to html, flash requires more loading, though it provides great

     graphics and interactivity, but all these comes at a price for the longer loading

     times for the application to be fully loaded.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-3.2.3          Comparison with similar applications


     In order to produce something good, it is always a good practice to learn from

others, whether it is good or bad, by knowing what to learn and what not to learn from

the things that people have done will allow us to develop something which is better,

and also not avoid repeating the same mistakes which have been done by others.



     Since the theme of this current project is about interactive guide and learning, a

few set of examples have been looked into to have undergo further study and analysis

on their good designs, implementations, and also discovering the mistakes that they

have made in the systems. A set of criteria are looked into whilst studying these

application:

    Interactivity

    Visual and Audio

    Flash and Animation

    User Interface

    Content Presentation

    Performance




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 53 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Review 1:        Butterfly Interactive Learning




Pic: A screenshot of Butterfly Interactive Learning.



     This is a flash application taken from Swift 3D official site (www.erain.com),

whereby this program was developed by fully utilizing Swift 3D and Flash.          This

application is about learning the stuffs about butterflies, there are three main

components to be found, which are:



Anatomy

     Here the user is able to learn the different body parts on a butterfly, with simple

mouse clicks, the description and visual image of that particular body part is displayed.

The images shown clearly shows which part of the body part is situated and it also

allows user to have a zoom in feature for a better look.



Environment

     This is the part where the system allows the user to view the environment in

which the butterfly lives and also learning about its behaviour within the wild.     The

interesting thing about this environment section is that the system makes use of video


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 54 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


clips instead of static information.       With different information, they are categorized

into three different small clips, and with just that simple click, the clip will be played

directly.



Related Insects

     In this section, users get to learn about other types of butterflies that exist and

information on various other aspects of the butterfly.       The insects are also

categorized; each type of insect consists of one to two pictures, and a side description

of the insect itself.




Analysis

    Interactivity – In terms of interactivity, this application applies only simple

     mouse and click interaction, they are effectively used in different places such as

     picture zooming, and also scrolling.

    Visual and Audio – The visuals from this application is stunning, with good use

     of colours and high quality graphics, the application successfully offers a proper

     and eye-catching look and feel of the whole system.         There are no audio in this

     system.

    Flash and Animation – Another strong point from this application is its

     animation and effects.        Each click results in a display of animation which leads

     the user to the next scene, it is a very nice touch and design but the animation

     tends to get too long at times, which in turn may irritate the user in the long run.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 55 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


    User Interface – The interface of this application is simple, straightforward and

     easy to use. The good thing is that it blends the menu options with the layout

     design, providing the user to focus on the content while noticing the menu

     options is a very nice touch.

    Content Presentation – The contents displayed in this application are solid and

     understandable. The information is mostly delivered through text, with support

     from images and also video clips. The fonts used are appropriate, but it may be

     a bit too small in general, and the use of short forms is also not very appropriate.

    Performance – The performance is good, with only the short loading time found

     at the start-up of the application, there‟s basically no signs of slowing down

     during the rest of the process, everything turns out smoothly.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 56 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Summary

     As a conclusion, Butterfly Interactive Learning is a simple, but very well

designed learning application which delivers with great visuals and animations.

Some of the good points that can be learnt from are:

    Good use of metaphor objects in designing the visual outlook and design of the

     system

    Nice subtle animations throughout the interface even though the user is not doing

     anything

    Use of high quality images

    Blending the interface with the menu options

    Great animation between tasks

    Maintaining a reasonable file size



     While there are quite a few things to be learnt, there are also a few things that

should be avoided:

    Small text

    Animation becomes a bit too lengthy

    No audio implementation




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 57 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Review 2:        Shimano XTR




Pic: A screenshot of Shimano XTR interactive demo.



     This is another flash application referred from Shimano XTR (xtr.shimano.com),

a website which advertises the ultimate in mountain bike cross-country racing

components. The whole application contains animations, videos, and many cool and

detail touches to make the browsing and learning experience a joy to behold. This

advertisement flash application is further categorized into three main components of

the mountain bike, and they are:

    Drive Train

    Shifting

    Braking



     Other features available in this application include information regarding the

bike list, the XTR development and also frequently asked questions.


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 58 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Analysis

    Interactivity – In terms of interactivity, this application applies only simple

     mouse and click interaction, the use of mouse over effect greatly attracts the user

     attention. The ability for the user to take control over an animation is also a

     very nice feature which adds a whole lot to the involvement between the

     application and user.

    Visual and Audio – The visuals are covered with dark toned colours, together

     with the light blue and silver combination, it greatly indicates the cool factor of

     the bike components and not to forget about the high quality rendered objects.

     The audio of this system is pretty decent, with button sound effects and also

     subtle introduction musics.

    Flash and Animation – The animation is very well done, the use of masking and

     the transitions of different screens are very smooth and slick. Each click results

     in a display of animation which leads the user to the next scene, the animation is

     also pretty fast, not only does it look and feel nice, it doesn‟t annoy nor distracts

     the user as well.

    User Interface – Although the interface is mostly filled with black and other

     dark toned colours, the buttons are filled with bright blue which are easily

     spotted, allowing the user to spot the buttons easily.   The arrangements of the

     objects are also very tidy and simple.

    Content Presentation – The contents displayed in this application are solid and

     understandable.       For each component the application includes not only

     animation, but also parts description and also video clips, making it a truly

     multimedia learning experience.

    Performance – The performance is decent on a broadband connection, though

     the loading time for the starting page could take quite some time, the rest of the


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 59 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


     system runs pretty smooth. With a few exceptions such as videos which

     requires certain amount of time for the streaming.




Summary

     Compared to Butterfly Interactive Learning, Shimano XTR provides a slicker

and cooler approach in its design, the short and fast paced animation is a great feature

and in some ways it is better than Butterfly Interactive Learning. Some of the good

points that can be learnt from are:

    Good use of colour contrasts to get the users attention to certain objects on the

     page.

    Keep the animation short and quick, long winded flashy animations are not

     always good.

    Use of high quality images

    Using videos and animations to represent the information instead of text.

    Very clear and easy to read texts.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 60 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4        Research Method


2-4.1 Real World Methods and Practices


     Methods and practices used in the real world can be useful and effective in

researches, in order to carry out the research required for this project, these methods

will be used:

Fact-finding – Some resources from the web can be helpful, there are some good

sites which provide a good amount of information, pictures, and even video clips, not

only that, forum is a good place to seek for further enquiries.   A lot of great drifters

do spend quite some time on some specific forums. Motor sport magazines are also

recommended for fact finding.

Questionnaires – To retrieve feedbacks, opinions from majority users, questionnaires

is an extremely useful method, it can be done on papers, or do it online through

Email.

Interview – There are different methods for interviewing, there is the use of phone

interviewing, online message communication, and the commonly used face to face

interviews. These methods will be applied based on the different needs or

requirements by the interviewees.

Observation - There are drifting events happening once or twice in a month now in

Malaysia, visiting or attending in one of those events will also be very helpful in my

project research, to see how it is done in front of your eyes will mean much more than

reading from some sources.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 61 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.2            Information and Resources


     In order to carry out the researches listed above, information is to be gathered

from different sources, here are lists of books, magazines and internet addresses

which would be used for gathering the necessary information:



Books:

    Multimedia Based Instructional Design – William W.Lee and Diana L.Owens

    Digital Multimedia – Nigel Chapman and Jerry Chapman

    Action Scripting in Flash MX – Philip Kerman

    Multimedia: Making it Work 5th Edition – Tay Vaughan

    Flash MX 2004 demystified



People:

    Drifter

    Professional Race driver

    Supervisor

    Lecturer



Internet:

    www.driftclub.com

    www.drift.com.my

    www.d1gp.com

    www.kirupa.com




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 62 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.3 Primary Research


2-4.3.1          Questionnaires


     “An effective questionnaire is highly structured to allow the same types of

information to be simply collected from a large number of people in the same way so

that the data can be analyzed quantitatively and systematically.” – P McKeown,

EPIET Introductory Course 2003



     For this project, an online questionnaire survey was established, with the easy to

use and implement features provided from www.freeonlinesurvey.com , two copies of

the same questionnaire are prepared and are distributed to different forums.   The two

forums are located at these sites:



1.   www.drift.com.my – A well known web site primarily recognized as the pioneer

     drift related web site for Malaysia.

2.   www.zerotohundred.com – A popular and largest motor sport community web

     site, a very good place to gather information and opinions from the experts or the

     likes of others.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                   - 63 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Advantages and disadvantages of online questionnaires: (William W.Lee)



                 Advantages                                    Disadvantages

    High rate of return response                     Requires explicit instructions

    Yields large amount of data                      Allows collaboration among

                                                       respondents

    Does not require trained                      

     interviewers.



The URL of this project‟s question can still be located here:

http://freeonlinesurveys.com/rendersurvey.asp?id=105703



Here is a copy of the questionnaire prepared for this project:



    1)       Please select your gender.

             o Male

             o Female



    2)       Please state your age group.

             o 12-18

             o 19-25

             o 26-35

             o 36-45

             o 46-60

             o Other (Please Specify): ______________________________




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 64 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


    3)       What is your occupation?

             o Please Specify: _____________________________________



    4)       How often do you use a computer?

             o Everyday

             o Few times a week

             o Rarely (few times a month)

             o Never



    5)       Have you ever used any interactive guide applications? E.g. E-Learning

             applications.

             o No

             o Yes (Please specify the name of the software if possible):

                 _________________________________________________________



    6)       Do you think an Interactive Guide system (an application where it allows

             you to learn something through your PC by mouse clicking and so on)

             provides better learning and understanding experience than reading from

             books and Internet?

             o Absolutely

             o Maybe

             o No (Please Specify why):

                 _________________________________________________________

                 _________________________________________________________




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                   - 65 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


    7)       What level of knowledge do you have about Drifting?

             o Expert

             o Mediocre

             o Beginner

             o Never heard of it



    8)       What do you think of the level of information available about Drifting now

             in Malaysia?

             o Good

             o Ok

             o Incomplete

             o Bad

             o Others (Please specify):

                 ________________________________________



    9)       Do you think an Interactive Guide based on Drifting will be more helpful

             and interesting?

             o Yes

             o No (Please specify why):

                 _________________________________________________________

                 _________________________________________________________



    10)      Do you think 3D interactivity will help improve the overall usability and

             quality of the guide system?

             o Yes




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 66 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


             o No (Please specify why):

                 _________________________________________________________

                 _________________________________________________________



    11)      What sort of features would you like to have in an Interactive Guide

             System? (Multiple answers allowed)

             o Detail explanations/descriptions

             o Lots of animations

             o Voice output

             o Video presentation

             o Music

             o Ability to change the system settings (sound, interface)

             o 3D Interaction

             o Real life examples

             o Others (Please specify):

                 _______________________________________



    12)      Which type of Interactive Guide systems do you prefer?

             o Online – less multimedia elements included, but faster loading speed.

             o Online – lots of multimedia elements included, but slower loading

                 times.

             o Offline – lots of great features and multimedia elements included, least

                 loading times.

             o Others (Please specify):

                 _________________________________________________________




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 67 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


    13)      What are your preferences in a User Interface? (Multiple answers allowed)

             o Simple and Clean

             o Over the top (many animations)

             o Cool and stylish

             o Straight to the point

             o Interactive

             o Consistent

             o Good variety of changes

             o Other (Please specify):

                 ________________________________________



    14)      Would you prefer to have customizability options in a system? (e.g.

             Changing layouts, language changes, on/off music)

             o Yes

             o No



    15)      Do you think a 3D virtual car that allows you to learn how a drift car is

             properly built and equipped is a good idea?

             o Excellent

             o Good

             o Maybe

             o Unnecessary




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 68 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


    16)      What do you think of an evaluation system that could determine on

             whether you are suitable for Drifting or not and also provide tips on how

             you can start in this sport?

             o Very helpful

             o Not bad

             o Unnecessary



    17)      Any suggestions on what can be added in a Drifting Guide system in order

             to make it better and more helpful?

             o No

             o Yes (Please state):

                 _________________________________________________________

                 _________________________________________________________

                 ______




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 69 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.3.1.1        Result Summary and reason for the questions used in the
survey


     The results shown here is a combination of the questionnaires which were been

distributed to the two web site forums (drift.com.my and zerotohundred.com). The

total responses received from both these forums are:



Drift.com.my                 – 18 responses

Zerotohundred.com            – 9 responses

Total                        – 27 responses




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                               - 70 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 1:                      Please select your gender.

Purpose                          To determine the sex of the respondents who find this project

                                 interesting, as the difference of sex may help in deciding the design

                                 theme of the system interface or the overall look and feel of the

                                 system.

Results:

                            30
                                              27

                            25
        Number of choices




                            20



                            15



                            10



                             5


                                                                                  0
                             0
                                             Male                              Female

                                                               Sex


Analysis                         From the result, it is clearly shown that all respondents are male,

                                 while it doesn‟t exactly proves that there are no females that may be

                                 interested in Drifting, but designing the system in a way that is more

                                 suited towards male user would be a preferable choice.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                       - 71 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 2:                     Please state your age group.

Purpose                         To have a better idea and basic information on the interested user

                                groups towards this system or drifting. Age is also considered as one

                                important factor in terms of the system designed for the users.

                                Different users of different ages may have different taste and

                                preference of their own.

Results:

                      18
                                                16
                      16

                      14
  Number of choices




                      12

                      10

                       8
                                6
                       6                                        5

                       4

                       2
                                                                                0                0
                       0
                           From 12 to 18   From 19 to 25   From 26 to 35   From 36 to 45   From 46 to 60

                                                           Age Group

Analysis                        The main users that are interested in drifting are mostly at their

                                younger ages, mainly around the early twenty‟s or younger. This

                                helps the project in determining the age of the targeted user group, and

                                from there, it is possible to apply appropriate elements and designs to

                                the system based on the analysis.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                           - 72 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Question 3:       What is your occupation?

Purpose           To determine the occupation of the respondent.       Based on one‟s

                  occupation, it would be easier to determine the usability of the system,

                  and to design it in a way that it would fit to the majority needs.



Results:

    Real life racer

    Student

    Website editor

    Computer Technician

    Customer Service Executive

    Manager Assistant



Analysis          This is again, another type of question that is mainly used to

                  determine the characteristics of the interested users group. The

                  occupations listed above ranges from computer technicians, to real

                  life racers, it shows that not only real racers are into this sports, but

                  more of a variety between people from different backgrounds, a

                  simple student may also be a drifting enthusiast himself.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                         - 73 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 4:                 How often do you use a computer?

Purpose                     To determine the frequency of computer usage from the respondents,

                            it would help in determining the necessity of this current system.



Results:

                      30


                             25
                      25
  Number of choices




                      20



                      15



                      10



                       5
                                                 2
                                                                    0                  0
                       0
                           Everyday       Few times a week       Rarely              Never

                                                      Answers

Analysis                    This result displays that almost all of the respondents are using

                            computers everyday, and the very few use it few times a week at least.

                            From this result, it just shows that how much the technology has been

                            affecting our lives, therefore building a guide system regarding

                            Drifting on a computer platform is a suitable motive.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                 - 74 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Question 5:                   Have you ever used any interactive guide applications? E.g.

                              E-Learning applications.

Purpose                       To understand whether the respondent has any experience in using any

                              other similar systems, and also to understand what type of systems

                              they have used before, from there, a further study on those systems

                              can be done in order to learn and apply the good things from the

                              example to this system.

Results:

                        30



                        25                  24
    Number of choices




                        20



                        15



                        10



                         5
                                                                                3


                         0
                                         No                                   Other

                                                         Answers


Answers included in others:

                   Microsoft, Adobe etc.

                   Microsoft Encarta.

Analysis                      According to the result, most of the respondents have not used any

                              interactive guide application before, therefore it will not be

                              recommended to design the system in a way that it does not appeal to

                              fresh users with no experience in the related area.     Some usability

                              issues will need to be considered while designing the interface of the

                              system in order to provide users with the most comfort and easy to use

                              environment.



Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                   - 75 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Question 6:                         Do you think an Interactive Guide system (an application where it

                                    allows you to learn something through your PC by mouse clicking

                                    and so on) provides better learning and understanding experience than

                                    reading from books and Internet?

Purpose                             To obtain feedback on the respondent regarding their views and

                                    opinions on the credibility of an Interactive Guide system.

Results:

                        16
                                                                  15

                        14


                        12
    Number of choices




                        10
                                         9

                          8


                          6


                          4
                                                                                            3

                          2


                          0
                                     Absolutely                  Maybe                    Other

                                                                Answers



Answers included in others:

                       But there is one opinion I would like to suggest... it may stress the eyes if stayed

                        too long in front pc.     If it‟s distances learning, I am not sure if the student can

                        learn from it. E-learning program is good, but no direct contact, this reduce the

                        effectiveness of gaining knowledge.        I still prefer books and person-to-person

                        learning.

                       I think it is a bit on the lame side.

Analysis                            Judging from the result, majority of the respondents think that

                                    Interactive learning can be effective and useful, while most of them

                                    are not very sure of it. Yet with this sort of feedback, it is enough to

                                    be sure that such application is well accepted by the majority.



Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                            - 76 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Question 7:                 What level of knowledge do you have about Drifting?



Purpose                     To understand how much knowledge has Malaysians have regarding

                            Drifting, based from the answers given, the system can be designed to

                            suit their needs.



Results:

                       16
                                                                       15

                       14


                       12
   Number of choices




                       10


                        8

                                                   6
                        6

                                                                                            4
                        4

                               2
                        2


                        0
                             Expert             Mediocre            Beginner         Never heard of it

                                                 Level of knowledge




Analysis                    From the result, almost half of the answers are choosing beginner,

                            which also means that many may have certain interest in Drifting, but

                            they still lack the proper knowledge of it, and this again proves that

                            this Interaction Drifting Guide System can be built for a purpose.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                 - 77 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 8:                 What do you think of the level of information available about Drifting

                            now in Malaysia?

Purpose                     To have a better understanding on what the respondent thinks of the

                            information they could obtain locally, with that the system can be

                            designed specifically to provide them with the things that they have

                            been lacking.



Results:

                       14

                                             12
                       12
   Number of choices




                       10

                                                              8
                        8


                        6


                        4

                             2                                                 2                 2
                        2


                        0
                            Good             Ok           Incomplete          Bad              Other

                                                         Answers

Analysis                    According to the result here, it is shown that the Malaysia still lacks

                            good source of information regarding Drifting.         Base on this result,

                            it is possible to determine the level or density of information which

                            will be included in the system to be developed.    This means, the user

                            will need as much information they would need from the system.



Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                     - 78 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Question 9:                        Do you think an Interactive Guide based on Drifting will be more

                                   helpful and interesting?

Purpose                            Question 6 asked about Interactive Guide system, here is an

                                   elaboration towards the guide for Drifting, and to see if the respondent

                                   is interested to see and use such an application.

Results:

                        20                   19

                        18

                        16
    Number of choices




                        14

                        12

                        10

                         8

                         6

                         4                                                        3

                         2

                         0
                                             Yes                                 Other

                                                           Answers


Answers included in others:

                       Drifting is all about the practical stuff; even Tsuchiya Keichi must switch

                        techniques while drifting.

                       It might help to a certain extent like the basics, sooner or later you have to do on

                        hands drifting by yourself.

Analysis                           In previous questions, there is one that asked what respondents think

                                   of a normal interactive guide system, but this one here relates to the

                                   issue of Drifting, and judging from the results given, majority of the

                                   respondents think that it is more interesting to have such system.

                                   The opinions and suggestions provided here are very beneficial and

                                   they would be taken into consideration while designing the system.


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                        - 79 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Question 10:                Do you think 3D interactivity will help improve the overall usability

                            and quality of the guide system?



Purpose                     To determine whether the implementation of 3D interactivity is a

                            necessity for the system itself.



Results:

                       25


                                         20
                       20
   Number of choices




                       15



                       10



                        5
                                                                                 2

                        0
                                         Yes                                   Other

                                                         Answers

Analysis                    With the majority choosing yes as the answer, it shows that a system

                            with 3D interactive implementation would be most welcome by the

                            users.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                               - 80 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 11:                            What sort of features would you like to have in an Interactive Guide

                                        System?

Purpose                                 A list of options is presented available for the user to choose from.

                                        These options are features that may or may not be implemented into

                                        the system, based on the user requirements.



Results:

                                            25
                                                  22
  Number of choices




                                            20                                                      19
                                                                       17
                                                         15
                                            15                  13                          13

                                            10                                         9
                                                                               8

                                             5
                                                                                                               1
                                             0
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                                                                            Features

Analysis                                From the results, some of the features which are selected most will be

                                        put into higher priority list, while the lesser ones will be put into the

                                        least consideration list in the whole development process.       With the

                                        priorities of features been arranged, it will be easy to decide which to

                                        be worked on first and which to be remained last.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                                   - 81 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 12:                      Which type of Interactive Guide systems do you prefer?



Purpose                           A question that would be used to determine the preference of the users

                                  regarding using a particular application, either online or offline.



Results:

                      10
                                     9
                       9

                       8
  Number of choices




                       7
                                                                              6
                       6
                                                           5
                       5

                       4

                       3
                                                                                              2
                       2

                       1

                       0
                           Online - less feature,    Online - More     Offline - fastest   Others
                               faster speed         features, slower   speed with all
                                                         speed             features

                                                           Types of system

Others: Both speed and performance.



Analysis                          Although the system has already been decided to be developed as an

                                  offline application, but the number of demands for taking it online

                                  may be taken into consideration as future enhancements. Still,

                                  judging from the results, the performance and the speed of the system

                                  is still the priority of the whole application.



Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                        - 82 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 13:                              What are your preferences in a User Interface?



Purpose                                   A list of options is presented available for the user to choose from.

                                          These options are features designs of the interface that may or may

                                          not be implemented into the system, based on the user requirements.



Results:

                              20           19
                              18
  Number of choices




                              16
                              14
                                                                                            12
                              12                                            11                                11
                                                                                                                             10
                              10
                                 8                                                                                                          7
                                 6
                                 4                          3
                                 2                                                                                                                       1
                                 0                                                                                                                  er
                                                                       sh




                                                                                                        ive




                                                                                                                          t
                                       n




                                                                                                                                        s
                                                       ns




                                                                                        t




                                                                                                                         n
                                                                                       in




                                                                                                                                      ge
                                     ea




                                                                                                                      te




                                                                                                                                                th
                                                                     yli
                                                     io




                                                                                     po



                                                                                                     ct




                                                                                                                                    an
                                                                                                                   sis
                                     Cl




                                                                                                                                                O
                                                  at



                                                                 St




                                                                                                  ra
                                                                                    e
                                                 im




                                                                                                                                  ch
                                                                                                                  n
                                 d




                                                                                                 te
                                                                                 th
                                                                nd




                                                                                                               Co
                              an



                                             an




                                                                                             In




                                                                                                                              of
                                                                                to
                                                           a
                             e



                                            th



                                                        ol




                                                                                                                            ty
                                                                             ht
                         pl




                                                      Co




                                                                                                                         rie
                                          wi




                                                                          ig
                         m




                                                                        ra
                      Si




                                                                                                                      va
                                       p
                                     to




                                                                     St




                                                                                                                      d
                                 he




                                                                                                                   oo
                               rt




                                                                                                               G
                             ve
                         O




                                                                                            Features

Analysis                                  These are the preferences for user interface that are decided by the

                                          majority audience, judging from those results, the interface for this

                                          system will be designed based on these requirements.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                                                                             - 83 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 14:               Would you prefer to have customizability options in a system? (e.g.

                           Changing layouts, language changes, on/off music)



Purpose                    To determine whether the users would prefer to have the extra

                           customizable system to fiddle with.



Results:

                      20             19

                      18

                      16
  Number of choices




                      14

                      12

                      10

                       8

                       6

                       4                                                   3

                       2

                       0
                                     Yes                                   No

                                                    Answers

Analysis                   Majority of the respondents have agreed that they would prefer to

                           have customizability options in the system; therefore it could be taken

                           into consideration in the design phase.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                               - 84 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 15:               Do you think a 3D virtual car that allows you to learn how a drift car

                           is properly built and equipped is a good idea?



Purpose                    To determine and understand what the users would think of using a

                           system which includes 3D interaction with a virtual reality vehicle.



Results:

                       8

                                                                                             7
                       7

                                                                       6
                       6
   Number of Choices




                              5
                       5

                                                  4
                       4


                       3


                       2


                       1


                       0
                           Excellent            Good                 Maybe             Unnecessary

                                                        Answers

Analysis                   As a major part of the system functions, this question helps to

                           determine whether the user will like the overall idea of having a 3D

                           virtual car to interact with, although the ones that have chosen the

                           answer “unnecessary” are the most, such function will still remain to

                           be developed as there are still a minority of people thinking that it is a

                           good idea.



Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                  - 85 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 16:               What do you think of an evaluation system that could determine on

                           whether you are suitable for Drifting or not and also provide tips on

                           how you can start in this sport?



Purpose                    To determine the suitability and necessity of applying an evaluation

                           system into the application.



Results:

                      14
                                                          13

                      12
  Number of Choices




                      10

                                8
                       8


                       6


                       4


                       2
                                                                                   1

                       0
                           Very Helpful                Not bad                Unnecessary

                                                     Answers

Analysis                   From the results, majority of the responds were “not bad”, and second

                           is “very helpful”, this means that such system can be useful if it is to

                           be applied onto the application. This will also be taken into great

                           consideration while developing the system.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                - 86 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide




Question 17:                       Any suggestions on what can be added in a Drifting Guide system in

                                   order to make it better and more helpful?



Purpose                            To obtain feedback and suggestions regarding the system, this will be

                                   used and applied to the system.



Results:

                        14
                                               13

                        12
    Number of Choices




                        10
                                                                                       9

                         8


                         6


                         4


                         2


                         0
                                              No                                    Other

                                                              Answers

Answers included in others:

                   Firstly should be the safety guideline for drifting. Without safety, nothing can be

                        done. (Just like the slogan: play safe ) Besides that, rules or ethic of playing drift

                        should added in too (as some "ah beng" might think that drift is cool, and show

                        off all around the place. It might bring harm to the public.       This to show that

                        drift is a kind of safe and healthy activity to go on.)Later on, introducing on



Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                           - 87 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


     which car suit to be use on drift, setup(e.g. safety of the "body bone" of the car,

     suspension, engine tuning, etc);some video showing the proper sitting

     adjustment, the style to drift(added with the video shows how to heel'n'toe),etc

    Education!      Teach those people to drive straight (not being lanci, but lots of bad

     drivers out there) before they start drifting.

    LFS

    Show them the difference between pros and newbie in drifting. Ha-ha.           The

     video clips of Keichi Tsuchiya drifting... - must built it equip with hydraulic

     chassis so learner can feel the g force

    How about actually having a Drifter albeit a semi-pro one narrating?

    For most important, the guide must emphasize about safety. Step by step proper

     and detail instruction. The best if it is pair with some drift clinic or autocross

     clinic which grass root racing club is doing now.

     My point of view is that, safety and promoting rational guide to drift.

    Model real car...experiences is always better than just learning through theories.



Analysis          Some of the opinions gathered here are very useful, each point of

                  view and suggestion will be taken into consideration in the design and

                  execution of the system.         While some of it will have to be exempted

                  for the sake of the project.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                          - 88 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.3.1.2        Summarized Analysis


     While the questionnaires were distributed to two different forums, yet the

responds received was pretty lacking and minimal, due to the fact that not many

people seem to be interested in taking the time to answer these questions, therefore

the data gathered can be quite limited.



     Although the responds are limited, yet it has provided the needed information

regarding what the typical user really wanted in such system. Here I have listed out

some major points to be considered with in terms of user requirements:



    Users that age from 19 to 25, uses computer often, have limited knowledge

     regarding Drifting.

    Most of the users have no experience in any interactive guide system, yet they

     prefer the idea proposed by this system, and 3D interactivity is also acceptable.

    Simple and clean interface is preferable by most users, yet it should provide

     detailed information.

    Users prefer performance and speed over features and effects.

    Animations, real life examples and video presentations are recommended to be

     applied in the system.

    Safety issues regarding Drifting should not be ignored in the system.

    Include differences between beginner drifting and professional drifting, together

     with other comparison such as cars and setups.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 89 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


     With the gathered results, it has provided me with a better understanding towards

what the scope of the targeted users really wanted and also their basic backgrounds.

For example, most users that have responded to the questionnaires are in their early

twenties and are mostly students; this proves that Drifting is a type of extreme sport

which is easily attracted to younger audience.



     Besides the acquired information from these surveys, the more detailed

information regarding a user‟s race, or even location will not be required, this is

because of these reasons:

    Race has nothing to do with how the system would be designed, this system can

     be used by any race, and no racism is included in the system.

    Location is aimed at local states, in Malaysia.

    To accommodate to a wider audience



     As a conclusion, the results gathered through the questionnaires and the analysis

done based on it will be taken into account while performing the system‟s basic

design. With the analyzed requirements, it is made possible and also easier for the

developer to design this system based on these requirements, without losing the major

focus of what the user really wants.         Follow up by the questionnaires would be

Interviews.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 90 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.3.2          Interview


     Interview can be done in several ways, although the face to face interview would

be best recommended, but there are times when other methods can be helpful as well,

for this project, two interview methods were used, and they are:



Personal (Face-to-face) Interview

     The interviewer interacts directly with the respondent, and it is mostly taken

place in one same location where the interviewer has the opportunity to probe or ask

follow-up questions. This type of interview is generally easier for the respondent,

especially if what are sought are opinions or impressions. The only downside of this

method is that it can be very time consuming and they are resource intensive.

(William M.K. Trochim 2005)



Advantages and disadvantages of personal interviews: (William W.Lee)



                 Advantages                                    Disadvantages

    High response rate and it is also the            Can be time consuming

     most accurate

    Highest volume of information to be              Sometimes yields extraneous

     acquired                                          information

                                                      Requires trained interviewers




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 91 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Instant Messaging Interview

     A modern way of communication done with the use of Internet technology,

hence it can be performed with the respondent in a remote location. Similar to

personal interviews, they allow for some personal contact between the interviewer and

the respondent and follow-up questions are also possible. The disadvantages of

using this method are that it can be very troublesome at times if:

    One or both parties do not have internet connection.

    One or both parties do not use instant messaging software.



     Apart from these two techniques, two persons have been carefully selected for

the Interview.



Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng – A well known drifting expert which also owns a drift related

company with a website covering with drift enthusiasts all over the country.



Mr. David Kong Wei Choong – A college student which is very interested in drifting.

He shown great interests in drifting and he is one of the best subjects to be

interviewed in terms of gathering opinions and views from a user‟s perspective.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                  - 92 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.3.2.1        Interview 1


Interviewee                       Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng

Interviewee Background            Founder of www.drift.com.my and Drift expert

Interviewer                       Stanley Wong Tiing Yew

Method                            Personal Interview

Venue                             Mr. Ee‟s home

Date                              3rd August 2005

Time                              8:00p.m.

Duration                          2 hours

Purpose                           To gain better understanding on Drifting as a whole and

                                  Drifting in Malaysia, together with its basics and

                                  fundamentals.



    Before the actual interview was taken place, a set of questions were prepared

before hand to accommodate to the needs of this particular interview. There were no

sound recording device been used during the interview session, but notes and

important points were taken down during the conversation; here are the questions that

were asked during the interview and together with the brief summarization on the

answers given by Mr. Ee:




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 93 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


1.    Can you briefly describe or explain what drifting is all about?

     Answer: Drifting is a form of extreme motor-sports and it involves getting a car

     sideways through a series of turns with speed and style, in a controlled manner.

     Getting a car sideways means inducing traction loss on the rear wheels, which is

     done by spinning it at a speed faster than you’re going.



2. How does drifting get started in Malaysia?

     Answer: Drifting emerge in Malaysia when a group of pioneer drifters started

     switching from practicing in parking lots and public roads to proper drift events,

     which is what the Proton Street Shootout series, the Defying Grip Challenge series,

     and the DCM Drift Clinic we’re looking at now.



3. As one of the main drifting pioneers (you) here in KL, how do you think the drift

     scene in Malaysia now is?

     Answer: The drift scene in Malaysia is still at its dawn, with small scale and

     low-budget events, and a small community of drifters. However, the sport is

     growing and more enthusiast and sponsors are looking into it. I believe the

     promotion we are doing now will encourage the growth of the sport greatly.



4. How would you compare the local drifting scene with the foreign countries like

     Japan, or US? In terms of the standard, the skill.

     Answer: We are still far behind in terms of standard. Japan and US is the 1st and

     2nd country that generates the largest revenue from drifting, with giant-scale drift

     competitions, merchandise and sponsors. Skill wise, Japan is definitely what we’re

     looking up to, as they have been involving in this sport for decades.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 94 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


5. How would you compare drifting with the other motor sports? Is drifting more

    “easy-going”? Or is it considered as a waste of time/tires?

    Answer: Same like any other sports, there are two kinds of drifters, they are

    Recreational and competitive. To the recreational drifters, drifting is like a

    pastime to them, and most of them will just take it easy, and spend little on used

    tires and car maintenance. Competitive drifters will be looking into more budgets

    to build their cars into a more refine spec, with sponsors backing up their

    expenses.



6. Tell me more about your company and drift.com.my.

    Answer: Defying Grip Sdn. Bhd. is officially established in 2004 by the pioneers

    of drifting in Malaysia. Our establishment also brought the emergence of

    Drift.com.my, short form of Drift Community Malaysia, which is Malaysia’s

    premier and largest drift enthusiast website. Drift.com.my is currently an

    unofficial drift club, with over 1500 online members.



7. What types of vehicle are meant for drifting, why and how?

    Answer: Rear wheel drive vehicles. Drifting requires loss of traction on rear

    wheels, which is done by spinning them at high speed, while pushing the car

    through a series of turns. Rear wheel drive vehicles fit perfectly into this category.

    The most popular drift cars are the Toyota AE86 and Nissan Silvia.



8. Are there any specific parts needed for drifting?

    Answer: Drifting put extensive stress on the engine, chassis and suspension. Most

    of the upgrades will concentrate on cooling abilities of the engine, strengthening

    of the chassis and fine tuning of the suspension components.


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 95 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


9. What is required of a driver when he is into drifting? E.g. attitude, training,

    investment?

    Answer: I would say discipline and perseverance. Learning drifting is not easy,

    which is why sometimes frustration will lead to over-ambitious act, and often it

    will cause accident and unnecessary money spent.



10. Is drifting suitable for everyone? How does one determine whether this sport is

    suitable for him?

    Answer: No. Drifting is for the true motor-sports lover who enjoys driving in a

    rear wheel drive vehicle in an extreme way. It is not for someone who likes to

    show-off.



11. What are the best ways to learn and understand drifting?

    Answer: The internet is probably the largest resource to understand drifting, with

    resourceful websites such as Drifting.com and Drift.com.my.



12. How do you evaluate a drift?

    Answer: A good drift requires the driver to drift the vehicle through the turn in

    high entry speed, big angle and precise lining, with thick white tire smoke adding

    up the spice.



13. Any advice/comments on the people that are interested in drifting?

    Answer: Get a rear wheel drive vehicle. Acquire pointers from the experienced

    ones. Slowly upgrade the car according to each individual’s necessity and

    requirements. And most importantly, drive and drift safely. As the quote from

    Spiderman: ‘With great power comes great responsibility’. Drive responsibly.


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 96 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.3.2.2        Interview 1 Conclusion


     From the interview, I am able to gain a better insight about Drifting through a

more personal experience. The questions asked are all greatly related to what is

needed or required in the final system, the concept behind this new sport is essential,

and so does some extra tips and pointers by the expert himself.



     It is also made clear that drifting is not some sport which is accessible by anyone,

as it is a type of extreme motor sport where it requires a lot of money and effort put in.

After all, motor sport is not an easy activity to get into if you‟re not capable of paying

the maintenance, repairs and petrol of a car. One critical point that has been given

by Mr. Ee is that, “Drifting is for the true motor-sports lover who enjoys driving in a

rear wheel drive vehicle in an extreme way. It is not for someone who likes to

show-off.”



     With drift events happening once in a while in Malaysia, the standards are

starting to grow and so does the number of drifters, these drift events ranges from

exhibition types to competitions, which also categorizes the drifters into these two

main types, the recreational drifters and the competitive ones.        In terms of drifting

standards, Malaysians still have a long way to go before they can be as good as the

Japanese, their skills are far superior.



     Mr. Ee has also kindly provided me with detailed information regarding the

proper setup of a good drift car.       Drift cars require different approach in setting up

the car. There are many parts to be considered while setting the car up to the right

standard. The setup for a drift car does not work independently; it requires


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                         - 97 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


co-ordination between different parts in order to come up with the best performance,

and most importantly achieving the balance.        If the car is setup with the balance in

mind, the car will have much better handling performances. More details on the

setups can be found under secondary research section.



     As a conclusion, the interview ended successfully, Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng is a

very polite and kind person to talk to, not only did he invited me to his house for the

interview, but he has also answered all my questions, and showed me many examples

such as videos, magazines. The interview was a great experience, and it has

provided me the opportunity to learn a lot of the stuffs which are definitely worthy

and beneficial to the project.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 98 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.3.2.3          Interview 2


Interviewee                       Mr. David Kong Wei Choong

Interviewee Background            A Drift enthusiast and also a student from Sunway

                                  College

Interviewer                       Stanley Wong Tiing Yew

Method                            Online Messenger Interview

Venue                             --------

Date                              11th       September 2005

Time                              10:00p.m.

Duration                          1 hours

Purpose                           To gain better understanding on how a beginner like Mr.

                                  David perceives drifting.



1.     How do you know about drifting?

       Answer: Watching best motoring videos.



2.     Do you find the resources and information about drifting from the internet useful

       and beneficial? Or you prefer practical learning?

       Answer: Resources and information from the internet may prove to be a basic

       guide in theory. Between text descriptions and videos, videos definitely provide a

       clearer understanding than just words. Theoretical knowledge can prove to be a

       very useful so that you would basically know what to do and what not to do.

       However, even with theoretical knowledge, nothing can replace practical

       learning.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 99 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


3.   As a student yourself, do you find it difficult to be a part of the drifting craze?

     And why?

     Answer: Being part of it isn’t hard. Participating in it as a drifter is the hard

     part. Because of financial reasons and no parental consent.



4.   If you have a cheap budget, what car would you get to start drifting and why?

     Answer:

     With a 10K budget:

     Toyota TE72 – Parts are readily available but getting expensive as they are from

     the AE86.        Light and agile.       Traditionally transplanted with a 4AGE but

     possible to fit some more powerful Nissan engines.

     Bluebird 910 – Parts are readily available. Can plug and play parts from R32

     GTS-t. RB20DET and CA18DET are relatively affordable and more powerful

     than a 4AGE.



5.   If you don‟t need to worry about money, what car would you get to start drifting

     and why?

     Answer:

     R32 GTS-t – Coz I’m a skyline fan. Relatively strong chassis and handles

     reasonably well. Transplant it with an RB26DETT or RB25DET and you got a

     monster.

     S15 – Drift car out of the box. Powerful enough. Easier to handle and drift. Very

     balanced car.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 100 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


6.   If there is a system which teaches you on how to drift, what features do you think

     is required in order to make it work? State your opinions.

     Answer: Driving simulator. Actually you could include a demo version of LFS

     with permission from the game developers. Videos giving examples on how to

     drift using the different techniques.



2-4.3.2.4        Interview 2 Conclusions


     The questions prepared for the second interview are only six in total, although

they are not much, but they are enough to acquire the information I seek.      Mr. David

is a 19 year old student of Sunway College. As a drift enthusiasts himself, the

difference between him and Mr. Ee is that Mr. David doesn‟t own any drift car and he

is considered as one of the beginners in the drift scene.



     According to Mr. David, being apart of the drifting scene is not a hard thing, but

it is the matter of doing it that really bothers him as he does not have the financial

support for a real drift vehicle and also the parent‟s consent issue. Thanks to Mr.

David‟s good co-operation in the interview, it had helped me in understanding more

towards which series of drift cars that are available in the local market are more

popular amongst the drift beginners.



     Similar to the response given by the majority from the questionnaires, Mr. David

also highly recommends the use of video demonstrations in the system.         Besides that,

he also suggest implementing a popular online racing simulation game called Live For

Speed, but due to the fact that this game is an entirely new software, this idea will be

discarded and will not be taken into consideration in the system design.


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 101 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-4.3.3 Observation


Observer           Stanley Wong Tiing Yew

Method             Be a passenger in the cars of the drifters to experience drifting.

Venue              Shah Alam Stadium car park

Date               7th August 2005

Time               9:00 a.m.

Duration           9 hours

Purpose            To experience first hand drifting personally, and also to understand

                   how the drifters actually perform these stunts with the help from

                   being a passenger in the car.



        Although the interview with an expert drifter proves to be very informative

and beneficial, but having to attend a local drift event oneself and experience close up

drifting by being a passenger is even better.



        After the interview, Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng had kindly invited me to a local

drifting event within the next few days, I couldn‟t possibly miss this offer as it is such

a good chance for me to do some close up observation on how real drifters perform

their drifting. During the 9 hours under the hot sun at the car park with the drifters, I

have sat in several drifter‟s car to experience their way of drifting, these drivers are:

    Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng

    Mr. Alan

    Mr. Iskandar




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                        - 102 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


     The drifting event was taken place on a wide empty car park; the participants for

this event had paid their fees in order to enter this session. The only requirement for

this event is that the drivers need to be driving with rear wheel drive vehicle, and

preferably one that is LSD equipped. The drifting is performed on a course which is

layout with a set of cones scattered throughout the car park, then the drivers would try

to slide their cars around the cones, clearing each corner with as much sideways angle

as they could possible achieve.



     Of all these three free rides that I‟ve experienced, the passenger ride in Mr. Ee‟s

car has been the most beneficial, Mr. Ee is kind enough to demonstrate different

drifting techniques throughout the session, while I was struggling to keep myself firm

in the seat while the car is sliding from one side to another side aggressively, the

steering, shifting, hand brake and the foot work demonstrated by Mr. Ee had really

opened up my eyes into the world of technical drifting.



     Each of the rides in the driver‟s car lasts for only several minutes, although it is

short, but I have gained a lot of critical knowledge regarding drifting techniques, and

also many other aspects about drifting. Although the day was hot all the time and

many including me had been sun burnt, yet the experience has been satisfying and

proven to be very beneficial for my project, it is indeed a day to remember.



Here are some of the critical points that I‟ve learnt from this observation:

    Drifting requires good reflexes from the driver

    Drifting creates heavy load of stress to many parts of the vehicle, including tires,

     chassis and the likes.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 103 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


    Drifting does not need to be fast in order to happen, it can be performed under

     low speed as well.

    More understanding about the E-brake‟s usage in drifting, including the clutch

     and steering work.

    Drifting is dangerous, and performing it on a safe location is highly

     recommendable.




This concludes the primary research section, following up will be the main secondary

research areas.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                  - 104 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5        Analysis and Design


2-5.1 Methodology


     To start off with this project, suitable software methodologies are chosen.    A

good methodology is very important as it determines the successful development of a

project, as it helps in providing a structural and systematic approach to the project.

This project makes use of several different models to meet and suit this particular

project development.       Some of the considered methodologies are:

    Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Waterfall model

    Software Development Life Cycle Spiral model

    Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design Model (OOHDM)




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 105 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5.1.1          SDLC Waterfall Model


The Reasons for Waterfall

     Waterfall model chosen as the methodology for this project does not occur by

coincidence, it‟s been chosen because it provides certain advantages and principles

which are more suited for the project‟s nature and it may benefit the development

process in the long run.



     Other than few examples which are mentioned above in the critical principles in

which waterfall follows, some of the other advantages it provides also include:

(Dictionary.LaborLawTalk.com)

    With clearly stated development stages, the tracking of the project development

     process would be much easier and better.

    Milestones and deliverables are also been clearly identified.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                  - 106 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5.1.2 SDLC Spiral Model


     SDLC Spiral model will be used for the overall development of the whole

project; it is a type of methodology where it provides a systematic approach for the

development like the waterfall model, yet it also allows the project to be iterative and

incremental, so it is also considered as a model which implements the combination of

a waterfall model with risk analysis.



The reasons for Spiral Model

Iteration – Compared to the waterfall model, spiral model allows the developer to go

back and reiterate earlier stages several times as the project progresses. With this

approach, it will be easy to overcome the requirement changes from the user.



Prototyping – Throughout the development of the project, small chunks of prototype

from different portion of the system will be created to provide testing and evaluation,

this can be helpful as it allows the developer to gain the necessary feedbacks from the

user while developing his system, thus reducing risks too.



Better Estimation – It is easier to estimate both budget or schedule more realistically

as work progresses, this is because the issues are discovered earlier with the help of

prototyping.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                   - 107 -
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2-5.1.3          OOHDM


     OOHDM is a type of hypermedia methodology which is more suited towards the

design of multimedia applications. OOHDM provides an object oriented approach

in managing the design aspect of a project; it basically helps in designing the interface

and categorizes the process into four steps, which are: (CWS, 2004)



I have chosen OOHDM because of these reasons and benefits:

Hypermedia characteristics – Multimedia system development is differ from

traditional software development projects in several critical dimensions, such as the

need for prototyping and intensive testing with users, and also the involvement of

capturing and organizing the structure of a complex domain and making it clear and

accessible to users.



Object-oriented approach – The benefits of using object oriented modelling is it

provides higher level abstraction and composition mechanisms with well-defined

semantics.



Open method – OODHM provides greater flexibility and freedom when it comes to

choosing his favourite model for achieving the domain specification, this is because

OOHDM does not provide any enriched model for the application domain, and

domain model is also not imposed as the navigational class and contents can be

defined thanks to the specialized mechanism.




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2-5.1.4 The right methodology for the project (Hybrid)


     There is no absolute methodology for the project, instead the three

methodologies discussed previously will be merged together and changes will be

made in order to be suitable for this project.



Modified Hybrid Methodology


                 Feasibility Study



                                   Analysis

                                                                Analysis Review


                                                            Design: OOHDM
                                             Navigational
                                               Design
                                                                     Abstract
                                                                 Interface Design

          Design Review


                                                                       Spiral Model
                                              Implementation/
                                                Prototyping

                                                            Review

                                                                     Testing and
                                                                     Maintenance




Pic: Hybrid methodology for the project.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


     With three different methodologies merged together, I am able to come up with a

hybrid methodology which is perfectly suited for this project.      This hybrid

methodology combines the best elements from each of the three methodologies and

merging them together, while eliminating the unnecessary steps which are in the

original methodologies.



     With this new hybrid methodology, the project is able to start off with the simple

and straightforward waterfall model, where each phase is followed by another. The

process changes when it reaches the design phase, whereby it uses the concept of

OOHDM which has been covered earlier. This allows the design phase to be

implemented with better efficiency and also more suited towards a complete

multimedia system design.



     After design phase, the rest of the process would be done using the concept of

iteration taken from the spiral methodology.       In the implementation and testing

phases, prototypes will be created to acquire user feedbacks in order to gain the

optimum quality of the project progress, and the iteration process would ensure that

the process and the works done remain error or bug free as testing are done multiple

times throughout these stages.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5.2 Methods of Problem Solving


     In this project, a hybrid methodology was chosen to deal with the whole

processes of this project.      Whenever there is an encounter of a problem, the process

will be forced to come to a halt and then diagnose the problem, finding out the

appropriate solution and correcting the problem immediately.



     Research will be important in gathering the necessary information and it‟s an

important element in problem solving, the same goes to analysis. With the

researched data, an analysis should be done to come up with the appropriate

conclusion regarding to the development of the project and hence coming up with the

best method or solution to accomplish a particular goal or task.



     Prototyping will also be used frequently during the implementation phase, with

the iteration process approach; several prototypes could be created and issued to

different testers in order to reach the optimum quality of the system. Not only could

it help ensure quality, prototyping also helps in discovering unknown issues or

problems in the system, with the identified problem, it is also made easier to focus on

coming up with the solution.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                    - 111 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5.3 Risk Analysis


     Risk is something not to be ignored in any project development, but before any

contingency plans are made up for the risks, the risks and its priorities need to be

identified. Here is a table showing the risk that could have happen:



1. Work space equipment failure – This refers to the equipments used for

developing the application, which is mainly the developer‟s personal computer and its

peripheral devices. Having either one of these devices failed may cause troublesome

drawbacks to the progress of the development process.        Without the machine or the

device, the project will be forced to a halt.



2. Work space software failure – This refers to the software or authoring tools used

for creating the main application. These tools play major roles in the project

development, similar to equipment failure, if something happens to the tools, the

whole project will be forced to a halt as well.



3. Requirements not met – Sometimes the path of the project could have been off,

which may result in final product not meeting the user‟s requirements. When such

situation occurs, the main user will not appreciate the product, hence the project is

considered a failure. Such incident should be avoided as much as possible.



4. Lack of Quality – If the project is being rushed at the last minutes, it will possibly

lose quality.    Qualities need to be defined at the early stage of the project

development when user requirements are gathered. Similar to “requirements not



Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 112 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


met”, the consequences may downgrade the project itself to many levels if qualities

are not met.



5. Insufficient time and resources – Project development is a very dynamic process,

anything can happen at any time which may cause the whole project to slow down the

process or current tasks.      In the end it would have delay the latter tasks as well which

could interrupt the whole workflow. Resources also plays a major role in defining a

projects success, if one lacks resources, the product itself will most probably lack

quality as well.



6. Work space file corruption – The main project files can be corrupted, so it is

important to keep backups at all times.



7. Natural disasters – The only disaster here refers to Lightning strikes from thunder

storms. The strike may have caused equipment failure which kind of related to the

first identified risk as well.    Again the solution is to make backup of the file at all

times.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                       - 113 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5.3.1 Risk Matrix
                                                   Consequences

Likelihood       Insignificant         Minor        Moderate      Major       Catastrophic

Almost

Certain

Likely

Possible                                                             4               6
Unlikely                                                           3, 5            1, 2
Rare                                                                                 7


     According to the risk matrix table, all the identified risks are categorized more

towards events that are unlikely to happen, although that could be a means of relieve,

yet the consequences they all cause can be pretty fatal.



     Therefore frequent backups are not to be ignored.         Here is a list of actions to be

taken in order to prevent these risks from happening in the first place:

    Performing multiple backups – Backups can be done both online and offline,

     such as using the available free online storage services, and also external storage

     drives.

    Keeping history log of the older versions of the system – While developing the

     system, any changes done to the file itself will be saved under a new file name.

     Keeping all the previous versions of the system in an organized manner.

    Perform system scans – Whether it is virus scan, spyware scan, or any other

     types of system scans will be done on a weekly basis to ensure that the work base

     is always clean and working at top performance.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5.4 Design


2-5.4.1          Detailed Function Specifications


     As stated in the project specification, this system includes several main and sub

functions. Functions need to be made clear of what they are supposed to achieve and

also what results are expected.        Below is a list of all the functions available in this

system and what their purpose and role they play in the system.



Functions that integrates with databases:

     The following functions are the ones that require connection to the database and

retrieve certain data to enable further access to the system, the series of functions are:



Login/Logout

     As the name imposed, this is the function whereby registered users get to log on

to the system and gain access to all the features available. The user can also log out

of the system anytime as he wishes. The login requires user to enter both his

username and password.



Sign Up

     Here the user gets to sign up to be a registered member for free.          The

registration process is easy and quick, with only few general fields that need to be

filled up. Once registered, users become registered members immediately and are

able to gain full access to the system right after they logged on to the system.

Edit Profile



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     As a registered member of the system, the user is able to edit his profile.   All

information found in your profile can be updated and edited, except for the username,

which is fixed and unchangeable.



Others

     These are some extra functions, which includes „News‟ and „Forums‟. The

„News‟ section will display the latest news regarding the drifting scene or related to

the system itself, the news content and its date will be updated often through the use

of database. „Forums‟ includes only links to other workable internet forums, due to

time constraints and also the limited scope, the very own forum for Interactive

Drifting Guide will not be created in this matter.




Interactive Drifting Guide features:

     This is what the main system is all about, features and functions that are

designed solely for the purpose of delivering the easy and understandable guide to

drifting.



Drifting Basics

     In this function, users are introduced with the basic knowledge regarding drifting

fundamentals such as the working dynamics of how a drift works, what vehicles and

tools are required, and of course the suitable location for drifting.   There are four

main categories to be found in this section:

    Overview – Briefly introduces the casual user of what is drifting.     A

     demonstration video will be used to demonstrate drifting here.

    How to Drift – Shows the user on how a drift is properly initiated and


Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 116 -
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     maintained with the use of simple animations and also demonstration diagrams

     to provide better understanding.

    What to Drift – Covers the tools, which refers to the car that is required in

     drifting.    Four cars were chosen to provide an example of drift cars from

     different categories and each has its own good and bad points. These examples

     are mainly used to provide user some reference guide in getting the right car that

     will suit towards their needs.

    Where to Drift – Showcasing the places which are recommended for drifting

     and also the opposite.



Drifting Machine

     This function features a virtual drifting machine which is interactive. The

virtual vehicle consists of different links surrounding its body which are clickable.

Once a link is clicked, animation will take place and that particular part of the car will

be described and explained with more detail through text and picture.



     This function mainly focuses on how a drift car is properly built or setup.        Other

than that, it also provides an extra feature called “showcase” which allows the user to

navigate through the virtual car itself such as rotating the car to view at different

angles.    The rotation user views consist of external and also internal view of the

vehicle.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


Drifting Techniques

     This function explains and demonstrates how the seven drifting techniques are

performed. With the help of animation and user interaction events, it allows the user

to learn and observe how one technique is done in a procedure manner. This

function consists of a total of seven techniques.       Each technique is demonstrated

through the views of several areas on the vehicle such as steering work, pedals, the

shifter or handbrake, and lastly a view from the outside showing the car from a top

down view. The techniques here are divided into two categories, and they are:



                     Basic                                           Advance

    Power-over Drift                                 Feint Drift

    Clutch-kick Drift                                Braking Drift

    E-Brake Drift                                    Shift-Lock Drift

                                                      Throttle off Drift



Drifting Styles

     This function introduces the user four major drifting styles. Each style is

presented with a looped animation which demonstrates how that particular style is

performed. Pictures and a demonstration video are also available for the user to

check it out and observe better on how each style differs from each other.



Test It Yourself

     This is an evaluation system which actually provides evaluated results and

guidance on how the user should do if he was to enter the drifting scene.      The system

prepares a set of predefined questions which tests the user‟s knowledge regarding




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                     - 118 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


drifting fundamentals.       Judging by the user‟s performance from the set of questions,

the system will then analyze the results and then come up with an output which

provides the user tips and guidelines on how he should be aware of, or should prepare

if he wanted to be part of the whole drifting thing.



This part of the system consists of two categories of questions:



Part One: Drift Knowledge Quiz

The questions for this section are:

1.   How do you define drifting?

2.   Which vehicle drive train is best suited for Drifting?

3.   Drifting should be done on mountain roads, or public streets.      True or False.

4.   Is it necessary to be a professional racer in order to drift?

5.   Drifting is all about speed, and the fastest drifter would win. True or False.

6.   When a car is drifting, what state is it in?

7.   Which of the following is appropriate regarding a drift car?

8.   Which part of the car will be damaged the fastest while drifting?

9.   What needs to be done in order to prevent a spin out while maintaining the drift?

10. Drifting is easier when there are fewer grips on the rear tires. True or false.

11. Which of the following belongs to advance drift initiation technique?

12. Why is it LSD so important in Drifting?

13. What happens when you pull the E-brake while turning the car?

14. How much power do you think would be enough for Drifting?

15. Drifting is better performed with a car that has a lot of body rolls. True or

     False.




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     These fifteen questions are carefully created based on the knowledge and

research that was gained through interviews and also from sources on the Internet.

The answers for each of these questions are all listed as objectives which only one

answer is allowed, except for a few that allow multiple answers to be selected.



Part Two: Background information of User

The questions for this section are:

1.   Do you have a stable income per month?

2.   Do you have a car?

3.   Have you had any experiences in drifting before?

4.   What is your aim or purpose in drifting?



     Compared to the questions listed on part one, these questions here contributes to

a different purpose, it requests some basic information regarding the user background

such as his financial capabilities or owning a vehicle. There are only four questions

available here, the questions are meant to be easy and straightforward. More

questions could be added to add more detail and complexity to the system, but those

will be considered as future enhancements due to the time constraints available for

this project.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5.4.2 Database design


        The database design for this system is extremely simple, due to the fact that

the database was created at the ending phase of the project submission. The

database was designed briefly, with only two tables included, which are user and also

the news table. The tables have no connection between each other, therefore no

relationships are drawn as well, below is how the database design looks like:



                  tbluser

            PK username                                         tblnews

                   password                                PK nid
                   fullname
                   address                                      publishdate
                   dob                                          title
                   email                                        content




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2-5.4.3 Web Modelling Language


     The system consists of dynamic data integration with database. Therefore the

series of process between the flows of data is represented using the web modelling

language. Although the functions that deals with database are only a few, as they are

mainly done as a purpose of enhancement features. More features or functions could

be created in the future.



Login
                                                       Login Page
      Main Page

               Index                                        Login input




             Main Menu

                                                             KO



                                                                    Login




                                                                            OK




                                                                                 User home page

                                                                                         Index




                                                                                        Main Menu




Logout

     User home page                                                         Main page

             Index                                                                   Index
                                                   Logout




           Main Menu                                                               Main Menu




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Interactive Drifting Guide


Main Page (Before login)



        Forums Page
                                                                        IDG News Page
               Contents
                                                                                     News




              Forum links
                                                                                     News
                                            Main Page

                                                      Index




                                                      Home




         Login Page

                                                                   Sign-up Page
                Login unit

                                                                            Registration




         Help Page                                                                KO

                Contents

                                                                   Create




              Login guidance
                                                              OK
                                                                   Member




                                Sign up Successful

                                     Data Stored




                                     Member Profile




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Interactive Drifting Guide


Main Page (After login)

        Forums Page
                                                                                     IDG News Page
               Contents
                                                                                                  News




               Forum links
                                                                                                  News
                                           User Home Page

                                                       Index




                                                       Home




         Settings Page

                                                                               Edit Profile
                Configure
                 settings
                                                                                      Details input

                                         Interactive Drifting Guide

                                                    Contents




                                                                                                 KO

                                               Drifting Guides


                                                                                Modify




                                                                      OK
                                                                           Update user profile




                                Update successful

                                     Data Stored




                                     Member Profile




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                         - 124 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


2-5.4.4                  Functional Flow Chart


       Due to the fact that the interactive drifting guide is a standalone application

which doesn‟t require any connectivity with any databases. The whole design of the

navigation and functional process is represented as functional flow charts instead of

web modelling language.



Interactive Drifting Guide

                       Store                                       Start
                  configuration to
                      system




                                                                Main Menu
                        Yes
                                       No



                                                        Fail




                   Save Settings                                   Login

                                                                                      Sign up        News          Forums



                                                                  Success




                                                               Logged in Main
                 Configure Settings          Settings
                                                                   Menu


                                                                Enter guide


                                                                Interactive
                                                               Drifting Guide




                                                                   Drift
  Drift Basics                     Drift Machine                                Drift Styles    Test It Yourself
                                                                Techniques




                                                                    End




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Interactive Drifting Guide


Drifting Basics

                                                        Start




                                                      Basic
                                                     Overview




                                                                    Watch Video




                     How To Drift                   What To Drift       Where To Drift




   Understeer
     Demo
                                                                                           Car Park
                                     Corolla KE70




                Oversteer
                                                                                          Race Track
                 Demo                Corolla AE86




                                                                                         Mountain Pass
                                      Cefiro A31




                                                                                         Public Streets
                                     Silvia 180sx




                                                        End




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Interactive Drifting Guide


Drifting Machine

                                        Start




                                    Drift Demo Car




           Engine                      Interior                                     Showcase




           Bonnet
                                                  Steering Wheel


                                                                               Exterior Looks

         Aero Parts
                                                  Transmission




           Tie Rod
                                                      Clutch




            Brake
                                                   Bucket Seat     Interior Looks




         Suspension
                                                     E-Brake




            Tires




         Rear Spoiler




            LSD




           Exhaust




                                                          End




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Interactive Drifting Guide


Drifting Techniques

                                           Start




                                      Drift Technique
                                       Introduction




          Power Over
                                                        Shift Lock Drift
             Drift




          E-Brake Drift                                   Feint Drift




          Clutch-Kick                                     Throttle off
             Drift                                           Drift




                                                         Braking Drift




                                           End




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Interactive Drifting Guide


Drifting Styles

                                                             Start




                                                                                  Speed Drifting
                                                       Speed Drifting
                                                                                    Pictures




                                                                                  Speed Drifting
                                                                                     Video




                          Exhibition
                                                        Twin Drifting                         Manji Drifting
                           Drifting




       Exhibition Drift                Twin Drifting                    Manji Drifting
         Pictures                       Pictures                          Pictures




       Exhibition Drift                Twin Drifting                    Manji Drifting
          Videos                         Videos                           Videos




                                                       End




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                                               - 129 -
Bsc in Computing (Multimedia Technology)
Interactive Drifting Guide


Test It Yourself




                                                   Start




                                                   TIY
                                              Introduction




                                              User Input




                                           Processing Result




                                              Displaying
                                                Result




                                                   End




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2-5.4.5          Interface Design


Here are some of the sample screen shots showing the several modules in the system:

                 Main Page                         Drifting Basic Module




        Drifting Machine Module                    Drifting Techniques Module




        Drifting Styles Module                       Test It Yourself




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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-6         Implementations


          For the implementation stage, the whole system is being separated into several

modules for better management, not only that, it is also done so in order to

accommodate to the testing plans at the later stages of the project development.



          The implementation phase of this project consists of several different sub

stages, and these stages are to be complete in order:

     1.     Creating the 3D drift car model

     2.     Vector conversion and animation

     3.     System – Navigation

     4.     System – Audio and Video

     5.     System – Test It Yourself Algorithm



2-6.1 Creating the 3D drift car model


          The main focus of the project is to create a 3d model of a real life drift vehicle

which would be included in the system for multiple uses. The main reasons for

creating such 3d model are:

    Provides greater and better three dimensional view of a true to life drift vehicle.

    The three dimensional design allows the car to be viewed at any desired angle,

     distance and also levels.

    Provides greater versatility in creating animations and also interactions which

     could greatly improve learn ability.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-6.1.1          Blue Prints and Poly-Modelling


        The first initial task is to find accurate blueprints of the car which consists of

top, side, front and back view. With the help of the blueprints which are then

inserted into the 3d scene as reference templates, the process of creating the 3d model

is then commenced by using the simple and easy to use poly-modelling technique.



Here is a picture of how the basic shape of the car has been done with the help of the

blue print templates:




               Pic1: basic shape of the vehicle done by box/poly-modelling.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                      - 133 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


After several days of effort and patience, the model has been improved with greater

details:




              Pic2: body of the vehicle is enhanced with more details and lines.



           With the exterior body of the car done, the interior has been created using the

same method of modelling. While there are no blue prints available for the interior

of this particular car model, many pictures have been used for references, though the

end result is not as perfectly accurate to real life, but it is more than enough to show

what is meant to be shown to the user in order to understand:




                  Pic3: Interior shot of the vehicle‟s cockpit and its details.


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Interactive Drifting Guide


This is how the model looks when it is finished:




                                      Pic4: finished model.



        The whole model has taken approximately three months to complete, while the

model consists of accurate exterior looks and designs, the interior is created with

mildly accuracy as well.       The major problem with the model is the inability to model

the engine of the vehicle, the suspension, transmission gearbox, drive shafts and

anything that is meant to be fitted under the vehicle. As a result, the model is made

possible for many ideas to be fulfilled in the main system yet it also creates some

limitations.




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Interactive Drifting Guide


2-6.1.2          Problems faced


        During the 3D modelling phase, many problems were encountered, some of

these problems were fixed, and some were eliminated or even ignored due to different

reasons.    Here is a list of problem faced during this stage:



1.   Over complicated meshes

     Description: When the vehicle was first modelled, my skills are lacking and

     although the shape of the vehicle was successfully created, but the meshes were

     untidy and it may cause further problems for future modelling work.

     Solution: Discard everything that has been modelled, and re-model everything

     from scratch, this process has taken up one and a half months, many research and

     learning were also involved which drag the process.



2.   Lack of accurate references or blueprints for other parts of the car that is to

     be modelled

     Description: Though the main exterior body of the car has different views of

     accurately measured blueprints for reference, but the other parts of the car such

     as brakes, interior and even engine is lacking. Due to the limitation of skill and

     lack of experience in modelling, this has proven to be a very difficult process.

     Solution: Disregarding the idea of modelling accurate object with utmost

     accuracy. Some of the parts in the vehicle were done based on picture

     references only, though the polygons and accuracy were not as good as it could

     be, but it is modelled in a way that it is understandable and also helps in reducing

     the time needed in modelling these little objects.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                   - 136 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


3.   Difficulty in applying materials and textures to the car

     Description: After the model was finished, textures and materials are required to

     be applied to the model in order to make it look more realistic. But the problem

     is that after applying high quality textures or materials to the model, it greatly

     slows down the entire rendering process, which could be a hectic job if one

     would want to create a series of animation with the model.

     Solution: By reducing some of the special effects on the applied materials and

     textures, though the model does not look as realistic as it is, but it still looks

     pretty decent and also understandable, what‟s important is that it helps in getting

     faster rendering times.



4.   Finished model taking up too much CPU power while rendering

     Description: The model uses many modifier presets found in the 3D authoring

     tool, these preset modifiers (such as Meshsmooth modifier) greatly improves the

     quality of the model, yet as a result it also takes up plenty of CPU power while

     being processed.

     Solution: Reduces the number of polygons of certain parts of the vehicle, hence

     reducing its quality for better performance.



5.   Lack of time and resources

     Description: The major focus of this project is to come up with a system that

     provides easy to learn drifting guide, with all the time spent on creating merely a

     single 3D car model would contribute so little to the complete system.        If one is

     to finish the complete model, it would have taken up so much time and in the end,

     the main deliverable of this project will not be produced in time.




Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology                                          - 137 -
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Interactive Drifting Guide


     Solution: Some major components of the vehicle such as the engine, the

     suspension, gear box, or even the drive shaft have been left un-modelled. Due to

     time constraints, some of the parts for the car were also briefly modelled with

     minimal details. More work were done on much more important areas such as

     vehicle exterior and also its interior details, as they contribute in demonstrating

     drifting techniques in the final system.




2-6.2 Converting the 3D model into vector images


          Another major procedure in this project is to create a vector version of the 3D

car model, the main reasons for this action are:

    Vector consists less file size

    Compatibility and integration with Macromedia Flash

    Easier and faster editing and modification of animations

    Ability to separate the colour, lines and shadows of the model into several layers

     for better processing.



          The main tool that is used for this conversion is Swift 3D 4.0. The major

tasks involving around this authoring tool consist of:

     1.     Importing the 3d car model from 3d studio max.

     2.     Re-adjusting the quality of the model.

     3.     Creating simple and choreographed animations for the model, mostly

            involved around camera movements only. The more complex animations

            are all done in 3D Studio Max.



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     4.    Export it into Swift 3D Flash Importer (SWFT) file format which can be

           directly used in flash.



Here is a sample picture of the original 3d model converted into vector 3D:




                          Pic5: Vector version of the 3D car model.



2-6.2.1          Problems faced


1.   Swift 3D having problems handling extensive meshes from the car model

     Description: When the 3D car model was done in 3D studio max, it is then

     imported into Swift 3D to further convert it into vector images or animations.

     The model consists of hundreds of thousands of meshes which really lags down

     the program itself, making it mere impossible to navigate through the camera

     scene at all.

     Solution: Create another copy of the model, decrease its quality using 3D studio

     Max and re-import it to Swift 3D. For example, the 3D studio Max‟s

     meshmooth function was discarded while importing it into Swift 3D, the


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     smoothing function is then replaced with Swift 3D‟s built in auto smooth

     function, which also gets the job done although the quality is unmatched

     compared to meshsmooth. The drop of quality greatly improves the

     performance, which allows for easier and also faster work to be done.



2.   Lack of performance in rendering

     Description: Swift 3D is not a full out 3D authoring tool as it mainly focuses on

     simple 3D applications designed for Flash, thus the 3D car model that was

     created for this project proves to be too much for this particular program.

     Solution: When there is a need of adjustments to the model, whether it is to

     move an object or whatsoever, it has to be all done in 3D Studio Max and then

     imported into Swift 3D afterwards. The lag issues in Swift 3D while dealing

     with the car model itself could slow down every single process and can not be

     tolerated.



3.   Extreme drop of quality after converting into vector images

     Description: The primary objective of converting the 3D model into vector is to

     minimize the file size and also by enhancing its compatibility with Flash for

     further processing. What was not expected is that in order to make it into

     vector with similar high-end qualities, it would require a big amount of time for

     the render itself, thus it was forced to tune down the quality of the render.

     Solution: Some of the animations were rendered in normal bitmap images in 3D

     Studio Max instead of Swift 3D. This approach is to preserve the quality of the

     model, and for the rest of the animations, they are all converted into vector in

     Swift 3D. As a result, it is actually a combination of bitmap images and vector

     animations put together to come up with the desired quality and objective.


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        Here are two sample pictures showing the low quality vector image and an

enhanced bitmap image (but also reduced quality to decrease the size of the file):



                                     Original vector quality




                                Enhanced photo realistic quality




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2-6.3 Creating the IDG system


           In the design phase, storyboards of the system were drawn and they are now

been realised at this stage. With the system interface created, interactivity and

animations are included with the help of Flash‟s action scripting.



           The system‟s main module such as Drifting Basics, Machine, Technique and

Styles are all created as standalone modules, after each module is completed, a

prototype copy of the module is then published for testing and evaluation purposes.

When all modules are tested and working properly, they are merged together in the

end and more testing will follow up. More details about the testing plans can be

found at the Testing Chapter.



2-6.3.1           Navigation


           The navigation of the system is something very conventional and also easy to

use, as the main function links are available to the user at all times, which allows user

to go from one page to another page instantly without too much clicking.       These

types of navigational features were all created using Flash‟s easy yet powerful action

scripts.     Those action scripts include several conditions which control both the frame

and also scene objects such as movies or buttons.




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   2-6.3.2          Applying HCI Usability Principles


            In literature review chapter we talked about the importance of the HCI

   usability principles and how it affects the user upon interacting with the system.

   Here elaboration on how these principles are applied to the application is

   demonstrated with sample screenshots and followed by simple explanations:



   2-6.3.2.1        Learnability


   Predictability




Roll over
button
effect




            Throughout the system, the buttons are all labelled with captions which are

   straight to the point and easy to understand. These simple captions gives the user an

   idea of what or where the action will take you to once the button is click, not only that,

   every button has a roll over effect, so the user will always be alerted when he has the


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  mouse pointer pointing to any specific buttons, thus allowing the user to predict his

  next actions.



  Synthesizability




Appeared
Buttons
After login




          Once the user has successfully logged on to the system, the additional

  functions which are only accessible for the registered members would become visible.

  The username of the user will also be indicated at several different pages.   All these

  feedback helps in telling the user the outcomes and also differences after he logged

  onto the system.




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Consistency




     Screen 1: Drifting Basic                          Screen 2: Drift Technique



        The above two screenshots show the difference between section “Drifting

Basic” and “Drift Techniques”. These two are different parts of the guide but they

share the same interface layout, in terms of the main menu buttons at the top, and also

the sub-menus which are situated at the bottom.    The fonts used throughout the

system remains with Concelien Jet which is mainly used for titles, and also Verdana

for normal contents.



        The colours used in the system also remains a certain degree of consistency as

well, the system uses the basic contrast approach which is black and white.

According to what the user setups in the configurations, the colours may be changed

yet are applied throughout the entire system.




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  2-6.3.2.2        Flexibility


  Multithreading




                                                                                    Listen to
                                                                                    speech
Watch
video clip




                                                                                 Toggle music
                                                                                 on/off or adjust
                                                                                 volume




          This is an example from the overview of “Drifting Basic”, here the user are

  able to watch the video, or adjusting the music volume or even listen to the

  explanation speech, and they can be all done at the same time, giving user many

  controls over multiple tasks at one time.




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    Customizability




Configuring
the settings.




            The system includes an extra feature which allows the user to make changes to

    the system settings such as background music and also the layout styles which

    basically change the colour theme. The system also includes drag-able windows

    such as the FAQ window and the description windows in “Drifting Machine”. These

    drag-able windows allow the user to move around the window while not blocking the

    view they intended to see.




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2-6.3.2.3        Robustness


Observability




                                                                      Loading screen




        Above is a screen shot showing the loading window with the wheel spinning.

This helps provide the user of what the system is currently doing.




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Recoverability




                                                                            Retry option
                                                                            button




        When the user made a mistake in the system, the system will always provide

the user the option to retry or restart.      Not only so, the system also displays the cause

of the user‟s wrong doings, thus allowing the user to understand what mistakes he had

made.




Responsiveness

        The system‟s responsiveness is done with multiple improvements such as the

use of sounds, speech, music and also animations. Each and every action or task

performed by the user, the system will then response with either sound or speech

followed by animations. This quick and immediate response in the system improves

the overall usability for the user.




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2-6.3.3          Implementation of Audio and Video


        Audio and video are both used to a particular extend in the system, the audio

includes speeches from a real human, and also background music loops, and the video

clips are compiled from several different sources and further edited in some movie

editing software to produce the desired result. As stated in the function

specifications, the system consists of five major guiding components which each

contribute their own way and method in teaching users the basic and fundamentals of

drifting. Each of the guides consists of speech, music and also video clips:



Speech – Due to the lack of good sound recording equipments available, the speech

for the system was recorded through a simple headset microphone. The information

to be presented was already prepared before hand and it is then read with as much

accuracy and proper pronunciation as possible. After the sound is recorded, it is then

imported into Adobe Premier for further audio compression by using the „IMA

ADPCM‟ compressor.           After compression, the size of the raw audio file is greatly

reduced and the loss of audio quality is minimal.



Background music – In this system, several background music are used throughout

the system, and the good part is that the user even gets to choose from the different

music at one point.      All the music found in the system is played back in loops, thus

greatly reduces the size of the music file as well.



Video – Video is used throughout several sections in the system, most notably in

„Drift Styles‟ section where different video clips showing the cars drifting in that

particular style and approach. Adobe Premier is the movie editing software that is


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used in editing different video clips together. The video were retrieved from sources

such as the Internet and also local shops. After gathering all the desired video

footages, the video clips are then imported into Adobe Premier for further editing

work. By adding text and also transition effects, the different video footages blend

into each other and resulted in a well and properly presented video which is then used

in the system. All the videos are compressed using WM9 NTSC 1024K transcode

presets in Adobe Premier‟s video encoder, the file size of the videos were reduced

drastically yet the quality remained crisp and clear.




2-6.3.4          Problems Faced


1.   Video corrupted the text files

     Description: The system was first built on Flash MX 2004, and using the built in

     media player component to display the external video footages. The video is

     able to display successfully through flash, yet the externally loaded text files

     become corrupted after the usage of the media player component.

     Solution: Shifting the whole system onto the new Flash 8 workspace and by

     applying the new and easier to use FLV playback component for video

     displaying. By using the FLV player, the text file corruption problem doesn‟t

     exist anymore.



2.   Sound and music overlapping

     Description: In the system, background music, sound effects and speech are

     used throughout different segments. Music and sound effects go well together

     and it doesn‟t show much annoyance at all.     The problem lies within the speech


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     and the music overlapping with each other. When a speech is played while the

     music running, the speech became much difficult to hear and understand what it

     is saying.

     Solution: There was several method of solution here. The first one is to tune

     down the volume of the music while the speech sound is being played.        But due

     to some unknown reasons, the volume of the sound is affected as well when the

     volume of the background music is decreased, even though they are both

     declared as different variables. Due to this unresolved problem, it has led me to

     another approach for solving the problem, which is to stop the background music

     while the speech starts to play. Although the sudden lost of background music

     may confuse the user and the transition is not well made, yet in order to preserve

     the quality of the sound from the speech, this is the last chosen solution and it

     does gets the job done.



3.   Occasional video freeze

     Description: This is an unknown bug which causes the freeze of the video

     whenever the speech button is pressed at multiple times during the video runtime.

     After many attempts in trying to recreate the errors, it is soon found that the

     problem may relate to the action scrip that is used to control the sounds of the

     system.

     Solution: Although the source of the problem is located, but without sacrificing

     the sound of the system, this bug can not be completely fixed or eliminated.




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2-6.4 Applying the 3D model and its animations onto the

system


        The finished animation with all those vectored images is being integrated into

the Flash here. The process is pretty straightforward after the model has been

converted into vector, here in Flash a simple import function is enough to fully bring

the model onto the Flash editing scene.



        The animation and the model are used at two places, each contributing

different purposes and different presentation styles:

    3D car in Drifting Machine – As the name imposed, the „Drifting Machine‟

     section includes a 3D drift vehicle which allows the user to interact with while

     learning at the same time. The model was placed here, together with preset

     animations done in both 3D Studio Max and Swift 3D.           In order to make it

     more dynamic and more prone to user control, action scripts are used here to

     allow users to gain more control over the animation.



    3D car in Drifting Techniques – In this section, techniques used in drifting are

     demonstrated through different views of certain areas such as interior of the car

     where steering or pedals are displayed.       Due to this particular reason, the 3D

     model that was created earlier on is then brought to be used here as well.

     Because of the finished model, animation and camera works became easy, thus

     allowing me to come up with a series of greatly choreographed animations which

     are then presented as a drifting technique demonstration in the system.




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2-6.4.1      Problems Faced


1.   Struggle between quality versus performance

     Description: At some stage of the system development, it is soon found out that

     after the inclusion of the 3D model and it‟s animations into the system, the

     system starts to take up a lot of memory of the development PC and producing

     lag. Similar to the problems faced during the 3D rendering process, this could

     slow down the whole system development process.        Not only that, although the

     converted vector 3D graphics are much more smaller size in general, yet the

     quality of the image are awful and lacking details.

     Solution: As stated in the conversion of vector stage, some of the animations are

     replaced with original bitmap animations instead of vector to preserve the top

     qualities. There were several approaches and attempts to reduce the lag of the

     system which caused by those 3D animations. One was to save each animation

     into separate SWF files, and then using Flash‟s inbuilt script function to call the

     SWF file every time it is being initiated. The problem with this approach is that

     the animation can not be controlled with much versatility and the control of size

     and location of the file is also limited as well; second approach was by cutting

     down the number of animations. After much trial and error, it is found that the

     PC does not have the sufficient technology and power to support such massive

     workload at one time, therefore the second option was chosen, which is to reduce

     certain number of the animation to preserve the system‟s performance.




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2.   Inability to implement virtual reality interaction

     Description: The initial idea of Interactive Drifting Guide was to create a virtual

     reality environment whereby user have full control over the vehicle and interact

     with it at the same time. While certain researches were done on the virtual

     reality area, it is found that the acquired software to perform such features has

     proven to be too difficult to learn and the time is also limited.    It is not until the

     later half of the whole project development process then I realised that I have

     missed out Macromedia Director which is one of the more potential software in

     dealing with 3D interactivity using the Lingo script language. The possibility

     of implementing virtual reality to the system would be realised if only I had

     noticed Macromedia Director at the early stage of the project.

     Solution: Due to time constraints, the virtual reality idea was discarded.         What

     was done on the system is the use of both action scripting and different preset

     animations combined together which produces a sort of “fake” virtual reality

     look and feel to the system.        Although users have limited control over the

     environment and objects, yet the main objective of the system is achieved.

     Virtual reality would be categorised as one of the future enhancements which

     will be described further later on.




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2.   Inability to apply keyboard controls

     Description: The drifting machine module has this extra feature which allows

     the user to freely rotate the car and also checking out its interior. This feature

     was supposed to be controllable using keyboard directional keys, but due to

     unknown reasons these keyboard inputs are not functioning properly once the

     combo box component is attached to the system.

     Solution: If the combo box component is deleted from the library, the keyboard

     input is functioning normally again.          But at the time it is attached back to the

     system, the keyboard input will not function properly. Due to the fact that the

     combo boxes are used in one of the major module in the system, therefore they

     can not be sacrificed because of this extra feature.        So the solution is to replace

     the keyboard control with buttons.




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2-6.5      Algorithm for Test It Yourself


        Test It Yourself (TIY) is one of the system‟s drift knowledge evaluations and it

also works as a suggestion provider. As described in the design chapter, the questions

are categorised into two parts. First part of the questions are mainly based on the

level of knowledge the user possessed regarding drifting and the other half is mainly

for obtaining user background information.



        The first part of the questions consists of fifteen questions in total. Judging

by the number of correct answer that the user has made, which is represented as

„correctNum‟, the algorithm that is used to come up with the score is:



                                Score = (correctNum/15) * 100



        With the score produced, the system will then evaluate it with the second part

of the questions.     In this case, three categories of answers are created, and each

category represents different level of knowledge in which the user possesses. Each

category will then be considered into the answers given from the second part of the

questions. Here is an example on how it works:



Example:

        In part 1, user answered scored 90%.       The system recognises the user as

someone who has decent knowledge about drifting.




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In part 2, user‟s answers are:

    Decent job and income

    No rear wheel drive car

    No experience in drifting

    To meet more friends and have fun



        The system identifies each criterion such as whether the user has a car or has

any experiences in drifting.       Based on all these criteria combined with the his earlier

scores, the system will then come up with a final result which is written in text form,

notifying the user of his score and also providing the appropriate tips and guides on

how he would fit into the drift scene.



        The results are all written and stored in simple text files, according to different

answers the user had given; the system will then allocate the right file using nested

conditional loops in action script.



Here is a sample result produced based on the user input shown above:



“You have good grasp of the concept and also great understanding about Drifting and

its fundamentals, but you don’t have a rear wheel drive car and have no experiences

in Drifting so far, but the good thing is you have stable income, which is always

helpful for you to do something you want.          With your financial capabilities, you

should start saving up and get yourself a rear wheel drive car first, then you are able

to get your drifting started.”




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2-6.5.1          Problems Faced


1.   The results for the evaluation are very time consuming to create

     Description: When this part of the system was first started out, I have decided to

     create as much questions as I can possibly think of for the evaluation test, but as

     I started to analyse the questions and plan their results, the outcome was that the

     results are way too much to be all done with, not to mention these results need to

     be reviewed by Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng himself and so on. All of this may take

     up a whole lot of time which may greatly delay the rest of the project tasks.

     Solution: The only solution to this problem is to reduce the number of questions

     and making the system less complicated, with fewer questions, the results needed

     becomes lesser as well.



2.   Lack of accuracy in these evaluation

     Description: Because the number of questions was cut down to only nineteen,

     this also means that the accuracy for the evaluation also decreases at the same

     time.

     Solution: By improving the result contents and allowing it to accommodate to a

     broader range of users.        So a user might not feel as though the result is not

     pointed at him instead of others.




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2-6.6      Implementing PHP to Flash


        This is a late addition to the system which acts more as an enhancement

feature instead of the exact requirement.          The objective of this feature is to bring the

system online and allows users to access the system through online registration and

also other extras such as news and also forums.



        The only part in the system where the PHP and MySQL is implemented is the

main page of the system, where the user will first visit before able to enter the

Interactive Drifting Guide. Here are some of the functions which consist of

integration with PHP pages and how they are being created:



Login

        By creating two sets of input text boxes which will store the user‟s username

and password.      By the time the user clicks on the submit button, these values will

then be transferred to a PHP page. The PHP page catches these variables and

connects to the database, running a query to check on the matches of these values, if

the values are matched, the PHP page then returns certain value to the flash which

tells the flash the result of the validation.



Registration

        Similar to the login function, multiple set of values are passed through a PHP

page for further processing. The validation check on the values are all performed on

the PHP page itself, if let say the entered date is invalid, the PHP page will then return

an error message to flash which will then displayed to the user.          If no errors were

found during the validation check, the information will be stored into the database and


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a successful message will then be sent back to flash as well notifying that the process

is completed.



News

           This function is pretty simple as it first starts off by calling the PHP page

which will then connect to the database and retrieve all the news from it and then pass

the values to the flash.     The flash will then display the news in a text area

accordingly to how it was arranged in the query from the PHP page earlier on.




2-6.6.1          Problems Faced


1.   Loading frames required

     Description: As stated earlier on in the literature review chapter, flash runs on

     time frames, and compared to normal html pages, it does not wait until the values

     has been successfully loaded.         In flash, one event is followed by another event

     which occurs at different time frames. The initial design was by placing the

     result event next to the submit event, so there is only one frame difference

     between them. When the submit button is clicked and the PHP page is then

     called and processed, the value does not have enough time to reach till the flash

     before it stops processing anymore. When that particular frame in flash stops,

     every process comes to a halt as well, thus giving user result of fail attempts in

     achieving that task.

     Solution: By adding several empty frames between the submission and also the

     result displaying page.       This allows the value to have enough time to reach till

     the flash and thus produces the actual result in a proper manner.


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2-7        Testing


2-7.1 Test Plans



     Testing is done throughout the implementation phase of the project, and for each

type of testing, whether its unit or system testing, they are all tested based on several

criteria such as functionality, usability and of course user acceptance.    The on going

process is done with the use of prototypes and the test results are documented each

time a testing is performed.



The test plan strategies used in this project consists of the followings:

    1. Black-box testing - Black box testing allows the tester to interact with the

        system to assess the test results, through this testing, user get to know what the

        system is supposed to do, but not how it is done.



    2. White-box testing – It allows the user to access the system and its inner codes,

        thus having better understanding on how the system works internally. This

        test will be performed by a supervisor. The supervisor will be giving

        evaluation based on the runtime effectiveness and efficiency of the system

        codes, in order to produce a better performance.



    3. Unit and Integration Testing – This system will be developed in different

        modules or units, based on these units, testing are done individually, once the

        modules are tested, they are been integrated for the integration testing. These

        testing will be performed by the developer himself.


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2-7.2 Unit or Module Testing


     Unit testing is performed on single modules which are created separately apart

from the main system itself. With each separate module comes with a prototype

which is being used as a testing subject, and also for the purpose of letting third party

users to use the system in order to perform the user acceptance testing.    The

feedbacks and criticisms received at these moments were recorded and taken into

consideration for future enhancements or even changes of the module.




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Module 1 - Drifting Basic (Functionality Testing)

 Test Subject               Test Method                 Expected Result                 Actual Result                        Remarks

Displaying          Contents are stored in a       The contents displays on   The contents are displayed in the   It is found that the lack of

externally load     separate text file, while in   the text area with the     text area, yet there are no forms   format is due to the fact that

text files in       the system action script is    proper format.             of format in the paragraphs         Flash loads the external text

Flash.              used to load the text file                                although they are being written     file‟s content as normal string

                    and thus displaying the                                   in the external text file.          characters. The solution is to

                    content onto a text area.                                                                     use a similar yet slightly

                                                                                                                  different approach by using the

                                                                                                                  „LoadVars‟ script function and

                                                                                                                  load the text file as a html

                                                                                                                  form.   This slight change

                                                                                                                  solves the problem.




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Links of the        Clicking on every links in     The links would work         The links works fine in normal     After much diagnose of the

sub menu            the page or even clicking      properly and response by     clicking.      But when the same   problem, there are no ways to

buttons.            on the same link for           displaying the actual page   link is clicked on numerous        fix the problem. A solution to

                    multiple times.                that link leads to.          times, the system flow starts to   the problem is to disable the

                                                                                mess up and it displays random     button link when it is being

                                                                                pages.                             clicked on. When a different

                                                                                                                   link is clicked, the previous

                                                                                                                   button will be enabled again.

                                                                                                                   Though the existing problem is

                                                                                                                   not fixed but this approach

                                                                                                                   works pretty well and it also

                                                                                                                   helps by providing the user

                                                                                                                   feedback on which link he is

                                                                                                                   currently on.




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Animation           Checking if the animation      Animation plays with          Animation plays with correct       Results are satisfying.

                    is working properly as it      correct and proper flow.      and proper flow.

                    should.

How to Drift        Checks the animation and       Animation plays properly      The animation plays well and so    When a link is clicked, the

                    also the understeer and        and links work fine.          does the link. But lag increases   existing animation is call to a

                    oversteer links.                                             when either of the understeer or   halt by using stop() command

                                                                                 oversteer link is clicked due to   to that particular movie clip.

                                                                                 the fact that the background       With less animation running at

                                                                                 animation is still running.        the same time, the lag problem

                                                                                                                    is solved and the frame rate

                                                                                                                    increases as well.

What to Drift       Checks the animation and       Animation and the links all   The animation remains normal,      The problem exists due to the

                    also the sub menu links        work properly as it should.   but some of the menu links are     fact that a simple line of action

                                                                                 not working properly when other    script code is missing in those

                                                                                 links are clicked.                 buttons. By adding additional




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                                                                                                                    scripts to control the animation

                                                                                                                    and the links, the problem is

                                                                                                                    fixed immediately.

Where to Drift        Checks the animation         Animation and the links all   Animation and the links all work   Results are satisfying.

                    and also the sub menu          work properly as it should.   properly as it should.

                    links

Sound and           Clicking on the sound on       Background music is           When the speech button is          Different sounds, speeches and

Music               and off button and also        meant to play                 pressed, the background music‟s    music are all stored in different

                    the speech enable options      automatically when the        volume is been decreased, but so   variables; with action

                    to check its results.          system runs, when the         does every other sounds existing   scripting, different controls can

                                                   speech button is pressed,     in the system. Making all          be applied to each sound.

                                                   the music would reduce its    sounds difficult to be heard.      Though the problem with the

                                                   volume allowing the                                              volume control remains

                                                   speech to be heard.                                              unsolved. An alternative

                                                                                                                    solution is to completely




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                                                                                                             switch off any alternative

                                                                                                             sounds when the speech is

                                                                                                             running, and when the speech

                                                                                                             button is clicked on again, the

                                                                                                             speech will stop immediately

                                                                                                             and the music will return

                                                                                                             instantly.

Video               Running the video in the       Video runs normally   Video runs normally without any     The problem occurs when the

playback            system                         without any errors.   errors, but the externally loaded   default media controller

                                                                         text files became corrupted.        component from Flash MX

                                                                                                             2004 is used. With the

                                                                                                             component removed from the

                                                                                                             library, the text contents are

                                                                                                             displayed normally again.

                                                                                                             The problem is solved when




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                                                             the system is moved to Flash 8

                                                             and using the new and more

                                                             advanced FLV playback

                                                             controller component.      Not

                                                             only does the video can be

                                                             played without any errors, the

                                                             text files are displayed

                                                             properly as well.




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Module 2 - Drifting Machine (Functionality Testing)



 Test Subject               Test Method                 Expected Result                     Actual Result                       Remarks

Speech              Check whether the speech       Speeches are played            Speeches are played accordingly    Results are satisfying.

playback            is playing properly when       accordingly and the music      and the music is automatically

                    it should be played.           is automatically turned off.   turned off.

Animations          By clicking on different       The car moves in the           The car moves in the appropriate   Results are satisfying.

                    links surrounding the car      appropriate manner and         manner and displays the parts

                    to see the animations that     displays the parts and its     and its description.

                    followed up.                   description.




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Module 3 - Drifting Techniques (Functionality Testing)



 Test Subject               Test Method                 Expected Result                         Actual Result                      Remarks

Sub menu            By clicking on each and        After a link is clicked, user   After a link is clicked, user is    Results are satisfying.

links               every one of the sub menu is directed to the desired           directed to the desired page

                    links to check their           page without many               without many problems.

                    outcomes.                      problems.




Animations          By clicking on different       The animations all              The animations all displayed        Include extra buttons to control

                    links surrounding the car      displayed without any           without any errors. Some part       the pace of the animation for

                    to see the animations that     errors.                         of the animations regarding the     some of the drift technique

                    followed up.                                                   steps of initiating a particular    demonstration. Together with

                                                                                   drift technique appears to be too   the addition of text description

                                                                                   fast.                               so the user is not lost.




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Roll over           By pointing the mouse          A pop up message should        Pop up messages displayed           The pop up messages are

messages on         icon over the sub menu         display describing the list    according.     But so does the      replaced with simpler and

sub menu            buttons to check the           of menus                       range of the roll over detection,   easier to understand static text

                    message display for its                                       which makes it unrealistic.         descriptions.

                    correctness.



Speech              Check whether the speech       Speeches are played            Speeches are played accordingly     Results are satisfying.

playback            is playing properly when       accordingly and the music      and the music is automatically

                    it should be played.           is automatically turned off.   turned off.




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Module 4 - Drifting Styles (Functionality Testing)



 Test Subject                 Test Method               Expected Result                       Actual Result                      Remarks

Animation           By playing the animation       Animations are displayed        The animations remain smooth       Re-doing the animation for

                    to check for any unusual       smoothly with no serious        except for the animation found     Manji Drifting and add more

                    errors.                        errors.                         in Manji Drifting demonstration,   frames to it so the car

                                                                                   as the movement of the car feels   movement feels more natural

                                                                                   unusual.                           and realistic.



Sub menu            By clicking on each and        After a link is clicked, user   After a link is clicked, user is   Results are satisfying.

links               every one of the sub menu is directed to the desired           directed to the desired page

                    links to check their           page without many               without many problems.

                    outcomes.                      problems.




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Sound               Playing the sounds and         Speeches are played            Speeches are played accordingly   Results are satisfying.

                    speeches to hear the           accordingly and the music      and the music is automatically

                    results.                       is automatically turned off.   turned off.



Video               Playing the video clip in      Video successfully played      Video successfully played with    Results are satisfying.

                    the system.                    with no errors and all         no errors and the controls work

                                                   controls work fine.            fine.




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Module 5 - Test It Yourself (Functionality Testing)


     As stated in Design chapter, Test It Yourself is an evaluation system which
evaluates the user‟s knowledge regarding drifting and also helps in providing tips for
the user. Therefore instead of testing each and every part of this module normally, a
set of predefined test data are required to test the accuracy of the algorithm‟s
evaluation feature as well.




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 Test Subject               Test Method                 Expected Result                   Actual Result                      Remarks
Speech              Click on the speech            The speech sound is played   The speech sound is played        The results are satisfying.
                    button to see if the sound     normally with no errors.     normally with no errors.
                    is working properly.
Validation          Click on submit button         A warning message will       The warning message is            The results are satisfying.
                    while leaving few of the       display prompting the user   displayed successfully and user
                    questions unanswered.          to answer all questions      can not proceed unless all
                                                   before proceeding.           questions on that page are
                                                                                answered.
Values of the       By using the trace             The values for each of the   Some of the values of the items   Checking on the combo box
combo box           function and select each       items in the combo box       are incorrect.                    parameter is done and it is
                    selected items from each       remain correct.                                                found that the value has been
                    question to check whether                                                                     mistakenly placed in the wrong
                    the values are correct or                                                                     order; a slight fix of the order
                    not.                                                                                          solves the problem.




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The evaluation      By using different test        Depending on each and       If the user selects any option       The problem lies within the
results             data to test out the           every choice the user had   regarding of not having a rear       conditional statement in the
                    system‟s algorithm.            made, the system would      wheel drive vehicle in the part 2    action script, as the way the
                                                   produce the correct         questions, the result will be        conditional is written does not
                                                   feedback and giving the     inaccurate as it shows different     accurately indicates and loads
                                                   appropriate tips.           results and tips which are totally   the correct text file. More if
                                                                               irrelevant to the user‟s response.   and else statements are added
                                                                               Not only so, any score between       to the function which allows
                                                                               40~60% will not display any          for better checking and
                                                                               results.                             validation and the problem is
                                                                                                                    solved permanently.     The
                                                                                                                    solution for the second
                                                                                                                    problem is to fix the
                                                                                                                    conditional statement code for
                                                                                                                    the scoring, as it is found that
                                                                                                                    the problem is caused by a
                                                                                                                    mistakenly placed value.




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2-7.3 Integration Testing

     When each module is completed and properly tested, they are then integrated
together to become one whole complete system.       The system was first intended as an
offline multimedia application on CD, but it was soon upgraded into an enhancement
online version of the application, this transition causes me to include the use of online
scripting and database connectivity to the existing system. Therefore testing based
on these areas are performed as well, not only that, the original system is also checked
thoroughly with several methods, the testing that were done here are:




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 Test Subject               Test Method                 Expected Result                   Actual Result                        Remarks
Connection of       By passing values to and       Values are successfully       The values can not be passed and The problem lies within the
Flash and PHP       from between a Flash           passed through from both      received from both ends.           loadVariables command line
                    application and a PHP          places, either Flash or the                                      where the initial url link
                    page to check whether the      PHP page.                                                        entered is based on shortcuts
                    value is detected.                                                                              instead of a full url. After
                                                                                                                    entering the full url link with
                                                                                                                    the http:// to the command line
                                                                                                                    the variables can be passed
                                                                                                                    through two mediums without
                                                                                                                    any problems.


Connection          Create a validation check      Database connectivity         Database connectivity successful   Results are satisfying.
between PHP         to determine whether the       successful
page and            database connectivity is
MySQL               successful.
database.




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Login               Entering numerous set of       When the user enters the      The user is logged on to the         When the user leaves the field
                    data to check the input        correct username, he is       system when he‟s entered the         blank and clicks the submit
                    validation.                    logged on successfully,       correct username and password,       button, the system does not
                                                   when he enters false inputs   but if he enters the invalid ones,   detect anything even though
                                                   or leaving the field blank,   the warning message does not         the conditional statement
                                                   an error message will         displays what error the user had     stated if the field is empty, a
                                                   display.                      done. Although several types         particular message will be
                                                                                 of error messages are prepared       displayed.   Due to this
                                                                                 for the sake of telling what the     unknown problem, I have
                                                                                 user had done wrong depending        come up with a one page error
                                                                                 on different situations.             message which greatly covers
                                                                                                                      all possible errors the user
                                                                                                                      might have made, though it
                                                                                                                      may be lacking the specific
                                                                                                                      ness of feedback, but it gets the
                                                                                                                      job done.




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Displaying          Clicking on the news link      The news is displayed in   The news is displayed in the       The reason behind is that the
news                and check whether the          the correct manner         correct manner accordingly.        text area in the Flash detects
                    news are displaying in         accordingly.               But the format is all messed up.   the variable from the PHP page
                    order.                                                                                       as characters, therefore the
                                                                                                                 html tags does not seem to
                                                                                                                 apply when it is loaded on to
                                                                                                                 the text area. By changing
                                                                                                                 the properties of the text area
                                                                                                                 to make it html tag readable
                                                                                                                 and the problem is solved and
                                                                                                                 the format is fixed.


Sound and           With all modules merged        All sounds and music is    All sounds have no problem         The problem lies within the
Music               together, sound and music      played is played without   playing except for the music       music controller which is
                    could get overlapped           much problems, sounds      which does not seem to stop at     wrongly placed in different
                    easily, it will be tested      and music will stop at     certain situation which it is      movieclips. By replacing the
                    here.                          certain conditions.        required to.                       controller to an outer layer and
                                                                                                                 some changes to the targeting
                                                                                                                 script the problem is
                                                                                                                 immediately solved.




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Links and           Click on all the links and     The links and all the menu   The links and all menu buttons     Fixes the spelling mistakes and
menus in IDG        menu buttons to check          buttons are functioning      are functioning properly but       the errors are all cleared.
                    whether they are all           properly and no errors       there are some spelling errors
                    working properly.              were found.                  here and there.




Sign up and         Checking if the validation     All validation is            Many validations are not           All the validation checks are
edit profile        in the sign up and edit        functioning well and there   functioning well and               done on the PHP page by using
page                profile page is all            are no errors to be found.   accordingly. Not only that,        the PHP scripting language.
validation          functioning correctly.                                      when user entered an invalid       The problems lie within those
                                                                                value to a particular field, the   lines of codes. The code calls
                                                                                system will display a different    external functions from
                                                                                error message which greatly        another PHP page and then
                                                                                confuses the user.                 passes the arguments for some
                                                                                                                   of the validation checking.      It
                                                                                                                   is found that some of the
                                                                                                                   functions in the external PHP
                                                                                                                   page are not correctly written
                                                                                                                   and the errors are not visible as
                                                                                                                   well, therefore the validation




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                                                                                                                     page does not call the function
                                                                                                                     and runs it properly due to
                                                                                                                     some syntax errors, thus
                                                                                                                     causing the whole validation
                                                                                                                     process to mess up. By fixing
                                                                                                                     the syntax error in those
                                                                                                                     external functions, the problem
                                                                                                                     is fixed and the validation is
                                                                                                                     working perfectly fine.




Passing             Because the Flash has no       The variables are passed       When user logged on to the         The original idea of storing the
variables           session control like the       with no errors and the user    system and moves around            variable is by placing it in a
                    PHP, therefore variables       remains logged on to the       different pages, the user is       dynamic text field and thus
                    and layers are used to         system at all times until he   automatically logged out of the    calling it from another
                    control the user log status    manually logs out of the       system at one point, causing him   location. This method causes
                    in the system. Here a          system.                        to log in again if he wants to     some unknown problems as
                    series of test will be                                        gain full access of the system     the text field‟s value keeps
                    performed to check for                                        once more.                         updating with each changes the
                    errors.                                                                                          user made. The solution is to




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                                                                                                                      come up with another extra
                                                                                                                      variable name called
                                                                                                                      “loginname” to accommodate
                                                                                                                      as an extra controller which
                                                                                                                      stores the user log status.




Signing up and By signing up or edit an            Once a sign up is submitted The sign up successfully adds a        There is an error in the query
Edit Profile        existing profile to check if or an existing profile is      new entry to the database             for the edit profile page, a
page with           there are any changes or       edited, the changes are      system. The edit profile does         correction to the query and the
database            updates in the database.       immediately updated in the   not update the existing data at all   problem is fixed.
connectivity.                                      database.                    after it is submitted.




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2-7.4 System Testing

 Test Subject               Test Method                 Expected Result                 Actual Result                    Remarks
Browser test –      Running the system using       The system runs properly   The system runs properly        The results are satisfying.
Internet            Internet Explorer              without errors.            without errors.
Explorer




Browser test –      Running the system using       The system runs properly   The system runs properly        The results are satisfying,
Firefox             Firefox browser                without errors.            without errors.                 although the loading time of
                                                                                                              the system seems to be a bit
                                                                                                              slower compared to IE.




IDG                 Running the executioner        The standalone component   The standalone component runs   The results are satisfying.
standalone          file instead of loading it     runs perfectly fine.       perfectly fine.
component           from a browser.
testing




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PC test – low       Running the system on a        The system is expected to   The system still runs fine, but   No actions are taken to
end computer        low end computer (low          run fine with some lags.    the lag is worse than expected,   accommodate to the users with
                    specifications)                                            especially in the drifting        lower end computers.      As this
                                                                               machine part where the spinning   system is aimed for users that
                                                                               vehicle is displayed.             has at least a mediocre spec
                                                                                                                 PC.




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2-7.5 Usability and User Acceptance Testing


        The usability and user acceptance testing are done when the system is being

integrated or combined together.         In order to carry out this form of testing, five total

candidates were selected to carry out this testing.       The candidates are as follows:



1.   Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng – As one of the interviewee for this project, Mr. Ee is also

     willingly accepted my request of being one of the user acceptance tester for the

     system.     Being a drifting expert himself, he can provide better input regarding

     the approach and design of the drifting guide.

2.   Mr. David Kong Wei Choong – The second interviewee for the project is also a

     perfect candidate in carrying out the usability testing of the system, acting as a

     drift enthusiast and also a beginner in drifting, this system is aim to

     accommodate to such user, seeing his response towards the system and the

     feedback and opinions he provided will be very beneficial to the success of the

     system.

3.   Mr. Tan Wei Chai – Mr. Tan is an APIIT level three student which had had many

     experiences in computing and programming. His great depth of knowledge in

     the technical area makes him a qualified candidate for this testing. His input

     regarding the system‟s performance, validation, and technicality will be

     something useful and beneficial.

4.   Mr. David Ting Leong Yee – Mr. David is a modified car lover, but he has not

     much knowledge regarding drifting, and because of this, he is chosen to be one

     of the usability testers for this system as well. His input to the system will

     determine whether the learning guide in the system is actually working or not.



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5.   Mr. Wong Pak Tun – Similar to Mr. David Ting Leong Yee, Mr. Wong is also a

     car enthusiast which has not much knowledge regarding drifting, the role he

     plays for this testing is the same as Mr. David.



        The usability and user acceptance testing will be divided into three main

categories which will focus on different areas of the system to determine its success

and acceptance from the user, these categories are:



    Interface Design - This category mainly focuses on how the tester thinks about

     the design of the system‟s interface.

    Audio and Video - This category mainly focuses on how the tester thinks about

     the audio and videos in the system.

    Usability - This category mainly focuses on the HCI usability principles and to

     obtain feedback from the user based on these principles.



        The testing took approximately four days to complete, while the testing forms

are distributed to the testers after they have spent their time on the system.   During

the testing phase, all five of the testers show certain satisfaction towards the system,

this was certainly a good thing.



        Two of the testers suggested that the system could be a whole lot better if a

simulation driving tutorial is implemented to the system, and almost all five of the

testers agreed that the speech sound quality is pretty awful to say the least.




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3-8        Critical Evaluation


3-8.1 Degree of success



        There are many ways in evaluating how successful one project can be, but I

had carefully chosen the following criteria for the evaluation:



    1. Meeting objectives and user requirements – A project that meets every single

        objective and also the requirements of the user/client means that it is a

        successful project.

    2. Functionality – Determines the functionality of the finished system. Each

        and every function of the system shall be evaluated, such as the 3D

        interactivity of the system.

    3. Usability – Elements such as user acceptance, accessibility, familiarity and

        recoverability will be evaluated here.

    4. Level of Content – Show the amount of detailed and well presented

        information and content available in the system.

    5. Project Management – The ability to manage the project in a professional and

        tidy manner.

    6. Research and Analysis – A good amount of well investigated research and

        analysis work is important to the success of a project.

    7. Documentation – The ability to come up with a documentation which is very

        well formatted and good English and grammars are used.




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3-8.1.1          Meeting the objectives and user requirements


                                  Evaluation                              Achieved

1.   To learn and apply the various multimedia and Human                    Yes

     Computer Interaction Design Principles to the system design.

2.   To learn and master the advance features of 3D authoring tool          Yes

     and integrating it to the system.

3.   To come up with an All-in-one package, where the system                Yes

     includes guides to all aspects of Drifting, from the car, to the

     techniques applied.

4.   To design the system in which it provides detailed yet easy to         Yes

     understand information and guide about Drifting.

5.   Re-define information presentation with the use of different           Yes

     media elements such as videos, animations, or sounds instead of

     simple texts.

6.   To make full use of the resources and tools available, in order to     Yes

     come up with a product that meets the user or client‟s

     requirements.

7.   Inclusion of difference between beginners‟s drifting and advance       Yes

     drifting.

8.   Animations, real life examples and video presentations included        Yes

     in the system.

9.   Safety issues regarding drifting are mentioned in the guide.           Yes

10. Performance and speed over features and effects                         No




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3-8.1.2          Functionality


                                Evaluation                          Achieved

1.   Drifting Basic – Overview, how to drift, what to drift and       Yes

     where to drift.

2.   Drifting Machine – All the necessary drift parts are covered     Yes

3.   Drifting Techniques – Basic techniques                           Yes

4.   Drifting Techniques – Advance techniques                         Yes

5.   Drifting Styles – Speed drifting                                 Yes

6.   Drifting Styles – Exhibition drifting                            Yes

7.   Drifting Styles – Twin drifting                                  Yes

8.   Drifting Styles – Manji drifting                                 Yes

9.   Test It Yourself                                                 Yes

10. 3D Car Interaction for tutoring purposes                          Yes

11. Animated demonstrations for tutorial                              Yes

12. Edited video clips                                                Yes

13. Music                                                             Yes

14. Sounds                                                            Yes




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3-8.1.3          Usability


                                Evaluation                         Achieved

1.   Allowing user to register to the system                         Yes

2.   Allowing user to log on to the system with a registered         Yes

     account

3.   Allowing user to modify and update his current account          Yes

4.   Allowing user to view the news                                  Yes

5.   Allowing user to have customization to the systems look and     Yes

     feel

6.   Allowing user to have customization to the systems contents     No

7.   Allowing user to navigate through pages at anywhere             Yes

     anytime

8.   Allowing user to perform multi task at one page                 Yes

9.   Allowing user to recover from errors                            Yes

10. Able to assists the user when the user is in need.               Yes




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3-8.1.4          Level of Content


        This evaluates the level of depth in which the contents in the system possesses.

While many of the theories, tips and guides found in the system are written and

interpreted by myself, yet many of them are facts that have been referenced from

many researches, surveys, interviews and also observation that I have done over the

past few months. These contents are been briefly reviewed by one of the local drift

expert Mr. Ee Yoong Cherng and he is satisfied with the appropriateness of what the

content is presenting and also the messages it delivering.



        As a system that teaches people how to drift, the content of the guides and

tutorials must be accurate and makes sense as well.     If the system happens to deliver

wrong messages to the users, the main purpose of this project will be destroyed.

Here with the user acceptance testing results, it is safe to say that the current system is

delivering good and appropriate contents which covers informative, and also

beneficial drifting guide knowledge.




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3-8.1.5          Project Management


        The project management for this project is mediocre at best. At the

beginning of the project planning, the time and the resources are all well sorted out,

and things are looking good so far until it reaches the mid-point interview session

where the implementation of the system is commencing.



        One of the major drawback in the project management is the time taken in

modelling the 3D car model, as the process itself took up almost four months in doing

so which greatly delayed many other tasks which are supposed to be done at that

period of time. This unexpected outcome had led me in making a hard decision in

discarding the idea of coming up with the perfectly modelled real life vehicle in order

to continue with the rest of the more important tasks such as creating the system and

the coding part.



        At the later stage of the project where testing is taking place, many problems

are starting to arise and some of these problems also took longer than expected to

solve. As a result, many of the tasks in the project were done in a hurry in order to

keep up to the schedule, although they are not as badly done, but they can be a whole

lot better.



        The only thing that could have been done better would definitely be the time

management. Due to the lack of experience in completing a project of such a scale

alone, most of the time set in the gantt chart are pure assumptions, which soon greatly

affects the rest of the project progress.




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3-8.1.6           Research and Analysis


                               Evaluation                                   Achieved

1.   Questionnaire survey                                                      Yes

2.   Questionnaire result analysis                                             Yes

3.   Interviews                                                                Yes

4.   Interviews analysis                                                       Yes

5.   Observation                                                               Yes

6.   Research on Drifting                                                      Yes

7.   Research on development tools                                             Yes

8.   Research on HCI                                                           Yes

9.   Research on programming languages                                         Yes

10. Risk analysis                                                              Yes



        Above is a table showing the list of tasks and objectives in the research and

analysis field which have been achieved during the development of the project.

Time spent the most was on the subject of drifting as it is one of the main concerns

regarding the topic of this project.



        The primary researches that were done at the early stage of the project proved

to be very beneficial and also interesting at the same time, not only did I manage to

see drifting in front of my eyes in real life but also to sit in a car and experience it

myself as a passenger.       These experience were memorable and they also helped a lot

in coming up with this drifting guide system of mine. All in all, I am fairly satisfied

with the primary researches that I have done.



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3-8.1.7          Documentation


        The documentation had been checked thoroughly for any existing spelling or

grammar mistakes. Many specific information are also been converted into table

and points form which provide better and easy reading.



        The documentation format follows the APIIT standard of documentation

writing format.     The whole documentation consists of three major parts which each

contains several chapters. All the referenced materials are properly cited and their

resources are also noted down in the bibliography page, and these are all done in

standard Harvard referencing system.




3-8.1.8          Overall


        Overall all the major objectives have been fulfilled, the major guide features

are all available and they are all working properly.   As a whole, the system can be

deployed to the Internet at anytime without many problems, as it is easy to install, and

also to access and use at all times. These are all thanks to the addition of the

enhancement improvements done at the later stage of the project in order to bring the

system online. The combination use of PHP and Flash proven to work great and the

results do seem very satisfying as well.




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3-8.2 Limitations and Other Issues


        Many problems and limitations were encountered during the 8 whole months

of project development.        These limitations are as listed in the following:



Virtual Reality – The initial idea for “drifting machine” part of the drifting guide

system is that it will provide the user with a virtual environment whereby user would

be able to move about the scene and interact with the car at the same time.        This idea

was discarded during the design phase since there is no appropriate software for

creating such a feature.      But this was clearly a big mistake as I soon found out

several months later that Macromedia Director‟s Lingo is capable of handling 3D

models and adding interactivity to it.        Due to the late discovery of the Lingo

technology, the initial idea of creating a virtual reality interactive tutorial system was

never brought back.



Simulated interactive games – In the survey, it is found that many users would

prefer to have a system that would provide a simulation-like game that would allow

the user to experience the drifting with his own hands. This was indeed a great idea

but it was unable to be implemented to the system due to the lack of knowledge and

the technology required.       Such system would require extra field in research about

direct X and also more coding, while not forgetting the simulation of such thing called

drifting would not be considered as a true simulation anymore if the user is to

experience it using only keyboard and mouse.           Due to these reasons, this idea was

never implemented onto the system and some of the testers of the system do feel

slightly disappointed.



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3-8.3            Future Enhancements


        As mentioned in the limitations, those are just some of the parts in the system

which can be improved or added if more time and knowledge were available.



Some other enhancements that are visible in mind include:



More in depth drifting guide

        The content found in the existing system is mainly biased towards the

beginner of drifting. As future enhancements, more information regarding the expert

field of drifting skills and techniques can be added to the system to accommodate a

wider range of target users.



More features added at the main page

        Currently the functions available on the main page only consist of log in, sign

up, edit profile and reading news. There are a lot more that can be included, such as

allowing users to enter some details regarding his background information and base

on that information the system can recommend some of the clubs or events news, or

even show to the user the current cars on sale which may be interested by the user.

Making the system a full out website which consists of online drifting tutorial guides.




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Better recording equipment and English pronunciations

        In the system itself there are voice speeches throughout the guide, due to the

lack of proper equipments, these sounds are mostly badly recorded and the speaker

himself is not a fluent English speaker, resulting in a not so pleasing hearing

experience.     Better recording equipment and also a better speaker for the job would

definitely enhance the system in a big margin.



More customizability

        More options in the customization of the system can also be added such as

content configuration, more tweaks allowed to the layout and colour themes and so on.

These enhanced customization options would enhance and make the system feel more

dynamic hence allowing users to have more option on how they want the system to

look like, leaving them in full control of the system.




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3-9        Conclusion


3-9.1 Main Challenges


The main challenge of this system consists of several categories:



Implementation and Manipulation of 3D authoring tools

        As one of the functions featured in the system, a 3D modelled car was created

in an interactive interface whereby the user is able to interact with the system and to

learn about the essential information of the vehicle at the same time.    In order to

provide interactivity to the 3D environment, the system will require the integration

between several authoring tools in order to come up with the best results. The

mastery of manipulating the advance features of these tools will be essential, and it

had taken the most time, trial and error, and also effort.   Although in the end the

result was not as perfect as it was expected, but the overall look and feel of the system

has greatly improved after that.



Grasping the Concepts

        Understanding the concepts of Drifting was not an easy task, as alienated as it

may sound, the sport itself is as complicated as the rest of the other types of motor

sports, except for the fact that it is very new to the scene compared to others, and it is

still considered as an uncommon motor sport by many people.




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Data Gathering and Domain Analysis

        Due to the fresh appearance of Drifting in Malaysia, the scene is still on the

catching up phases compared to other countries, this also means that the resources

available can be limited, thus providing a greater challenge in gathering the desired

and accurate information. Since the main theme of this project is about motor sport,

the person that had look to or interviewed are very different as compared to other

business organizations, as a result, it also adds up the difficulties to the series of

analysis tasks.



Bringing the system online with the use of Flash and PHP

        In the testing phase, the standalone system itself does not seem to improve

many of the testers, and the feedback given were mediocre and many had mentioned

the lack of impact in the system. Due to this specific reason, major enhancement

was performed in order to convert the current system into an online system. Due to

the fact that the current system is solely built on Flash, a unique approach in the

conversion is to combine the use of PHP, MySQL and Flash altogether.           This

approach allows the normal PHP functions to perform at the backbone of the Flash

interface, meaning user can perform profile updates, log in and acquire information

from the databases through the Flash interface instead of the standard HTML page.

This is a daunting tasks and it has taken me a lot of effort in the research and also

techniques and to make it work in such a short amount of time.




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3-9.2 Learning Experience


          The learning experience for this project is definitely great.   I have chosen this

project simply because I am a big fan of the drifting sport itself, and the fact that I am

allowed to work on a project which is related to it greatly motivates me in making it

better.



          The process can be frustrating at times with many obstacles and difficulties

faced along the way.       But there are many helping hands around me that are always

willing to assist me in solving the problems and making my system better.



          The interview and observation session I have done regarding drifting are two

of the most memorable and also the most beneficial experiences I ever had for this

project.    Many things were learnt throughout each and every stage of the project,

simple things like proper time management, and also the importance of research.



          I am grateful that I am capable of modelling a 3D car based on several blue

prints and reference pictures from scratch, the time taken was dauntingly long but I

have learnt so much from it. Not only that, I have also get to experience the use of

PHP and Flash together to come up with a dynamic Flash website system.            The

transition from an offline standalone multimedia system to an online application sure

is one big step that I have taken for this project and it is very beneficial to me as well.




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A.1        References


Online resources:


1.   James R. Chapman 1997-2004, „Software Development Methodology a.k.a.

     System Development Life Cycle‟ [online], URL:

     http://www.hyperthot.com/pm_sdm.htm, [accessed at 25/8/2005].

2.   Startvbdotnet.com 2004-2005, „System Development Life Cycle‟ [online], URL:

     http://www.startvbdotnet.com/sdlc/sdlc.aspx, [accessed at 25/8/2005].

3.   Dictionary.LaborLawTalk.com, „waterfall model‟ [online], URL:

     http://encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/index.php, [accessed at 25/8/2005].

4.   Centre for Technology in Government, „A Survey of System Development

     Process Models: The Spiral Model‟ [online], URL:

     http://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/reports/survey_of_sysdev?chapter=9,

     [accessed at 25/8/2005].

5.   Adrian Als & Charles Greenidge, 2003, „The Spiral Model‟.

6.   CWS, 2004, Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology, „Advanced

     multimedia for the web and CD: Multimedia Development Methodologies‟.

7.   Production, Inc. 2004, „What is Drifting?‟ [online], source:

     http://www.d1gp.com/index.asp?PageAction=Custom&ID=6, [accessed at

     24/9/2005].

8.   Wikipedia 2005, „Drifting (motor sport)‟ [online], source:

     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drifting_(motorsport), [accessed at 24/9/2005].




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9.   Richard Bower, Thursday October 8th 1998, „Oversteer and Understeer‟ [online],

     source: http://www.dur.ac.uk/r.g.bower/PoM/pom/node31.html, [accessed at

     24/9/2005].

10. Keichi Tsuchiya, DriftClub 1999-2004, „Drifting Techniques‟ [online], source:

     http://www.driftclub.com/techniques.htm, [accessed at 25/9/2005].

11. Nicky Danino, November 14th 2001 from SitePoint Pty, Ltd. 1998-2005,

     „Human-Computer Interaction and Your Site‟ [online], source:

     http://www.sitepoint.com/article/computer-interaction-site, [accessed at

     25/9/2005].

12. durbnpoison, MediaMacros, Inc., 1999-2004, „What is the difference between

     and Diretor and Flash?‟ [online], source:

     http://www.mediamacros.com/item/item-1005255569/, [accessed at 25/9/2005].

13. Car Care Council 2005, „Be Car Care Aware: Steering & Suspension: Tie Rod‟

     [online], source: http://www.carcare.org/Steering_Suspension/tie_rod.shtml,

     [accessed at 18/10/2005].

14. HowStuffWorks, Inc. 1998-2005, „How do exhaust headers work to improve

     engine performance‟ [online], source:

     http://auto.howstuffworks.com/question172.htm, [accessed at 18/10/2005].

15. Macromedia Flash MX 2004, help: Getting Started in ActionScript, [accessed at

     20/10/2005].

16. Gabriel Gittings, actionscript.org! 2000-2005, „OOP and Inheritance in Flash:

     page 1‟ [online], source:

     http://www.actionscript.org/tutorials/intermediate/Inheritance/index.shtml,

     [accessed at 20/10/2005].

17. Ian Blackham, DMXzone.com 2001-2005, „The Flash Anthology: Cool Effects

     & Practical ActionScript‟ [online], source:


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     http://www.dmxzone.com/ShowDetail.asp?NewsId=6876, [accessed at

     20/10/2005].

18. P McKeown, EPIET Introductory Course 2003, VERYIER DU LAC, FRANCE,

     „Questionnaire Design‟, Source: Microsoft Powerpoint Slides.




Book references:


1. Larry Ullman, „PHP and MySQL: For Dynamic Web Sites - Introduction‟, pg

    xi-xiv.

2. Luke Welling, Laura Thomson, „PHP and MySQL: Web Development – Second

    Edition‟, pg3-5.

3. Steve Webster, „Foundation PHP for Flash‟.

4. William W.Lee, Dima L.Owens, „Multimedia-Based Instructional Design,

    Multimedia Needs Assessment and Analysis: Data Collection

    Techniques‟,pg11-12.

5. Michael Walker, Robert Cox, Neal Anders, „Instant PHP4‟.

6. Nigel Chapman and Jenny Chapman, „Digital Multimedia‟.

7. Jenny Preece, „Human Computer Interaction‟.




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Picture references:


1.   MOTORWORKS, source: www.enginereplacement.com/

     htdocs/about_us.htm, [accessed at 12/12/2005].

2.   Tony Carbaugh Enterprises, LLC, 2004, source: www.tonystractors.com/

     acmisc.htm, [accessed at 12/12/2005].

3.   CrossMedia Services, Inc. 2005, source:

     http://images.saleshound.com/broadreach/dyn_li/200.0.75.0/Retailers/AdvanceA

     utoParts/tie_rod_tiff.jpg, [accessed at 12/12/2005].

4.   All OEM Car Parts, 2004, source:

     http://www.alloemcarparts.com/specials/images/DBA_5000_BLK_SL_web.jpg,

     [accessed at 12/12/2005].

5.   Drift Speed, 2002-2004, source: www.driftspeed.com/

     suspension_keioffice_xr.asp, [accessed at 13/12/2005].

6.   roadster:Drift, source: www.roadsterdrift.com/ drifttune.html, [accessed at

     13/12/2005].

7.   NEDONA Car-Truck-SUV-Jeep Parts and Accessories, 2004, source:

     http://www.nedona.org/ab/momo-champion-steering-wheel.shtml, [accessed at

     13/12/2005].

8.   J&J Concepts DBA LamboStuff, 2004, source:

     http://www.lambostuff.com/product/big_EmergencyBrakeFiero.jpg, [accessed at

     13/12/2005].

9.   Diamond Star Motorsport, source:

     http://www.diamondstarmotorsport.com/drivelineparts_files/exedy%20clutch%2

     0evo.jpg, [accessed at 13/12/2005].

10. Autoshopping Center, source:


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     http://www.autoshoppingcenter.com/gex/images/trnt1.jpg, [accessed at

     13/12/2005].

11. Modacar Auto Accessories, 1996-2005, source: www.modacar.com/products/

     Acura/Integra/MODACAB/, [accessed at 13/12/2005].

12. SPG Media Limited, 2005, source:

     http://www.pulpandpaper-technology.com/contractors/chemicals/clariant_uk/clar

     iant_uk3.html, [accessed at 25/12/2005].




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A.2        User Manual


Installation:



To run the application on a browser:

1.   The first thing you need to do to get the system running is by installing the

     Windows IIS which is available in your windows CD.

2.   After installed IIS, you should have PHP server running and also MySQL

     database installed in your PC.         If you do not have either of these two, go copies

     the “installation setup” folder to your desktop, there are two installation files in

     the folder which is the MySQL installation file and also PHP4 installation file.

3.   Once you have successfully setup the IIS, MySQL and PHP. Run the

     WinMySQLadmin program which can be found in your C drive>mysql>bin

     folder.

4.   Copy the “IDGflash” folder from “System” folder of the IDG CD and paste it in

     your C drive>Inetpub>wwwroot folder. At the same time also copy the

     “idgdatabase” folder from the same “System” folder of the IDG CD and paste it

     in your C drive>mysql>data folder. Once you have done this, you would have

     the IDG system and database files installed on your PC.

5.   Before you run the application on the browser, make sure you have Flash Player

     8 installed; the installation file can be found in the installation setup folder of the

     IDG CD as well.

6.   Open the web browser, type in this address in the url box:

     http://localhost/IDGflash/idg.php to run the application.




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*Note: In case you do not have the font "Concelien Jet", copy the "CONC21" font file

and paste it in your windows>font folder. The IDG application uses this font.



To run the standalone IDG system:

1.   Copy the “IDGonline.exe” file from “System” folder of the IDG CD and paste it

     anywhere on your PC.

2.   Double click on the “IDGonline.exe” file to run the standalone application.




Using the application:


Signing up and login onto the system

1.   When you are at the main page, click on “sign up” button in the left menu.

2.   All fields are compulsory, fill up all the fields correctly and press the submit

     button.

3.   If all fields are properly entered, you will immediately become a registered

     member of the system.

4.   If one of the fields is not properly entered, an error message will display and you

     can try again by clicking on the “retry” button.

5.   Once you have successfully signed up, click the “login” button on the left menu

     and enter your username and password. Click the “submit” button to login.          If

     you have any problems remembering your username or password, click on the

     help button to seek assistance.




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Configuring system‟s settings

1.   After you are logged on to the system, click on the “settings” button and the

     setting configuration window will appear.

2.   To change the music, simply select any of the radio buttons and click on “save”

     button to save the settings.       Click on the mini speaker button to listen to the

     music.

3.   To change layout styles, click on either one of the radio buttons under layout

     style categories and click the “save” button to save the settings.

4.   Once you click the “save” button, you will be brought back to the main page,

     click “Start” button to enter the guide and notice the changes.



Navigation in IDG

1.   The main menu buttons are situated at the top of the interface, click on any of

     them to go to the desire page.

2.   Some of the modules have sub menus, those menus are shown at the very bottom

     of the interface, click on any of them to go to the desire page.

3.   The “FAQ” button is situated at the bottom right of the interface, click on it and a

     FAQ window will appear, the window is also drag-able. Click on the “close”

     button to make the window disappear.

4.   The “Home” button is situated at the bottom right of the interface, right beside

     the “FAQ” button, click on it to go back to the system‟s main page.



Music and Volume control

1.   To switch on and off the background music, click on the music note button at the

     bottom right of the interface. Click on it to stop the music, click on it again to

     start playing.


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2.   To adjust the volume of the music, click and drag the slider beside the music

     switch button to adjust the volume.

3.   For some of the modules there are speech enable sounds, they can be activated

     by simply clicking on the mini speaker which is normally situated at the bottom

     right of the description area. When the speech button is clicked, the sound will

     play and the background music will stop; click on the speech button again to

     switch off the sound and the music will start playing.



Using “Drifting Machine”

1.   To read more about each part of the car, point the mouse pointer to any of the

     indicators surrounding the vehicle. Name of the parts will appear once the

     mouse is rolled over the indicator, click on the indicator and the animation

     together with the speech explanation will start to play.

2.   The description window is drag-able, click on the “back” button on the window

     to back to the previous page.

3.   To view the car, click on the “showcase” button at the bottom right of the

     interface. Use the arrow buttons to rotate the car. To view the interior of the

     car, click on the “interior” text above the arrow buttons and use the same buttons

     to rotate your view in the interior of the vehicle.




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A.3        Project Proposal Form (PPF)


Title:

Interactive Car & Motor Sports Guide



Please describe the type of the system being developed.

This system will be developed as an off-line multimedia CD application which
introduces the basic elements and fundamentals of cars, driving and most importantly
motor sports. This system is a multimedia based system, it will be designed
specifically as a non-passive application which allows a certain level of interactivity,
as to present the information and it‟s contents in an many interactive way and
methods, all these will be done with the combination of video presentation,
animations, sounds and also graphical images. The system basically consists of
three major components:
    1. Automotive basics – This part provides basic information about automobiles
       and it‟s basic mechanics, which includes features such as “Car-Learner” and
       also “Driving-Basics”, “Car-Learner” will be presented as an interactive
       interface using 3D rendered cars in which users are allowed to interact with
       and learn at the same time; “Driving-Basics” basically teaches the user the
       fundamental rules of driving a car.
    2. All about Motor Sport - This part of the system is called I-Motorsports
       (Interactive Motorsports), it will be broken down into five categories, which
       are Track racing, Rallying, Autocross, Drag, and Drifting, each category
       consist of video presentation to show the user what the sport is about, and also
       simple animaton together with diagrams to help user in having a better
       understanding of that particular motor sport.
    3. Quiz – Here the user get to answer a set of quiz questions, based on the
       evaluated result of the user‟s performance, the system will come up with a
       feedback regarding the performance of the user, and also recommendation as
       in which type of motor sport will be more suited for the user, if he is ever
       interested to be a part of it.


Who is system being developed for?

The targeted audience – those people ranges from young to old, to whoever that is
interested in cars, automotive or motor sports. The system focuses more on motor



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sport and the art of driving, thus people that have a rush of driving a car at its limit is
very much suited to use this particular system to get to know or learn more about it.


Recommended audience - those will be adults who already have acquired their own
driving licenses, or the ones that will be getting their licenses soon, all these type of
people are highly recommended to use this system.


Why is such a system required?

    1. To gain the popularity and introduce the local motor sport’s scene – The
        current motor sport scene here in Malaysia are lacking proper popularity,
        take the various motor sports events that had been taken place during the
        previous years (with the exception of big events such as F1, Japan GT), the
        number of audience attended and the number of tickets sold for these events
        are not very pleasing, with the lack of involvement from the audience, the
        sport is growing extremely slow, which is bad for Malaysia’s motor sport’s
        future.    This system will help introduce the local motor sport in a
        fashionable and interactive way that it will sure attract more audience into
        loving this cool and rushing sport.


    2. To change the way people think of motor sport – There are still a lot of people
        nowadays that think that the motor sport is a deadly and meaningless
        activity, they do not support it, nor do they recommend it, this proposed
        system is designed to change this sort of thinking, motor sport can be a
        healthy and safety sport when it is done right, the system shows the
        fundamental rules and elements that are required in being involved in a
        motor sport. Besides that, many people are being influenced too much by
        the car racing movies, the racing scenes shown in these Hollywood movies
        are full of illegal street races, illegal car modifications and so on, it has
        become a trend for the youngsters locally in doing the same or trying to
        imitate the stunts shown in the movie, not only is these kind of action
        dangerous, but it also endangers other peoples lives, those illegal racers
        have shallow knowledge of what proper motor sport is, they are mostly doing
        it for the rush and temporary fame;        this system is to be developed to
        change the way they think about racing, and to show them that racing can be
        done in a proper method and under a safety environment, thus reducing the
        numbers of illegal street races.


    3. To educate people about automotive and motor sport - With the vast growth



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        of auto technology nowadays, people around the world are driving a vehicle
        everyday, and the growth of motor sport is getting bigger and bigger, with
        that said, news of young people getting injured or killed in car accidents are
        also rising every once in a while, even though the safety technology
        implemented in the cars nowadays are getting better and better, yet the
        problem lies within the driver itself, not the vehicle, the drivers simply lack of
        the proper knowledge required while driving on the roads. The drivers may
        have the basic knowledge in how to drive a car and obeying the laws, but
        some of them might still lack the knowledge of how a car really works, and
        the technical driving techniques which they don’t learn during their driving
        license test;     with this system, not only will the user get to learn more about
        cars, its parts and its mechanics, they also get to learn more about driving a
        car to its extreme, how to control a car at its limits, this might not be
        required on daily driving, but it may always come in handy one day if
        something unprepared happens.



What will be the main challenge for you in building the system?

The main challenge of this system will be to provide an accurate knowledge and
information for the user regarding about automotive and motor sports, not only
that, the combination of HCI design principles and other Multimedia design
principles will have to be taken into great consideration for delivering these in-depth
and detailed information, additionally, presenting them in a simplistic and
straight-forward manner as it shall be easy to understand and grasping the concept,
a struggle between a highly designed interface and a more usable interface will be
a challenge throughout the development, clear and thorough investigation on the
needs of the user will need to be undertaken cautiously in order to establish a
satisfying result. Another main challenge will be the implementation of 3D
interactivity, a virtual 3D modeled car will be created so the user will be able to use
the mouse to interact with it, each click will result the car to make some minor
changes, animations will be included, in order to make this 3d virtual car happen, a
lot of research and learning of 3D Studio Max will be essential.



What new ideas and theory will you need to learn to build the system?

I will need to learn more about the local motor sports scene in order to provide an
accurate information, the system is to be develop to introduce the fundamentals of
automotive, driving and motor sports to the users, and also to guide them, not to
mislead them, questionnaires, interviews and survey work will be recommended in




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order to get the best out of the required knowledge, this will not only provide me
with a greater chance of getting more involve in site field investigation work, but
also gaining extra knowledge on the local motor sport scene.      Learning 3D will be
one of my first times ever, it is a new idea for me to implement 3D into my system,
it will be challenging, but it will be interesting and fun at the same time.




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A.4          Project Specification Form (PSF)


A. Name             : Stanley Wong Tiing Yew
     Student ID : TP010893
     Title          : Interactive Drifting (Motor Sport) Guide
     Supervisor : Lili Budiman


     Brief description on project background.
B.
     (.i.e. problem context, rationale, description of problem area, nature of challenge)
     Problem Context and Description of Problem Area


           In the current motor sport‟s scene, there is a new type of driving style which is
     now taking the world by storm, it is a unique sport called Drifting (A type of motor
     sport whereby driver performs controlled slides around a corner), the sport itself has
     been spreading world wide, starting from Japan, to the United States, United
     Kingdom, Australia, and now to Malaysia, yet there are some problems coming from
     this new sport, which had greatly affected not only to the society, but also to the motor
     sport industry itself.


          Here is an elaboration of points describing the problem areas that have arose
     since the arrival of Drifting in Malaysia:
            Lack of proper knowledge and understanding towards the sport – Drifting is
             considered as one of the newest and fastest growing sport in the motor sport
             history, because of that, there are a lot of people, especially Malaysians who
             have yet fully understand what Drifting is all about, people usually
             misunderstood it, or even misinterpreted it, without knowing the true purpose,
             fundamentals, the basics techniques and the rules of this new sport, things can
             go pretty bad. Unlike other type of motor sports, Drifting has yet to have a
             good range of facilities, trainings, sponsorships and supports, this can be a
             problem for the drivers that are interested in taking part, as they are forced to
             learn by themselves, what‟s worse is that they may find themselves learning or
             experimenting using the wrong or ineffective concepts and methods. Time,
             money, resources and efforts will be wasted because of this problem. Drifting
             is the same as the other motor sports, it can be dangerous as well, without



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             proper knowledge and understanding, it can be a problematic and frustrating
             experience for the ones that are truly dedicated and interested to the sport but
             also new and fresh to the scene.


            New hype, new threat - Illegal street races or street stunts performed on the
             public streets have been a well known issue throughout the world, this includes
             Malaysia as well. When Drifting was first introduced, people were attracted
             to the sport easily, within a short duration of time, it quickly became a new
             trend or a “cool” thing to do. Drifting brings great hype, heaps of rush and
             plenty of excitement to a driver, because of that, car enthusiasts, illegal racers,
             or immature youngsters tend to follow the trend and causing risk by bringing
             the sport onto the public streets, this sort of actions and behaviors would have
             cause more havoc and threats to the public roads, lives as of drivers, bikers, or
             even pedestrians‟ are endangered under these circumstances.


            Incomplete information by different sources– When something becomes real
             popular, the web will be scattered with tons of information regarding of that
             new thing, the same goes to Drifting. Drifting has become so big and widely
             known by many people around the world, web sites that are dedicated to
             drifting are getting more, even forums in which the people get to talk and
             discuss purely on Drifting itself. With this much information scattered on the
             web, it has become an issue as there are possibilities that these information
             may be inaccurate or been misinterpreted. Internet can be very powerful and
             helpful when it comes to communication and network of information, it
             provides almost infinite amount of resources to the seeker, but it can also be
             hazardous when those information provided are inaccurate or fake. Although
             there are other good sites which provide a good range of information about
             Drifting, yet there are very few that provide a full aspect of information which
             covers everything, from basic knowledge, to deep down guides towards
             Drifting. People may have read about Drifting, but it is also a possibility that
             they have just read only a small part of the full story.


            Lack of attention and popularity of Malaysia‟s motor sport‟s scene – Since the
             construction of SIC (Sepang International Circuit), Malaysia finally had the
             chance to adapt and organize its own motor sport as the rest of the world.
             Throughout the history, many great events have been held in SIC, with a few
             good examples like the F1 races, Japan GT Championships, which gathered




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             thousand of spectators to the scene. Yet, with the exceptions of F1 or JGTC,
             the other Asian events such as the AFOS (Asian Festival Of Speed) was having
             low attention from the public, the number of tickets sold were minimal, the
             worse goes to the local motor sport events. There are many who said that
             Drifting may be the new solution which may bring Malaysia‟s motor sport‟s
             scene to a higher ground, and to attract more supporters and fans to the scene.



    Rationale


          Because of the existence of the identified problems, there is a need for such
    project. This project consists of an off-line multimedia CD application which
    provides guides to the world of Drifting. The system will be using multimedia
    elements to improve the interactivity and usability. The benefits gained from this
    project are:


    Tangible benefits:
            Profits and attention gained for the local motor sport scene – The current motor
             sport scene here in Malaysia are lacking proper popularity, the sport is not
             growing as fast as the rest of the world, there are still a lot of Malaysians not
             having better interest or involvement in this type of sports (with the exception
             of F1 or Super GT). This Interactive Drifting Guide system will help
             introduce the local motor sport scene, mainly Drifting, in an interesting and
             interactive way to help attract more audience into loving and supporting this
             new sport, and thus providing the motor sport industry a greater opportunity in
             gaining more attention and profit to keep the industry alive and strong.


    Intangible benefits:
            User get to obtain extra knowledge besides Drifting - With the vast growth of
             auto technology nowadays, people around the world are driving a vehicle each
             and everyday, yet, news of drivers getting injured or killed in car accidents are
             also rising every once in a while, the numbers are still increasing, even though
             the safety technology implemented in the cars nowadays are getting better and
             better, yet the problem lies within the driver itself, not the vehicle, the drivers
             simply lack of the proper knowledge required while driving on the roads.
             The drivers may have the basic knowledge in how to drive a car and obeying
             the laws, but some of them might still lack the knowledge of how a car really




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             works, and the technical driving techniques which they don‟t learn during their
             driving license test; with this system, not only will the user get to learn more
             about how a car works, they also get to learn more about driving a car to its
             extreme, how to control a car at its limits, this might not be required on daily
             driving, but it may always come in handy one day if something unprepared
             happens.


            Reducing number of illegal street activities – Youngsters nowadays love to
             follow the hype and then trying to imitate those stunts, not only are these sorts
             of actions dangerous, but it also endangers other people‟s lives. This
             proposed system is to provide the concept in which motor sport can be a
             healthy and fun sport when it is done right and under a safe environment. By
             providing the user better understanding of the sport, they will be able to
             understand the risk involved as well; this system will be able to guide the user
             onto the right track of safe motor sport, not performing illegal street race or
             stunts on public roads.



    Target Audience


           User is one of the main concerns on how and why a system is been developed,
    for this current system, the target users have been categorized into three types:


            Race Drivers – These are the people that are active in the motor sport scene,
             with that said, it also means that they concludes a greater chances in getting
             into this Drifting sport.


            Drifters – For the ones that are already been Drifting for a while or just got
             started, this system will be helpful as well as it can be referred for extra
             guidance or knowledge.



            Typical users – These would be the normal people of all ages, they can be
             teenagers, or even old man, this system is free for all, it doesn‟t require any
             special skills requirements in order to use it, yet it provides guidance to the
             users of what Drifting is all about.




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     Nature of Challenge


             The main challenge of this system consists of several categories:


             Implementation and Manipulation of 3D authoring tools – As one of the
              functions featured in the system, a 3D modeled car will be created in an
              interactive interface whereby the user is able to interact with the system and to
              learn about the essential information of the vehicle at the same time. In order
              to provide interactivity to the 3D environment, the system will require the
              integration between several authoring tools in order to come up with the best
              results. The mastery of manipulating the advance features of these tools will
              be essential, and it will require a lot of time, trial and error, and also effort.


             Grasping the Concepts – Understanding the concepts of Drifting will not be an
              easy task, as alienated as it may sound, the sport itself is as complicated as the
              rest of the other types of motor sports, except for the fact that it is very new to
              the scene compared to others, and it is still considered as an uncommon motor
              sport by many people.


             Data Gathering and Domain Analysis – Due to the fresh appearance of Drifting
              in Malaysia, the scene is still on the catching up phases compared to other
              countries, this also means that the resources available can be limited, thus
              providing a greater challenge in gathering the desired and accurate
              information. Since the main theme of this project is about motor sport, the
              person to look to or interview will also be different as compared to other
              business organizations, as a result, it also adds up the difficulties to the series
              of analysis tasks.




     Brief description of project objectives.
C.
     (i.e. scope of proposal and deliverables)
     Project Goal and Objectives


     The major goal of this project is to come up with a CD-based multimedia system,
     called Interactive Drifting Guide. This system is required to be developed within the
     estimated time duration and cost budget, the developed system will also need to meet



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    the user requirements and produce the expected deliverables at the end of the
    development.


    The objectives of this project are:
       4. To learn and apply the various multimedia and Human Computer Interaction
           Design Principles to the system design.


         5. To learn and master the advance features of 3D authoring tool and integrating
             it to the system.


         6. To come up with an All-in-one package, where the system includes guides to
            all aspects of Drifting, from the car, to the techniques applied.


         7. To design the system in which it provides detailed yet easy to understand
            information and guide about Drifting.


         8. Re-define information presentation with the use of different media elements
             such as videos, animations, or sounds instead of simple texts.


         9. To make full use of the resources and tools available, in order to come up with
            a product that meets the user or client‟s requirements.


         10. To ensure that the system is free of bugs and errors, and executable on different
             platforms.


         11. To fulfill the level three degree requirement for Computing in Multimedia
             Technologies.




    Project Scope and Deliverables


    This system introduces the basic elements and fundamentals of Drifting, from the
    vehicle and the performance parts it uses, to the deep down techniques applied in
    Drifting. The system itself will be designed specifically as a non-passive application
    which allows a certain level of interactivity between the user and the system, the
    overall features and function of the system will be done with the combination of 3D




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    interactivity, video presentation, animations, text, special effects, sounds and also
    graphical images. The scope of this system is to provide essential information of the
    basics and fundamentals of drifting, and to provide interactive guides for the user to
    have better learning experience and understanding towards Drifting, this project will
    cover every aspect of Drifting, at the end of this project, the main deliverables are:


         1. Soft cover documentation of the system
         2. Hard cover documentation of the system
         3. A prototype of the system application on CD


    Interactive Drifting Guide will include a good variety usage of Multimedia elements in
    order to enhance the interaction between the user and the system, the main
    deliverables for the system‟s core functions are:
            The Drift Machine – This part of the system teaches the user the basics of how
             a drift car works, from the exterior to the interior, and also the mechanical parts
             of the whole car such as engines, gearbox, driveshaft and so on. It also
             includes a comparison between a normal road car and a drift car.


            Drifting Basics – Guiding the user to the basic dynamics and laws of Drifting,
             information such as what types of car are suited for Drifting, the explanation of
             the reason, and also how to judge a good drift.


            Drift Styles – Introduction of the several different styles of Drifting, which
             consists of exhibition drifting, speed drifting, twin drifting, Manji and group
             drifting.


            Drift Techniques – This is where the user get to understand the total number of
             nine techniques (Feint, Dirt Drop, Clutch Kick, Shift Lock, E-brake, Lift-off,
             Power Over, Throttle Off and Jump) used in drifting; the system will include
             animations to demonstrate how each technique works.


            FAQ and Help – A long list of Frequently Asked Questions regarding drifting
             will be available for the user to read. A help file system is also included in
             case the user has problems using the system.


            Quiz – Here the user get to test their knowledge or seek evaluation response
             from the system, at the end the system will come up with the actual result




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             based on the user‟s performance.


    Extra features are also been implemented to the functions in order to provide better
    interactivity and usability to the system, those features are:
            Video presentation – Throughout the system, video clips will be used for
             further presentation and demonstration purposes, these videos will be edited
             footage taken from various sources.


            Animated demonstrations and Sound – The explanation of most information
             will be demonstrated with the help of simple animations and also sound, sound
             as in voice output, instead of reading from the text, the user also get to listen
             and see of what they learn.


            3D interactivity – Interactive 3D objects are used throughout the system,
             especially for demonstrating how a drift car works, whereby a 3D rendered car
             will be featured in an interactive interface whereby user are able to open/close
             the door, hood of the car, or to access the interior, engine or other parts of the
             vehicle to learn more.


            Customizability – The system will enable a certain level of customizability, for
             example, user get to choose between different languages, or toggle on/off of
             the sounds and music.



    Evidence of Limiting the Project Scope


    For this Interactive Drifting Guide system, parameters are set to limit the scope of the
    project only for the solutions and functions mentioned above, in other words,
    functions which are not listed above will not be implemented or included in the
    system, it is to be reminded that these possible features or functions will also not be
    included in the system as well:
            Simulations – Features such as simulation trainings systems in which it
             provides simulated scenario and actions for the user to interact in real time and
             perform the trainings, the system is a guide system and these sorts of
             simulation training features will not be included.


            Dynamic contents – The system‟s content will be static, there will be no




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             options to update, modify or remove the content of the system, and there will
             be no integration between the system and a database.


            On line – This system is to be developed as an off line CD application, thus
             there will be no possibilities of it being able to go online, and it is not a web
             application in any way.


            History of Drifting – The system will not include information regarding the
             history of Drifting, as it is not necessary in this Drifting guide system.



     Other (Learning) Objectives


     This refers to the learning objectives besides mastering of particular software
     development or authoring tools, these objectives are mainly focuses on concepts and
     ideas rather than trained skills. These objectives include:


         1. Understanding the concept of Drifting.
         2. To learn and apply good project management with the use of different method
            and tools.
         3. Understanding the concept of Human Computer Interaction.
         4. Learn to implement and integrate different media files to enhance the quality of
            the system.


     Brief description of the resources needed by the proposal.
D.
     (i.e. hardware, software, access to information / expertise, user involvement etc.)
     Hardware


     The hardware needed for this project will be my personal computer, together with
     other accessories such as speakers, microphone, and printers. The specification of
     the PC is:


     CPU: Pentium-4 2.6Ghz
     Memory RAM: 1GB RAM
     GPU: ATI Radeon 9600XT 128MB
     CD-ROM: 52X CD-Rewritable drive
     DVD-ROM: 8X DVD drive



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    17”inch Monitor
    2.1 Speaker and Sub woofer
    Keyboard and Mouse


    Others:
             Pen Drive 128MB – An external storage device which is useful for exporting
              and importing the project data to and from different places.


             Canon Digital Camera – Throughout the development of the project, site
              investigations, observations and interviews will be taken place, it will be nice
              to have pictures of these events taken and documented.


             Nokia Mobile Phone – It will be used for contacting different people who are
              involved in the project.


             Microphone – For recording voice inputs or other sound effects.


             Lexmark Printer – Important documents may be printed out for further
              reference.



    Software


    In order to carry out the development of this project, many software are needed, these
    include Microsoft Windows XP, which shall be the operating system for the project to
    be developed; authoring tools such as 3D Studio Max, Swift 3D and Macromedia
    Flash will also be needed in order to come up with the interactive user interface and
    objects. List of software:


             Microsoft Windows XP
             3D Studio Max 7
             Swift 3D ver.4
             Adobe Photoshop 7.0
             Adobe Photoshop Elements 2.0
             Macromedia Flash MX
             Swish v2.0
             Nero Wave Editor




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            Windows Sound Recorder
            Adobe Premier Pro
            Microsoft Office Words
            Microsoft Office Project
            Microsoft Office Visio

    The main tool and programming language tol be used the most for the project are 3D
    Studio Max, Swift 3D and Flash with Action Scripting. 3D Studio Max and Swift 3D
    are both 3D authoring software tools in which they provide the capabilities of creating,
    modeling, rendering 3D objects with animations plus many great effects. The
    difference between them is that Swift 3D is more of a Flash integrated 3D authoring
    tool, as it is able to create high quality raster and vector animations for Flash, which is
    one of the main reasons of it being chosen for the development of this project, while
    Action Script will act as the main programming language for the project, which will
    deal with all the inner process of the system.



    Access to Information and Expertise


    In order to gather the sufficient and necessary information prior to the project, some
    resources will be needed, these resources may be people from different backgrounds,
    or reference books. In terms of gathering information from people and expertise of
    that particular area, face to face interviews and questionnaires are both sufficient
    methods. Because of that, certain people to be interviewed are:
            Lecturers – Lecturers obtain deeper understanding towards specific technical
             areas in terms of computing or design, interviewing specific lecturers who
             specialize in specific areas can be beneficial to the project.


            Drifter – Since the system is about Drifting, a face to face interview with a real
             life Drifter would also provide me a better insight of the sport itself, and also
             gather more detailed information.


            Professional Race Drivers – Drifting is a part of the motor sport, a professional
             racer can be very knowledgeable in many aspects of the motor sport, that
             knowledge would also be very helpful for the development of the system.


    Other resources:




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            Reference Books
            Magazines
            E-books
            Internet websites/forums



    User involvements


    During the development of this project, a certain amount of users will be involved
    throughout the process; they can be there to provide opinions, suggestions or even
    critical feedbacks. Not only that, those users can also be the ones that test the
    system, and giving evaluations. These users can be:
            Supervisor
            Professional Race Drivers
            Professional Drifters
            Car enthusiasts
            Friends or Course mates
            Lecturers




   Academic research being carried out and other information, techniques being learnt.
E. (i.e. what are the names of books you are going to read / data sets you are going to
   use)
    Research is an important factor in determining the success of a project, as it provides
    complete coverage of knowledge, better insights and understanding of the required
    area. The type of research to be applied in this project will be mainly primary
    researches, such as observation, and interviews. Specific interviews with some of the
    experts in the motor sport industry will be essential in order to gather the correct and
    accurate information required. Drifting is still new in Malaysia, there is not much
    information from the television or books about it, and the only solution is to gather
    information from the local drifters who have been active in this sport for some time.


    Academic/Theoretical Research Areas


    This project demands a good understanding of Drifting, in order to develop a good
    guide system, a lot of research on the concepts of Drifting is essential. The research
    area will be:



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            History – History of Drifting and how it all began.


            Drift car and parts – A Drift will need to be performed by a specific type of
             vehicle and with the use of specific auto parts, it is an important area to be
             researched on.


            Drifting Basics and Physics – This includes the theory and concepts on how a
             drift is performed, and what makes it possible, and also the physics involved
             behind all the actions.


            Drifting Styles – Although Drifting is one unique style of motor sport driving,
             yet it also consists of several different styles, such as speed or exhibition
             drifting.


            Drifting Techniques – Covers the different techniques used while Drifting.

    Besides Drifting, other academic research areas that need to be looked into are:
            Human Computer Interaction – A study on HCI to determine and provide
             guidelines in designing the functionality of the system.


            Multimedia Design Principles – A good multimedia system are developed by
             following the principles of a good multimedia design model, it is some what
             related to HCI.


            Programming Language – There are many different types of programming
             languages available, according to the project needs, specific languages have to
             be chosen and learnt in order to produce the best result.


            Software Methodology – Different types of methodology are to be reviewed
             and come up with comparisons between them, in the end the best methodology
             would be selected for the project.


            3D concepts – The system will be implementing 3D technology, thus research
             on 3D and its concepts will be needed.



    Technical/Programming Research Areas




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    To successfully develop a project or system, technical and programming skills are both
    equally important. The academic research determines the design of the system, while
    the technical and programming research will determine the usability of the system.
    The processes behind every action performed by the user are to be dealt with specific
    algorithms or functions. The research areas are determined by the software used for
    the current project:
            Macromedia Flash MX – Flash will be the main platform for the system, the
             operations will be controlled with the use of Flash Action Scripting, it will be
             essential to master the advance techniques and features of Action Scripting.


            3D Studio Max 7 – 3D authoring is complicated as compared to other tools,
             concepts such as vertex, polygons, or meshes will require good grasp of
             understanding in order to manipulate these features well.


            Swift 3D ver.4 – There will be a need of integration between 3D objects and
             Flash interfaces, with this software, it will be possible. It can also be used for
             creation of 3D models and animations.



    Information and Resources


    In order to carry out the researches listed above, information are to be gathered from
    different sources, such as:
    Books:
            Multimedia Based Instructional Design – William W.Lee and Diana L.Owens
            Digital Multimedia – Nigel Chapman and Jerry Chapman
            ActionScripting in Flash MX – Philip Kerman
            Multimedia: Making it Work 5th Edition – Tay Vaughan
            Flash MX 2004 demystified

    Magazines:
            Hypertune
            Option Mag

    Internet:
            www.drifting.com




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             www.driftclub.com
             www.driftsession.com
             www.drift.com.my
             www.d1gp.com
             www.zerotohundred.com
             www.kirupa.com

    People:
             Drifter
             Professional Race driver
             Supervisor
             Lecturer



    Real World Methods and Practices


    Methods and practices used in the real world can be useful and effective in researches,
    in order to carry out the research required for this project, these methods will be used:
             Prototyping – A lot of prototyping would be applied throughout this project;
              prototypes of the system will be created for testing purposes, so that feedbacks
              can be gain from the testers.


             Fact-finding - Some resources from the web can be helpful, there are some
              good sites which provide a good amount of information, pictures, and even
              video clips, not only that, forum is a good place to seek for further enquiries.
              A lot of great drifters do spend quite some time on some specific forums, in
              which they use it to share information and prepare events, gatherings and so
              on. Besides that, motor sport magazines are also recommended for fact
              finding.


             Questionnaires – To retrieve feedbacks, opinions from majority users,
              questionnaires is an extremely useful method, it can be done on papers, or do it
              online through Email.


             Interview – There are different methods for interviewing, there is the use of
              phone interviewing, online message communication, and the commonly used
              face to face interviews. These methods will be applied based on the different




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             needs or requirements by the interviewees.


            Observation - There are drifting events happening once or twice in a month
             now in Malaysia, visiting or attending in one of those events will also be very
             helpful in my project research, to see how it is done in front of your eyes will
             mean much more than reading from some sources.


            Current Application – Reviewing other current application of the same type
             can also assists in the development process, it will be beneficial to learn from
             others mistake or success.




   Brief description of the development plan for the proposed project.
F. (i.e. which software methodology and why, the major areas of functions to be
   developed and the order in which developed)
    Specification and Reason for Software Methodology


    To start off with this project, suitable software methodologies are chosen. A good
    methodology is very important as it determines the successful development of a
    project, as it helps in providing a structural and systematic approach to the project.
    This project uses two models, one is the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
    Spiral model, and another one is the Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design Model
    (OOHDM).


    SDLC Spiral Model


    SDLC Spiral model will be used for the overall development of the whole project; it is
    a type of methodology where it provides an systematic approach for the development
    like the waterfall model, yet it also allows the project to be iterative and incremental,
    so it is also considered as a model which implements the combination of a waterfall
    model with risk analysis. Because this is not a very big project, risks are also
    minimal, that is why decisions have been made to replace the risk assessment phase
    with design and prototyping, so the overall phases for this project with the Spiral
    model are:
            Project Definition and Planning
            Design and Prototyping
            Project Production and Implementation



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            Testing and Evaluation

    The reasons that I chose this model are:
            Iteration – Compared to the waterfall model, spiral model allows the developer
             to go back and reiterate earlier stages several times as the project progresses.
             With this approach, it will be easy to overcome the requirement changes from
             the user.


            Prototyping – Throughout the development of the project, small chunks of
             prototype from different portion of the system will be created to provide
             testing and evaluation, this can be helpful as it allows the developer to gain the
             necessary feedbacks from the user while developing his system, thus reducing
             risks too.


            Better Estimation – It is easier to estimate both budget or schedule more
             realistically as work progresses, this is because the issues are discovered earlier
             with the help of prototyping.



    OOHDM


    OOHDM is a type of hypermedia methodology which is more suited towards the
    design of multimedia applications. OOHDM provides an object oriented approach in
    managing the design aspect of a project; it basically helps in designing the interface
    and categorizes the process into four steps, which are domain analysis, navigational
    design, abstract interface design, and lastly implementation.


    I have chosen OOHDM because of these reasons and benefits:
            Hypermedia characteristics – Multimedia system development is differ from
             traditional software development projects in several critical dimensions, such
             as the need for prototyping and intensive testing with users, and also the
             involvement of capturing and organizing the structure of a complex domain
             and making it clear and accessible to users.


            Object-oriented approach – The benefits of using object oriented modeling is it
             provides higher level abstraction and composition mechanisms with
             well-defined semantics.




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            Open method – OODHM provides greater flexibility and freedom when it
             comes to choosing his favorite model for achieving the domain specification,
             this is because OOHDM does not provide any enriched model for the
             application domain, and domain model is also not imposed as the navigational
             class and contents can be defined thanks to the specialized mechanism.



    Development Plan


    While the project follows the four major phases of the Spiral model, I have broken
    down the overall process to some more detailed tasks for the development plan, here is
    a breakdown list of the plan with its possible durations:


    Start date: 16th May 2005
    Duration : 31 Weeks
    End date : 18th January


         3. Project Definition
            Duration: 1 week
            Tasks:
                     Idea Generation
                     Project Title Selection
                     Feasibility Studies
                     Abstract Draft Project Proposal

         4. Project Planning
            Duration: 3 weeks
            Tasks:
                     Work Breakdown Structure
                     Schedule and Time Estimation
                     Critical Path Method
                     Gantt Chart
                     Project Proposal Form

         5. Requirement Analysis
            Duration: 12 weeks




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             Tasks:
                     Identify project specifications
                            - Project Background
                            - Resources required
                            - Techniques to be learnt
                            - Goals and Objectives
                            - Determine System Functionalities
                            - Identify scope of research
                     Project Specification Form
                     Investigation ad Research
                           - 3D software
                           - Action Scripting
                           - Human Computer Interaction
                           - Multimedia Design Principles
                           - Current multimedia applications
                           - User requirements
                           - Drifting
                     Analysis
                           - User Modeling and Profiling
                           - Domain analysis
                           - System analysis
                           - Risk analysis



         6. System Design
              Duration: 3 weeks
             Tasks:
                     Navigational Design
                           - Story Boarding
                           - Data flow Diagram
                     Abstract Interface Design
                           - Screen layout
                           - Content Design
                           - Interactivity Design
                             -   Functionality Design

         7. Prototyping




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               Duration: 12 weeks
             Tasks:
                     Creating Prototypes
                     Evaluate Prototype feedbacks

         8. Production and Implementation
            Duration: 13 days
            Tasks:
                     Code generation
                     Mid point Interview
                     Media processing
                     3D Car Modeling
                     Module Integration

         9. Testing and Evaluation
            Duration: 10 weeks
            Tasks:
                     Prototype Evaluation
                     Test Plans
                     Unit Testing
                     Integration Testing
                     System Testing
                     Critical Evaluation

         10. Project Ending
             Duration: 4 weeks
             Tasks:
                     Submission of the finished product
                     Presentation

    The tasks listed above shows the overall progress and time duration for the thorough
    development of this particular project, some of the task may start at a similar time with
    the other tasks as they have dependencies to each other, so overlapping may occur and
    it will be expected. Research investigation and Prototyping will be the two main
    priority tasks in this project, throughout the implementation phase, the testing and
    prototyping will be carried out as it progress.




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    Major Functions to be developed


    When the development reaches the implementation phase, each and every module and
    functions of the system will be created and integrated. One of the most important
    functions to be concerned with is the one called “Drift Machine”, whereby a 3D car
    will be implemented to the interface which allow interactivity. This function holds
    the biggest challenge and also serves as the highlight of the whole project, making it
    work and perform perfectly will certainly be one of the main concerns of the entire
    project. After the completion of “Drift Machine”, the functions to be developed next
    will be “Drifting Basics”, “Drift Styles” and “Drift Techniques”. These first four
    functions acts as the main core of the system, it concludes the overall guide of
    Drifting, for the rest of the system, “FAQ and Help” and “Quiz” will be placed at the
    final stages of the implementation phase.



    The hardest tasks and its description


    For all the tasks available in the development plan, the most challenging and hardest
    tasks will be:
            Research and Analysis – Based on the nature of this project, Drifting is one of
             the major research area but it is also not an easy area to be researched on, due
             to its late appearance here in Malaysia, the resources are limited.


            Implementation of 3D – In the implementation phase, the hardest task will be
             the implementation of 3D to the project; the major difficulty lies within the
             availability of the resources needed, for example, in this system, a car will be
             created in 3D, together with its wheels, engines and other internal parts.
             Modeling a car is a challenge, yet modeling a complex engine or any other
             internal mechanical parts of a vehicle is another level of great challenge.


            Presentation – When a project has been submitted, a presentation will be
             followed up. Presentation is considered one of the hardest tasks because it
             requires a high demand of careful planning of the presentation itself and its
             contents. It is also not one of the skills to be mastered easily, a lot of practice
             will be required and confidence is essential.
    o




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   Brief description of the evaluation and test plan for the proposed project.
G. (i.e. what is the success criteria and how will be evaluated & implementation will be
   tested, indicate the estimated size of the demonstration/test database)
    Test plan and Strategies


    Throughout the development of this project, testing will be done from different stages
    and phases, starting from the early stage of the development, until the very end.
    These tests will be carried out by prototype tests, and also final system tests.


    The test plan strategies used in this project will be:
       4. Black-box testing - Black box testing allows the tester to interact with the
           system to assess the test results, through this testing, user get to know what the
           system is supposed to do, but not how it is done.


         5. White-box testing – It allows the user to access the system and its inner codes,
            thus having better understanding on how the system works internally. This
            test will be performed by a supervisor. The supervisor will be giving
            evaluation based on the runtime effectiveness and efficiency of the system
            codes, in order to produce a better performance.


         6. Unit and Integration Testing – This system will be developed in different
            modules or units, based on these units, testing are done individually, once the
            modules are tested, they are been integrated for the integration testing. These
             testing will be performed by the developer himself.


    To accomplish the mentioned testing strategies, these types of testing are to be
    applied:
            Usability Testing – It tests the usability of the system, it considers the user
             interface design, familiarity, user acceptance and recoverability of the system.
             Tester: End user, supervisor.
             Data sets: 3


            Functionality Testing – Functions featured in the system will be tested
             thoroughly to ensure that it is working properly.
             Tester: Developer, supervisor, end user.



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             Data sets: 3


            Compatibility Testing – The system will be tested on different operating
             systems and software.
             Tester: Developer, end user.
             Data sets: 3


            Runtime Testing – System loading times, execution problems and other
             runtime issues are to be tested.
             Tester: Developer, end user.
             Data sets: 3


            Configuration Testing – The system will be tested using different hardware
             configurations.
             Tester: Developer, end user.
             Data sets: 3




    Evaluation on Success Criteria


    To evaluate on how successful a project is, these criteria are considered:
       8. Meeting user requirements – A project that meets every single requirements of
           the user/client means that it is a successful project.
              Evaluator: Supervisor, End users


         9. Functionality – Determines the functionality of the finished system. Each and
            every function of the system shall be evaluated, such as the 3D interactivity of
            the system.
               Evaluator: Supervisor, End users, Developer


         10. Usability – Elements such as user acceptance, accessibility, familiarity and
             recoverability will be evaluated here.
                Evaluator: Supervisor, End users


         11. Level of Content – Show the amount of detailed and well presented
             information and content available in the system.




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                Evaluator: Supervisor, End users


         12. Project Management – The ability to manage the project in a professional and
             tidy manner.
                Evaluator: Supervisor


         13. Research and Analysis – A good amount of well investigated research and
             analysis work is important to the success of a project.
                Evaluator: Supervisor


         14. Documentation – The ability to come up with a documentation which is very
             well formatted and good English and grammars are used.
               Evaluator: Supervisor




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