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In the first half of this presentation, we will cover :
• Basic technology terms used when discussing networking.
• How devices communicate with each other over different
types of networks.
• Types of high speed WAN connections.
• Messaging services such as email, FTP, and SMS.
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• The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time.
• Think of a stretch of highway... the bandwidth of your highway would
be the amount of cars that it can transport from one end to the other in
a fixed time.
• The bandwidth of your highway would increase by adding more lanes,
or by speeding up the cars on your highway, or by moving the cars
closer together, or by having each car carry more passengers…
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• The common measurement of bandwidth in digital applications is
bits per second (bits / sec) or bytes per second (Bps) and contains
multipliers Kilo 1,000, Mega 1,000,000, Giga 1,000,000,000.
• For example a 10BaseT Ethernet connection has a maximum
bandwidth of 10 Mbits / sec or 10,000,000 bits per second
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NAME BANDWIDTH BPS HIGHWAY ANALOGY
POTS* - 64,000 3 foot garden path
ISDN 2 POTs 128,000 6 foot sidewalk
T1 12 ISDNs 1,544,000 4 lane highway (72 ft.)
ETHERNET ~ 6.5 T1s 10,000,000 26 lane highway
T3 28 T1s 43,232,000 112 lane highway
FAST ETHERNET ~ 65 T1s 100,000,000 260 lane highway
OC3 3.6 times T3 155,000,000 ~ 1 mile wide highway
OC12 4 times OC3 622,000,000 ~ 4 mile wide highway
2,075,136,000 ~ 16 mile wide
OC48 (Internet2) 4 times OC12
2.4 Gbs/second highway
OC192 4 times OC48 9.6 Gbs/second ~64 mile wide highway
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bits & Bytes
– A bit is the smallest amount of digital data. It is a single 0 or 1.
– A Byte is the second largest unit of measuring digital data. It is one
letter or number. It takes eight bits to make one Byte.
A five-thousand word essay takes about the same time to transmit as a 640 x
480 color image: an entire book only takes a fraction of the time it takes to
download a few minutes of broadcast quality video.
Since most people surf the Net with a dial-up modem, it's no surprise that web
pages today are mostly text!
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UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
bit - smallest unit of digital information, i.e. ones & zeros
byte - a set of bits
bps - bits per second
Bps - Bytes per second
Kbps - kilobits per second =1000 bits per second
Mbps - Million bits per second =1,000,000 bits per second
Gbps - Gigabits per second = 1,000,000,000 (one billion) bits per second
Tbps - Terabits per second = 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) bits per second
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Digital Video Terms
How fast can you get it from “Point A” to “Point B”?
Variables for Downloading / Uploading
• Speed of connection and size of each image file
Each frame of video is converted to a image file, each file is compressed in
Wavelet/JPEG/M-PEG or other method and uploaded/downloaded.
Each file has a size depending on type of compression, level of compression,
image resolution (sampled), color or B/W image, movement and detail of image.
All have an impact on file size.
• POTS EXAMPLE - what if
– 1 frame of video = 12KB file
– downloaded over a dial up connection - connected at 28.8Kbps
– 1 image every 3 seconds is the most it is possible to transmit…
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How fast can you get it from “Point A” to “Point
POTS Example – continued
12KB file downloaded at 28.8Kbps = 1 image every 3 seconds
Remember, a byte is a unit of data that is eight binary digits, or bits, long.
1 Byte 8 bits
12KB 96000 bits
= (96000 of these guys)
= 3.3 seconds to download
28800 bits per second
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Ethernet & TCP/IP
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• Ethernet is the most common network type in use today.
• Think of Ethernet as the high system that data travels on.
• Or, in a telephone analogy, Ethernet would be:
– the phone line and
– the phone system or phone company.
• Ethernet networks include the following major types.
– 10 Base-T (10,000,000 Bits per second)
– 100 Base-T (100,000,000 Bits per second) (called Fast Ethernet)
– 10/100 auto sensing
– Gigabit Ethernet (1,000,000,000 Bits per second)
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To call someone on the phone you must know the phone number,
you must understand how to use a phone and you must speak the
same language. TCP/IP is a similar set of “rules” for a network.
• TCP/IP (transmission control protocol / internet protocol)
• TCP/IP is the network protocol used on the internet.
• TCP/IP is also commonly used on private internal networks especially
larger networks or networks that span more than one building.
• Think of TCP/IP as a connection method and language for similar
devices - like a person using the telephone to talk to another person.
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(Domain Name Service)
DNS allows friendly names to be used instead of IP
In this example John wants to visit ATV’s web site. He
has just typed www.atvideo.com into this web
browser and pressed go. Lets see what
happens in the background….
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– Any time that you send data from your computer or location
to another computer or location you are uploading it.
– An example of this is when you send an e-mail.
– Any time that you receive data at your computer or location
you are downloading it.
– An example of this is when you receive an email, or you
download an audio clip.
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In this illustration a happy ATV customer has purchased a VIPMux and is watching live
video of his or her business. This customer is downloading the video data from the
internet. At the same time, the equipment in the customer’s business is uploading the
data to the internet.
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• DSL stands for digital subscriber line.
• DSL comes is marketed and packaged in several different flavors
like ADSL, HDSL, IDSL, R-ADSL, SDSL, and VDSL
• The common element to all DSL standards is that they are all
much faster than a standard dial up modem and all are transmitted
on a standard phone line.
• The biggest weakness to DSL technologies is distance. The
maximum bandwidth available is determined by the distance from
the customers site to the phone companies nearest DSL central
• The two types of DSL that are most useful for video transmission
are ADSL and HDSL.
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• ADSL (asymmetrical digital subscriber line)
• ADSL is a technology that can transmit digital signals over existing phone
• There are varying bandwidths available for ADSL but all of them are
asymmetrical, meaning that the download and upload speeds are different.
• To go back to our highway analogy, it’s like a stretch of highway that has six
lanes going one way but only one lane going the other.
• Download speeds for ADSL are typically as high as 6.144 Mbits/sec: in many
markets download speeds can be even faster.
• Upload speeds are typically 64 or 128Kbs
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• RADSL (Rate-Adaptive DSL) is an ADSL technology from Westell in
which software is able to determine the rate at which signals can be
transmitted on a given customer phone line and adjust the delivery
Westell's FlexCap2 system uses RADSL to deliver from 640 Kbps to 2.2
Mbps downstream and from 272 Kbps to 1.088 Mbps upstream over
an existing line.
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• HDSL (High-bit-rate digital subscriber line)
• HDSL is a technology that can transmit digital signals over
existing phone lines.
• HDSL is typically available in bandwidths of 784Kbs to 1.544Mbits
• This type of internet connection is symmetrical: the bandwidth is
the same for both uploads and downloads.
• This type of internet connection is very suitable for use in a
location where you need to upload large amounts of data and is
an alternative to T1 service.
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• VHDSL (Very High-bit-rate digital subscriber line)
• VHDSL is a technology that can transmit digital signals over
existing phone lines.
• VHDSL has the most bandwidth in the DSL family
• VHDSL can have a maximum bandwidth of 51.84 Mbits / sec within
1,000 feet of the nearest access point.
• VHDSL is fairly new in the market and hard to find in most areas.
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DSL bandwidth and distance chart
DSL Type Description Data Rate Distance Limit
IDSL ISDN Digital Subscriber 128 Kbps 18,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
CDSL Consumer DSL from 1Mbps downstream; less upstream 18,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
DSL (same as "Spitterless" DSL without From 1.544 Mbps to 6 Mbps 18,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
G. Lite) the "truck roll" downstream, depending on the
HDSL High bit-rate Digital 1.544 Mbps duplex on two twisted-pair 12,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
Subscriber Line lines; 2.048 Mbps duplex on three
SDSL Single-line DSL 1.544 Mbps duplex (U.S. and 12,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
Canada);2.048 Mbps (Europe)on a
single duplex line downstream and
ADSL Asymmetric Digital 1.544 to 6.1 Mbps downstream 12,000 feet on 24 gauge wire
16 to 640 Kbps upstream
RADSL Rate=Adaptive DSL from Adapted to the line, 640 Kbps to 2.2 Not provided
Westell Mbps downstream; 272 Kbps to 1.088
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T1/DS-1 & T3/DS-3
• A T1 is the most common form of business internet connection. It is a high
reliability dedicated connection between two fixed points.
• A T1 is also very commonly used for business telephone services
• A T1 is a leased line service available from the phone company or ISP.
• A T1 can has a maximum bandwidth of 1.544 Mbits/sec for data or 24 voice
channels or a combination of both
• A T3 is equivalent to 28 T1 circuits which is 45 Mbits/sec or 672 voice
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• In many areas the local cable providers are now offering internet access on
the same cable that their customers are currently using for television.
• Cable modems can offer extremely fast download speeds. In some areas
download speeds can be as high as 10Mbits/sec.
• However, this bandwidth is shared by all subscribers in the area.
• Cable modems are asymmetrical like ADSL so they are only suitable for use
in locations where you will receive much more data than you will send.
• Upload speeds using cable modems can vary from 28.8Kbits/sec to
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Uses a 24x36-inch satellite dish and special hardware to transmit and receive information from a
geostationary satellite, orbiting earth 22,300 miles above the earth’s equator
Similar to satellite television service
Speeds range from 200 kbps to 1.35 Mbps downstream
Good option for remote locations - all that is required is power and an unobstructed view of the
Latency - the theoretical latency time is .48 seconds
the signal travels over 44,000 miles at 186,000 miles per second
Possible rain fade and solar interference
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• As the need for bandwidth increases many larger companies are
getting fiber optic connections to the internet.
• The bandwidth of fiber optic connections is measured using the
• The current OC (Optical Connection) range is from OC-1 to OC-255
and the bandwidth of these connections is from 51.84 Mbits/sec to
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Maximum Dedicated Connections Bandwidths
13.21 Gbps OC-255
10 Gbps OC-192
4.976 Gbps OC-96
2.488 Gbps OC-48, STS-48
1.866 Gbps OC-36
1.244 Gbps OC-24
933.12 Mbps OC-18
622.08 Mbps OC-12, STS-12
466.56 Mbps OC-9
155.52 Mbps OC-3, STS-3, category 5 cable, VADSL downstream
100 Mbps CDDI, FDDI, Fast Ethernet
51.84 Mbps OC-1, STS-1
44.736 Mbps T-3, DS-3 North America
20 Mbps Category 4 cable
10Mbps Thin Ethernet, category 3 cable, cable modem
6.144 Mbps ADSL downstream
1.544 Mbps T-1, DS-1 North America
128 Kbps - ISDN
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• SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
• SMTP provides a storage and forwarding mechanism for e-mail
• Most e-mail programs use SMTP to send a message to the mail
• Your mail server then sends it to the recipients mail server.
• Most e-mail programs use POP (Post Office Protocol) to receive
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• POP stands for Post Office Protocol
• POP3 is the most widely used version
• A POP3 server accepts and stores your e-mail messages for you
even when you are not connected the the network
• You can then log onto your POP3 server and access your mail.
• In most e-mail programs, all of the transactions involved in sending
and receiving mail are done for you unnoticed.
• However before your mail program can do this for you you must
specify the names of your SMTP server AND your POP3 server.
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How SMTP and POP3 WORK
In this diagram John@xyz.com has sent
an email to three different people: two of
them, Peter@xyz.com and
Jane@xyz.com use the same mail
servers as he does.
The other recipient, Paul@abc.com, uses
different mail servers.
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How SMTP and POP3 WORK
In this diagram Paul@abc.com has sent
a reply email back to John@xyz.com
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• Short Messaging Service, otherwise known as text
messaging, mobile messaging, or alphanumeric paging,
is a digital cellular network feature.
• It lets you send short text and numeric messages to and
from digital cell phones, cell phones and e-mail
addresses, as well as cell phones and public SMS
messaging gateways on the Internet.
• Messages must be no longer than 160 alpha-numeric
characters and can contain no images or graphics.
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• FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol
• FTP is the standard method of transferring files over the internet
• Most standard web browsers have basic FTP functionality built in.
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Basic Network Configurations
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In the rest of this presentation, we will cover :
• The tools necessary to measure the level of service an installer will
need to provide and implement a remote video over IP system.
• How to identify several different types of customers and who to talk
to in those companies.
• Details of the Falcon DVR that IT professionals will be most
• Falcon’s network requirements.
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Point to Point network
The simplest configuration for any network is “Point to Point”
In this configuration, an ATV VIPmux is connected directly to a laptop using a
crossover Cat 5 cable.
This set up is used mostly for demonstrating IP addressable products.
Cat 5 crossover
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• A network that has few interconnected computers.
• Usually a small company that does not have or need a person on staff
that is responsible for networking on an advanced level.
• Probably will not understand the technical details of the product.
• Most likely will not have a dedicated internet connection.
• Will need a total solution
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Small store owner
For example the small store owner might have several small stores that
he or she visits every day, sometimes several times a day, just to
“see how things are going”.
With this technology that same owner could spend more time at home
or could spend more time at the location that he or she feels most
needed and still be able to check in on the other stores.
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Small Network- What to do
• In many cases installing a video over IP product on a small
network is the easiest.
• Bring your own IT professionals to measure what the customer
• Bandwidth will determine costs.
– If they don’t need a high refresh rate or best quality MPEG it
will cost them less on internet connection charges.
• Extra Value
– By adding a dedicated internet connection the customer could
add on additional services like mail and internet connectivity if
they don’t have them already. Or they might be able to
consolidate their connections and quit using modems.
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Medium Sized Network
Has a person, group of people or company
responsible for maintaining their network.
Usually will have 25 or more computers on
Has a dedicated internet connection.
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• A company with a medium sized network will have an IT
professional available to discuss implementation of the system and
that understands the technical requirements to operate the IP side
of the product
• Will probably already have a dedicated internet connection, however
it might not have enough bandwidth for their remote viewing
• May or may not want help with networking.
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• In this example we’ll visit a factory
• The factory has 300 employees but only 40 computers
• Has a competent IT professional on site
• Has a dedicated 768K bits / sec DSL connection
• Has a 10 Base-T network
• 24 hour facility
• The production manager will use the product to watch the production line
from his or her office while at work and at home.
• The owner and general manager will use the product to check in from
• The company is happy with their current network speed and is looking for
a “bang for the buck” implementation
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• Solution A
– Since they are happy with their current network speed and they
have only one person using it internally you could suggest a small
independent network with a dedicated T-1 or DSL internet
• Solution B
– You could upgrade their network to 100 Base-T and upgrade their
internet connection to a T-1 or HDSL. (might need to manage
bandwidth on the internet connection)
• Solution C
– Set the equipment up on their current network and let them
manage the bandwidth
• Solution D
– Leave the entire networking portion of the installation to them.
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Medium size Network-
What to do
• When approaching a company that you expect to have a medium
– Find the company's IT,IS or MIS professional and have them
present in the meeting
– Show what the product can do with a point to point network
– Explain the products requirements to the IT person
– If they do not have an IT professional treat them like a small
network and bring your own.
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Has a team of people responsible for
their network, has multiple facilities
sharing a common network.
May have telecommuters.
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• A company with a large corporate network will have people on
staff who will fully understand the requirements of the product.
• This type of company could have one big office or could have
many branch offices interconnected.
• Will be able to fully implement the network portion of the product
with little or no handholding.
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• In this example we’ll visit a retail company headquarters
• The company has regional offices in New York, Chicago, L.A. &
• It has 203 retail outlets nationwide
• All of the retail offices and regional offices are networked together
• All locations have an existing CCTV system
• Their security department is interested in using the product for
after hours alarm verification
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– This one is simple they already have a large corporate network
and an existing CCTV system, you could just replace their
Multiplexers with Falcon’s, perform any necessary maintenance to
the CCTV system and leave the networking to the retail company.
– Think of the new applications that this technology makes possible.
• Could their loss prevention department use this?
• Customer service?
• District or regional managers?
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Large Network- What to do
• When approaching a company that you expect to have a large
– If you can easily locate the company’s IT professional that is
responsible for this type of product, have them present.
– If not, just give the product network requirements to someone
else to forward to him or her.
– Demonstrate the product using a point to point network.
– In most cases this level of company will want to handle the
networking portion of the product.
– Finding multiple uses for the product can increase the chances
of making the sale.
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Falcon Network Requirements
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Falcon DVR Network
• 10 Base-T or 100 Base-T Ethernet connection
• TCP/IP network
• TCP ports
– 8200 Admin
– 8201 User
– 8016 Watch
– 10019 Search
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Client computer Requirements
• TCP/IP installed and able to access the Falcon TCP Ports
• Connection to the internet or intranet with desired bandwidth
• Microsoft Windows 98
Microsoft Windows ME
Microsoft Windows 2000
CPU: Intel Pentium II (Celeron) 266MHz or higher
RAM: 64MB or higher
VGA: AGP, Video RAM 8MB or higher
Screen Resolution: 800 x 600 pixels
Color Depth: 24bpp or higher (bpp - bits per pixel)
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“Introduction to Video Networking”
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