Introduction to Networking

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					             Introduction to
            Video Networking

ATV, Inc.                      1
        Introduction to

       In the first half of this presentation, we will cover :

  • Basic technology terms used when discussing networking.
  • How devices communicate with each other over different
    types of networks.
  • Types of high speed WAN connections.
  • Messaging services such as email, FTP, and SMS.

ATV, Inc.                                                        2

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•   The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time.

•   Think of a stretch of highway... the bandwidth of your highway would
    be the amount of cars that it can transport from one end to the other in
    a fixed time.
•   The bandwidth of your highway would increase by adding more lanes,
    or by speeding up the cars on your highway, or by moving the cars
    closer together, or by having each car carry more passengers…

ATV, Inc.                                                              4
        Measuring Bandwidth
• The common measurement of bandwidth in digital applications is
  bits per second (bits / sec) or bytes per second (Bps) and contains
  multipliers Kilo 1,000, Mega 1,000,000, Giga 1,000,000,000.

• For example a 10BaseT Ethernet connection has a maximum
  bandwidth of 10 Mbits / sec or 10,000,000 bits per second

ATV, Inc.                                                        5
                   Bandwidth comparison

NAME                 BANDWIDTH      BPS              HIGHWAY ANALOGY
POTS*                -              64,000           3 foot garden path
ISDN                 2 POTs         128,000          6 foot sidewalk
T1                   12 ISDNs       1,544,000        4 lane highway (72 ft.)
ETHERNET             ~ 6.5 T1s      10,000,000       26 lane highway
T3                   28 T1s         43,232,000       112 lane highway
FAST ETHERNET        ~ 65 T1s       100,000,000      260 lane highway
OC3                  3.6 times T3   155,000,000      ~ 1 mile wide highway
OC12                 4 times OC3    622,000,000      ~ 4 mile wide highway
                                    2,075,136,000    ~ 16 mile wide
OC48 (Internet2)     4 times OC12
                                    2.4 Gbs/second   highway
OC192                4 times OC48   9.6 Gbs/second   ~64 mile wide highway

ATV, Inc.                                                                      6
                    bits & Bytes
•   bit
     – A bit is the smallest amount of digital data. It is a single 0 or 1.

•   Byte
     – A Byte is the second largest unit of measuring digital data. It is one
       letter or number. It takes eight bits to make one Byte.

A five-thousand word essay takes about the same time to transmit as a 640 x
480 color image: an entire book only takes a fraction of the time it takes to
download a few minutes of broadcast quality video.
Since most people surf the Net with a dial-up modem, it's no surprise that web
pages today are mostly text!

ATV, Inc.                                                                 7
bit - smallest unit of digital information, i.e. ones & zeros

byte - a set of bits

bps - bits per second

Bps - Bytes per second

Kbps - kilobits per second =1000 bits per second

Mbps - Million bits per second =1,000,000 bits per second

Gbps - Gigabits per second = 1,000,000,000 (one billion) bits per second

Tbps - Terabits per second = 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) bits per second

ATV, Inc.                                                                       8
       Digital Video Terms
How fast can you get it from “Point A” to “Point B”?

Variables for Downloading / Uploading
• Speed of connection and size of each image file
     Each frame of video is converted to a image file, each file is compressed in
     Wavelet/JPEG/M-PEG or other method and uploaded/downloaded.
     Each file has a size depending on type of compression, level of compression,
     image resolution (sampled), color or B/W image, movement and detail of image.
     All have an impact on file size.
• POTS EXAMPLE - what if
     – 1 frame of video = 12KB file
     – downloaded over a dial up connection - connected at 28.8Kbps
     – 1 image every 3 seconds is the most it is possible to transmit…
ATV, Inc.                                                                           9
  How fast can you get it from “Point A” to “Point
POTS Example – continued
12KB file downloaded at 28.8Kbps = 1 image every 3 seconds
Remember, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits, or bits, long.

                        1 Byte                                              8 bits
                         12KB                                              96000 bits
                                                      =                   (96000 of these guys)

                      96000 bits
                                                      =         3.3 seconds to download
             28800 bits per second

ATV, Inc.                                                                                         10
            Ethernet & TCP/IP

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•   Ethernet is the most common network type in use today.
•   Think of Ethernet as the high system that data travels on.
•   Or, in a telephone analogy, Ethernet would be:
     – the phone line and
     – the phone system or phone company.
•   Ethernet networks include the following major types.
     – 10 Base-T (10,000,000 Bits per second)
     – 100 Base-T (100,000,000 Bits per second) (called Fast Ethernet)
     – 10/100 auto sensing
     – Gigabit Ethernet (1,000,000,000 Bits per second)

ATV, Inc.                                                           12
     To call someone on the phone you must know the phone number,
     you must understand how to use a phone and you must speak the
     same language. TCP/IP is a similar set of “rules” for a network.

•   TCP/IP (transmission control protocol / internet protocol)
•   TCP/IP is the network protocol used on the internet.
•   TCP/IP is also commonly used on private internal networks especially
    larger networks or networks that span more than one building.
•   Think of TCP/IP as a connection method and language for similar
    devices - like a person using the telephone to talk to another person.

ATV, Inc.                                                               13
(Domain Name Service)
DNS allows friendly names to be used instead of IP
In this example John wants to visit ATV’s web site. He
has just typed into this web
browser and pressed go. Lets see what
happens in the background….



ATV, Inc.                                                    14
• Upload
     – Any time that you send data from your computer or location
       to another computer or location you are uploading it.
     – An example of this is when you send an e-mail.
• Download
     – Any time that you receive data at your computer or location
       you are downloading it.
     – An example of this is when you receive an email, or you
       download an audio clip.

ATV, Inc.                                                            15
In this illustration a happy ATV customer has purchased a VIPMux and is watching live
video of his or her business. This customer is downloading the video data from the
internet. At the same time, the equipment in the customer’s business is uploading the
data to the internet.

ATV, Inc.                                                                        16
            Internet Connections

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•   DSL stands for digital subscriber line.
•   DSL comes is marketed and packaged in several different flavors
•   The common element to all DSL standards is that they are all
    much faster than a standard dial up modem and all are transmitted
    on a standard phone line.
•   The biggest weakness to DSL technologies is distance. The
    maximum bandwidth available is determined by the distance from
    the customers site to the phone companies nearest DSL central
•   The two types of DSL that are most useful for video transmission
    are ADSL and HDSL.

ATV, Inc.                                                          18
•   ADSL (asymmetrical digital subscriber line)
•   ADSL is a technology that can transmit digital signals over existing phone
•   There are varying bandwidths available for ADSL but all of them are
    asymmetrical, meaning that the download and upload speeds are different.
•   To go back to our highway analogy, it’s like a stretch of highway that has six
    lanes going one way but only one lane going the other.
•   Download speeds for ADSL are typically as high as 6.144 Mbits/sec: in many
    markets download speeds can be even faster.
•   Upload speeds are typically 64 or 128Kbs

ATV, Inc.                                                                     19
•   RADSL (Rate-Adaptive DSL) is an ADSL technology from Westell in
    which software is able to determine the rate at which signals can be
    transmitted on a given customer phone line and adjust the delivery
    rate accordingly.

Westell's FlexCap2 system uses RADSL to deliver from 640 Kbps to 2.2
  Mbps downstream and from 272 Kbps to 1.088 Mbps upstream over
  an existing line.

ATV, Inc.                                                            20
•   HDSL (High-bit-rate digital subscriber line)
•   HDSL is a technology that can transmit digital signals over
    existing phone lines.
•   HDSL is typically available in bandwidths of 784Kbs to 1.544Mbits
    / sec
•   This type of internet connection is symmetrical: the bandwidth is
    the same for both uploads and downloads.
•   This type of internet connection is very suitable for use in a
    location where you need to upload large amounts of data and is
    an alternative to T1 service.

ATV, Inc.                                                           21

•   VHDSL (Very High-bit-rate digital subscriber line)
•   VHDSL is a technology that can transmit digital signals over
    existing phone lines.
•   VHDSL has the most bandwidth in the DSL family
•   VHDSL can have a maximum bandwidth of 51.84 Mbits / sec within
    1,000 feet of the nearest access point.
•   VHDSL is fairly new in the market and hard to find in most areas.

ATV, Inc.                                                          22
             DSL bandwidth and distance chart
  DSL Type Description                         Data Rate                               Distance Limit

            IDSL   ISDN Digital Subscriber     128 Kbps                                18,000 feet on 24 gauge wire

        CDSL       Consumer DSL from           1Mbps downstream; less upstream         18,000 feet on 24 gauge wire

DSL (same as       "Spitterless" DSL without   From 1.544 Mbps to 6 Mbps               18,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
      G. Lite)     the "truck roll"            downstream, depending on the
                                               subscribed service

        HDSL       High bit-rate Digital       1.544 Mbps duplex on two twisted-pair   12,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
                   Subscriber Line             lines; 2.048 Mbps duplex on three
                                               twisted-pair lines

        SDSL       Single-line DSL             1.544 Mbps duplex (U.S. and             12,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
                                               Canada);2.048 Mbps (Europe)on a
                                               single duplex line downstream and

        ADSL       Asymmetric Digital          1.544 to 6.1 Mbps downstream            12,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
                   Subscriber Line
                                               16 to 640 Kbps upstream

      RADSL        Rate=Adaptive DSL from      Adapted to the line, 640 Kbps to 2.2    Not provided
                   Westell                     Mbps downstream; 272 Kbps to 1.088
                                               Mbps upstream

ATV, Inc.                                                                                                       23
                T1/DS-1 & T3/DS-3
•   A T1 is the most common form of business internet connection. It is a high
    reliability dedicated connection between two fixed points.

•   A T1 is also very commonly used for business telephone services

•   A T1 is a leased line service available from the phone company or ISP.

•   A T1 can has a maximum bandwidth of 1.544 Mbits/sec for data or 24 voice
    channels or a combination of both

•   A T3 is equivalent to 28 T1 circuits which is 45 Mbits/sec or 672 voice

ATV, Inc.                                                                     24
                   Cable modem
•   In many areas the local cable providers are now offering internet access on
    the same cable that their customers are currently using for television.
•   Cable modems can offer extremely fast download speeds. In some areas
    download speeds can be as high as 10Mbits/sec.
•   However, this bandwidth is shared by all subscribers in the area.
•   Cable modems are asymmetrical like ADSL so they are only suitable for use
    in locations where you will receive much more data than you will send.
•   Upload speeds using cable modems can vary from 28.8Kbits/sec to

ATV, Inc.                                                                   25
                            Satellite Internet
  Uses a 24x36-inch satellite dish and special hardware to transmit and receive information from a
  geostationary satellite, orbiting earth 22,300 miles above the earth’s equator
  Similar to satellite television service
  Speeds range from 200 kbps to 1.35 Mbps downstream
        Good option for remote locations - all that is required is power and an unobstructed view of the
        southern sky
        Latency - the theoretical latency time is .48 seconds
        the signal travels over 44,000 miles at 186,000 miles per second
        Possible rain fade and solar interference

ATV, Inc.                                                                                            26
                  Optical networks

•   As the need for bandwidth increases many larger companies are
    getting fiber optic connections to the internet.
•   The bandwidth of fiber optic connections is measured using the
    OC-xx terminology.
•   The current OC (Optical Connection) range is from OC-1 to OC-255
    and the bandwidth of these connections is from 51.84 Mbits/sec to
    13.21 Gbits/sec.

ATV, Inc.                                                          27
            Bandwidth yardstick
Maximum Dedicated Connections   Bandwidths
13.21 Gbps                      OC-255
10 Gbps                         OC-192
4.976 Gbps                      OC-96
2.488 Gbps                      OC-48, STS-48
1.866 Gbps                      OC-36
1.244 Gbps                      OC-24
933.12 Mbps                     OC-18
622.08 Mbps                     OC-12, STS-12
466.56 Mbps                     OC-9
155.52 Mbps                     OC-3, STS-3, category 5 cable, VADSL downstream
100 Mbps                        CDDI, FDDI, Fast Ethernet
51.84 Mbps                      OC-1, STS-1
44.736 Mbps                     T-3, DS-3 North America
20 Mbps                         Category 4 cable
10Mbps                          Thin Ethernet, category 3 cable, cable modem
6.144 Mbps                      ADSL downstream
1.544 Mbps                      T-1, DS-1 North America
128 Kbps - ISDN

ATV, Inc.                                                                         28

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•   SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
•   SMTP provides a storage and forwarding mechanism for e-mail
•   Most e-mail programs use SMTP to send a message to the mail
•   Your mail server then sends it to the recipients mail server.
•   Most e-mail programs use POP (Post Office Protocol) to receive

ATV, Inc.                                                            30

•   POP stands for Post Office Protocol
•   POP3 is the most widely used version
•   A POP3 server accepts and stores your e-mail messages for you
    even when you are not connected the the network
•   You can then log onto your POP3 server and access your mail.
•   In most e-mail programs, all of the transactions involved in sending
    and receiving mail are done for you unnoticed.
•   However before your mail program can do this for you you must
    specify the names of your SMTP server AND your POP3 server.

ATV, Inc.                                                            31
       How SMTP and POP3 WORK
    In this diagram has sent
    an email to three different people: two of
    them, and use the same mail
    servers as he does.
    The other recipient,, uses
    different mail servers.

ATV, Inc.                                        32
      How SMTP and POP3 WORK
            In this diagram has sent
              a reply email back to

ATV, Inc.                                           33
• Short Messaging Service, otherwise known as text
  messaging, mobile messaging, or alphanumeric paging,
  is a digital cellular network feature.
• It lets you send short text and numeric messages to and
  from digital cell phones, cell phones and e-mail
  addresses, as well as cell phones and public SMS
  messaging gateways on the Internet.
• Messages must be no longer than 160 alpha-numeric
  characters and can contain no images or graphics.

ATV, Inc.                                                   34
            File Transfer

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•   FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol
•   FTP is the standard method of transferring files over the internet
•   Most standard web browsers have basic FTP functionality built in.

ATV, Inc.                                                           36
Basic Network Configurations

 ATV, Inc.                     37
                Basic Network
In the rest of this presentation, we will cover :

•     The tools necessary to measure the level of service an installer will
      need to provide and implement a remote video over IP system.
•     How to identify several different types of customers and who to talk
      to in those companies.
•     Details of the Falcon DVR that IT professionals will be most
      interested in.
•     Falcon’s network requirements.

    ATV, Inc.                                                            38
            Point to Point network

The simplest configuration for any network is “Point to Point”

In this configuration, an ATV VIPmux is connected directly to a laptop using a
crossover Cat 5 cable.

This set up is used mostly for demonstrating IP addressable products.

            Cat 5 crossover

ATV, Inc.                                                                        39
            Small Network

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                Small Network

•   A network that has few interconnected computers.
•   Usually a small company that does not have or need a person on staff
    that is responsible for networking on an advanced level.
•   Probably will not understand the technical details of the product.
•   Most likely will not have a dedicated internet connection.
•   Will need a total solution

ATV, Inc.                                                          41
            Small store owner

For example the small store owner might have several small stores that
   he or she visits every day, sometimes several times a day, just to
   “see how things are going”.

With this technology that same owner could spend more time at home
   or could spend more time at the location that he or she feels most
   needed and still be able to check in on the other stores.

ATV, Inc.                                                         42
    Small Network- What to do
•   In many cases installing a video over IP product on a small
    network is the easiest.
•   Bring your own IT professionals to measure what the customer
•   Bandwidth will determine costs.
     – If they don’t need a high refresh rate or best quality MPEG it
        will cost them less on internet connection charges.
•   Extra Value
     – By adding a dedicated internet connection the customer could
        add on additional services like mail and internet connectivity if
        they don’t have them already. Or they might be able to
        consolidate their connections and quit using modems.

ATV, Inc.                                                              43
            Medium Sized Network
Has a person, group of people or company
responsible for maintaining their network.

Usually will have 25 or more computers on
their network.

Has a dedicated internet connection.

ATV, Inc.                                    44
            Medium Sized

•   A company with a medium sized network will have an IT
    professional available to discuss implementation of the system and
    that understands the technical requirements to operate the IP side
    of the product
•   Will probably already have a dedicated internet connection, however
    it might not have enough bandwidth for their remote viewing
•   May or may not want help with networking.

ATV, Inc.                                                          45
Factory Example
•    In this example we’ll visit a factory
•    The factory has 300 employees but only 40 computers
•    Has a competent IT professional on site
•    Has a dedicated 768K bits / sec DSL connection
•    Has a 10 Base-T network
•    24 hour facility
•    The production manager will use the product to watch the production line
     from his or her office while at work and at home.
•    The owner and general manager will use the product to check in from
     home occasionally.
•    The company is happy with their current network speed and is looking for
     a “bang for the buck” implementation

ATV, Inc.                                                                  46
Factory Example
•   Solution A
     – Since they are happy with their current network speed and they
       have only one person using it internally you could suggest a small
       independent network with a dedicated T-1 or DSL internet
•   Solution B
     – You could upgrade their network to 100 Base-T and upgrade their
       internet connection to a T-1 or HDSL. (might need to manage
       bandwidth on the internet connection)
•   Solution C
     – Set the equipment up on their current network and let them
       manage the bandwidth
•   Solution D
     – Leave the entire networking portion of the installation to them.

ATV, Inc.                                                          47
              Medium size Network-
                   What to do
•   When approaching a company that you expect to have a medium
    size network
     – Find the company's IT,IS or MIS professional and have them
        present in the meeting
     – Show what the product can do with a point to point network
     – Explain the products requirements to the IT person
     – If they do not have an IT professional treat them like a small
        network and bring your own.

ATV, Inc.                                                               48
               Large Network
Has a team of people responsible for
their network, has multiple facilities
sharing a common network.

May have telecommuters.

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                   Large Network
•   A company with a large corporate network will have people on
    staff who will fully understand the requirements of the product.
•   This type of company could have one big office or could have
    many branch offices interconnected.
•   Will be able to fully implement the network portion of the product
    with little or no handholding.

ATV, Inc.                                                            50
             Retail Example

•   In this example we’ll visit a retail company headquarters
•   The company has regional offices in New York, Chicago, L.A. &
•   It has 203 retail outlets nationwide
•   All of the retail offices and regional offices are networked together
•   All locations have an existing CCTV system
•   Their security department is interested in using the product for
    after hours alarm verification

ATV, Inc.                                                              51
            Retail Example
•    Solution
      – This one is simple they already have a large corporate network
        and an existing CCTV system, you could just replace their
        Multiplexers with Falcon’s, perform any necessary maintenance to
        the CCTV system and leave the networking to the retail company.
•    OR
      – Think of the new applications that this technology makes possible.
          • Could their loss prevention department use this?
          • Customer service?
          • Promotions?
          • District or regional managers?

ATV, Inc.                                                          52
       Large Network- What to do
•   When approaching a company that you expect to have a large
     – If you can easily locate the company’s IT professional that is
       responsible for this type of product, have them present.
     – If not, just give the product network requirements to someone
       else to forward to him or her.
     – Demonstrate the product using a point to point network.
     – In most cases this level of company will want to handle the
       networking portion of the product.
     – Finding multiple uses for the product can increase the chances
       of making the sale.

ATV, Inc.                                                          53
    Falcon Network Requirements

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              Falcon DVR Network
•   10 Base-T or 100 Base-T Ethernet connection
•   TCP/IP network
•   TCP ports
     – 8200      Admin
     – 8201      User
     – 8016      Watch
     – 10019     Search

ATV, Inc.                                         55
    Client computer Requirements
•   TCP/IP installed and able to access the Falcon TCP Ports
•   Connection to the internet or intranet with desired bandwidth
•   Microsoft Windows 98
    Microsoft Windows ME
    Microsoft Windows 2000
    CPU: Intel Pentium II (Celeron) 266MHz or higher
    RAM: 64MB or higher
    VGA: AGP, Video RAM 8MB or higher
    Screen Resolution: 800 x 600 pixels
    Color Depth: 24bpp or higher (bpp - bits per pixel)

ATV, Inc.                                                           56

ATV, Inc.                57
            “Introduction to Video Networking”

ATV, Inc.                                        58

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