understanding islam

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                                     In th e       arne of God , Most Gracious, Most Merciful

                                                                               Africa are Mu slim , while sign ificant
                           What is Islam?                                      min orities are to be found in th e
                          Islam is not a new religion , but                    Soviet Union, China, North and
                          the same truth tha t God revealed                    Sout h America, and Europ e.
                          through all His proph ets 10 every
                          people. For a fifth of th e world's
                          populatio n. Islam is both a religion                What do Muslims
                          and a complete way of life. Musli ms
                          follow a religion of peace, mercy,
                          and forgiven ess, and the majority                   Muslims believe in O ne, Uniq ue,
                          have no thi ng to do w ith the                       Incompara ble God ; in the Angels
                          extremely gra ve eve n ts whic h have                created by Him; in the pro phets
                          come to be associate d with their                    throu gh who m His revelation s were
                          faith .                                              brought to manki nd ; in the Day of
                                                                               Jud gement and ind ivid ual account-
                                                                               abi lity for actions; in .od 's complete
                          Who are the                                          authori ty over huma n desti ny and
     I'                   Muslims?                                             in life after death. Muslim believe
                                                                               in a cha in of prophets starting w ith
                          On e bi U peop le from a vast range
                                    ion                                        Adam and includin g I oah, Abra -
                          of races, nati onalitie and cultu res                ham , Ishmael, I aac, Jacob , Joseph,
                          across the globe - from the                          Job , Moses, Aaron , David , olornon.
                          southern Philippines to Nig eria-                    Elia . Ionah , John the Baptist, and
                          arc uni ted by their common I larnic                 Jesu s, pea ce be upon them . But
                          faith. About 18% live in the Arab                    God ' final message to man , a recon -
                          wor ld ; the wo rld's largest Muslim                 firmation of the eternal message and
                          commun ity is in Indonesia; sub-                     a summing-up of all that has go ne
                          stantial part s of Asia and mo st of                 befo re was revea led to the Prop het
                                                                               Mu ham mad ;:- through Gabriel.
                          LEH III the Na me u( God, Most Gracious,
                          M os t Merciinl , Praise be to God, '111<'
                          Chcrishc r 111111 usta iner uf tire World s;
                          Most Gracious, M ost Mercii u): Ma ster
                                                                               How does someone
                          of the V ay of Juds ell/Pll t. TI,e(' do we
                          toorship, Alld TIIlIIt' aid we seek. Slun»
                                                                               become a Muslim?
                          us th e straigh: wall, 1111 w ay of th ose Oil
                                                                               Simp ly by sayi ng ' there is no god
                          tohtnn Tho u ha st hes tmoed TII Grace,
                          TI' 05e w ho se Ipo r tio n) Is not iorath,          apart from God , and Muha mm ad
                          A"d tcho go no t as t ra s .]                        is the Messen ger of God .' By th is
                                                                               declara tion the believer announces
                          11115 Ol ~'" i"g c11afJlt'r of TIlt' Qurllll, tile   his or her faith in all God 's me sen -
                          Fatiha , is cm tra in Islamic1'my..r, I!
                          co"talllS til,' cssenc« of Till' <..!lITlln a"d IS   gers. and the scrip tures they
                          said al til,' start of u \'r.'l Frayer.              brought.

                                                                     What do es 'Islam'
                                                                     The Arabic wo rd 'Islam' simply
                                                                     mean s 'submission' , and de rives
                                                                     fro m a word mea ni ng 'peace'. In a
                                                                     religio us context il mean s com plete
                                                                     submission to the wi ll of God .
                                                                     'Moham medan ism' is th us a misn o-
                                                                     me r because it sugges ts tha t Mus-
                                                                     lim s worsh ip Mu hamm ad ~:: ra ther
                                                                     than God . 'Allah ' is the Ara bic nam e
                                                                     for God, which is used by Ara b
                                                                     Muslim s an d Ch ristia ns alike.

                                                                     Why do es Islam often
                                                                     seem strange?
                                                                     Islam may see m exotic or eve n
                                                                     extreme in the modem world . Per-
                                                                     hap s this is because religion docs
                                                                     not dom inate everyday life in the
                                                                     West tod ay, wh ereas Muslims hav e
                                                                     religion always upp erm ost in their
                                                                     min ds, and make no d ivision
                                                                     between secula r and sacred . They
                                                                     believe that the Divi ne law , the
                                                                     Shari'a, s hould be taken very ser-
                                                                     iously, wh ich is wh y issu es related
                                                                     to religion are still so importan t.

                                                                     Do Islam and
                                                                     Christianity have
                                                                     different origins?
                                                                     No. Toge the r with Jud aism , they go
                                                                     back to the pro phe t and patri arch
                                                                     Ab raham , and their th ree prophets
                                                                     are d irectly d escended from h is so ns
                                                                     - Muhan;m ad ~ from the eldest ,
                    LEFT. Muslims prrltllll~ ill [crusalem outside
                    the mosoue of AI Aqs.' uiith lite Ot'me of       Is hma el, and Moses an d Jesu s ,..~
                    the Rock ill vit~/l l'l'r,;l/Ii.                 from Isaac. Abrah am estab lish ed the
                    ABOVE. Beneath the DOllie is the fock [r on:     settlemen t which today is the city of
                    wlti,1  1Multa/1/lI/ad ascended through the      Makkah, and buil t the Ka' ba
                    St'L\'1I lieaicns to 11t ~ Dioine presellce.     towa rds wh ich all Muslim s turn
                    R1r . A M omccilIl ;11 I' raya                   when they pray.

                                                                                                                                                          no rth, mar ks the beg in n in g o f the
                                                                                                            Who is                                        Mu slim cale nd ar.
                                                                                                            Muhammad?                                        Afte r sev eral years. the Pro ph e t ~~
                                                                                                                                                         and h is follo we rs we re able to return
                                                                                                           M uh ammad f:t was bo rn in Milk-             to Ma kkah, w he re the y forg ave their
                                                                                                            kah in the yt'df 570, at a ti me when        en em ies a nd es tablis hed Isla m
                                                                                                           Christianity was no t ye t fully es tab-      d efin itively . Before the Prophet            sa
                                                                                                           lish ed in Euro pe . Since h is father        d ied at the age of 6) , the grea ter pa rt
                                                                                                           d ied bef ore h is birth, and his             of Arabia W<l S M uslim, and wi thin a
                                                                                                           mot her sho rtly afte rw ard s. he was        cen tury of his d ea th Islam had
                                                                                                           raised by h is un cle from t he               sp read to Spai n in the West a nd as
                                                                                                           res pected trib e o f Quraysh. As he          fa r Eas t as C h ina .
                                                                                                           grew up, he became known for hi s
                                                                                                           truthfulness, gen eros ity a nd
                                                                                                           sinceriry.so tha t he was s ought
                                                                                                           after for his ability to arb i tra te in
                                                                                                           dispute s. The his tori ans d escribe
                                                                                                           h im <IS calm and meditati ve.
                                                                                                              Mu ha m mad ~ W <lS of <I deeply
                                                                                                           religious nature, and ha d lo ng d e tes-
                                                                                                           ted the d ecadence of his society. It
                                                                                                           became hi s habit to medi tate from
                                                                                                           li me to time in the Cave o f I li ra ne ar
                                                                                                           the s ummit o f Jabal al- Nur, the
                                                                                                           'Mo un tain o f Ligh t' ne ar Makka h.

                                                                                                           How did he become a
                                                                                                           proph et and a
                                                                                                           messenger of God?
                                                                                                           At the age of 40, w hi le en ga ged in a
                                                                                                           meditative retreat, M u ham mad ?::
                                                                                                           received h is first revelation from
                                                                                                           God th ro ugh the Angel Gabr iel. Th is
                                                                                                           revelat ion. w hich contin ue d for
                                                                                                           tw en ty-th ree years. is kn o w n ...s the
                                                                                                           Qura n.
                                                                                                  •                                      0
                                                                                                               As soon as he bega n 1 recit e the
                                                                                                           word s he hea rd from G abri el, an d to
                                                                                                           prcech the tru th wh ich C od had
What is the Ka'ba?                                                                               •
                                                                                                           revealed to him, he a nd h is sm all
                                                                                                           g ro up of followers suffered bitter
Th e Ka'ba is the place of wors h ip        a sa nf tu<l ry established by Ad am .                         pe rsecu tion , w h ich grew s o fierce
which God commande d Ab raham               God com ma nde d Abraham to sum"                               that in the year f',22 Cod g a ve the m       TOr TII~ Mmml"ilJ of       l.l,lIht Il,har Gabriel
and Ishmae l to bu ild over fo ur           mon all man kind to v is it this place.                        the co mmand to em igra te . Th is            ,~lII e It' MIlIW":I>wd,
thousand yea rs ag o. Th e bu ilding        an d w hen p ilgrim s go there tod ay                          even t, th e HiJra, ' migr at io n', in       A1IU·"~. Tile P't'I'!I~"S .~ I(lS</ue, M ;dmah; til,·
wa s cons truc ted of s tone un wh at       they say 'A t Thy se rvice, 0 Lor d ', in                      which the y lef t Makkah for the city         ,'.>mr mdicmcs. Ihe pl"r~ wl!!"r,' his halN '
man y believe was the ori gi na l site of   res po nse to Abraham 's sum mo ns .                           o f Madi nah so me 260 m iles to the          'Itnl al1du.'llc,-c lie I$/""i,',j

Ho w did the spread of
Islam affect the
Am on g the reason for the rapid a nd
peacefu l sprea d of Isla m wa th e
sim plicity of its do ctrine-I sla m ca lls
fo r faith in on ly One Go d wo rth y
o f worsh ip . It a lso repeated ly
instructs mall to use h is po wers 0 1
in tellige nce a nd obser vation .
   Within a few yea rs, grea t .ivili-
za tions and uni versities wer e flour-
ishing , for acco rd ing 10 till'
Prophct ! ' ,'seeking kn owled ge i
an obliga ti n fo r every M u lim man
and wo ma n' . Th e s nthe is o f
Eastern a nd W tern id eas a nd o f
new thou gh t with old , bro ug ht
about gre at a dva nce in me d icine,

mat he matics, p hysic , ast ro nom y,
ge og ra p hy, a rc hi tec ture , a rt, litera-
tu re, and history . Ma ny cruci al s s-
I rn uch a a lge bra , the Arabi c
numerals, a nd also th COIK ' p t o f
the zero (vital to the advance m n t o f
mnthcrn at irs). wer e tra ns miu zd to
medi eval Europe from I lam . a p his-
tica tcd inst rum ent s whi ch wer e 10
make po sible the Eur o pea n voy-
ilges o f di. m ve ry we re d eve loped ,
in clu d ing the a strolabe, th e quad -
rant and goo d na vigat io nal maps .

                                                                            1 I' 'Iil) M atia), lurllll . EXT \ 1I LI H /11/"111-
                                                                            ,'g ; /1/I ('11 IS il/ Caira, f !lSP/. f Ail LHT,
                                                                             UQVI I'll,' d-.:lll w lIlI W ltll/1i /'li 5 ill -':!1
                                                                            O/Is"rlmo"/, 1",1ill. BEW \\' : 5111/1fl A,,'b m
                                                                                 I'WIII,'; Io<fll /. Ll f l : 1hldi/ ioual lll~tllod
                                                                            1I;/T(            l
                                                                            ujstud», ,lil11llriiflllia . ABOVE, TII~ PrU rd   I"
                                                                            said, . ' ".: kl/owl~dS" ', l 'lI ;/1 10 Chma: 1'11
                                                                                        k                                          <'
                                                                            HlI/ Sl'~/I I/w"1u <' 1m ' lnult tn l ire ",\'11 /1,
                                                                            (:,'/11II I'y.

                                                                                                                               'TIll' truthfu l and trusty bllSilleSSII/II I1
                                                                                                                               is associated with the prophets, 1/11'            What are the 'Five
                                                                                                                               saints. and th e marturs, '                       Pillars' of Islam?
                                                                                                                               'Pow erful is 1/01 he w ho kn ocks the            TIley are th e fram e work o f the
                                                                                                                               other dOWlI, indeed potoerfu! is he               Muslim life: fa it h, pra ye r, co nce rn
                                                                                                                               toho COl/trois himself ill II fit of IIllger. '   for the need y, self- p urificat io n , and
                                                                                                                               'Cod does /101 j udge according 10                the p ilg rima ge to Makkah for those
                                                                                                                               yo ur bodi es and appea ran ces but               wh o a rc a b le.
                                                                                                                               Il l' SCIIIIS yo ur hearts and looks into
                                                                                                                               YOllr deeds.'                                          FA IT H

                                                                                                                               'A "WIl walkillg al ong 1/ path felt              Th ere i no go d wort hy o f worship
                                                                                                                               1ery Ihirsl y. Reaching a we ll Ill'
                                                                                                                                J                                                exce p t Go d a nd M u ham mad is His
                                                                                                                               descended int o it, drunk his fi ll and           messen ge r. T h is d eclara tio n o f fa ith
                                                                                                                               ClIllle up. Then Ill' saw a dog ioith             is ca lled the Shahada, a s im p le
                                                                                                                               its tongue hlll/gillg 0111, Iryil/g 10 lick       fo rmu la wh ich a ll th e fa ith fu l p ro -
                                                                                                                               up ntud to qu ench its thirst . The               nounce . In Ara bic, the first pa ri is
                                                                                                                               II/Il/I -mv that the dog was [eeling the
                                                                                                                                                                                 {a ilaha illa'Llah - ' the re is no
                                                                                                                               sallie thirst as he had {ett so he ioent          god I' .cep t Cod '; ilaha (go d ) can
                                                lime it provi des gu idl' linc . for ,1 jus t                                  dO into the well again and filled
                                                                                                                                   WI/                                           re fe r to a n th in g w h ich w e may be
Wha t is the Qumn ?                             . o iety. proper human co nd u I a nd                                          his shoe toith wa fer and galle the               te mp ted to p u t in p lace o f Cod -
                                                d n C LJ u i l,lbll' I'CO 110 111ic svs tern                                   dog II drink. Cod [orgaue his si ns for           wealth , po wer, a n d the like . Th e n
Th e Qu ran is.l recor d of th . e xact
                                                                                                                               thi s action,' TI,e Prophet -- w as               co mes illa'Ualr : ' exce p t Cod', th e
 wo rds reve aled by ud thro ugh the
                                                                                                                               asked: 'M essenger of Cod, ~(;re w e              so urce of a ll Cr ea tion . T he eco n d
 All gl'l ,ah ril'l lo the l'ro phe t
 Mu hamllwd · . It W .I S memorized
                                                A re there any other                                                           rewarded for k indn ess towards ani -             pa rt of th e Shuluut is lvlulwlIl/1/adllll
                                                                                                                                                                                 msuiu' Llah: 'M u ha m m ad i th e
 by Muham mad ~ a nd th 'II d ie-               sacred sources?                                                                mals?' Ill' said, 'There is a rewa rd for
                                                                                                                                                                                 me sse nge r of God : A m essa ge o f
 ta ted to h is o rnp aruo ns. and                                                                                             kindn ess 10 euen j Ii1Jillg thing.'
                                                Yes, th ' ~ W /l /{l, the pracrio -and                                                                                           g ui da nce has co me thro ug h a ma n
writ ten d'IWIl by scribes, who
                                                exam p ic of lhe Prophet <:<: , is the                                                                                           like o u rselves .
cross-ch e ked It duri ng h is lifetnn e .                                                                                     From the haditli collectio ns of
                                                s 'com! au thoritv for Muslim . . l\                                                                                             SEW W Sha ha da i Il 5,Ti/"'d otvr el/ lra l/c, ' III
    ot nne word nl its 11. cha p te rs,
                               1                                                                                               Bukhari , Muslim, Tirmidh i and
                                                liadllli is a rdia l;lv transmitted report                                                                                                            lace
                                                                                                                                                                                 Oltonmn Ttlp/illpi Pa (lltc 1/1II5['UI/l CO l/-
5"ms, has been lh'lIlg xl over th                                                                                              Bayhaq i                                          Iilills a 1/U11/ 1t'iw m l~/ tlr,' ('rvp/iel. all/Vl/S
cen tu ries, so tha t the Qu ran IS III
                                                of wh.u the Prop he t ~::- sal d . did. or                                                                                                      1
                                                a pproved . Bl'Ill'f III III , 111111111" part                                                                                   otherIrensur/,s), ISltll/ lm /.
c cry detail the uniq ue and rmraru -
                                                of the lslami .. laith.
(IlUS tex t whi h W.1S reveal e-d to
MlIh. IIT1T11,ul      fLlllril'l'n cen turies
.1gO.                                           Examples of the
                                                Prophet's sayings
What is th e Qurm!                              TIl > Pro p het i!: said
nbou t?                                         'Gil d luis      1/11   IIIaClI 01/ 01/(' 1/ ·110   luis
1111' Qur.m . Ih 1 1 rc vcah- I Wllld III       I/O /lII' r (l/ Jo r    ot hers.'
God, is th e prim source o f vverv
                                                'N OlI" " ('/011 Inily " "'lI'lll' ~ unt il hr
Muslim's Iaith and practice. It Je.lls
                                                w ishes [ar lus broth..r u -lutt hc
wi th .1111hc subject whi h xinccrn
                                                tuis hr« /i,r ltitn cl], '
us ,15 human b nngs : wisdom, doc -
trine wors hip, and law, bu l ils b,lSic                                                   g
                                                'I I,' 11,1/(1 cat» his {ill trhi!«his lll'i h-
Itwme I~ the reliltiu l1shlp bctWCl'1l          uo,. XIJI' ~ wII/w III {(Jot! is 1101         a
  ,LId .1Ild Ilis -rC,lIUTl' . AI Ih l' S.lm~   ')('/;'7'1'/:'                                                                                                                                                                  I

ABOV E:   New Mn ll:o, L1. .A. Pmyer call
[r om AlJiql/lII Mosqlle

            A tra n slation of the all to Pra ye r i :

            God is most grea t. God is mo st great.
            God is most gr eat. God i mo st great.
            [ tc tily that th er e is no god excep t Go d.
            I Ie stify tha t th er e is no god except Go d.
            I test ify th at Mu ha m ma d i th > messenger of od .
            I test ify tha t Mu ha m m ad i th me. senger of God .
            Come to p raye r! Co me to p rayer!
            Corne to succe ss (in th is life a nd
            th e He reafte r)! o rne to s ue e !
            God is mo st grea t. Go d i m ost grea t.
            There i no go d exce p t Go d .

                                            RI HT :  CO  llrtyard of Grcai M o ~qll'·. Herat,
                                             fs/ rallis/all

                                                                                                                         3 T HE 'ZA KA T'                                                         A piou s person may also gi ve as
                                                                                                                         O ne of the most importa nt pri n-                                    much as he or she pleases .1S SlIrlllq ll,
                                                                                                                         ciples of I lam is tha t all things                                   and does so preferably in secret.
                                                                                                                         belo ng to C od , an d th at wealt h is                               Althou gh th is word can be trans-
                                                                                                                         there fo re held by human beings in                                   lated as ' voluntary cha rit " it has a
                                                                                                                         trust, The wo rd zakat means both                                     wider mea ning. The Pr phet - 'a id
                                                                                                                         'p urificatio n' an d 'g rowth'. O ur po -                            '1'l'1'1I m eeting !l0llr bro thrr toith       II
                                                                                                                         ses sions are purifie d by etting                                     cheeriu ! [ace is chari ty. '
                                                                                                                         a -ide a proport io n for those in ne d ,
                                                                                                                         an d, like th e pruning of plants, this
                                                                                                                         cutting back balances and encour-
                                                                                                                         ages new growth .
                                                                                                                            E.1 h Mu lim calcu lates his or he r
                                                                                                                         own :Ilklll in d i i Iually. Frill st
                                                                                                                         purposes th i involves th ' pay ment
                                                                                                                         each year of tw and a half pe en t
                                                                                                                         of one's capital .

AIlOVE ;   Karl/ilia, Nigeria.

Z   I' lv\YEI{
   ulat is the nam e for the obliga to ry
 prayers whi ch are perform ed five
 times a day, a nd are a d irect lin k
 between the worship per a nd Co d .
There is no hiera rchical authority in
 Islam , a nd no priests , so th e prayers                                                                                                                                                       111l' Prophet             sa id: 'Chllrity is
are led by a learn ed pers on w ho                                                                                                                                                              a ncccssitu for 1'l'l'm \111~/illl.' III'
 know s the Qu ran , chosen by the                                                                                                                                                                l 'IIS asked: ' l VI/tI1 if 1I1'I'rSOIl 1111
congregation . Th e e five prayers                                                                                                                                                             nothing?' TIll' I'ropht'f                replied :
co nta in verses fro m the Qu ran , and                                                                                                                                                         'JIt' should u -ark uiith his 011'11
arc sa id in Arabic, the language of                                                                                                                                                           lutuds Ii" his I'I'III'/il IIl1d tlteng] ' 1'
the Revelation , but perso na l su ppli-                                                                                                                                                       something 0111 Ilf 'lIch earnings ill
cation ca n be offered in one's ow n                                                                                                                                                           cluiritu. ' tt« (/JII/'all/llll~ asJ..,'d:
language.                                                                                                                                                                                       ' l \'II,' t if II ' is 1101 able I" cork?'
    Prayers are sa id at dawn , noo n,                                                                                                                                                          nil' I'ro/,III'I           suid: 'JiI' should
mid -aftern oon , s unse t and nigh tfall,                                                                                                                                                     hclp puor /IIUlllcedYI'crsoll ",' The
                                                    "r.      ,
and thu s determ ine the rhyth m of          ,      T
                                                      r -' f
                                                                                                                                                                                               Compnmou« [urthcr asked ' \ vh«I if
the enti re da y. Althou gh it is prefer -                                                                                                                                                     lu : cunnot do etvn that?' I},I'
ab le 10 worship togethe r in a                                                                                                                                                                 Prophet               said 'f it' shuult! III:':l'
mosqu e, a Muslim may pray almo st
                                             A BOVE:        Persiall m ih rab , wllielt indicates
                                                 IIl'~ dir ectio n   or
                                                                   prayer. Oller A   1uslims                            ,I
                                                                                                                             /ll '\ I I.'~'I
                                                                                                                                               i.""" Ilze /l I'''Io~1 1]",";11, ' ,,'illtlll
                                                                                                                               , ~ 'I, ' . . l "1m
                                                                                                                                                                                               othcr« 10 do good. ' 17'l 011/1'1111-
an ywhere, such as in fields, offices,       p rll yeri lOll'arris [erusatcm, but dur ing II,e                                                                                                 ion s said '\VI"rt if III' la cks tltat
factories and un iversities. Visitors to     Prophet'« lifetime il wa~ ell/Hlged 10                                     1'1\J 'I I I '1 It, lit I ; 'r_"          ,,,11/ III' , 1",/,/, I      II!-tJ !' 71Il' Prophet , slIid '1/1'
                                             MaU ah. Fr the minbar, the pulpit, the
                                                          om                                                             \1 ./111 1Il .1 1.. .) :""lIi, 111/ 11/1" 111'1 trriitrn
the Mu slim wo rld are struck by the         imam wlz o lead» the prayergzt'es lit e ermoll                             '''''11''.1 ' 11'" '" tlu: -tul« "'111/'1'" 111".1             1/1
                                                                                                                                                                                               sh ould check himscl] (mill d"illS ''1,11,
centrality of p rayers in daily life.        at th.. Friday 110 011 commllluly prayers.                                  /'.'/ ill,111'//"10',                                                 '171111   is   11150   clta rit u.'

4   HIE FAST                                     5 P IL GR IMA G L (Hajj)
 Every year in the mo nt h vf Ra ma-             Th e an n ual pi lgrimage to Ma kkah -
d an , all Mu sli ms fas t from first lig h t    the Hajj - is a n ob liga tion o n ly for
u n til s u nd ow n, abs tai n ing from          those w ho ar e ph ys ically an d fina n -
food, d ri n k, an d sex ua l relat ions.        cially able to perform it. Ne ve rt he -
Th ose w ho are s ick, elderl y, or o n a        less, a bout tw o mi llion people go to
jo u rney, an d w o men w ho a n~ preg -         Mak kah each yea r from every co mer
na nt or n ur si ng are permitt ed to            of the glo be p rovid ing a u n iq ue
brenk th e fast a nd make u p a n eq ual         op po rtu n ity for thos of d iffe re nt
nu m ber o f d ays la te r in th . yea r. If     na tio ns to me t (In anot h er.
th e y a r physically u na ble to d o th is,     t Ithou gh I la kka h i always filled
the y m us t fee d J n edy person for            w ith visi tors, the annual l /ajj b gi ns
l'\'Cry da misse d. Ch ild ren begin to          in th e tw elfth mon th of the Islam ic
fast (an d to o bserve the pr, ye r) fr rn       ye a r (which is luna r, not olar ,
pu b erty, a lthoug h ma n y sta rt -a rli cr,   that Hllij and Ra mada n fall so m e-
    Alth oug h the fast is mos t benefi -        times in su m me r, so me times in
cia l to the he alth, it is reg a rded prin -    w in te r). Pilgrims wear s pec ial
cipally as a method of self-                     clo thes: SIm ple ga rmen t w h ich
pu rifica tio n. By ult in g onese lf off                   ilY
                                                 s trip aW d istinctions o f class and
from worldl y c rnf o rts , vcn f r a            cultu re, 0 that all s t.md 'qual before                              ,\ 1l v r"
                                                                                                                           0                       yill
                                                                                                                                    Pligrill/ ; pra g III ttu: 1I1(I; tj l/ t' ill
s ho rt tim e, a fastlllg person ga llls            od.                                                                lvll1k~·IIII ,
true .ympath y w ith th ose w ho '0                                                                                    C E~ !U{;        l'ilsrill/ 1,'1/IS,
hung ry as w ,II <IS g ro\ th in one's                                                                                     W                               .'1 l'
                                                                                                                       HFLO P I/SUII/S Ilmll' {rOIl/IlIl 011 111 lIw ld .
sp iri tua l life .
                                                                                                                           TIle ri tes of the Hajj, wh ich are of
                                                                                                                       A braharn ic ori g in, include ci rcling
                                                                                                                       the Ka' ba se ve n tim es , and goi ng
                                                                                                                       se ven tim es be tw ee n the mo u n ta in s
                                                                                                                       of Safa an d M arwa as d id H aga r
                                                                                                                       d u ring her search for wa te r. The n

                                                                                                                       the pi lg rims tand together o n the
                                                                                                                       wi d e p lain of Arafa a nd jo in in
                                                                                                                       p rayers fo r Go d 's Io rgi ven e s, in
                                                                                                                       wh a t is ofte n tho u gh t of as a pre-
                                                                                                                       view of the Las t Judgemen t.
                                                                                                                           In pr evio us ce n tu ries th Hajj was
                                                                                                                       a n ard uous u nde rtaking. To da y,
                                                                                                                       however, Saudi Ara bi a provid es
                                                                                                                       mi llio ns of peo ple wi th wat e r,
                                                                                                                       m od e m tra ns port, a nd the most
                                                                                                                       up -to-d a te health facilities.
                                                                                                                           TIle close of the Hajj is m ark ed by
                                                                                                                       a fest ival , the Eitt al-Adha, w h ich is
                                                                                                                       celebra ted with p rayer s and the
                                                                                                                       exch a nge of gifts in Mu slim co m m u-
                                                                                                                       n ities eve rywh e re. Thi s, and th e Eid
                                                                                                                       1I1- Fil r, a fea s t-d ay com memo ra ting
                                                                                                                       the en d of Ramad an. a re the mai n
                                                                                                                       festi va ls of th e M us lim calenda r.

                                                                                                                                                                              She said: '0 Illy Lord! How shall
                                                                                                                          What do Muslims                                  I hllve a 5 0 11 tok en 110 man lias
                                                                                                                          think about Jesus?                               tou ch ed m e?' He sa id: 'E I'll so; God
                                                                                                                                                                           creates toluu He w ill . Whell He
                                                                                                                          Mus lims respe ct and revere                     decrees II thing, He sllys / 0 it, "Be!"
                                                                                                                          Jes u s 'l:: ,and awai t h is Seco nd            and it is.' (Q u ra n . 3= 42'7)
                                                                                                                          Co ming. 1111'1' co ns ide r hi m o ne of
                                                                                                                          the g rea tes t of God 's messen ge rs to           Jes us ' .= W ,lS born miraculous ly
                                                                                                                          ma n kin d . A M us lim nev er refers to         th ro ugh th sa me po wer whic h
                                                                                                                          h im s im ply as 'le u ', bu t always            ha d bro ug h t Ada m :.:, in to be ing
                                                                                                                          adds the phrase ' upon him b e                   w itho u t a fathe r:
                                                                                                                          peace '. 1111." Q u ran co nfi rms h is vi r-    Tntly, the lik eness of [esus with God
                                                                                                                          gi n b irth (a cha p ter of th e Q u ran is      is a - the likeness o f dum. Ile ere-
                                                                                                                          e n ti tled ' Ma ry' ), and Ma ry is con-        atetl him of dust, and IIII'll said 10
                                                                                                                          side red th e pure t w oman in all               him, 'Be!' and he WIIS. (Y 59)
                                                                                                                          creation . 1111." Q ura n descri bes the
                                                                                                                          Annunciat ion as follows:                           Durin g his prophetic mission jt' 5LJ:;
                                                                                                                                                                            - perfo rmed many m iracles .
                                                                                                                          'Behold!' lilt' A nge! said, 'God has            T he Qu ran te lls u s tha i hi' said :
                                                                                                                          chosen 1/011, un d purif ied yOIl, and
                                                                                                                          c/WSI'II yOIl above I
                                                                                                                          I/II/ ioIl S. 0 Man ,}
                                                                                                                                                 "I'u ionten of a//
                                                                                                                                                 God gives yOIl
                                                                                                                                                                           I /11/ 'I' CO li /(' /0 .'10 11 u iith II s ign from
                                                                                                                                                                           yOllr Lord: I I1Il1ke for yOIl alit of
                                                                                                                                                                           d ay, as it we rt' th e f igllre of II bird,
                                                                                                                          good lIeW5 of II toord from JJ ill~,             1111/1 breathe int o it IIl1d it becom es
                                                                                                                          w hose numc shall be 1"1' Me Sill" ,             II bird by God's le live. And 1 heal th e
Does Islam tolerate                            ABOV E:     Mosque oi Omar /IIul h/ndl of the
                                                Holy Sepllichre, [erusalem. Wirellilremlillh
                                                                                                                          [esus 5 0 11 of Mary, l IOII OYl' d i ll this
                                                                                                                          wo rld II l1d the H erest[t er, untl aile
                                                                                                                                                                           blind, ami I he lepers, and l ra ise the
                                                                                                                                                                           dead by God's leaue. (:1 :41 )
other beliefs?                                 Omllr look [erusalemfrom IIII' ByZlIllIIllI'S,                             of those brough t near 10 God. 111'
                                               he mststed all ellullllg tile Cll y unth ollly 1/                          slutll 'peak 10 1"1' people f ro111 his              I eithe r M uhamma d ;~ nor jes u s
The Q u ra n says : God forbids yOIl            nnall llUmber of his comllll1riolls.                                                                                        . - la me to cha nge th e basi d oc-
                                                                                                                          cradle II l1 d ill m aturitu, II l1 d shull be
1101, toith regards 10 th ose who fight        Proclaiming 10 the IIlhabll/llllS that their                                                                                tri ne of th e belief in One Go d ,
                                                                                                                          of the righ teous.'
yo II 11 01 for [your] [aith nor dri e yo II   h ues and properly Wer(' safe, alld tha! Ihl'/r                                                                             bro ug h t by ea rlie r pro p he ts , bu t to
0 11 1 of YO llr homes, [rom dmlillg           places of worship would lIellerbe II/ kell                                                                                  confi rm a nd re ne w it. In th e Q uran
kindb] III/d jllstly toith th em: for God      [ramthem, he asked Ihe Clms liall llllirinrch
                                               SoplrrOllll/S 10 accompallY him all a visit !»
                                                                                                                                                                           jes us v. is r po rted as saying th a t
looeth th ose iolto lire [ust .                                                                                                                                            he cilme:
(Q u ra n, £'0 : )        .                    all lire 1:01.11 places.
                                                   71,e Patriarch inuited him 10 pralj ill the                                                                             10 at tes t the law tohich w as before
    It is o ne fun ction of Islamic la w to    Churd ! of Ihe Holy Sepulchre, blll 'I,l'                                                                                                          e
                                                                                                                                                                           me. A nd 10 IIIl1k latoful 10 yOIl purt
pro tect th e pri vileged s tatus of m in -    preferred 10 pray outside its gates, sayillg
                                               tha! if Ire accepted, later gellerallol's of
                                                                                                                                                                           of tnha I w as fo rbidden YO II; I have
o rities, a nd th is is w h non-Muslim                                                                                                                                     co 111 I' 10 110 11 w ith a s ign [rom yOllr
                                               A-III-,Ilm ~ illig III lise tus action I/S 1/11 , Cl/ ,,'Io
places of wors hip have flo uri s hed all                                                                                                                                  Lord, so j'ear God IIl1d obey M e. (3=50)
                                               IlIrll it into a mosque, About' is tile mosque
over the Isla m ic wo rld . His to ry pro-     buil! all the 51'01 tuhere Omar did pray.
vides man y exa m p les of Mu slim                                                                                                                                            The Pro phet Muha mm ad               ~   sa id :
toleran ce tow a rds other fai ths : w he n
the calip h O ma r e n tered [eru sale rn      Ill GHT:  ArcorcJi'lg 10 tslatn, 1111111 is 1101 bam                                                                         WllOever bel ieves there is 11 0 go d bill
in the ye a r 634. Isla m gran ted free-       111 'original sill' He is God's vicegerent on                                                                               God, 1110111' u iithou t partner, thai
do m o f wo rsh ip to all religi ou s com -    earth, [ ve'll child 15 bom until the Iitra, ' /I I                                                                         ,\o1U/1/1II111I11d ~ is His l1Iessl?1Igel;
                                               illllale dlSFositioll lowards Vlrt ll e.                                                                                    thai [esu s is th e sero au t an d ntes-
m u nities in the cirv.
                                               k·'lowledge. and I,e/Hlly. lslanrconsiders                                                                                  seliger of God, His w ord breathed into
    Islam ic law also 'p em l its no n -       itself 10 be the 'p rimordial religion', d in
Mu slim m ino rit ie to , et up their                                                                                                                                      Mllry and /l spiri t t'lIl/l1IlItillg f rolll
                                               aJ-ha nif; II seeks to rel ll n! 111111110 hi~
own courts , w hich implem e nt                arigl1lal, lrue lIaltn e illwhiri! he is ill                                                                                l1il1l, alld tI/tll Paradise alld Hell lire
fa m ily laws d r,PNn u p by th e mi n-        harmO/llj wllh erealioll. l1lsTJired 10 do good.                                                                            Im e, shall be receiued III! God illto
o ri tie s th emselves .                                                        s
                                               alldcollfirlll/llg Ihe O,/elles of God.                                                                                     1it'llvell. (Harlillt fro m Bukh ari )

                                                                                        Why is the family
                                                                                        so important to
                                                                                        Mu slims?
                                                                                        . 1eIa rnil . is the fo und at io n of Is-
                                                                                        lam ic societ y. The pc .1Ce and
                                                                                        sec u rity offe red b. .. s table fa m ily
                                                                                        u n it is great ly value d . and s n as
                                                                                        essential for the s piritua1 zrc\ th of
                                                                                        its members. A harmo nio us social
                                                                                        o rde r is creat ed by h        i .tcn • of
                                                                                        e tend ed fa milies ; ch ild r n a re
                                                                                        treasured . and rarelv leave ho me
                                                                                        un til th lime they many .

AIlOV[    Af,,,hmll sti1ll. I HI 1      <1155111 . (\[lOW ;
['ok/stall . RIGI I!" c.\~III1 . !-A I( I<IC HI ElIslmlil.
/\ IlU VI"   Morocw .

What abo ut Muslim
( lam sees a wom an , wh ether sing le
or ma rried , as an indiv idual in her
own righ t, wit h the right to own and
d isp o e of her property and e<:J m -
ings. A marriage do wry is given by
the groo m to th e b ride for her own
personal use, and she keep s her own
fam ily nam e rath er than tak ing her
hu sband 's.
   Both men an d women are
expected to dr ess in a wa y w h ich is
mod est an d dign ified ; the trad ition s
of female dr ess found in some
Muslim cou ntries are often the
express ion o f local cu tom s.

The Messenger of Go d       ;~   sai d:

'T"L' 1II0 t perfect ill fait " 11 1110llgs1
bclieuers is Ill' toho is [JCSI ill
JllII/II/('r and kinde st to "is w ife.'

                                               Can a Muslim have                                                     Is Islamic marriage
                                               more than one 'w ife?                                                 like Christian
                                               Th e religion of Islam wa s revealed                                  matriage?
                                               for all societies an d all times and 0
                                                                                                                     A Mu lim marri age is no t a 'sacra -
                                               accommod ates wid ely d ifferin g
                                                                                                                     m ent' , b ut a simp le, legal ag reement
                                               soci al requi rem en ts. Circums tances
                                                                                                                     in wh ich either pa rtner is free to
                                               ma y warran t the tak ing o f anothe r
                                                                                                                     incl ud e con d itions. Ma rri age cus -
                                               wi fe b u t the righ t is g ran ted, acco rd-
                                                                                                                     tom s th us va ry wid ely from co untry
                                               in g to the Qu ran , on ly on con d ition
                                                                                                                     to cou n try. As a result, divorce is
                                               that the hu sban d is scru pulo us ly
                                                                                                                     not com mo n, altho ug h it is no t fo r-
                                                                                                                     bid den as a last resort. Accord ing 10
                                                                                                                     Islam, no Muslim g irl can be forced
                                                                                                                     to m,ln)' agains t her w ill: her
                                               (l O CKWISE MIISIII II.'; {m ill Turkcsmu, 5((Jt                      par en ts will sim ply suggest yo u ng
                                               land, Saudi Ambln. D"Il l'II1,-k . £.'181'1                           men they think may be su itabl e.

                                                                                                                                                           If tJ,t'Y seek peace, then seck y OIl
 [-]ow do Muslims                                                                                                                                          peace. Ami tru st in God fo r HI' is th e
 treat the elderly ?                                                                                                                                       01/1' that heareth 1//111 knouieth all
                                                                                                                                                           th i ngs. (8:61)
In the Islam ic world th ere are no old
                                                                                                                                                               War , the refore, is th e last resort,
peop le's hom es. The s train of caring
                                                                                                                                                           and i ubject to the rigoro us condi -
for one's paren ts in thi s most d iffi-
                                                                                                                                                           tion s la id d own bv the sacred law .
cult time of th eir lives is con sidered
                                                                                                                                                           Th e term ji lrad liter ally mean ' tru g-
an ho nor and blessing , and an
                                                                                                                                                           gle', and lus lim s bel ieve that the re
op po rtunit y for great s p iritual
                                                                                                                                                           are tw o kind s o f ji lrad. Th e ot he r
gro w th. God as ks that we not on ly
                                                                                                                                                           'jilrad'i the in ne r s truggle w hic h
p ray for our parents, b ut act wi th
                                                                                                                                                           everyone wages against egotistic
limit less compassion, remembering
                                                                                                                                                           d esires, for the sak e of att ain ing
that w hen we were help less ch ild ren
th ey preferred us to themselves.
                                                                                                                What do es [slam say                       in ner peace.
   [oth ers are p ar ticular ly honored :                                                                       about war?
the Prophet .: ~ taught that ' Parad ise
lies at th e feet of m others'. When
                                                                                                                Like Ch ristian ity, Islam pe rmi ts       What about food?
                                                                                                                fighting in se lf-defence, in defen ce
they reach old age , Mu slim pa ren ts                                                                                                                     Althou gh mu ch s im pler tha n th e
are treated rn ercifullv, with the sa me                                                                        of re ligion, or on the part of those
                                                                                                                                                           d ietary law followe d by Jew s and th e
kind ness and selfles sness.
                                                                                                                who have bee n expelled forcib ly
                                                                                                                                                           ea rly Ch ris tians , th e code w h ich
                                                                                                                from their homes. It lavs down strict
    In Islam , serv ing one 's parents is a                                                                                                                M usli ms ob se rve forb ids the con-
                                                                                                                nil es of com bat wh ich' includ e pro-
du ty second only to pr ayer, and it is                                                                                                                    su m p tion of pig mea t or an y kin d of
                                                                                                                h ib itio ns against harm ing civ ilian
th eir rig ht to expect it. It is con                                                                                                                      intoxicating dri n k. Th e Prophet
                                                                                                                and agai nst destroying crops, trees
s idc red d esp ica ble to exp ress any                                                                                                                    tau g ht that 'you r body h as rig h ts
irr itati on w hen , th ro ugh no fault of
                                                    flow do Muslims                                             and livestock. As Muslims see it ,
                                                                                                                                                           ove r you ', an d the consumptio n of
                                                                                                                in justice would be triu m ph an t in
th eir ow n, the old beco me di fficult.            view death?                                                 th e world if good men were not
                                                                                                                                                           who lesome food an d th e lead ing of a
                                                                                                                                                           health y lifesty le are seen as religio us
   The Q ura n says: YOllr Lord lias                                                                            prepared to risk the ir live in a
                                                    Like Jew s an d Ch ristia ns, Muslims                                                                  ob ligations.
com manded that yOIl toorship 110111'                                                                           rig h teous cau se . The Quran sa y ':
                                                    believe tha t the pre ent life is o n ly
[II/t Him, and be k ind to p arents . If                                                                                                                   The Prophet ;- aid : 'A sk God for
                                                    a tria l pre paration for the ne xt                         figll l ill IIII' cause of God ilgaillsl
either or bo th of tI'ClII reach old age            realm o f existence . Basic articles o f                                                               certaint u [o f faith ] 11 /111 uiell-being;
                                                                                                                tI' OSI' toho fig ht yO Il, but do 1101
toith yO Il, do 1I0 t say 'uf]' t o them or         faith include: the D. Y of Ju lgerncnt,
                                                                             1                                                                             for aj ter certaintu, I/ O one is gil't." til ,!!
                                                                                                                transgress limi ts. God do es 1101 loue
chide them, bill speak 10 them ill                                      ,'.1
                                                    re surrection . 11 ve n an d Hell.                                                                     gift better than healt h!'
term s of honor IIII/i kindness. Treat
                                                                                                                transgressors. (2: J( )
                                                    Wh e n a t\ uslim d ies. he or she is
them with humilitu, and say, 'My                    wa shed , u<; u.,lly b. a fam ily
Lord! TIi/VI' lIIer cy 0 11 1111'11I, f or I J".y   mem ber, vrap ped III .1 clean wh ite
did care f or IIII' tohen l WilS little'.           clo th, a nd bu ried \ -ith a sim p le
( l T 2 -'I)                                        pr;'lyt'r preferab ly the am day.
                                                    Mus lim s ro n id e r th i ~ o ne of the
                                                    fina l se rvice thev C.1I1 d o for th eir
                                                    r elatives, an d an 'o pp urtu n ity to
                                                    remem be r th eir o w n bri ef existence
                                                    here on ear th . I'he Pro p he t ;-
                                                    taught tha t th r e things l , n con tinu e
                                                    to help a per<;on even aft e r d ea th;
                                                    charity w h ich he ha d g iv n, kn owl -
                                                    edg , wh ich he had tau rht a nd
                                                    p raye r: o n the ir iehalf by a
                                                    rig h teous ch ild .


div ersity
in Mosqu e
AHOV~ The l/l/ h~'rS t t ll Mosque of iii Id ull
Itns been n em lrr 0-1':;'1'11111I: since tltc II r
969. Studellts attend fr01l1 ~11I Ul W the"lIIls-
lnn uorli! RIGHT' Ncu : Mrxlco, U.S.A .
FA R RI HT Iml/. EXT REM E RIGHT: 1      \1fali.

Islam in the United                        se ttled in the ma jor in d us tria l cen-
                                           ters where the y worshipped in h ired
States                                     rooms. The earl y twentiet h cen tu ry
                                           witnessed the arri val of everal hun-
It is almos t impossible to generalize     dr ed thou sand Mu slim s from
abo u t American Mu slims: con verts,      Eastern Europe : the first Albanian
im m igran ts, factory workers , do c-     mosque was opened in Main e in
tors ; all are making their own con tri-   1915; o thers soon fo llowed , and a
bution to Am eri ca's fu tu re. This       gro up of Polish Mu slim s ope ne d a
com plex com m u n ity is un ified by a    mosque in Brooklyn in 1928.
com mo n faith, un derpinned b y a            In 1947 the Wash in gton lslarni
cou n try w ide network of a thousand      Center was found ed during the term
mosq ues.                                  of Pres id ent Truman. and se ve ral
   Muslims were ear lv arrivals in         nat ionwide organi zations w ere se t
No rth Am erica, By the eigh teen th       up in the fifties. The same peri od
cen tu ry th ere were ma ny thou sands     sa w the es tablish me n t o f othe r com-
of 'hem , working as slaves on plan -      mun iti es whose lives wer e in man y
tat ion . Th ese earl y com mu n ities ,   ways mod elled after Islam. More
cut off from thei r heri tage and fami-    recent ly, numerous members of
lies, inevi tab ly lost their Islami c     these g roups have en tered the fold
identity as time we nt by . Tod ay         of Muslim or thodoxy. Today there
rn an v Afro-American Muslims p lay        are about five million Mu slims in
an import ant role in the Islami c         America.
com m un ity.
   The nineteenth cen tu ry. however,                  \
                                           IUCI I I . .. 60':( &     n .\: I El :   rill'   1"/1111//(
                                           Cultuml CCIII..,. Wn. lt illg/o// Cl<:
saw the begin ni ngs of an influ x of
Arab Muslim s, most of w hom               BELOW- L,'ndi// ~ f'11!c,li"illlr , . //"lilll
                                            III'X COIl .
                                                           L"II i', ,,ill ,', }\('I/I//cl; '/.
                                                                                                                                   Hotu does Islam
                                                                                                                                   guara ntee human
                                                                                                                                   Freedo m of consc ience is laid d own
                                                                                                                                   by the Quran itself: ' 11/1'1'1' is 110
                                                                                                                                   compu lsion ill religion '. (2:256)
                                                                                                                                      Th e life and p roperty of all citi-
                                                                                                                                   zens in an Islam ic s tate are con -
                                                                                                                                   sidered sac red wh eth er a pc ' o n is
                                                                                                                                   Mu slim or not.
                                                                                                                                      Racism is in c rnp rehen ible to
                                                                                                                                   • Iuslims, for the Qu ran speaks of
                                                                                                                                   h uman eq uali in the foil wi ng

                                                                                                                                   o mankind! IV... created you / 1'11111          (I

                                                                                                                                   sing !« 5011 1, male (lilt! [enui lc, ~ /I/(I
                                                                                                                                   uuuic yO Il into nat ions (11/1/ t Tl/J('S, so
                                                                                                                                   that yo u may COllie to kno v 0111' .
                                                                                                                                   an othe r: Trulu, tile 1II 0 St h onared oJ
                                                                                                                                   yo u in God's' sig/l t is th e greatest .
                                                                                                                                   of you ill piety. God is A ll-K nouiing,
                                                                                                                                   All-Aware. (4lP3 )

Islam in the United                            se ttled in the m a jor industria l cen-
                                               ter s w here th ey w o rsh ipped in h ired
States                                         roo ms . Th e ear ly tw en tie th ce ntury
                                               wi tne ssed th e a rriv al of several h un -
 It is alm ost im possible to ge ne ralize     d red th ou san d Mu s lims from
abo ut Am erican Iuslirn s: conve rts,         Easte rn Euro pe : th e firs t Alban ian
im migra n ts, facto ry w orkers, do c-        mosqu e was o pe ne d in Ma i ne in
tor s; all are maki ng thei r o w n con tri-   1915; o th e rs soon followed, and a
bution to Ame rica 's fu tu re . 111 is        gro u p of Polish Mu slim s opened a
co m ple x com m un ity is u nifi ed by a      mosqu e in Broo klyn in 1928.
co m mo n fai th, un de rp inned by a             In 1947 th e Wa shi ngton Is lam ic
co untrywi de net w ork of a th ousan d        Ce nte r w as founded du ri ng th e term
m o q ues,                                     of President T rum an, and se ve ra l
    Mu s lims w e re early arrival s in        natio nw id e o rgan iza tio ns we re s e t
No rth Am e rica . By the ei gh teen th        u p in th e fifties. 111e sa me pe riod
ce n tu ry th er e were ma n y th o usands     s aw th e esta b lishm ent of oth er com -
of the m, w orkin g as s lav es on p lan -     mun ities w hose lives were in ma ny
tati on s. These earlv co m m un ities ,       wa ys mo de lled after Isla m . Mor e
cu t off fro m thei r herita ge and fam i-     recen tly, num ero us m embers of
lies inevi ta bly los t th e ir Islamic        th ese g rou ps h ave en te red th e fo ld
id e:llity as ti n", e wen t by. Tod ay        of M usli m or tho doxy . To d ay the re
ma ny A fro- Am er ica n Mu sli ms p lay       are abo ut five m illio n Mu slims in
an im po rtan t ro le in the Islam ic          Am erica .
comm u n ity.
                                               Il lC I \'I : ,\H ( lVL & ("1':\"1m   The r~/IlIH1(
    The n ineteenth cen tury. however,
                                               Clll tlll11l ( "/ll cl , ~"" Il ~/';IISt(i / 1 LX
saw the beginn in gs of an in flux o f
Arab M usl ims, mo s t of whom                 BELOW       adl/l,\ [J1l1..stiuinn MIlslilll
                                               SlIrgt'(lll , U1/II~"illt', J-:t'IItlIcky.
                                                                                                                               How does Islam
                                                                                                                               guarantee human
                                                                                                                               Free d o m of co nscience is la id do wn
                                                                                                                               b r the Q uran itse lf: 'There is no
                                                                                                                               compulsion in relig ion '. (2:256)
                                                                                                                                  The life a n d p roperty of all citi -
                                                                                                                               ze ns in an Isla mic s ta te a re co n-
                                                                                                                               s ide red sa cred wh ether a pers o n is
                                                                                                                                  usli m or no t.
                                                                                                                                   Racism i inco m re hen ib le to
                                                                                                                               • luslirns, fo r th e Q uran speaks of
                                                                                                                               hum an eq ua lity in th e follo w ing
                                                                                                                               term s:
                                                                                                                               o niankindl \\'e created y OIl [rom 11
                                                                                                                               si ngle 5 011 1, 11/111(' and [cma le, l1/11i
                                                                                                                               made I/ VII into nations and tribes, S II
                                                                                                                               that y~llI /lillY come to knoui 0 111' •
                                                                                                                               another: Trulu, tire mo st honored II/
                                                                                                                               y OIl ill God 's' sight is ,the gn·lIll'sl .
                                                                                                                               of yO Il ill p iet y. God ts A ll-Knou iiug,
                                                                                                                               All-Awn re. (4< )   P}

                                                                                                                                                                          a  manktnd! We created yOIl from a
                                                                                                                                                                          • ill,~/c0111, male and [enutle , and
                                                                                                                                                                          made you into nations and tribe , so
                                                                                                                                                                          that you may come to knoto Jl C
                                                                                                                                                                          anotlu r. Truly , ttie 11I0 I honored of
                                                                  THI'   "I L ~IJ M   WOR LD                                                                              you ill God's 'igJrI i. the grea test o!
     Ih ,' Mushrn pnpulanon 1)( the wor ld IS ar ound o m billio n . Mo~ r Musllmor;, 11 \,("l~.lq ~lf }\.uc1..: hl
    1(l '       (If ~u~ h m .; Ilvl' In the In ~1 1 .1n . . ubom trnem , 2U' , in ' Ut1S.l hllr dn A t ti ca, l " In e;., tulh r .l "'l                                   YOll ill piely. God IS All-Knotuing,
    1\... .1. IS' in rh\' A r...b world, lO'.. In the ~ )'l: lc t Un io n a nd Ch m., Tu rkev, h omlind . \ 1 ~h .,," i!ll l.ln
    {·lI l11Ni.... HI' of the non- Arab .'vliJ J lt. t.J::o t Alt h ()lJ~h ther e H i' M lJ ~ h m m'"tJ n l l ~ rn .111""10,1
                                                               '                                                                                                          All-Aware . (Q ura n. 49: 1))
    t' \ "l' r y .He.' . Ind ud ln): I,llin An wr il"l an d AUfol r.Jliol. th'Y . 1 1 most n urncrou« In rh", ~(,.l\'ld
    Unio n. In d l.t. a nd o-m ral "' !r lr J I he ll' ;)lV ~ rm lho n Mu s lim...In the Um lt"J S IJ IL'"

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S~ ;o,:l r.:t~   'J, • • , ...   ,"i I ii, 15.                           :l ;,
                                                   lR, hi . ::!" JJ • .l.'.   .!~, 14: ~·I · b l.Hnir l"'rL I\)~\.·nc\' S. 2,\. ::t1. RoJ. $~
                                                                                                           ·....                         :md
S••H n.J \.11 t:h.1 U ~1      '4 . ; 1. 1) . 2-1.16. 14 : Pe n -r ~ lunJ N " 1'I , 9. I;;. zz, :..t. 25, "7. 21' !~.) 1­
                                   -I.   n, u t,   tj ,
A. Cas h 14 Sha m .. d-d in Tll",Il ,Hutcr 1 ~ l),I'I.' il.! Run naclc.. 22 Sygm.I :7

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