Morey by linzhengnd

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 74

									                                    Bowater Oral History Project
Transcribed By: Lindsay Morey
Interviewee: Wallace Lewis, Interfaith Home, Corner Brook, Nfld.
Interviewer: Heather Jodrey
Date: May 5, 1980
Topic: Recollections of the way of life in the Bay of Islands in the early 1900’s.

Disc 1 (J1)

Interviewer: yeah that’s right

Responder: Take it back into moral facts and phrases, eh ,‘cause really there was no cash on the go you
know.

I: No.

R: You couldn’t believe it but it’s really true and um, you know I knew a couple of the people a lot in our
communities that we thought was ah was well off people eh they had a good way of making a living,
good workers and after they had 40, 60 years old they get into conversations in the winter say if you and
me were talking, you have more money then so and so ‘cause I have 2300 dollars.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know, so he thought he was really well off to be compared with the average Joe people.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And everybody had, they people of them days was more they’re, they’re voice more relaxed, hey,

Interviewer: Right.

R: We was more relaxed people in them days not well off but more relaxed, different day of life hey and
ah we believe, everyone believed in getting big families hey.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I come from family of twelve, there was twelve children in our family, eh?

I: Gee that’s a big family.

R: Yeah, there was twelve besides mom and dad, that would make fourteen, eh.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Some of them died when they was 6 or 9, 10 years old, one or two of them, eh.
I: Uh-hmm, what kind of things did they die of?

R: Well of Scarlet Fever, Scarlet Fever was raging in the age there about ’16, eh.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: In about, in about the 16th to 17th ah year, 16th or 17th ‘cause I was born in...[inaudible comment].

I: Right.

R: I was about maybe 10 years old when that happened.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: It wiped out a lot of the children I had two guys to bag in one day, they actually died one day, two
daughters.

I: What a sin.

R: Yeah, buried on that Good Friday.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: The both of them. That was a bit of a sad situation eh?

I: Yeah.

R: Yeah. And I needed to know the way of life because I started off and now I hadn’t had any education, I
never went to school.

I: Really? [surprised]

R: No, I could just barely write my own name and I could read very little and what I do read I learned
since I come here. And I go to tell you, I worked up til ’77, eh?

I: Good heavens.

R: Yeah or ’76 eh. I worked up til ’76.

I: Um-hmm, what did you do?

R: I was a foreman.

I: A foreman.

R: Yeah a foreman in storage plant, a fish plant.
I: Uh-hmm, where to?

R: In Curling for Tom Dunphy, he lives on a road right here in Curling: right up on Reid Street. I was a
foreman with him for 20, for 20 years.

I: That’s a long time.

R: For 22 years I guess. And I still had no education but it used to have as much as sixty or seventy
people employed.

I: Gee....

R: And I ran of all the stock that was brought in, it was my own way of doing it eh,

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We used to pile in hundreds of thousands of pounds of fish and they needed to know how much we
had left. Well I was to go by what we could sell out, eh.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Just to keep run...just keep doing tallies,

I: Uh-hmm. Right.

R: And I could just tally and tell how much we had left.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And one guy he had the weighs, so I did the work and gave the weighs to him, you know and it
seemed if I didn’t have enough ......it was really a length of time there. Before that I was a fisherman all
me lifetime.

I: Yeah?

R: And woods, worked out in the woods.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s the way we... well I guess we’ll start off from that because I mean to say the way of life in them
days, the people them knew in them days, everyone did their own planting.

Another voice in the room: John she knows what she wants to start off on....

R: Yeah well I’m just telling her to give her some idea now we need to get into a conversation and start
and it turned off to something else.
I: Right.

R: You know I got no memory but in some cases I really know what it’s all about.

I: For me I’m a beginner, I don’t know anything about Corner Brook and the Bay of Islands so...

[Comment: The interviewer should not disclose or confess that she does not know anything about the
area that relates to her topic, it is a weak point to make.]

R: No, no so it’s about, about, first when the people started here in the Bay of Islands , there were very
few families here, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: there were, for instance, you can write this down on your paper

I: Uh-hmm.

R: There was the Blanchards in Gilliams,

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Johnny Blanchard.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: and there was ah, the Sticklers in Epsy Beach. Now that’s a settlement further out, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That was out the bay there, he named it William, and ah Gerald Stickler too eh.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Now they was, now they was here first ah they were the first settlers in this place

I: Yep.

R: And there was the Furlongs down at Cooks Brook.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Eh, now Furlongs was still and remains ‘cause those people are still around eh.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You’ve probably heard tell of them. Jim Furlong had a housing cooperation down in Curling, eh, and...
I: Uh-hmm, I’ve heard of him.

R: And Jim Furlong, Furlongs yes, his wife died years ago and now he lives on Mount Bernard Avenue.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: shifted from curling and ah, then again head back to Curling he was the, ah the Bag Billers, Bag Billers
was over in Curling and ah the Pennells.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: They were the first settlers in the Bay of Islands, eh? For sure that could be some of them and I mean,
let me see now who else could be now and there [short pause]. Yeah there were some of the first
people coming to the Bay of Islands and here in Corner Brook they was ah Charlie Bail.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He was a blacksmith, eh.

I: Is he still alive?

R: No, no he’s dead, long gone.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But then ah there was the Wastons.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Now there as a Missus Wastons out here eh? The offspring from them, she lived in one of those
cottages. See they were the first settlers and the Fishers.

I: Uh-hmm

R: William Fisher, he had saw mill where the paper mill is now.

I: Yeah?

R: Yep right in that very place, that’s where his saw mill was to.

I: Uh-hmm

R: And you know he piled all his stabs and ah everything covered in sawdust, Now that Bowaters that’s
they only thing they couldn’t do was to shift it.

I: You’re kidding!

R: There was no way to shift it
I: Dear God.

R: They had to build on top of it because it was so deep and so many deckers, they made him throw so
much away, he couldn’t tare it up. They couldn’t do nothing hey, they had to to burry it over. Now the
fishes....

I: Uh-hmm. ,,,,,,

R: No, what’s it all about they used to ah cut the timber up on the Humber river, right

I: Hmm.

R: ... to Corner Brook and saw

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Now you see they didn’t have saw mills, like they do now, they had ah, gang saws. They used to saw a
log using eight saws and the log would go through and the eight board would be there. And afterward
we got down to see the saws right.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Now to make a mess, the Fishers were the first settlers here in Corner Brook and then there was the
Calliahan’s, like I told you and the Wastons and ah there was a man down by the waterfront went there
by the name of Mr.Burns

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Right down there on the waterfront.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: yeah I got something to tell you about him later on because he saved my life.

I: Yeah?

R: Down by the waterfront because it was lost on the bay hey

I: Uh-hmm.

R: In a snow storm. But nevertheless now these the names of the first settlers and they were the Brakes
of Humber Mouth.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: There was Jenny Brake and ah the Lanes

I: Uh-hmm.
R: Now they were the first people that has ever settled in Corner Brook and ah you know like when they
were born there were like 10 families. Now I saw this personally because I used to come in here to this
Fishers to get ah, we used to make, dad came in there to get lats eh,

I: Uh-hmm.

R: To make lobster pots

I: Right

R: We used to come down to the yard to get it.

I: Uh-huh.

R: We used to bring our horses over to this blacksmith to make the shoes, the shoe man in Corner
Brook, and we used to bring our saws over to the Waston man because he used to put new teeth on
them hey? Cut ‘em right off and but new teeth on them.

I: Oh yeah.

R: That’s all hand work!

I: Yeah.

R: No machine way to do it.

I: No?

R: So you knew all those people.

I: Who was this?

R: Oh that’s way back there, back in the 1930s eh? Before that, boy they was here they could go back
some of those people here probably ahead of us, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Because my father came from the West coast.

I: Oh yeah?

R: The Millers and Dundays........, so when they come here, these people settled hey. The Pettypots, in
Pettypots cove, they were some of those settlers, eh?

I: Uh-hm

R: And ah they all probably migrated here but they all come from England and Ireland, you know. And
most of them come from England, they were English immigrants eh?
I: Oh yeah.

R: They came down around fish and chips and they like to go back, they used to come to shore and stay.

I: oh yeah, uh-hmm.

R: That’s how we started off Newfoundland, but you learned that, you learned that obviously in history.

I: Right.

R: You don’t need me telling you that.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But anywho the way we had to live and this would be interesting to ya because the way we had to live
see we had to grow up our own vegetables in our own garden, no such thing in going out and buying
anything. If you didn’t have it this was it, hey?

I: Yeah.

R: And if them people needed to buy anything in them days... if you had some rabbits to sell anybody
who would buy some of them would be a man we call merchant or storekeeper, or somebody who
couldn’t go in the woods who was sick or couldn’t , didn’t travel the woods to catch none hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s the people you would have to sell them to.

I: Oh yeah.

R: And the same thing by ah growing their own, everybody raised their own chickens and pigs or cow,
they didn’t need any meat.

I: Uh-hmm (short pause). Where there much hunger?

R: No, no we always get plenty, everybody was always well satisfied with food. Im telling you this and
you could understand it for the history for the Bay of Islands..

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Whether you want to write it down or remember it or not, I don’t know how you’ll do it.

I: Well it’s all on a tape recorder.

R: Yes... later on but nevertheless now see what it’s all about it the, the reason why I wasn’t educated
was because I was in a large family so when I got big enough to go to work to help, you had to go it hey?

I: Uh-hmm
R: There was no school.

I: No?

R: No teacher.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But after a few years, before I did grow up around 10 or 11 years old we got a teacher.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That used to teach in the chapel, we had a little school in the church, right?

I: Right.

R: And ah but then I used to go out fishing with my dad when i was 9 or 10 years old. What i used to do
was get up in the morning and leave before daylight, i’d go down there’d be a blanket down there in the
boat curled up, and had a bit of fish and he would be fishing and I’d be keeping the boat on one paddle
hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: To keep her in place.

I: Right.

R: so we wouldn’t drift away with the tide

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And that really helps, hey?

I: Right.

R: Because we’d still be in the same place, and the five of us would meet down after drifting so far and
we’d move back to the bank where we were fishing to.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: So it’s a lot attached to it, more than you’d imagine

I: Yeah.

R: and then you see, when we come home from fishing then we’d make our hay and put it away for the
winter,

I: Uh-hmm.
R: ...for the cattle. And at the fall of the year we were done fishing or whatever might be logging, there
was a lot of logging and cutting timber in them days, we’d go to work and get ready for the winter then,
you know.

I: Who would you log for?

R: Well we used to cut timber to carry away, they used to carry timber away then in vessels and
steamers, you know.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And just the saw mill used to make lumber for building the houses.

I: Yeah?

R: There was no particular board, no gypsum board or no wall board you see.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We build it all out of sticks, logs. I cut ah, my first house I cut 500 logs, eh. I had to give half of them to
the man sawed it for me, you see.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: ‘Cause I didn’t have any money to pay him.

I: Right. So,

R: And then he sold that lumber and got paid for sawing you know mine and his own too.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: See and then ah now my sons I cut we went in there and cut enough to build three houses.

I: That’s a lot of wood!

R: Now actually we had to cut enough timber for six.

I: Yeah.

R: Now 45000, see.

I: That’s an awful amount of wood.

R: Yeah we had to give that away, now see I built a house and then I built one for each one of my sons.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: We worked together as the boys up in the woods were getting in and that’s the way... now all we had
to earn was money enough for the nails and the felt, the rest of it was our own labour. See now I told
you there were no money going them particular times.

I: There wasn’t much money at all

R: No there wasn’t so much money at all. But in regards to something to eat, you know the people the
old people were great providers

I: Yeah?

R: My mother used to cook nice puddings out of crusts of bread and everything hey? You know you’d
save it, the crusts of bread or anything that was leftover.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And then by the end of the week, you’d probably a nice spread, maybe molasses pudding – cut up
some pork and put some raisins into it and just mix it up with a small bit of flour; we still make up some
today.... but it was pretty well delicious food and filling too you know.

I: Sure.

R: We’d eat plenty of it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And we used to eat a lot of rice and cornmeal for porridge.

I: Oh yeah, uh-hmm.

R: You know we used to have a big table meal not really the cattle but it was a grade, it was really
hearty. (Grandfather clock chimes in) We had beans for breakfast and pancakes some of the times, you
know, and we used to buy a lot of dough.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Like to do puddings and doughboys and, you know, really hearty food.

I: Yeah.

R: Really hearty food, telling you yeah, yeah.

I: Where would you get, buy your stuff from?

R: Well we used to go to the merchant.

I: Uh-hm.
R: You know like I told you before, we fished our fish and they used to sail it to Halifax and we used to
have a weekly vessel who came back.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: to bring back what we’d order

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We’d order so much stuff and he, he you know got so much out it too hey....

I: Yeah.

R: He’s probably be giving us two dollars and fifty cents for the fish; he was probably getting five dollars
for it.

I: Uh-huh.

R: But he was giving us two dollars and fifty cents worth of...

I: Goods.

R: Food eh? You know.

I: Yeah.

R: So that’s the way business was done. Now like I told you before, we went into the woods in the
meantime and we’d catch eight or ten rabbits more than what we’d eat ourselves. That Saturday
evening we’d have some to sell to buy something for the weekend.

I: Right.

R: We’d buy some kerosene, some glasses, or anything that you’d need for the weekend, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And the next week, the same thing. Like I told you the people bought those, were the people that
couldn’t, didn’t frightened to go back over the fence into the woods to be lost.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But see there would be a few fellers..... they survived up the hill see,

I: Oh yeah.

R: They build boats and they made all their own clothes. We used to.. i remember my first pair of shoes
that I ever had. I could have been 9 or 10 years old and they were black leather shoes, eh? And they cost
two dollars.
I: Two dollars.

R: Yeah it used to be awful to save two dollars for a pair of shoes after all this length of time, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: ‘Cause that was the first pair of lace shoes I ever had. But now I was never bare or never cold because
we used to make ah our boots and mogosans out of the shanks of deer, you know?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know in the leg of the deer there’s a nice place where the leg turns, it’s a really the heel,

I: Oh yeah?

R: You can see how the Eskimos have theirs, have you?

I: To cut the mukluks?

R: Yeah the mogosans, it’s the mukluks they have now. But these were really made from the dress the
hide of the caribou and then they used a lot of binding and used what they call binding tape and you’d
guide in all the edges hey?

I: Right.

R: The women used to sew and the men used to sew fantastic stitches in “miller” and everything and my
mother used to make quilts hey, out of barlet fur, she started off with bren, what they call bren, you
know?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: What the bren bags are made of out

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And then you’d keep adding to them.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And after a few years, they’d be fantastic. You know they’d be a half inch thick..

I: Right.

R: ...and they, and last when we got better off when we done them over with nylon.

I: Yeah.
R: so you know rail or something after years but the first started them, you know and you’d take, you’d
have one of those quilts for 20 years probably and what you do with it when it gets old, you could strip it
down and relive it again. You know.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But you’d still have the ore.

I: Oh yeah.

R: it’d still be there. And it’s never been cold as all of that using that, no. We don’t have winds like we
had back then you know.

I: No?

R: We had days and weeks are all we had to do was scratch a hole inside with our fingers or something
so we could see out for frost on the window. We had a blizzard, hey? My dad had to use to tie his face
up with a towel, like the in a style to tend to his sneers hey?

I: Gosh.

R: Yeah. It was real severe winters, eh?

I: So the weather has gotten better?

R: Oh yes, the ice was eight or nine feet thick in the bay outside in the bay, you know. We used to set
nets and get down inside the hole and somebody iced up the ice hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And buckets to get a hold down to get the nets down. No, none of that would happen anymore.

I: Jezz by’

R: There’s some change, there was nearly unbelievable. But ah, i got to say the people was ah more
relaxed and they had big families and it didn’t make any difference how much, how many children,
everyone was welcome , the last as well as the first.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I knew a man who had 21 children.

I: 21 children....?

R: 21 children and every one of them living on their own time, yeah.

I: That’s a lot of children

R: Uh-hmm, Mr. Machouse in Dullaphines, Mr. Machouse in Dullaphines had 21 children
I: Is he still alive?

R: No my dear, he’s dead but he still got his children alive.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And have you ever heard of the the the the the story of the S, the Eddie going to shore eh?

I: No.

R: That little girl was landed in the mail bag?

I: No?

R: Oh that’s the way they were lost on the coast eh? There’s a lot you never learned in school yet hey?

I: No.

[Another voice in the background: inaudible comment]

R: Yeah but you see that little girl who was back here last year: an old lady hey?

I: Really?

R: Yeah that’s right.

I: She’s here at the old people’s home is she?

R: No, no she visits from here she went away after years. She did come back to her own down the coast
in Gros Morne. She was landed, she was the first one who was landed in a mail bag hauled to shore. The
dog took the line to shore. Up in Rocky Harbour, there’s remains of her still there, the bow , still down
there amongst the rock down the coast where you goes down to Gros Mourn Park.

I: Heaven’s sakes.

R: It’s too bad you never learned about it in school eh?

I: No.

R: You’re not learning too much Newfoundland history.

I: No, we don’t do very much.

[Another voice in the room: she might want to learn about Sheila...]

R: No, no.... (Short pause)

I: No we don’t do very much Newfoundland history.
R: It’s too bad though.

I: No.

R: But this is what you’re getting onto now.

I: Yes this is what its for.

R: Yeah you’re learning to pick it up hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I guess no one was keep a run of it before.

I: No, of that we know like....

R: ...There was never a university or no people sent out with a paper and pencil, or anything to do
anything about it. It’s always yees who come up.

I: Uh-hmm

R: I can understand that.

I: Yep, the university is ah is doing this now to ah write a book about it.

(Short pause)

R: But anyways, I’m telling you that was the our way of life.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Now, somebody called it the good old days.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But I don’t like, I never would want those days back again

I: No?

R: Although I was never cold or hungry, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But ah you never knew when to be cold and hungry, everything you had was limited.

I: Oh yeah.

R: You had little supply, eh.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: if you didn’t get it in for the fall, in the fall of the year, you didn’t eat it in the winter because there
was nowhere to get it

I: So no security.

R: No there was no boats swung across the gulf and there was no planes .

I: So once the winter came you were cut off.

R: That’s it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You had to have your sugar and your molasses and your tea and your stuff in the shed and we eat
fish, lots of fish.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Of all kinds of fish. We always had salmon, eh?

I: Oh yeah?

R:’Cause what we used to do with salmon was salt them.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And then you soak them out and cook ‘em, they’re nice like that. You eats salt salmon, I suppose.

I: Yeah.

R: Yeah, it’s not too plenty around now ‘cause it’s too too expensive and we used to have can salmon.

I: Yeah?

R: See we used to do up our cans in with the sawder iron.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Not with a sealer. You used to melt sawder and put around eh? With a copper hum....

I: Is there any canning factories around here?

R: No, no there’s no canning factories. Everyone did their own canning factory. I canned lobsters for
years

I: Really?

R: And sealed the cans with a sawder iron... yeah!

I: Uh-hmm.
R: Sealed the lobsters for years put up lobsters for years down at the lobster factory, eh? Just small...
cause my brother used to catch them himself and one day and used to put them up the next day.

I: Would you sell them?

R: Oh yes, that’s the way we had to get a living.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: By selling the lobsters. They used to go away to Halifax, eh? But you didn’t make much money on
them ‘cause we used to get 11 dollars for them and we used to pay 2 dollars for the tins eh?

I: Right, right.

R: You used to catch the fish and salt them and send them away.

I: How big a can would it be?

R: A pound, 16 ounces

I: And you would get how much for one can?

R: We used to get 11 dollars for 48, that was 4 dozen tins.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: In a case, eh?

I: Gee, that’s not very much

R: Yeah but we did when the war was on and after the last world war was on we got a much as a dollar a
tin so if you had 48 tins you got 48 dollars.

I: That was good.

R: So it was looking better then eh?

I: Yeah

R: Yeah, that was the top price when the war was on, lobster was at that price.

I: Was that the Second World War?

R: That’s right.

I: Right.

R: That’s right, yeah... (short pause) yeah. But thats when I was born,I was born in 1902 in the meadows.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: and I only got this for from it so I never went past all that.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: (laughs)

I: You were born where?

R: Meadows.

I: Meadows?

R: Across the bay there.

I: Oh yeah, uh-hmm. And then you lived in Curling?

R: I lived in Meadows until ah until 30 years ago, 20...30 years ago

I: Oh yeah.

R: Hasn’t it mom since we’ve been over here? Mom? It’s been 30 years since we came from Meadows,
was it? ’56! No ’53 we came over in ’53.

[Another voice in the room: ’53 yeah we moved here....(inaudible comment)]

(Short pause)

R: yeah nevertheless a little early .... But that’s where I told you I fished before, I never worked with
anyone before. Just cutting... and you talked and I told you about timber. We cut all the railway ties
that’s on this railway, when they put the railway through here. And you know, two years after the
railway was put through, now I was the only one who put the railway through because it was put
through in the 1900s but after the railway was there, five or six years the ties would rot eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I had to replace ‘em. And we used to cut hundreds of them, eh? Chopping down with the axe
flat, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Off the railway track, now you know what they’re like.

I: Right

R: They’re all made of saw now eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We used to chop then out that way, used to square them out eh?
I: Uh-hmm.

R: We used to get 8 cents a piece of them.

I: Is, was that good?

R: (laughs) No my dear, it was nothing at all

I: No?

R: I suppose today they cost 6 or 8 dollars one of those ties that goes under there

I: Yeah?

R: That’s how much they go for today. Now see our board measurement was a thousand feet, eh? We
used to get 8 dollars a thousand.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: There was a sell number for a thousand, then eh? Today it’s over two hundred eh? That’s same
down the line over two hundred, eh? Can’t buy it for less than two hundred. That’s how much
everything has advanced in that length of time.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: Oh yes that is the point about it hey? You know but to say that... it’s quite a difference into it. It’s ah,
the times are really better,

I: Uh-hmm

R: It’s a better age to live in. everything is expensive ah but the wages is up hey? Sails against it

I: Uh-hmm

R: And so you see there is a better time to live, we’re living in the best time. I’m living right now in best
age that I’ve lived in since 1902 since I’ve been born

I: Really?

R: Really. This is the best

I: That’s great,

R: Yeah. Well everything is so much advanced eh? The bakery is there eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know.
I: That’s right.

R: And there’s fast-food services there, the K-mart is there, the Millbrook is down there. You don’t need
to go anywhere else for anything

I: You can get all services right in here

R: They’re right there and you don’t need to raise any chicken, you can send out and they’ll bring one to
the door. In them times if you really didn’t hatch a chicken and raise it; you never eat any.

I: Uh-hmm, so it’s...

R: There was none to eat. Yeah. And ah you know there was, like I told you before there was ah nobody
started it for (Background Voice) there was only a limited amount of supplies , 6 months of supplies was
the most anybody had

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Everything shut down and we’d all have to starve,

I: Right.

R: You know.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But everywhere we bought crops eh? And we used to put up a lot of preserves and pick a lot of
berries and make jam, right?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Good jam of all kinds, we’d have a cupboard full of that eh? For eating with bread and everything...

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know and like I said, if you didn’t raise a cow you didn’t drink any milk.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Your next door neighbour might be able to help you out a little bit but if you had 8 or 9 children you
would, they would need it too.

I: That’s right.

R: See so sometimes we used to be shy and stuff but ah we was never too hungry.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: But like I said, I wouldn’t want anybody to go back to those days but ah we’re going a little too much
extravagant now.

I: Yeah.

R: Yeah. Things are going out the other way on us. We’re making away with everything too fast

I: ‘Cause....

R: We expect too much out of life and I’m very disappointed and sorry for the younger generation. I’m
sure they got a struggle ahead of them that they don’t expect.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: Yeah well... not all but ah you know. I wouldn’t want to discourage anybody but ah I hope they’ll last
hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I hope they’ll last. But you can see what’s happening,

I: Yeah.

R: See what Cuba’s doing, with them people pushing over to Florida.

I: Right.

R: Florida was a beautiful place to go for holiday or you know to go and live but today , it’s a....

I: That’s like I got ah ah... my uncle, he’s 95 and he says the same things and things are going too far.

R: Yeah, yeah and there’s no use to say we’re going to be well off and no people are going to starve to
death, ‘cause their not. They’re going to come here they’re going to advance towards us.

Comment: This information does not pertain to the topic of the interview.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: They’re going to make it now cause of the population that we have today, eh.

I: Right.

R: Lots of children in them days.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But we still didn’t have quarter the population that we got today, eh?

I: Right.
I: Nobody is getting too many babies now, but we still got millions of people.

I: That’s because more people are living longer I guess

R: Well that ain’t the cause, that ain’t the cause, because they’re living longer because they’re
multiplying.

Comment: This is really off track, the interviewer should get back onto the topic of the history in the Bay
of Islands.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You understand?

I: You’re right, yeah.

R: See you think... we certainly do live a bit longer because of the most of people in them days, I gotta
say when they got up in years they never had the right nourishment, they’re blood went down and they
never got the right vitamins.

I: Right.

R: And they didn’t die with starvation they just died with, I”m gonna say...er... er..

I: Mal-nutrition?

R: That’s what you call it!

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know, they had plenty to eat such as it was but the right vitamins wasn’t in them

I: I guess they get weak and...

R: Well yes that’s the answer to it. Yeah but I’d say we’re living longer ... I don’t think the the you know,
because there seems to be a big change. I saw people who were sick in bed and then this Confederation,
even though it was a curse and a blessing, everything has an advantage and a disadvantage to it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I seen people who were sick in those particular times and they got their fam... their old age pension
and they got some nourishment such as fruit and milk and stuff that they should have and they got
some medical supplies that they couldn’t afford before

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And they would of went to parties after that.

I: (laughter)
R: If that hadn’t happened; if Confederation didn’t happen, they would be in the grave quick, eh?

I: Hmm.

R: But they just hung on for six or eight years ‘til the end of their life, eh?

I: Were there many people who suffered from malnutrition, like children get sick...

R: A lot.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: A lot. A whole lot.

I: Really?

R: Really. Children was hearty they did well eh? {Grandfather clock chiming in the background}

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And the people who wasn’t so hearty they wasn’t getting the right... they couldn’t eat enough of this
food, eh to get... you know you had to eat a whole lot to get anything out of it eh?

I: Oh yeah.

R: Now you can understand it.

I: What kinds of food did you lack?

R: Well I guess the most thing they lack was milk.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And juice, fruit I’d say.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah.

I: I guess you had a lot of bread and stuff?

Comment: should not use “stuff” because it makes it too vague and will let responder ramble.

R: Yeah ah...err... bread is alright but everything is not in the bread.

I: Right.

R: No, little as nul [inaudible]. Now I’m not educated and I don’t know too much to tell ya, but what I’m
going to tell you is what I learned from the hard way of life.
[Another voice in the room: Experience.]

R: Yeah experience, eh? The hard way of life my dear.

I: Yeah.

R: And ah we’re living in a splendid age right now, I tell ya.

I: Uh-hmm, oh yeah.

R: The best. You get all the brag on but the only thing is the children, yourself and a lot more, you stay
up too late and you got much to do and too much on your mind.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible but scolds him]

R: Yes I knows they do! They got their chores to do, you know and if you’re good and live right you got to
have the certain amount of rest.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And ah without that, you’re going to get all the vitamins and all this what you like but you’re not
going to live many old bones. No.

I: No.

R: No...

I: I see a lot of pictures around, are those your children?

R: Yes that’s Vanessa but she was 17 years old, are you 17 or at you more than 17, you’re 19?

I: I’m 18.

R: 18, look she was 17.

I: Really?

R: That’s her there, and that’s the day we were married. That was in 1927.

I: Uh-hmm.

[Another voice in the room: Yes that’s ah this fella’s wife look, and this is his brother]

R: That’s my two sons and their wives in Toronto...

I: oh yeah, uh-hmm.

[Another voice in the room: he married a girl from Quebec...]
R: French girl that is.

I: She’s kinda pretty.

[Another voice in the room: yes she’s pretty, children... children always look nice, there they are in the
family, look (wrinkles paper)]

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s the youngest son, that’s our youngest son and his wife and his three children... two children.
Yeah.

I: How many children did you have?

R: We had five.

I: Five?

R: Six! We had

Comment: Responder is always inconsistent when dealing with numbers or true facts.

[Another voice in the room: Four living]

R: Six, we had four living now my dear.

 [Another voice in the room: and this is our daughter. She’s married to Alby Dywer I don’t know where...
in Curling]

R: People got the carbon shock. .... that’s our daughter, the only daughter we had, only had one
daughter my dear.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible due to responder speaking over her]

R: And five boys .

I: Uh-hmm.

R: One girl.

I: She’s pretty.

R: Yeah.

[Another voice in the room: got three there... (inaudible)]

R: Mom was 70-ah, she’ll be 76 in July and I’ll be 78 in May.

I: My gosh.
R: 78 in May I’ll be.

I: That’s great.

R: That picture was took when I was 75.

I: That’s a nice picture.

R: That was taken here in Corner Brook.

I: Really?

R: Yeah, took it down in the Corner Studio there. Never thought to the pictures would be so large, not
saying that its good now, she really did.

I: That’s a good picture, really clear.

R: And that’s our son got found up in Bonne Bay Pond. He had a wife and three children, eh?

[Another voice in the room:

R: Only picture we ever have of him.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible]

R: No, she’d never have him.

R: He was in a sport boat, eh? He was out in the sport boat out on the pond and drowned in there,
yeah....

I: Oh sorry, my God.

R: Yeah, yeah.... But that’s a... look! Come here I’ll tell you something.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: In 1927,

I : Uh-hmm.

R: This is the clothes we bought, look, it was mine look. [inaudible, other person is speaking at same
time]much like this today look at the wedding dress, eh?.... everyone in those days used to wear fur eh?
You either had fox or mink or some sort of a fur look.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: and ah... [Another voice in the room: inaudible] yeah but I used to say suggest on one shoulder that,
look at those clothes that’s how it was wore. It’s the side of an overdress eh?
I: Uh-huh.

R: But they’re making it like that now again.

I: Yeah they are, uh-hmm.

R: That was 1927, eh? When we was married, eh?

[Another voice in the room: yes it was a bit short there and a bit long there, it’s a bit much]

R: Yeah.

I: That’s ah...

R: I had a head of hair then, a real bush!

I: Yeah! (laughs)

R: You know [Another voice in the room: inaudible due to speaking at the same time] the great big curl,

[Another voice in the room: He has lost it all.]

R: Right black it was. Yeah...

I: That’s really neat.

R: Yeah... Is you in a hurry or is you not?

I: No, no Im not in a hurry, I got all kinds of time.

R: You got all kinds of time?

I: Yep.

R: Now that’s alright if you got all kinds of time I’m going to show you some pictures, yeah ‘cause you’re
already here for the day.

I: Oh yeah, that’s fine.

R: You got no worry.

I: Nope, no worry.

R: And the most thing I got is time now.

I: (slight laugh)

R: Although I’m going to go house cleaning soon, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.
R: And anyhow come see our place we lives in.

I: Alright.

R: You been in cottages before? .... [Another voice in the room: inaudible due to speaking at the same
time] Did you visited cottages before? No? Well there you go.... Come in.

Another voice in the room: Now it’s not big now, it’s small. It’s only room for two.]

I: It’s nice.

R: [very distant] This is the clothes closet, look? You know?

I: Ok.

R: And there’s some pictures from the “good old times” that was when my mother...you know[becomes
inaudible due to being away from the tape recorder.]

Comment: The interviewer should of taken the tape recorder with her so that the listener could hear
what’s being said during the tour of the house.

(laughter)

R: This is my bathroom... [Inaudible]... we lived in a large home but we sold our home [loud slam].

I: Uh-hmm.

R: About 7 years ago.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And we came to live with our son-in-law [Another voice in the room: (coughs)] in a little house eh, but
that’s gone now.

I: Oh yeah.

R: And this is the washroom over here, it’s really neat.

I: It’s a lovely spot here.

[Many voices speak all at once: Inaudible comments]

R: there’s a basement down under there, and you keep all... there’s lots of food and stuff to eat down
there, all stored down there eh? And anything else with bare luggage or vacuum cleaner, anything you
want you can put down there; the whole size of the building. This is the part where you put everyday
stuff, things you use every day, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.
R: And there’s my garden stuff.

[Another voice in the room: you don’t do much now though, like you used to.]

R: We were... she’s taller than you!

I: (laughs)

R: Yes she is! .... she’s up in Labrador City now.

I: Oh yeah?

R: Yeah she’s working up there.

I: Oh yeah, uh-hmm.

R: ...[inaudible comment], only like yourself, just had one child yeah and she went to college for three
for four years and she gone off there to Labrador. She wanted to go to Labrador to stay.

I: Yeah, lucky she got a job.

[Another voice in the room: Oh yes, she got a job right away.]

R: Oh yes

[Another voice in the room: inaudible]

R: Now this is something, I’ll show you this, that’s some interesting if you’re not there’s no odds.
Nevertheless, there’s some pictures here from a long ways back.

I: Yeah?

R: This is what I want to show you. And if you want to see the size of life you could get a lot out of this.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You’re going to get a lot out of this for your school work. Well now nevertheless that’s the place we
used to visit my grandfather in Gander and those places hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We’ve been all over this island several times and this picture was taken when we was ah you know,
you can size them up. That’s my son and his wife there,

I: Right.

I: And some of his children.

R: And you know this is a family affair, this is the old son – there’s one of him there look.
[Another voice in the room: Yes there’s two of them]

R: They had seven children, eh? They had seven children in the family.

I: That’s a big family.

R: And these are the older pictures now look.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: From a little bit back.

I: Uh-hmm.

[Short pause]

I: Uh-hmm!

R: Yeah.

I: You can see the old stove, the old style.

R: Yes you can seem to size up the situation now. This is, that’s pictures we had took in Niagara Falls.
Niagara Falls those pictures were taken eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: So when we went up to Toronto our son was over there. I come to come later ones later on now.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: This is our children and grandchildren. [door opening in background]

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s the grandchildren.

I: Uh-hmm.

[Background Sound: loud bang/slam]

R: Yeah and that’s who was up to Niagara Falls.

I : Uh-hmm.

R: That parcel there, that was the parcel I had to buy from... bring home some gifts for the children,
there’s a horse in there that cost 15 dollars that I bought for my granddaughter and left ‘em; put it down
on the ground and went on and left it.

I: Oh God.
R: Never got it back. Yeah that’s our granddaughter.

I: Cute.

R: Yeah, that’s her and her... another little girl who she had a cousin down here.

[Another voice in the room: Bill Dwyers]

R: Yeah Bill Dwyers, they lived together them people. That’s my flowers that I grew down in Curling
where I lived see.

I: uh-hmm! That’s a nice garden, a lot of flowers you got there.

R: Yeah had a lot of flowers.

I: Hmm!

R: It’s them two again look. There’s Elaine and there’s Bill Dwyers’ little girl – Julie she’s the one who
does the hair down in Curling, you know Julie the beauty shop? That’s her there look. The lady lived with
her seen, they lived in the same house, two brothers and they living in the same house.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah, they used to. That’s Elaine there and this is ah my son’s children in Toronto, look.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Seven children, that’s Elaine there though, but the rest are his ‘cause look: the boys and the girls from
Toronto, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah, that’s ah Parrot’s brother and sister.

Comment: The listener can tell that the responder is really reflecting when looking through these old
photos.

I: Uh-hmm, oh yeah.

R: She was married, that’s her mother there, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Married to June Parrot in Toronto.

I: There’s you.

R: Yeah, there’s me and mom again there.
I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah, that’s Parrot,

I: Uh-hmm.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible]

R: That’s Parrot and there’s his wife and one of his youngsters. There’s my flowers again, look.

I: Did you grow a lot of flowers?

R: Yes look there’s mom there out by our shield down in Curling.

I: Yeah

R: Down on the waterfront.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: This is where we grown the flower, down there look. That’s our house, the last house we owned.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: A little bit over it’s like this one here, hey?

I: Uh-huh.

R: Just below that.

I: Uh-huh.

Comment: The interviewer should have made copies of the pictures that they were looking at so there
would be some sort of documentation to go along with the recorded interview (since they are talking a
lot about the photos).

R: Yeah.... That’s the picture where the house was to

I: Right.

R: That’s where we was camping up to my son’s place up in Toronto.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. And there’s my where my daughter lives in that house there now down in Curling hey?

[Another voice in the room: inaudible]

R: Yeah.
[Short Pause]

R: That’s Elaine there.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Got her in a lot of places, I guess which is probably all down through but the pictures I want is not
here... I don’t think so.

[Another voice in the room: No, it’s not here.]

R: Well that’s okay now, put that picture flat. The twins are a little older now I think ‘cause my own are
now. Oh yes this is the picture now, looking at the youngsters that’s...

I: Tape still going? Uh-hmm.

R: Oh the tape recorder is recording all this is it?

I: Oh it’s okay, it’s just on. It’s just easier to keep it going than to start up and stop and start and stop it.

Comment: It is best to keep the tape recorder going because he might say some great information about
the past within their conversation. But by this time the interviewer should take back the reigns of the
interview and be the one asking the important questions.

R: Yeah. The point about it is that’s the children look. Great pictures look. Look at this one, coming out
with the shoes on, he’s coming up out by Disney Land hey?

I: Oh!

R: That’s where we were to Disney Land last summer, look.

Comment: The interviewer should have taken control of the interview a long time ago. This doesn’t have
anything to do with the topic.
It might have been helpful to tell the person to pick out 5 old photos to talk about before the interview
began, instead of taking up so much time.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That one is up in Toronto, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah these are newer pictures. This is my son’s house up in Toronto hey? In Tottenham he lives. And
there’s his house.

I: Nice house.

R: And his trailer there hey?
I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah, that’s his wife there see?

I: Uh-hmm. All of your children have they left the island?

R: Hmm?

I: Have a lot of your children left the island? Your sons have left the island, have they?

R: Left the island?

I: Hmm.

R: Oh just two of them. Just two sons up there living.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: Yeah, that’s right. That’s his house there look, in Toronto. That’s his school picture.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: One of his school pictures. That’s him look, a little baby right on the cake, look. He’s getting a kick out
of that now look. See, look?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He’s getting a kick out of it. [Another voice in the room: inaudible comment] Yeah, that’s him. That’s
his school pictures look.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He was the youngest son, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. There’s his, that’s him in his school picture and that’s him now, hey?

I: Right.

R: Last summer we tried to put all his school pictures, and average out the best kind. That’s a girl there,
a young one, she got her sister there look in her arms. Two little girls. Look there she is, she got a pot on
her head, look.

I: (laughs)

R: ....[inaudible comment due to mumbling]. These new ones look. There’s her again. There’s two of us
there look,
I: Uh-hmm.

R: And that’s ah a picture they had took to ah confirmation class, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: My brothers’ daughter is there and his wife, huh?

I: Uh-hmm. You’re Catholic, are you?

R: No, Church of England.

I: Oh. You’re Anglican.

R: Yeah, Anglican. Yep.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. I don’t think there’s only one religion. We go everywhere. We Anglicans go to church to the
United Church and we go to church at Mass and we go to church too.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: We never took off so much on the Pentecost people. We never was much taken up by them, to say
the truth. But any other kind of religion, we... if the door’s open we drops in hey?

Comment: It’s interesting how he using “religion” to only explain Christianity sects, not a different
religion.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. Yeah... yeah. I think that is something else we should get rid of too is religion, get it out of the
world or whatever it’s going to be someday. [Something is dropped] Yeah. It’s nice to have a belief,
[Grandfather clock chimes in] but to have ah... it’s not good to believe that you’re the best in the world.

I: Yeah. Was there any churches back that um evolved in the 20’s and 30’s?

R: Yeah, just started.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah, just started, yeah. Yeah, there was people coming over her e from England, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Who started the churches in Curling. That’s why Curling is called Curling, hey?

I: Oh yeah?
R: And they named it after him.

I: Uh-hmm.

Comment: Interviewer should ask who Curling was named after, responder is being vague.

R: Now look, that’s where mom was born. That’s the house she was born in hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s the house hey? In McIver’s. Down the bay, hey?

I: Right. Yeah.

R: And here’s where I was born, that’s where... I wasn’t born in this house ‘cause we were living in a log
house first hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: House out of logs.

I: Right.

R: And this is our last house that we had hey?

I: Yeah. It’s made out of boards.

R: I’m cutting stick there. That’s a piece of, that’s a piece of timber there I’m cutting there now.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: For in order to build a house.

I: Oh yeah.

R: And this is the lumber piled up there, my dear. Look. See this pile of lumber?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I’m sitting on it look.

I: Oh yeah. Uh-huh

R: Now that’s the lumber I had to build that house, build a house out of hey?

I: Is that your... what house did you build out of that?

R: That’s the first one. Now that could be probably before 5 years we were married, which should be
70...we was married in ’27, that would in the.... be about in the 20’s.
I: Uh-hmm

R: And there’s our little feller that died.

I: Oh yeah....

R: There’s that one and that’s the second one.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Eh, that little feller died. He got sun struck or he had a fever. A fever, he died with a fever. Burned up
in one night hey?

I: There wasn’t any doctors was there?

R: Well we had a doctor yes but it was too late for the doctor to come. He was ah burned up with a
fever, I don’t know if he got it from the sun or where or what happened.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: Yeah, there’s a picture of me and mom, first when we went to Curling.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Thirty years ago... yeah. And ah, they’re the last, that’s me and mom, that’s ah me and mom and our
oldest son.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. Yeah...yeah. That’s what our house was like first.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: It was a bungalow, so then we had it built over to that, look.

I: Oh my goodness.

R: It was about that first hey? And then we got it remodelled to that.

I: You really did a lot with it.

R: Yes. So we sold that years ago hey? Yeah. And this is where I used to go fishing.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: There’s... we used to go out to an island, hey? Look, now this day here look, there’s me there and
there’s a friend of mine, look, come out to fish to 35 or 40 miles out of the Bay of Island area. That’s
Fred Park ... he died this year. Look, and that’s me and I shot a moose that morning and that’s a load of
moose meat I got on my back there.
I: Yeah?

R: Yeah.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We used to bring our cow out there, look.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I’d have milk 25 or 30 miles from home. This is where we stayed to, this is our mom there and
this is Fred Park and there’s me and there’s a feller from Summerside who came out to visit us, look.

I: You used to keep your animals away from home, did you then?

R: Yeah the moose. We kept the cow out there for 3 months, we used to have cabins to stay in.

I: Uh-hmm. How did you get them out there?

R: In a boat.

I: Uh-hmm, put all your animals in a boat and take them there?

R: Yeah , yeah. Not all ‘cause we used to take the cow for the milk, hey?

I: Uh-hmm, what about the rest of your animals?

R: They’d go out into pasture in the summer.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. We’d let them out into pasture and they’d go wild up into the wood but come back home, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah.

I: Did you have any chickens or anything like that?

R: Oh yes, oh yes. We yes had chickens, we had good [inaudible comment - due to another person
speaking at the same time] too.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. That’s older pictures of us look,

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. That’s our flowers, look.
I: My, they’re beautiful.

R: Me flowers, look.

I: Uh-hmm, I noticed that you had some very nice ones out in front.

[47:19-47:33 – Audio cut]

R: Was ah my birthday.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: See,

I: Uh-hmm.

R: ...That’s a birthday party I had hey?

I: Yeah, was it this year?

R: No two years ago. We had that out down in Curling

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Gerome lived down in Curling, hey?

I: When did you come in here?

R: Two years ago, about two years ago since we’ve come here my dear. That’s the feller married to my
daughter, look.

I: Uh-hmm.

[Comment: When he is looking through the photos he focuses on family which must be very important
to him.]

R: Alby Dwyer.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s her there, Elaine that’s Rayna and that’s a Bill Dwyer’s daughter. He’s married to that one
there, Doris... she’s cut off there. Bill and Rayna there. First birthday party.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah, there’s the young feller, that’s the little feller down with him with my grandson

I: Aww.

R: He had him in his arms, look.
I: Aww....

R: Two years old, my dear. In the speedboat, the boat turned over hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Downed him. That’s the only good picture we ever had one him with that little feller there, look.
Yeah...yeah. That’s the little Toronto fellers.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s Elaine. That’s Elaine there when she graduated, yeah. That’s her in all those places, all when
she was smaller.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: She was like a doll once. Look!

I: Uh-hmm!

R: See how pretty she look.

I: Yeah. It’s really sweet.

R: She’s only [inaudible comment]. Yeah. (Slides the photo album on the table) All those old pictures
they brings back some old memories, hey?

I: Oh yeah.

R: And there’s my cars I had. Yeah; one, two, three, four.

I: When did you get your first car?

R: In ’56.

I: ’56?

R: Yeah 1956. A ’56 Dodge. This one here, look; yellow and black.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. And I had ah, I had a Imperler[?]

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I had a Bellaire. That one there.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And then I had an Impaler [?], that one there. And now I have another Impaler [?].
I: What was the first cars that was ever here?

R: Hey?

I: I said, when did they first have cars around here?

R: Shh.. Cars. [Short pause]. Well we didn’t get any until we came to this side of the bay, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We didn’t have any road to go around, in 1930. What was here, they was here but we didn’t get
anywhere. I bought a truck across the bay on the skallway [?].

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Came across the bay.

I: Uh-hmm, right.

R: There was no road around, hey? There was a man who came over from ah a father, a preacher, came
here from away. First truck we had was ...

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: What would that be?

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: That was before we came to Curling, long before we came to Curling.

Another voice in the room: Yeah. Right. I couldn’t tell you when though.

R: That could been about 20 I guess, yeah see....

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: He’s ‘52, what is he a ‘54? We bought the truck when he was about in ’20.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

 R: Yeah, there was, over on this side of the bay there was a few trucks or cars but there was ah... they
come here somewhere’s around the ‘30s, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah, that woman, that French woman and Parrot, look.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: From Quebec.
I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s the young fellers, that’s up in Toronto. That’s the by’s skating, look. They’re getting bigger.

I: Uh-hmm

R: Yeah. That’s them.

I: Your sons must do quite well.

R: Fishing, yeah. That’s our youngest son there.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And that’s a little girl there, look.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

I: They must do very well ‘cause they got ah....

Another voice in the room: Yes, my youngest son with that French girl...[inaudible comment].

R: Another birthday here, look.

I: Uh-hmm.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: Yeah

I: Oh yeah.

R: Nothing wrong with that.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

I: Hmm.

R: But it’s so much for that, you can see about that now. What it’s all about. These pictures has been
taken, like I said, some time ago, like in 1927...1927 that was in 1927, that’s when that was taken. Yeah.
And we got some from... we not got too many pictures from them days, not many pictures took in them
days, hey?

I: No?

R: Very scare. Yeah we didn’t take pictures. Nevertheless we get on with our business now sort out what
it’s about.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]
R: Well you got to... have you got that on recording all that?

I: Oh yeah. Uh-hmm. It’s um....

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: Well that’s going to be some conversation!

Another voice in the room: Yes and she’s just making sure, is ya?

R: Oh she’s recording it on a tape, my dear.

Another voice in the room: Oh yes.

R: Yeah.

I: We’re going to listen to it later and write it down

R: Yeah.

I: And anything that ah, that that would be interesting for anybody; we’ll just write down.

R: Yeah.

I: Might be something for people to read.

R: Yes well that was very good. I’m glad of that because you’re really getting a lot of work done.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Because I told you the way of life, eh? And how to do the way of living and everything.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I also told you, you got my opinion of the day and age we lived in, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And ah, all that.

I: Was there much socializing back then? Much social living?

R: Well what you wants to know about is love I guess.

I: (slight laugh)

R: Well, no. But ah, no I never drinked, eh?

I: No?
R: No, I never ever drinked. I’ve got drunk.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: There’s not too much in the book, the book: Good book or that bad one, that I didn’t try out. You
know?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: In life, eh? I got to admit to that

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Because in those days, to get a lot of living, you had to do things, you done things them day that was
legal, eh?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And today it’s all restricted.

I:Uh-hmm. Right.

R: For instance, we used to put nets across the brooks, them days, and catch some trout. It’d last me
from going hungry.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Well we used to sell a barrel of trout, eh? That would be... you knows what a barrel is.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You’ve seen some hey?

I: Yeah.

R: (sniffs and coughs) Well now if there was eight or ten neighbours, twenty or fifteen neighbours in that
place living; each person would have a night to put the net out again to get some trout for their own
use.

[Comment: This is an interesting fact of communal living, it’s something not well known from the past]

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But they didn’t get any to sell. You couldn’t get any to waste.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You would of just had to get them to use.
I: Uh-hmm.

R: Well that was it! We never touched it after, the trout wasn’t. You had your day or your night or your
amount to get it, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And now this was it. There was no setting [?] a jig and or catching ‘em up in the brooks and make
away with ‘em, like they’ve done today.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: It’s just left right alone.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We never ate any after they past. If they past the river, that was it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And what you got out in the bay or even to the middle of the brook, hey? You put the net across and
get your trout. Now tomorrow night you get yours.

I: So you somewhat limited among yourselves and everything.

R: Eh?

I: You sort of limited among yourselves...

R: Yes!

I: And share it up.

R: Oh yes.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That’s true. That’s true. And then you see, we used to go out in the woods and kill the caribou and
leave them, eh? My grandfather was a hunter.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And whenever we’d want meat, well all you had to do in the fall of the year, in September/October,....
now he didn’t kill the animals when they were going to give calves, hey?, the young ones.

I: Right.
R: In June and July, you know the difference that nobody touches the men but so does the calves that’s
big enough for the... to feed themselves while you could kill their mother and a calf if it’s a boy. Hey? If
he’s big enough to eat.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: In the wintertime, if you go into the... if you didn’t have any meat, well that was for Easter coming up
hey? And now the chicken would be gone, no more chicken to kill, and we had no more ducks to kill.
And we was after having rabbit all winter.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: So he’s going to get something different. He gets up in the shooting marlins[?] and he packages, takes
his bag and goes into the country to his camp.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And he shoots his deer, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Shoots a caribou and brings home for Easter.

I: Oh yeah.

R: Well that’s it. No more now ‘til the fall.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: No more ‘til September, hey? In September, and he goes back and kills some again.

I: So, you never wasted it...

R: And the same thing applied... we used to eat seal meat, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We used to get some seals; you get ‘em in the fall of the year in nets or trawl ‘em, and you used to
ball ‘em and freeze ‘em.

I: Yep.

R: Then you just take the inside of them and hang them up. My dear the fat on that fish or animal,
whatever you call ‘em, would be perfect; the meat inside it. There was no cold storage or where you
kept a while.

I: Really?
R: Really. You could skin off that fat off it, the fat on a seal eh? The pallet’s right thick. And you could cut
that off and the meat inside would be just fantastic. Now we didn’t eat as much seal as all that and then
again beaver, my dad used to kill beaver.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And the way you used to do that, he used to corn and smoke it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Like sides of bacon.

I: Yeah?

R: Like the bacon you gets down to the store now, hey? If you’ve seen the side of bacon, a little piece of
bacon.

I: Yeah.

R: Well those beaver sides, hey?

I: They were what like bacon? Were they?

R: Yeah it was fantastic.

I: I’ve had beaver once before, it was good.

R: Yeah, I didn’t like it fresh.

I: Uh-hmm. I had it roasted.

R: Yes, pretty good but you could but ours was smoked, my dear, used to smoke it over a wood fire,
hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know. Smoke it over a wood fire. And that would keep for months.

I: Really?

R: Years as far as that’s concerned. And our... and we didn’t have any fridges, eh?

[Comment: I wonder if there were illnesses related to meat preparation and storage problems since
they would keep it for so long without refrigeration.]

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But we used to hang it out in the sun,
I: Uh-hmm.

R: And dry it. Dry the quarter meat, eh? Just skin it and dry it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And then you’d make it on a fall bar and smoke it so the smoke could go on the outside of it. And that
would say stop any insects from getting in it, like flies or bugs or anything that would get in it, eh?

I: And that would keep, did it go bad?

R: Keep fantastic, the only thing you had to do was cut the scale off it, went right like a plastic scale hey?
And that would keep for six months.

I: Really?

R: Really. Really keeps much good.

I: So then you’d have meat all the time and have no worry about fridges or anything.

R: No that’s right. Yeah, that’s just what used to happen. And I’m sure see, like I told you before, now
you know, you had to be capable, you had to be able to go into the woods, eh?

I: Hmm.

R: And have to survive on this island, survive all these hardships and what you would take with you
would be just necessary like you’d have to take a gun and an axe. You’d take some bread, flour
sometimes because you could take more flour than you could bread, eh?

I: Right.

R: And if you had to stay eight or ten days, or got [inaudible comment] or anything. And my dad with
had a very sad misfortune one time, he went in the wood, you know and he shot off his finger.

I: [inaudible comment]

R: You know, he had the gun up over his elbow, on his back and a limp catch the trigger, see. And went
off and shot off his finger. [Grandfather clock chimes] And he had eight or nine miles to come home with
his finger cut off, he picked it up, fell down in the snow; the finger did, he picked it up then he put it in a
mitt and came on home. But he was bled very weak when he got home.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We got him over to the doctor and he was 26 days over there living to a neighbour’s house, eh? While
he was trying to survive, eh?

I: There was no hospital?
R: No, there was no hospital, no. He fixed up his finger and so on. He was in hunting then when it
happened. And then another time he was hunting and he slipped on going up a hill and he had an axe on
his back and the corner of the axe went in his head, eh?

I: (gasps)

R: Got a big dent in head. And he bled a lot that time, bled his boots right full of blood, hey? Bleeding
down his back when he got back home. And you know he never survived that ‘cause after that he gained
back his blood again.

[Comment: The responder is very calm while recalling these tragic stories of his father which is
somewhat surprising.]

I: No?

R: He was up in years, and he, you know, lost his heart and his blood.

I: Uh-huh.

R: The blood never came back. He was a very frail man after that.

I: Oh.

R: For years after that, hey?

I: Hmm.

R: But he was a perfect hunter.

I: Yeah?

R: And he cut ah, in the winter time he cured, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He cut fifty-six skins one time, one winter. Fifty-six foxes, minks, otters, and minks. Eh?

I: Hmm.

R: And he got all them dressed and dried and put up on the board, hey? Hung up in the room?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: All up in the room for when a fur buyer. When he sold them, he got 1400 dollars in gold for them.

I: In gold?

R: 1400 dollars paid in gold. The man came around the fore buyer [?], came around to buy them, hey?
And he had what you called a safety-pin box in then times.
I: Yeah.

R: You used to have a lot of safety-pins when we had lots of babies, that’s where we put the money in.

[Comment: It sounds like the responder is grinning when he said this. This is a fact not very well known.]

I: Yeah?

R: In ah, the safety-pin box, hey? And that was put back onto the dresser, my dear, just same as the
dishes was.

I: (laughs)

R: No difference.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: It was anywhere from one dollar a piece to a fifty dollars a piece, hey? The one dollar piece was only
so big as a scale. You’ve seen a one dollar gold piece?

I: Uh-hmm.

Another voice in the room: You’re not cold are you?

I: No I’m fine thanks.

R: Yeah, you get 1400 dollars for his fur, hey? [Door opens] For all fall and the winter, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He used to start in the fall in October.

I: Right.

R: And he used to go away and stay ten days in the woods; we’d never see him again, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We’d know nothing at all about him, ‘til he come back home. After eight or ten days, he’d come back
with eight or ten furs, hey?

I: Was that hard on your mother?

R: Yes, was strainful and worrisome, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: ‘cause you know anything could happen. But ah, the first few years, like when they was young, I guess
she didn’t mind as much.
I: Uh-hmm. Yeah

R: But after they got older, hey? And like I told you, it was after they got older these accidents
happened.

I: Hmm.

R: They never happened when he was young. When he got up in years, hey? Like forty or fifty years old.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: See. He had his two misfortunes, hey?

I: Yeah.

R: He shot his finger off, but that summer he was never to fish, hey?

I: Oh yeah?

R: Because his hand was gone.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: See. He lost his summer fishing that summer. So....

I: What happened then?

R: Well we had to kill our cattle, our ox and our cow that fall for to get, you know, to last when we had
to get supplies for the winter.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Because he lost his ah you know, which you wouldn’t want to do a big ox, probably say, we had eight
hundred cows and we probably got 45 dollars for it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And for 45 dollars you could get a lot of flour, and tea, and sugar, hey?

I: Uh-hmm. That was an ox you killed, was it?

R: Yeah that’s right.

I: So you didn’t get any milk from that one.

R: No, no, that was beef. We used to keep that cattle for beef and oiling the wood hey and logs.

I: Uh-hmm, you didn’t have horses?
R: No there was no... we had horses yes but see it was more, it was better to keep the oxen because you
could kill them and eat them anytime, but the horse you couldn’t eat.

I: Uh-hmm.

(Door opens)

R: See, you had to be economical too.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: If you were well off you could keep a horse.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Because that was something extra, special, hey? You could get somewhere fast on it, hey? But it was
only a play-toy.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But the beef cattle, we used to raise the cattle, hey?

I: They were more all-around animals.

R: Well that’s it and if you ever got stuck for something to eat - you had to that to depend on.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know. So very well now that could, that was what happened there. And ah, we had spend our
money, the last money he had made hey?... you didn’t feel bad off when sent the youngsters to the
shop with the last dollar.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That didn’t mean a thing in them days ‘cause tomorrow you would get another one back.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Or two or three or twenty, but no more. But no more than big jay.

I: (laughs)

R: Yeah. And I’m not a bit ashamed to tell you when I was ah, I’ll tell you a bit about my love life now.

Another voice in the room: Yeah go ahead.

R: About mom, I met mom when she was 10 years old, hey?

I: Yeah?
R: And I was about 12. And there’s about two years in the difference, hey? But anyhow, what happened
she had her grandmother that lived about a mile from us.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And ah her grand-.... they used to bring their up close children up to her granny’s hey? And one day I
was down, it was about a mile from home, right, a mile from my home, and we used to go down to a
beach, used to a nice beach down there to play on and run on and everything.

I: Uh-hmm

R: And one Sunday I went down to this beach [blows his nose], one Sunday I went down to this beach
and ah I was first starting the motorboats.

Another voice in the room: Ah-ha!

R: To put the engine in the boats, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We didn’t have one but some people did. Her father had a boat, a motorboat.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: One of the first who was in the Bay of Islands.

I: Really?

R: Her father had it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And she was about 10 years old.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: So you can go back from... from 75 eh?, to 10 would be 65 years ago.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Since the first motorboat was introduced to the Bay of Islands part.

I: That was around... 1915 I suppose?

R: Somewhere around there. Yeah.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Somewhere there about. But anyhow, he took out those girls, there was seven sisters of them, hey?
I: Uh-hmm.

R: And that’s the truth I’m telling you.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He took out the biggest girl first and put her on the beach, so the older sister. Then He took out the
next one and by and by he picked up this little blonde, hey? They’re all white curls going down on the
beach. I’m telling you it’s the truth I’m telling you, I can remember this as if it was yesterday. And when
he put her down on the beach, well I said to myself “Ain’t she beautiful?”

I: (laughs)

R: And wouldn’t I love to have her, someday I might. Now help me God, I’m telling you the truth. And
sure enough, they went up to her granny’s and played around the beach and went on home. And I guess
it was about ah 10 or 12 years after that before I saw her again. You know? About 10 or 12 years.

[I: Inaudible comment.]

R: I’d say so. I was big enough to go fishing with my dad and went down the stage of their place, where
they lived, eh? That’s where we fished. There was two fellers going back and forth to home.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: So we stayed down there.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I used to go up to their place, eh? But I didn’t have any... I just had the clothes I worked with on;
‘cause I had a good suit at home, couldn’t take that from home, hey, for Sundays, and prayers, and
special times. Anyways we went on up to their house and their father used to play a game of cards and
she used to be carving wool sometimes, you know making yarn?

I: Uh-hmm

R: Carving the sheep’s’ wool.

I: Right.

R: And they always worked. They used to make all kinds of their own clothes; they used to make all their
own clothes and everything.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And ah, by’ that was alright. I got pretty friendly with her and I used to help her dad go up and get his
sheep that he had out in the woods, eh, and I got to know him a nice bit. From then on I used to see her,
from then on, eh? [Dishes clashing in the background] I went around with her for 7 years before I was
married. And the reason why we wasn’t married because I wasn’t well enough off.
I: Uh-hmm.

R: See, they had a good home and made a fairly good living and her father was fairly well off, and I
figured I’d be letting her down, hey?

I: Oh yeah.

R: So I just hanged on. He had a big family and I gave anything I made to my sisters and brothers,
understand?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: One needed a pair of shoes, another one needed a dress, another one needed something else, and
we needed food. And used to work every day in my life for, you know, low pay: 40 dollars a month for
instance – first when I started working. Then in the last years, I got 25 cents an hour, which is 2.50 for
ten hours, eh, ten full hours. You couldn’t get much out of that.

I: No?

R: You know, you couldn’t buy very much out of that

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: But anyhow, it was quite a long keep counting so on and so forth, and when was we broke up for a
little spells, we had a little... had a falling out for about a year, I guess.

I: Really?

R: And I used to, I still went down to their home where she lived to but I was going out with another girl,
but I wasn’t going out with another girl ‘cause... I was only going out just to be at her, hey?

Another voice in the room: another girl from down the cape.

R: I don’t care where it’s to. But she had a boyfriend too in this particular time, hey? And I said, “ There’s
a day coming where it’s going to change.” Hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: It got to go different than was it is now. So anyhow, I started and I got some timber, like I told you,
the stuff and timber and that was there and I started to build a house.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I said, “Now this is something that I can do with nothing.”

I: Right.
R: Was build a home with nothing because I could go up and cut enough stuff for two houses to make
one.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I could make one and buy a little and some nails and get my neighbours and my father and
everyone to help me build that house. So we done it. We built a house and I come over to then to Clark
Trading Company down here and worked and I got some felt bought ‘cause I had to cover the roof of it.

I: Uh-huh.

R: And I had to get the windows and everything to put into it. Cut the wood like the sashes, hey?

I: Oh yeah.

R: Even though sashes was with the windows was in, made all that in, hey. And when we finally got the
house, you know, the weather wouldn’t spoil anything, hey? And then my sisters, they got married and I
was left with less all the time. All the sisters got married and brothers, hey? And our family got reduced
down although we still had a lot of children when my mother died.

I: Really?

R: She was 45 years old and we’d still have a child 2 years old, hey? She had a baby 2 years old when she
died.

I: Oh my.

R: And when I was 7 or 8 years living with my sisters and my father, and I used to come home from work
and my sisters good but they were like all young girls, hey? I’d kick off my clothes when I come home in
the weekend, hey, and that’s where I’d find them, hey, probably Saturday night, in under the bed.

I: (laughs)

R: You know, and I wouldn’t have as much as all that, I’d need that clothes.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I’d probably have to wash that then and dry it and put it one before the clothes dry. You know
sometimes it’d be a little bit damp. So I really had 7 or 8 really tough years.

I: Yeah.

R: Seven or eight, eh?

I: You had to support the family.

R: Yeah, yeah and when my mother died I tell you I was working in Goose Arm cutting pulp wood, send
away now for pulp in Europe. And I was getting one dollar a day and I had to cut 75 piece of wood, 75
logs now for to get that dollar a day. If I didn’t cut that many, they counted in the evening, if it wasn’t
that many I wouldn’t get a dollar a day. But if I did have that or more, I’d get the dollar.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: So once I got a few piece cut ahead, I’d lay that many out for next day, hey?

I: Oh yeah, right.

R: And that would give me a chance to get a dollar for every day I worked.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I worked there for ah 54 days, and I 52 dollars coming to me, hey?, that’s what I had to gotten
paid. I had a towel and one cake of soap; one face soap.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: They charged me a dollar for the towel and a dollar for the face soap.

I: That’s an awful amount of money.

R: Was then, yeah. Now then this was it, I come home and my mother died, it cost 45 dollars for a
casket, I bought a casket to burry here, so I never had a cent.

I: Oh God...

R: And never no love in the mean time. Now what about that. I had to go see the missus and the fourty-
five... the fifty-five dollars I earned was the same thing. I walked, I come out to her houseon my own
coming home from the, you know, when they come home in news of my mother was dead.

[Another voice in the room: inaudible comment]

R: Now that was a sad situation, wasn’t it?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But see it all came out right. Then I... our family got married and they went away and died out and all I
had left all me life was when I got married was my father and my youngest brother and sister.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Three of us. Now dad took care of the house, say after mom died, he never got married after.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He lived home with the girls, hey, and they got married to them three, there was three of us left.

I: When did your mother die?
R: My mother... when did she die?

I: Yeah.

R: Well she died in 19... ah she died when she was 45 years old, and she died about 7 years... it was
about 7 years before I was married at that 19...1927, what would that leave her to die at?

I: 1920.

R: Yeah, somewhere there about.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Somewhere there about.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know you can size it up by that.

I: Yeah.

R: That’s how that goes on to it. But then see, now like I told you before, there’s only myself and dad
and the two girls left. So then I could save a little bit of money ‘cause I was spending some money to get
my home and....

I: Your father wasn’t working?

R: Hey?

I: Your father wasn’t working?

R: No, my father used to fish with me.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But he wasn’t able to go out on labour hey? But he used to go out in the summer time and fish with
me and he helped do the lobsters and stuff, hey. But he couldn’t even go out in boat; I used to have to
go out in boat alone and bring the fish in and the lobsters. He could hardly do it, hey?

I: Uh-hmm. How come... ‘cause he finger where he had...?

R: Yes and because he lost his blood, he was anaemic.

I: Oh yeah.

R: And we didn’t have any treatment in them days,

I: Hmm.
R: for the blood, he never build back, hey?

I: Uh-hmm

R: He never build back. No.

I: How old was your father when he got hurt?

R: If he, ah, he was roughly around 50... I guess he was around, ah, 50.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Or 52 or 53 years old when he had those two accidents right.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He lost his finger and cut his head, eh, in about one year, one thing happened and another happened.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And he was never the same after that.

I: When was that?

R: That’s when it was in the... [Short pause] it was between that time now, you know that I’m telling
you.

I: Yeah.

R: That, ah....

I: It was just a little while before your mother died?

R: Yes that was just before my mother died.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He got ah, you know, he had those accidents. And she was really alive when he done that.

I: Yeah, uh-hmm.

R: ‘Cause that’s when we killed our last ox, hey, the last animal we had. My mother was alive then and
my mother was in bed for about two year, eh?

I: Oh my.

R: She had scarlet fever.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: And when she got cleared of Scarlet Fever, she was so long in bed with Scarlet Fever, that ah she
never survive today.

I: Oh I see.

R: No...no. My youngest sister, we... she was nursed with a bottle, hey? We was all breast fed all the rest
of us.

I: Yeah?

R: Oh yes every one of us was breast fed, up to 16/17 months old, hey. Yeah.

I: Hmm.

R: We had the best kind and we were breast fed and that was good. We was all breast fed children,
yeah.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: My last brother and sister, they were not, we went to bottle, hey, ‘cause my mother was sick. But
Scarlet Fever, hey, that was a terrible thing that went around and killed people by the hundreds, hey.

I: Really?

R: And the again on top of that, a few years after that they got the flu, hey?; the Spanish flu, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And there’s a generation died up again there.

(Grandfather clock chimes)

I: What year was that?

R: Oh that was later, that was later. They was ah, that come here after the war, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Right after the war. It came from the World War. I guess that was after the Second World War.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: The ... there was people out in the Arm and out in those places, the whole family died in the one
house of seven, man, woman, all the children, died in the one house with the flu, hey? No treatment.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: No doctors, no treatment, hey, if people got a bit of treatment they’re survive, they did. But it was
terrible years. But anyhow I had to get away or to make some money good; I had to take a chance on it. I
went to sea on a rum-runner, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: A feller had a vessel; he was smuggling rum from St. Pierre, off the coast.

I: Really?

R: And I joined the vessel and went with him. And ah, I said to mom “This is it, I’m going away and I’m
going to make some money. There’s no, no money to be made around here if any account,” hey? And I
could do better there and get seventy or eighty dollars a month and found [?].

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And if I got a few months, just give me some money. So I went to work and I ah, worked on that rum-
runner and that was in 1927, that was in 1926, 1927 I was married, so that was in 1926. I went on that
rum-runner. And we had a terrible gale, called an August Gale and it... all the ships on the West coast
and on the North coast and everywhere it was all lost. There was a gale; they called it the August Gale.
And there was 23 sailor vessels lost on the Southwest coast and I was in the middle of that mess. And
what happened, the people came off St. Pierre bank that day and they went home to the Burnt Islands,

I: Right, uh-hmm.

R: You know, the Burnt Islands on the Southwest coast here,

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And Burgeo and them places, and my dear, next morning their axes, their vessels, was up in the
cabbage garden. [Starts to get emotional] See it was so hard to live by the shore and the vessels got beat
up, hey? Bodies and everything was up in the ruins. They came home that day but they didn’t get a
chance to get to shore because it was a thick fog, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And they...[tape stopped].

Disc 2 (J1 – Part 2)

R: And the storm come on and some of them drifted into their own cove where they belonged to, after
being gone all summer, hey. And ah, you know the Bluenose, hey, the Bluenose was lost in that gale.

I: Really?

R: I was out in that gale. It was 45 men lost on her, 24 dories; fishing dories. She was lost on Stable
Island, hey?
I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I was out in that gale in the vessel. And I was in St. Pierre eleven days, we had... we had all of our
sails tore up and beat up,

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And our ruttier posters [?] broke off, that’s what you depend on to sail hey, ‘cause we had an engine
in it.

I: Right.

R: And ah, it was eleven days in St. Pierre getting it repaired, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: In St. Pierre. And then after that eleven days there, we got the vessel loaded again, hey, with liquor.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And brought it down and distributed it down on the coast, anywhere from down by St. Barbe’s, St.
Antony, we went with it. And I come back with a coastal boat that run from down the shore that tied up
with the vessel in Port Saunders, that’s down in St. Barbe’s.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I come home on the coastal boat and that was somewhere around the last of September. It was
true. We had the gale in August and I didn’t get back to it ‘til September. It was around July when I went
with those people.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: So like I told you before, I said to meself, “This is it.” So I come home and I went down to see mom.
Then, it was my first day home... that I come home. She was uneasy about it, she heard about the gale
and she tells me, cries now, “This is it, that’s the last I’ll see of him.” Hey? She said, “If ever I come back,
this was it, this time we’ll give it a try.” And that’s what happened. We got married the 12th of October,
hey?

I: Oh how lovely.

R: And ah, I still didn’t have any money. I had fifty dollars in the bank account when I had my wedding,
we didn’t have no big wedding or nothing, but buy some nice clothes and stuff, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I had to get some better bed clothes than what I had and do something better. But mom had a
lot of stuff made. She done a lot of fancy work, she had mats, hooked enough mats to make a floor
cover, hey?
[Comment: It’s confusing when he calls his wife “mom” compared with talking about his mother.]

I: Wow.

R: This was one, the kind of mats she used to hook, hey?

I: And this was how the wool would pull up, this is the wool they got themselves. Spin the yarn, hey?

I: That’s lovely.

R: Yeah. And this is the kind of mat she had. She had enough, my dear, to do this place over twice! You
know.

I: That’s a lot.

R: All we had to do was put a bit of, what you call canvas in them days, you know that’s the cheap
flooring down and do them all over with them beautiful stamp mats.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And she had lots of nice clothes.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: what you’d have in them days. See she was fairly well off, hey?

I: Oh yeah.

R: They had a store, her and her sisters and they made a bit of money; no big jay now, but you know,
fairly well.

[Comment: “Big jay” must have been a saying of his times since he has used it twice now.]

[I: Inaudible comment]

R: Comfortable.

I: Uh-hmm

R: And see now that nest was too comfortable for me to take her out of but still I wanted her so bad.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And we took a chance on it, then me and her went in the woods, hey, after we got married we went
into a logging camp.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And she cooked for sixteen men and I worked in the woods.
I: Uh-hmm. Was that a Bowater camp?

R: No, no there was no Bowater’s there then.

I: No?

R: No. And ah yeah, that would be, must have been before that and we went work then and there was a
company up there, up in the country but not where we lived to out there. It was saw logs we cut, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And ah, the man had a mill, and we went in the woods. She cooked for those people and I worked in
the woods. And I got 45 dollars a month, and I worked 3 months. See, in the woods.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And when we come out in spring we bought a stove and some cooking gear and then that money was
gone. That’s all you would get for your winters work, hey? You had your food for the winter.

I: Hmm.

R: Now my dad lived home, he stayed home, he’s... the youngest was big enough to look after him then.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And her brother, hey? And we stayed in with him for the first fall from when we got married in
October until January and then we went into the woods in the camp. Next spring then I used to go to
fishery, the next spring, hey, I took the wife and I went out fishing in the spring.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And this is when we had a baby that summer, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And June, July, she didn’t go that year. But the next year, the next winter we went back into the
woods again.

I: Oh yeah.

R: And the next summer we went out fishing and I took her and the baby with me then.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And we spent three months away from home, hey, fishing.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: And we caught some lobsters and fish and so on, got nice bit of money and started to get things that
we needed.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And from then on we seem to prosper, hey?, and save a few dollars. It was 19 and 27, like I told you
mom had a bit of money they had it, and they never was out cents. Never seen the day where we never
had a dollar.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And everything that we needed within reason now.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: We never spent any money in the, you know, booze or stuff like that.

[Another voice in the room: Inaudible comment.]

R: No, ‘tis the way of life, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You’re going to forget the way of life now that was for me,

I: Right

R: and that was for a lot of people.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: A lot of people lived that way, the same as I was. They had to wait for years to get something, to be
able to do something with it, hey?

I: Yeah.

R: But the times gradually changed and the price of everything got a bit better and the labour got, ah,
wages got higher, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And it put us in the position that we’re in today.

I: Uh-hmm. Was there very much smuggling of liquor?

R: Not too much, not too much in the early days.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: Everybody made their own wine, hey?

I: Yeah.

R: We used to make our own wine out of berries.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And some people in the later years, now up there after I tried, like I told you after the... up in the 40s
and 50s they made moonshine and stuff, hey?

I: Really?

R: And start to smuggle ‘em. But the older days, we sent the people, people used to sent to St. John’s
and have all the liquor come to a liquor cooperation, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: A board of liquors is what they had in St. John’s, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You wouldn’t sell a bottle of liquor without a label on it, hey.

I: Hmm.

R: You know you had to have it from the Liquor Control Board. And, ah, there was, ah, people used to
make all kinds of wine and beer.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Drink or two you know. You could make a real good wine too, you know, out of berries. And, um, I
used to make some, first when I got married we used to have a day, what I call Wallace’s Day, that’s my
name, hey, and we used to have friends in.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And we’d have a real party, some of the older people come in and sing songs and dances and tell
stories and then you go to the next person’s house, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But it didn’t cost any money ‘cause you’d have your four gallons of wine and that could do for a year,
hey.

I: Uh-hmm.
R: So you’d have to make that every year. But some people made beer out of a lot of, different kinds of
hops and kerns [?] and raisins and anything that they could get [inaudible comment], they’d get their... it
was hurtful, I’d say. You know it seemed like they, ah, like it affected their memories or something.

I: Oh yeah.

R: There was a certain amount of wood [?] alcohol in it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Nobody was bright even to know in them days what was happening but it was really hurting ‘em. It
was really hurting them.

[I: Inaudible comment]

R: well, ah, but I never drinked like that, hey. Although I have got drunk, you know, just to try it out to
see what it’s like but you get a bitch [?] right quick if you gets drunk .

(Something drops in the background.)

R: Oh yes you could, I don’t know about everybody, some people cries but not very many, gets sad. But,
ah, anything is worth trying once, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. But I’m inclined to think that alcohol and tobacco is no improvement to a human being.

I: No, I don’t think so either.

R: No, not in regards of your health, and you’re thinking about your memory and so on, but I think it’s,
ah, more hurtful to your memory and your blood and anything else, hey.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah. I think if you gets alcohol in your blood, you’ll think different.

I: Hmm.

R: That’s what I kind of thinks, hey. ‘Cause people changes so much different from when they uses
alcohol and stuff. And what they call marijuana, or whatever they calls, it, that I’d say in small quantity,
is no more hurtful. I wouldn’t say it’s anymore hurtful than, ah, tobacco or alcohol or other kinds.

I: Hmm.

R: ‘Cause I’m sure it ruins many people’s lives, the alcohol do, hey?

I: Oh yeah.

R: Yeah. And in relation to families, ‘tis the cause of our families breaking up.
I: Was there much drink in the old days?

R: No, it just only just social, hey?

I: Yeah, I guess so, you’d never get....

[Another voice in the room: Inaudible comment]

R: No, no....The people who lived, they were different, hey? No. And the children was raised fairly strict
them days; I don’t mean to say they was ill-used but in some cases they didn’t have as much freedom as
what they should of had.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: They was more or less kept down, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: The children, they’re gone the other way now; they’ve got too much freedom.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: They’re wild, my dear, that’s the matter. You know... but in them days they was, ah, you know they
did just what mom or dad said and this was it, and nothing else. And they didn’t have to ill-treat you,
they just had to put you in one way, say this is it or not staying up tonight.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: This or that or something else: that was the punishment. There was nobody beat now. I guess I was
only ever struck once since I remember; my dad struck me with a boot, a soft skin boot leg.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: He gave me a bat, that’s all I remember, hey.

[Another voice in the room: Inaudible comment]

R: And my mother was a real loving person, hey. Beautiful.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: They knows best. But my dad was a bit rougher.

I: Yeah.

R: Yeah. He was more aggressive. Nature was go and get it with him, hey?

I: (laughs)
R: What he wanted, he was going to have. If he didn’t get it easy, he was going to get it hard.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But my mother was a different natured person. But now he wasn’t cruel or anything to us, he treat us
good, but in amongst his neighbours, hey, people, “This is mine and that’s yours.”

I: And that’s it.

R: People would keep it that way, really rough, hey? But he was good enough to give everybody a lift
when a time, but if you did a bad thing I guess he never forgot it.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know. [Short pause]

I: Oh my.

R: Nevertheless, it was like good and bad. And the people didn’t go and break up their families, go and
living with other people; like they do now, you know.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: That was very rare and it was very rare a girl to have a child, a baby, hey. You knew that was
something different all together.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You know. She didn’t get a very good time after that, nobody cared too much about her, just as well
and take her down the [inaudible comment], she was more looked down on and I’d say a little bit more
than should have been. A little bit more than should have been but perhaps it was alright.

[Another voice in the room: Inaudible comment.]

I: No, I guess we could....

R: Oh it’s no difference at all, she’s wondering if you can have it in here, my dear.

I: That’s okay. I got to go home for lunch.

[Another voice in the room: Inaudible comment.]

R: And is you satisfied with the conversation?

I: Oh yes this is fantastic, it’s really interesting.

R: Yeah...yeah.

[Another voice in the room: Inaudible comment.]
R: And it’s like I told you before it’s nice to leave one party and go to another because family was a
family, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And you, ah, admired your next door neighbour.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But you never, ah, trespassed on him, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Everybody kept to their selves, and everybody was, like I told you before, it was very rare... I only
know of one, hey?, in my growing up, one girl, you see, that ever had a baby out of wedlock.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And there was a lot of people that lived in that place, hey? But, ah, you know, she was looked down at
for a spell, hey? But after time it wore out.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And, ah, the boy grew up to be a nice man and he raised a nice family, ah,

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And ah, just a few of those people and, ah, but ah, it was rare, really rare.

I: Yep, not like today.

R: Oh no, no, not like today and ah, people, you know, they listened more to their mother and father
and they give them good advice

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I’d give you this much about see, lots of those people, you know, could have done better if we were
educated.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But I’d say, there could have been a better shift of it in some cases.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Because some people did things to, that was really harmful to them and they didn’t know the
difference, hey?

I: Hmm.
R: Due to a lack of education. Now I, I don’t believe in people being build up on education because
people that lived where I lived to, the by’s and girls when I grew up had the most education , but they
ended up the worst. (Grandfather clock chimes)

I: Really?

R: Yeah really because they said, “Well we got better learning and we’ve not going to dig that ditch.”

I: Oh.

R: You know. And we’re not going to do what the other people wants me to do, I’m going to look for
something better.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And there was nothing too much better for them to get, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And therefore, they ended up a little worst off.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: A little worst off.

I: Yeah.

R: You know, if you got no education you have to depend on what you can get, hey?

I: Uh-hmm. Yeah.

R: But if you got your education and can’t get the right job, then you’re a bit out of luck.

I: Yeah.

R: But in those days it was different, you could get the job opportunities plenty here.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: And I’m sure the people is going to be... but we’re living in our best age, in my ideas of the matter.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But there’s one coo about it, it was hard and you had to be a good thinker and think slow in them
days in order to live not to think to go too fast.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: If you went too fast, you’d run into a lot of difficulties.
I: Uh-hmm.

R: But they took their time and thought it out, hey?

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But you made preparations before.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Yeah... yeah. We learned to catch fish and we learned to catch animals; I can catch anything that
creeps or crawls and you can’t starve me to death.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: You can take me right out of here now and just give me my clothes and put me up in the woods and
I’m not going to starve to death.

I: Yeah.

R: Guaranteed.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: To come home with something to eat.

I: You couldn’t say that for people today.

R: Yeah, and I always felt that way about it, hey? And I could always leave home and get something for
my children.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: I could get what they needed, just what I thought they needed, I thought it out, hey, and I knew how
to do it. The way you had to catch it or.... the way you say in them days we had lots to feed them in
regards... there was no law on this or that and something else.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: But today, the way the laws is today, the people is not allowed. You have to have a licence for this
and you got to have a licence for that and you got to have a licence.... now we’d never survive if that
was in that day in age. We could have never survived.

I: No.

R: And it don’t seem like things are getting plentier by doing that.

I: No. I guess there’s just too many people.
R: Well yes, the population is the cause of that.

I: Uh-hmm.

R: Can’t survive it, see.

I: Hmm.

R:Yeah. [Short pause]

I: Oh my I think I should go now then.

Another voice in the room: Well my dear don’t you go until you’re ready to go.

R: Well I told her all about myself and that applied to others as well.

[Tape cuts off, then another sound]

I: This is May the 5th, I have just concluded my interview with Mr. Wallace Lewis, um, and my name is
Heather Jodrey. A few things that might be mentioned here about the tape, there’s a ringing of chimes
in the background and that’s from a clock he got, and he got up occasionally to get a drink of water and
that sort of thing but that doesn’t interfere with the quality of the tape. Um, he kind of rambles on and
jumps from subject to subject but the time the tape is over, you have a pretty good idea of what he’s
like and as well on the tape I didn’t ask many question because I wasn’t sure what to ask. So, like I don’t
ask when he was born, or all this kind of stuff, he sort of says it all eventually. So it’s kind of um wanders
all over the place, so. It’s not the world’s best tape but it’s not too bad, you get something out of it
anyway.

[Tape stops at 16:52]

[Comment: It’s an interesting interview in certain sections; there is a good conception of how living in
the Bay of Islands was like in the 1900s.]

								
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